Tantum Quantum or using things in so far as they achieve the end desired: Pope Francis and his Ignatian heritage There’s little doubt that Ignatius Loyola was a religious genius almost without peer except perhaps for Teresa of Avila. Ignatius combines two things – a high mystical prayer life that he is able to introduce us to through the Spiritual Exercises and an organisational wizardry embodied in the Constitutions he wrote for his order and whose appreciation of how to organize an activity and a group of people retains its vigor even today. What is most compelling about Ignatian spirituality is the way its essence can’t be grasped unless it is meshed with the experience of life. It is fundamentally incarnational, a conviction that can find God in all things. So when it comes to assessing the impact that spirituality may have on someone, that assessment can’t be made except in the context of the life led by the person under study. As a result, what I have to say may seem to range widely, even to meander – from an excursus on the Exercises or the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus to the context of Argentina in the 1970s and ‘80s. But there’s purpose in the journey, which I hope you come to see as it unfolds. Any attempt to understand Pope Francis requires looking both at his Jesuit background and also at the way in which he has incarnated it in his life and ministry. Let me make a clear admission at the outset. I have never met Jorge Bergoglio. I know a few people who have met him and some people who have lived or worked with him. So, what I have to say draws on the public record of his life and times. While you only have to spend a short time with a group of Jesuits to appreciate that the stereotype bears little relationship to the reality of actual Jesuits, there are some generalizations we can make from the formative experiences of our lives and the reference points they become. Let’s start from what is known to us all and dig a bit deeper. Much has been made of the impressions Pope Francis has created in the first months since his election as Bishop of Rome. The first is that “bishop of Rome” is his preferred title: not pontiff. His focus on that title underlies his light-hearted quip at the outset that the cardinals had to go to the other side of the world to find someone to do the job.
The pope’s impact so far has been made through ordinary, everyday activities: catching buses, making his own telephone calls, avoiding all the fine drapery usually worn by popes, treating people respectfully as he did the journalists who covered his election, celebrating the Holy Thursday Mass in a Roman prison and washing the feet of women and non-Christians; moving out of the lavish papal residence to stay in a more modest guesthouse inside the Vatican. These are things you and I take for granted and I can say as a priest who has washed feet at Maundy Thursday for the last three decades, it comes as a surprise to no one except those in the isolated confines of the Vatican that those whose feet are washed usually are drawn from a cross-section of the parish community – young and old, male and female, black and white, Asian and European. That, after all, is the point of the symbol – Jesus at service and the Church at the service of the world. Plainly, Pope Francis is declaring such service to be both the purpose of the Church and its lack as the reason it is failing in its witness and action. Too much of the Church is so self-preoccupied, so tied up in its own internal culture wars that the primary mission of the Church has been lost sight of. How this is a priority driven by the experience of the Exercises and an appreciation of the legacy of St Ignatius is something I will return to. Pope Francis is on record as being open to considering ending the celibacy rule for Roman Catholic clerics, evaluating the pastoral care of divorced and remarried Catholics and decentralizing Church governance to allow local bishops’ conferences more initiative as called for by Vatican II. There seems little doubt that change is underway and the one thing we all know about change is that it has uncertain outcomes. And, as you know, change, living with ambiguity, identifying where growth is to be found and fostered are at the heart of the spirituality and indeed of the pattern of institutional governance proposed by St. Ignatius in the Exercises and in the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. The title of the talk tonight about using things in so far as they contribute to the desired end is throughout the Ignatian heritage of which Jorge Bergoglio, Pope Francis, is a grateful beneficiary. At every point in the advice Ignatius gives to guides in the Exercises, there is the explicit example or implicit assumption that rules and principles need to be adapted to what the retreatant can gain fruit from. In his Constitutions for the governance of the Society of Jesus, he concludes every significant enunciation of a principle or norm with the need that there is for these to be adapted to people, times and places. Whether it is the foundation of an institution, the conduct of Jesuit training or the operational mode of someone in governance, he calls for whatever change is necessary to accomplish a fruitful result.
