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Toolkit for   Challenging  Contexts:   Taking  Making  into  Schools  


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Taking Making  Into  Schools:  A  Toolkit  for  Innovation  and  Change  in   Teaching  and  Learning   by  Dr.  Susan  Crichton  and  Dr.  Lilian  Vikiru    

Dr. Lilian  V ikiru  

Dr. Susan  Crichton  

Acknowledgements 2015     Canadian  African  Research  Exchange  Grant  (CAREG)  –   International  Development  Research  Centre  (IDRC)       Innovative  Learning  Centre  –  Faculty  of  Education  |   UBC  Okanagan     Aga  Khan  University  –  Institution  of  Educational   Development,  East  Africa  (AKU-­‐IEO,  EA)                      

Taking Making  Into  Schools:  A  Toolkit  for  Innovation   and  Change  in  Teaching  and  Learning  by  Dr.  Susan   Crichton  and  Dr.  Lilian  Vikiru  is  licensed  under   a  Creative  Commons  Attribution-­‐NonCommercial  4.0   International  License.   CC  licensing  information:   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐ sa/4.0/deed.en_CA      

Attributed to:     Maker  Day  Toolkit  by  Dr.  Susan  Crichton  and  Deb  Carter,  PhD   (c)  is  licensed  under  a  Creative  Commons  Attribution-­‐ NonCommercial-­‐ShareAlike  4.0  International  License.      CC  licensing  information:   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐ sa/4.0/deed.en_CA     Based  on  a  work  at  http://innovativelearningcentre.ca/our-­‐ space/maker-­‐days/  and     http://innovativelearningcentre.ca/careg-­‐project-­‐page/  

 


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Welcome All  too  often  educators  struggle  to  change  even  the   most  b asic  aspects  of  their  classroom  practice.  This  is   especially  true  for  those  in  challenging  contexts  where   many  educators  teach  in  the  ways  they  were  taught  –   often  using  the  “mind  numbing”  practices  of  teacher-­‐ centred,  rote  instruction.       We  use  the  term  challenging  contexts,  rather  than   developing  world  or  3rd  world  settings,  as  a  way  to   describe  settings  in  which  individuals  have  limited,   unreliable  or  no  access  to  modern  day  conveniences   such  as  electricity,  running  water,  health  care,  mobile   computing,  broadband  and  related  emerging   technologies  due  to  a  variety  of  circumstances,   conditions  or  environmental  constraints.  We  recognize   that  contextual  challenges  occur  globally,  varying  only   in  their  scope,  cause,  duration,  geography,  and   potential  permanence.  Teachers  in  challenging   contexts  have  a  d aunting  task.  The  challenges  they   face  include  among  others,  large  class  sizes,  diverse   learner  abilities  in  a  class,  low  literacy  levels,  lack  of   resources,  serious  underfunding  and  lack  of   professional  learning  opportunities.    

Aenean eget  urna  

In 1916,  the  famous  educator  John  Dewey  said,  “If  we   teach  today’s  students  as  we  taught  yesterday’s   students,  we  rob  our  children  of  tomorrow.”    Globally,   countries  struggle  to  make  lasting,  substantial  reform.   Initiatives  such  as  the  United  Nations  Millennium  Goals   (http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/)  have  encouraged   universal  primary  education  and  classroom  changes  that   are  student  centred,  evidence  b ased,  and  encourage   active  and  participatory  learning.  For  instance,  currently   in  Tanzania,  teachers  are  called  upon  to  show  BIG   RESULTS  NOW,  which  is  central  to  that  country’s   education  reform  initiatives.  However,  teachers  have   not  been  given  adequate  professional  development   opportunities  to  turn  the  initiative  objectives  into  actual   classroom  practice.  Our  work  suggests  teachers  need   recursive,  immersive  professional  learning  to  enable   them  to  experience  first  hand  what  these  reforms  might   look  like  and  how  they  might  adopt  them  for  their   classrooms.     Thanks  to  funding  from  the  International  Development   Research  Centre’s  (IDRC)  Canada  Africa  Research   Exchange  Grant  (CAREG),  we  have  been  able  to  design   and  field  test  a  professional  development  approach  to   help  teachers  modify  their  practices.  Taking  Making   Into  Schools:  A  Toolkit  for  Innovation  and  Change  in   Teaching  and  Learning  is  an  outcome  of  our  CAREG   funded  work.  We  are  grateful  to  the  following   institutions  and  people  who  helped  us  along  our  way:     • Department  of  Education  –  Mvomero  District,   Morogoro  Region     • Teachers  in  the  Turiani  Region  for  attending  our   Workshop,  especially  Veronica  Mdapo  and  Fatuma   Jumbe.   • Mussa  M ohamed  and  Veronica  Sarungi  for  their   collaborative  spirits  and  flexibility     • Institute  of  Educational  Development,  Aga  Khan   University,  East  Africa  (IED  –  AKU,  EA)     • Innovative  Learning  Centre  (ILC)  –  Faculty  of   Education  -­‐  University  of  British  Columbia  (UBC),   Okanagan  Campus  

We offer  two  formats  (PDF  and  MS  Word)  and  two  official  languages   (Kiswahili  and  English)  in  the  hope  it  will  help  you  take  making    into  your   contexts  and  make  meaningful  change  with  your  learners.    