The Latin phrase used is tantum quantum – change and adapt in whatever way is needed, to modify means so that the application of the principle or norm appropriate in the varied circumstances can achieve its purpose. In other words, the first principle of Ignatian governance is changing things that need to be changed according to the various demands that diverse situations make. This approach has, of course, been grist to the mill for the Jesuits’ critics and enemies of whom there have been many, with some alive and well in the Church today, even in Australia. The Jesuits’ enemies have always seen such flexibility and adaptiveness as evidence of just how Machiavellian and utterly unscrupulous, how pragmatic and amoral Jesuits are. The Jesuits of the 16th and 17th Centuries were revered and reviled for their casuistry – at almost any cost, finding a loophole in moral laws and Church disciplines. It’s where the terms Jesuit and being “Jesuitical” got their references in English. I think you will appreciate that such an approach to the management of a diverse group of people placed in settings of incomparable variety is at least a challenge. It then raises two obvious questions: First, how does leadership in this tradition avoid being nothing more than bowing to the loudest voices or swinging with whatever is the latest conservative or progressive swing of the pendulum? What are the criteria that a leader in this tradition brings to judgments about what must be adapted and changed? What is negotiable and what is not negotiable? And second, what can hold the leader together in a time of decision, action and change? Beyond administrative efficiency and the understanding that a leader needs to take followers along through the changes, what interior experiences and basic beliefs will shape the leadership that is offered? In both the Catholic Church and the Society of Jesus, Jorge Bergoglio has had abundant experience of leadership positions and now, as Pope Francis, he takes supreme charge. What can we expect? An inspection of the key formative experiences in Pope Francis’ life will assist in seeing where and how things might go in coming years. The man clearly brings a great deal of pastoral and administrative experience as a Church leader in Argentina. But there is more about him personally than his being an archbishop. As Jorge Bergoglio, the Pope’s first and recurrent experience of ministry as a Jesuit was his making and directing the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius Loyola. Twice at least he has made the 30-day retreat – in his novitiate in Argentina in
1958 and then again in his Tertianship (or final period of spiritual training prior to Final Vows and full incorporation into the Order) in Spain in 1971/72. He has also guided others over many years through that experience. His first appointment after ordination in 1969 was as novice master of the Argentine Province of the Jesuits which job he had only briefly, perhaps two years, before Tertianship and then his appointment as Provincial of the Jesuits in his country in 1973. These were times of tumultuous change in the Jesuits, the Church and in the understanding of the Exercises. In Argentina, they were times of bitter divisions in the Church and in the Jesuits. Many left the Jesuits at this time in that Province and in the middle of his term as Provincial, Argentina was rent asunder when, in 1976, a military coup d’état overthrew the democratic government and imposed a dictatorship whose lamentable effects endure to this day. Tens of thousands “disappeared” at the hands of the military regime and hundreds of children were separated from parents who were killed. To this day, many of those children remain ignorant of their birth origins. What a time to be making and guiding a retreatant through the Exercises! Let’s look at what they involve. The Exercises are at once a school of prayer and an experience that is entered into with one purpose – making free decisions about directions in life. Over four “weeks” of varying lengths, the retreatant prays for the freedom to make good decisions. That is the main point of the Exercises – to free the retreatant to make good decisions. They are prayerful days when in the first week a retreatant contemplates her or his human condition as a sinner in need of conversion effected by God’s mercy. Then, one realizes oneself as a companion of Jesus who can become the object of Jesus’ preaching and healing ministry. In the third week, a retreatant experiences the sorrowful and painful death of Jesus. And finally, she or he asks to share the new life of Jesus’ resurrection. What impact does making a 30-day retreat have in shaping a person? Speaking from my experience as one who’s done two and plans a third one later this year, there is one uncompromising fact that has to be taken into account: God can only work with us as we are, and sometimes God hasn’t got much to work with! There is no big tally card in the sky that measures and rewards reaching standards expected of someone making the retreat. The believer comes to the Exercises, as he or she is, a mixture of virtue and vice, insight and stubborn blindness, intelligence and stupidity, generosity and mean spiritedness.
There is no “standard product” at the end of the Exercises. However, there are at least three things that not even the most narrow, hard-hearted and obtuse person can miss as the process of the weeks unfold. They are: •
A relentless focus on God’s love for us – from the first to last period of prayer over the 30 days – that has the corresponding effect of our appreciating how far we are from being loving creatures in response. We are sinners but loved sinners, which elicits greater self-knowledge, gratitude and humility and can provoke that change of heart which is the sign of the Spirit at work. A constant preoccupation with the person of Jesus – in his teaching and preaching in word and deed, climaxing in prolonged meditation on his death and resurrection. The helpless surrender of Jesus to God’s love on Calvary and the astonishing reversal that comes with the Resurrection are seen not only through Jesus’ eyes but also in the Calvaries and resurrections of the retreatant’s life. The recurrent practice of what Ignatius called the “discernment of spirits” – feeling and reading those mood swings in an individual that lead towards or away from deepening inner peace, joy and confidence. Those that lead to the positive feelings are believed by the retreatant to be those leading him or her to choose God’s will.
From the first meditation of the Exercises (the Principle and Foundation) to the last (the Contemplation for Obtaining Love) St Ignatius’s focus is on God as the supreme relationship of our lives, on Jesus as the carrier of God’s fullness to us and on our condition as awaiting the invitation and beckoning of God to draw closer to the divine mystery. As part of our readiness to receive God’s presence more deeply into our lives, to have the light of faith shine on our experiences in life and identify the traces of God’s action there, Ignatius invites us to look for where God is “laboring” in our world to have it and us flourish as what we truly are. Sometimes, as in the miracle stories, Ignatius asks the retreatant to “see how the Divinity reveals Itself” and at other times, such as at Calvary, he encourages the retreatant and rest in places “where the Divinity hides Itself.” In the First Week of the Exercises, this experience of the overwhelming love of God has its principal effect in the heartfelt recognition of how far short of that love we fall in our love of God and others. It’s the experience of shame and confusion before such all-embracing forgiveness and mercy – one that runs so contrary to the ways of the world and the common experience of life – that Ignatius identifies as the shadow side of the acceptance of God’s love, the surrender to it and conversion to a deeper level of relationship with God.
Another way of putting that outcome is the word humility – the quiet acceptance of the unmerited love of God that brings a ready and open welcome to others of all conditions and an instinctual solidarity with othersborn of the awareness that all we have is a gift. Self-knowledge, humility before the facts, decisiveness until new realities prompt reconsideration, looking for the traces of God’s presence to be found when a decision is taken – these are at heart what will focus the energies and priorities that Pope Francis will choose. But in the Third and Fourth Weeks of the Exercises, Ignatius takes us beyond the events and actions, the words and deeds of Jesus’ ministry to their climax: Good Friday and Easter Sunday. The Third Week in particular will have deep resonances with the journey Jorge Bergoglio has been on for the last forty years and what underlies his emphasis upon the mercy of God and importance he places on simplicity, a simplicity that has been remarked upon by many. The Third Week – the contemplation of the Passion – is the week I found the driest for most of the retreats I did till my mid-forties. Young and headstrong, full of myself and the superiority of my perceptions, facing reversal and disappointment as ordinary and expected parts of life didn’t sit easily with me. For me, those things were there to be overpowered and set to rights, irrespective of whether that would produce a better outcome. I was, of course, ignorant of the fact that failure and frustration are as much a part of life as success and achievement. It just didn’t seem right. And Ignatius’ proposal of the three classes of men and the Third Degree of Humility didn’t sit well at all! These meditations propose that we pray for a closer identity with Christ Crucified by accepting in our lives the abuse, ignominy and rejection that Jesus suffered as blessing from God that we are to welcome I had yet to learn that suffering, betrayal and loss are not just an inescapable part of my life. While they are an offense to reason, they are not adequately explained by the mendacity, stupidity and self-interest of those inflicting the suffering. They are also special opportunities – what Ignatius calls gfts of God – that can draw us closer to the Divine Mystery in a dereliction shared with Jesus. When I realized in my life that such experiences were not just the raw data of abuse and failure that had to be accepted. When I realized that they were also moments of grace, the Third Week came to mean a whole lot more to me! I came to understand that embracing the cross of my afflictions could lead to a deeper union with God, greater peace and real growth, effected by the grace of God. What has this do with Pope Francis and what might it suggest about what we can expect from him?
This is speculation on my part, but if you were part of a world where selfrighteous murderers brought your nation to the edge of social and political collapse, if you had no experience of the management of people but you were put in charge of a dysfunctional if highly motivated group of Jesuits trapped in their divisions and misgivings with one another, I’d understand you were in a job you were ill equipped for and would most likely fail in it. That is what Bergoglio faced at 36. And I don’t doubt we will hear more of his failures to act, his indecision and his confused performance as Jesuit Provincial. He has already made partial amends for his, the Jesuits and the Catholic Church’s failures during the time of the military dictatorship by leading calls for a Churchwide act of repentance for the sins of that time. This pope knows how to go to his knees to find God’s mercy, humbly accept failure and do what he has done already – declare himself a sinner. Of course, Ignatius Loyola doesn’t enjoy a reputation for being one of the most perceptive analysts of the human heart because he’s gushing and effusive, unqualified in his positive assessments of people and issues or just over the top in affirmation of everyone and everything, all the time. As a retreatant travels through the First and Second Weeks, Ignatius introduces two forms of review of prayer that not only need to be used throughout the retreat but ever after. I am referring to what he calls the “discernment of spirits” which we might more readily appreciate as “reading mood swings”. They are one of the first things about the spiritual life that he learnt during his convalescent period following his wounding at Pamplona. He was deeply bored by being flat on his back, unable to get out and move about for nine months, and could only amuse himself by reading romantic novels. He tired of that and was reduced to reading the lives of saints. But he found that where the romantic novels left him feeling despondent about the life he was missing, the lives of the Saints ̶ especially Dominic, founder of an order of mobile preachers, and St Francis of Assisi, founder of an order of mendicant friars who embraced poverty, humility and service ̶ moved Ignatius deeply. This is something to keep in mind when considering Bergoglio’s choice of Francis for his papal name. Ignatius felt what he called consolation – being at peace, enriched, uplifted, moved to gratitude and urged to respond when he read the lives of the saints in contrast to the despondency he felt after putting down the romantic novels. Consolation and desolation are the revelatory moments and indicative tools Ignatius came to use especially for the First and Second Weeks of the Exercises so the retreatant could become more deeply in touch, in an experiential and
heartfelt way, with where the Spirit was offering an invitation to deepen and grow. And then, when deployed in the spiritual knapsack Ignatius recommends for daily practice, the Daily Examen, the discernment of spirits becomes an habitual spiritual default position: Is what I am facing/doing/fearing/enjoying/proposing/building leading me closer to the point of the exercise of life – a closer relationship with God – or away from such a closer relationship? After prayer comes action. All Christians are called to holiness at their baptism. Opportunities occur, set-backs are endured, partnerships are formed and broken, projects initiated or embraced, communities and families are built or destroyed. We call it life. The disposition of heart, purity of intention, humble and honest recognition of capacity and much more are important at a personal level. But we humans are inherently relational and, for good or ill, we do and have to do things together. For us to work productively, we need shaping and management. The complementary document to the Spiritual Exercises in the Ignatian library is the book of the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus referred to earlier. Ignatius took over a decade to write them. But he knew the work had to be done because between the Order’s foundation in 1540 and Ignatius’s death in 1556 the Order had grown a hundred fold – to over 1,000. The Constitutions were an immensely important work for the future of the Church. Until the Jesuits, all religious lived in convents or cloistered communities, sang or recited the office in choir together, wore a distinctive habit and some of them were bound to reside in a single monastery all their lives. Ignatius changed all that by creating a group of mobile, apostolic religious who didn’t have to live in religious houses together or chant or say the Office together. Their life was to be in the world and on the road. But the change didn’t come without Ignatius having to protect his back from those who might seek to thwart his reforms. And there were many at all stages of his pilgrimage. In an addendum to the Exercises that will have particular significance in the papacy of Francis, Ignatius proposed 18 Rules for Thinking with the Church. The context for these Rules is Reformation Europe and the convulsive challenge to the unity of the Church posed by Martin Luther and John Calvin, particularly Luther’s views on faith and works and Calvin’s views on predestination and salvation.
But Ignatius had also had personal experience of how Church authority works early in his pilgrimage at the hands of the Spanish Inquisition. One of the most energetic movements in Spain in the 1520s was that of the Illuminati, a group of vigorous enthusiasts who claimed that their direct engagement with the Holy Spirit authorised just about anything they wanted to do or say. The structure of the Church was a hindrance that should get out of the way. Ignatiusâ€™s emphasis in the Spiritual Exercises on the cultivation of a direct relationship between the creature and the Creator was feared by the Inquisition to be of the same ilk. Understood in context, the Rules for Thinking with the Church are not what they have been used for too often â€“ as a way into the cul de sac of slavish conformity to the latest utterances from Rome, delivered in all their varying authority. Some have reduced theological enquiry to simple catechetical exposition. Rather than engaging with the questions people today are asking, and exploring Scripture and Tradition for responses, the conformists simply go to the catechism and recite the answer. However, the point and purpose of the Rules is not to close down discussion so much as identify what the purpose of theological exploration is â€“ seeking the unfolding truth of our faith as it addresses real issues in our lives and those of our contemporaries which is to be found in a deeper exploration of our foundational documents (Scripture) and the Tradition of the Church as proposed at particular times and in response to actual issues. The question during this Papacy is how thinking with the Church will be pursued. Will a narrow interpretation that has prevailed in recent decades continue to be applied or will the fuller sense I have just explained come into its own? Which path Pope Francis will follow is not yet clear. He is not a theologian, has few credentials as a theological liberal and has made no claims to being an intellectual. He is a pastor and administrator. But he is on record as favoring approaches not recently favored by the Curia in such practical areas as pastoral responses to the divorced and remarried, women in the Church and how ministry is to be offered in the Church But, back to Ignatius. The impact of his breakthrough is to be found in the shaping of just about every religious congregation formed since the 16th Century, even if many monastic elements remain in religious congregations and their governance today, while the governance of the Jesuits still owes more to the period of the divine right of kings than to the more democratic patterns of medieval and earlier monasticism. But the emphasis on mission, service and apostolate in the world, mobility, adaptability to local circumstances and challenges all get their strongest impulse from St Ignatius in the Constitutions he wrote.
And it’s to them we should go for a fuller account of the approach to governance we might expect from Pope Francis. As a Jesuit leader in a convulsive and conflict-ridden time, and then as bishop and archbishop after the tsunami of official violence under the military dictatorship, Pope Francis is a practiced exponent of a pattern of leadership that received its fullest expression in the Constitutions of the Order. The book is both a guide to administration and a set of open-ended suggestions about approaches to effective leadership, to be followed with the recurrent advice that norms and principles should be adapted according to circumstances, changing the things that need to be changed – tantum quantum. Those suggestions have been the subject of study and writing by a former American Jesuit, author and business consultant Chris Lowney. He summarizes the Ignatian heritage of leadership as being marked by four key features that we can expect to turn up in this Pontificate: 1. Relational: Ignatian governance is predicated on the personal exchange between a Jesuit and his Provincial Superior and it is that context that directions, choices and apostolic initiatives are considered and decided. 2. Self-awareness: A good leader in this tradition will know his or her capabilities and, as a consequence, also areas of limitation. A leader with self-knowledge surrounds him or herself with people with complementary abilities and so makes up for his or her gaps and shortcomings. 3. Ingenuity: Good leaders are curious and Ignatian leaders are invited to look beyond the ordinary and the possible to the magis, the Latin word Ignatius used for the “greater” or “more” or “further” we are capable of, even what seems impossible. True Ignatian leaders like and embrace challenges. 4. Love: Ignatian prayer leads to the specific and the actual because its purpose is to have the believer find God, the source and center of love, in everyone and everything, however unlovely they may appear at first sight. It is the engine room of service and, in Ignatian prayer, produces the desire to do the best for others and oneself. 5. Courage: Ignatian prayer and governance is also about taking risks, thinking big, making things happen all in the service of God and human beings. For Ignatius, making things happen for God, oneself and others means not surrendering to blocks and knockbacks in striving to make a positive difference. Put in simple words, Ignatian governance at its best is personal and personable, open and imaginative, discriminating and decisive. It begins with working out what the choices for action are and moves in a deliberate way to decisive outcomes.
Clearly, Church-wide governance is a much bigger challenge than managing Jesuits. However, many of the same principles apply and some of them have been evident from Pope Francis’s first moments, when he cast himself not as Pope or Supreme Pontiff but as Bishop of Rome who first asked the Romans’ blessing before he blessed them in turn. At the heart of how Ignatius wanted the Order to be run was an emphasis on the direct, personal relationship between each Jesuit and the official to whom he reported. This is embodied in what each Jesuit is asked to do each year with his Provincial Superior in what is called by the rather cumbersome and opaque phrase “The Manifestation of Conscience”. The Manifestation is the one-on-one, confidential meeting each year for about an hour between each Jesuit and his Provincial Superior. In the time together the preceding and prospective year are surveyed and the discussion revolves around the individual Jesuit’s personal, spiritual and apostolic experience. It is intended to be the principal moment of accountability in each Jesuit’s year and the time when choices and decisions about what the best apostolic deployment of that individual might be. It is the time when the movements of the Spirit in the heart and life of the individual Jesuit are assessed and consideration is given to where the Spirit is drawing that particular Jesuit. Ignatius believed that the head of the Church and the head of the Jesuits was Jesus Christ and that the Jesuits would survive and thrive for as long as God wanted them to. But until it became clear God didn’t want them to, Ignatius had patterns of interaction that would foster what he proposed as the purpose of the Order – to find and do the Will of God. Different approaches and interpretations of how this might be done have prevailed at different times in the history of the Order. At one extreme is Ignatius’s own relationship with Francis Xavier that we might summarise in Australian terms as Ignatius telling Francis to get out there and get on with it. At the other extreme, again from Ignatius, was his direction to obstreperous scholastics in Portugal to be as dead sticks in the hands of their superior. Clearly, the secret to running the Order or parts of it lies somewhere in between these extremes. But the point of any governance is to seek, find and do the Will of God. The most basic obedience any Christian has to demonstrate is to be obedient to the Will of God as it is revealed in experience. What this highlighting of the principles of Ignatian governance does for our understanding of Bergoglio as Pope is to alert us to see how and whether he can bring and maintain a personal focus, be open to the facts of the Church’s needs today and be decisive in response to its condition.
The Vatican itself is not a huge or complex entity. It has about 2,000 employees working in about 25 offices. Where the numbers rise and the reach and influence of the Papacy diminish is out in the dioceses where thousands of bishops administer the local communities. The most one could expect of Pope Francis is that he would model a style of leadership that will be adapted according to local opportunities, needs and circumstances. But one area where his impact will be greater is in the area of his imaginative grasp of the issues facing the Church – principally those of ministry, the role of women, the sex abuse scandal, the male dominated governance of the Church at most levels in most places, the stalling on ecumenism, the sheer time warp the Church is in when dealing with natural rights and due process, how to share the Good News in the sometimes secular and always religiously pluralistic contexts and many more issues as well. Will the ingenuity, decisiveness and courage of an Ignatian leader be evident? Let me speculate about what we might see over the next few years. These are of course pure, if also informed, hunches. But I wouldn’t be surprised to see them unfold: 1. When he makes up his mind about something, nothing will deflect him. The reform of the Curia, making it serve rather than dominate local Churches, rendering its processes coordinated but also transparent, having other than predominantly Italian voices heard are all things that have been often repeated as necessary changes. They have wide support among bishops and cardinals and as a speaker at the meetings prior to the Conclave, Pope Francis was most outspoken about the need for reform in the Curia. His concerns will only be intensified when he absorbs whatever is in the 300-page report on the Curia delivered by the three elderly Cardinals in December that was said to trigger Benedict XVI’s retirement. Reform of the Curia will be his major concrete, as opposed to attitudinal, legacy. 2. He will focus on dark places and dark times – where he can see the suffering Christ – as the places where the Spirit can grow if allowed. Plainly Pope Francis is with St Paul in believing that the only boast of Christians is in the Cross of Jesus Christ and the Good News is to be preached to the poor. I think this will issue in a simpler account of Catholic identity, free of the elaborate philosophical and theological frameworks, the negative warnings and forbidding utterances that have been so substantial a feature of Catholicism since the Vatican Council. There will be a distinct change in the tone and content of messages from Rome. Expect Francis to counter the image of the Catholic Church as sex-obsessed rather than as the servant body of Christ. Since so far he has used gestures rather than pronouncements to make points, this will take the form of friendly encounters who have been subject to admonitions and condemnations in the past.
3. He will be acutely sensitive to the movement of the Spirit in the Church. There are many issues in need of consideration, decision and action in the Church right now – the place of women, the collapse of confidence among Catholics in the moral teaching of the Vatican, the obvious incapacity of the Church’s present ministerial structures to adequately provide sacramental ministry, the gross over-centralisation of Church governance in the Vatican Curia as an extension of the Pope’s supreme authority. In this regard, and while he shows no sign of being a theological “liberal”, expect him to initiate discussion, perhaps even convene a major gathering of Church leadership to address the central challenge facing the Church: the nature and structure of ministry, including Sacramental ministry. Rather than an outright repudiation of current procedures and practices, though, he will commence a process that will create a differently shaped Church over the next decade. 4. The focus and mood – in word and deed – will be evangelical and direct rather than moral and pedagogical. Bergoglio is plainly traditional in his Catholic faith and devotions. He will use these rather than encyclicals on moral issues or fine theological points. He will know that few are listening to what comes from the Vatican and rather than issue any motu proprio, he will rely upon the local Churches to find their own ways to live the Gospel. Related to that, I expect there will be a reduction in the influence of the spy network, the so-called “Temple Police” throughout the Church that has harassed thinkers and authors almost without restraint for some decades. 5. He will see himself as part of something much larger to which he has a contribution to make, but only a contribution. At 76, he gave himself no chance of being elected Pope, and I think that unless death suddenly takes him, he will follow his predecessor’s example and retire at some point. One thing is certain: if things don’t change it will be because as Francis, Jorge Bergoglio will have forgotten what it means to be a Jesuit – Tantum Quantum!