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Toolkit Contents   4.  Sample  Descriptions  –  Resources  from   Previous  Workshops     4.1.  Three  Dimensional  (3D)  Globes   4.2.  Tangrams     4.3.  Duck     4.4.  House     4.5.  Letter  Blocks     5.  Appendices   5.1.  Design  Thinking  Process  –  Facilitator   Guide   5.2.  Design  Thinking  Process  –  Participant   Worksheet     6.  Suggested  Web-­‐based  Resources  to  Explore    

1. Academic  Underpinnings     1.1.  Background   1.2.  The  Maker  Movement  –  A  Global   Perspective     1.3.  The  Maker  Movement  –  A  Contextual                 Perspective  for  Making  in  Challenging   Contexts     1.4.  Making  and  Development     1.5.  Making  the  Connection   1.5.1.  Making  and  Active  Learning     1.5.2.  Making  and  Constructionism   1.5.3.  Making  and  Big  Results  Now         1.5.4.  Making  and  Thinking  Visibly   1.6.  Design  Thinking   1.6.1.  Introduction   1.6.2.  Tie  to  Education   1.7.  Assessment   1.8.  Indigenous  Ways  of  Knowing   1.9.  Professional  Learning  –  Making  a  Case   for  Immersive,  Recursive  Experiences       2.   Facilitating  a  Taking  Making  into  Schools   Workshop   2.1.  Sample  Agenda       3.   Tips  and  Suggestions  for  Facilitating  Your   Workshop   3.1.  Formation  of  Groups   3.2.  Simple  Sketching  Tips   3.3.  Tips  for  Making  Sample  Resources   3.4.  Suggested  Makerspace  Components  -­‐   Tools  and  Materials  Required  for  Your   Workshop  

Making is  a  meaningful  way   to  introduce  Science,   Technology, Engineering,   Mathematics  and Design  –   User  Experience (STEMx)  

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1. Academic  Underpinnings   The  Maker  Movement  and  classrooms  seem  perfect   partners.  Inquiry  based  learning,  problem  based   learning,  constructionism,  experiential  learning,  Reggio   Inspired  learning  all  cry  out  for  hands-­‐on  approaches   to  making  thinking  and  learning  visible.  Once  thinking   is  visible  and  tangible,  there  is  evidence  that  learning   has  occurred.  Making  is  a  pedagogical  orientation   (Crichton  &  Carter,  2015)  and  a  mind  set  (Dougherty,   2013)  that  integrates  imagination  and  creativity  with   design  thinking,  problem  solving,  and  even  more   importantly,  problem  finding.       Making  and  makerspaces  cannot  be  simply  added  to   school  spaces  and  integrated  into  an  already   overcrowded  curriculum.  Bringing  M aking  into  the   schools  is  NOT  about  adding  another  course  or   discipline.  Rather,  it  is  an  authentic  way  to  implement   active,  participatory  learning  in  the  classroom.  Making   is  a  meaningful  way  to  integrate  STEMx  (Science,   Technology,  Engineering,  Mathematics  and  Design  –   User  Experience)  and  to  support  personalized,   constructionist  learning  across  the  curriculum.       1.1.  Background   Currently,  fifty  per  cent  of  the  content  we  access  is   located  on  the  Internet  –  in  the  “digital  cloud”.   Globally,  access  to  information  is  changing:  there  are   over  1  billion  smart  phones,  and  the  sum  of  human   knowledge,  in  the  form  of  Wikipedia,  is  available   offline  in  a  downloadable  format   (http://www.labnol.org/software/download-­‐wikipedia-­‐ offline/20012/).  Because  we  have  fewer  problems   accessing  information  or  finding  opportunities  to   connect  with  others,  we  basically  can  make  anything   we  can  imagine  and  find  plans,  tips  and  people  to  help   us  online.  This  is  called  the  Internet  of  Things  –  things   are  connected  by  both  form  and  function.     We  are  in  a  time  in  human  development  where  digital   literacy  (how  to  use  technologies  like  mobile  phones   and  tablets)  is  not  enough;  digital  fluency  (why  and   when  to  use  them)  is  essential.  We  have  the  p otential   to  learn,  both  formally  and  informally,  at  any  time,  

place or  in  any  format  we  need.  Learning  opportunities   have  probably  never  been  more  flexible.  We  can   upgrade  our  calculus  skills,  learn  to  build  a  sustainable   and  inexpensive  water  filter  (www.cawst.org),  or  design   a  solar  water  h eater  using  information  we  can  get  using   a  range  of  devices  (i.e.  mobile  phones,  tablets,   computers),  platforms  (i.e.  Android,  Apple,  Windows),   and  media  (i.e.  wikis,  websites,  videos).       Educators  are  challenged  by  their  governments  and   business  sectors  to  h elp  students  develop  the  skills   necessary  to  our  current  times.  They  are  told  that  these   skills  must  be  situated  in  accessible,  flexible  learning   environments,  but  rarely  are  educators  given  glimpses  of   what  these  learning  environments  might  look  like  or   given  practical  suggestions  of  how  they  might  create   them  in  their  contexts.       The  Organisation  for  Economic  Co-­‐operation  and   Development  (OECD)  describes  high  quality  learning   environments  as  being:     • Learner-­‐centred  with  significant,  yet  different,   roles  for  teachers     • Structured  and  well-­‐designed,  requiring  a  high   degree  of  professionalism  to  support  the   student  inquiry  and  autonomous  learning   • Profoundly  personalized  and  acutely  sensitive  to   individual  and  group  differences  and  offering   tailored,  timely  teacher  feedback  for  learners   • Inclusive  so  as  to  be  empathetic  and  sensitive  to   individual  and  group  differences     • Social  so  learners  can  work  collaboratively  in   group  settings  and  connect  to  their  larger   community  (OECD,  2011).     The  high  quality  learning  environments  described  by  the   OECD  and  others  are  consistent  with  what  Pink  (2005)   calls  the  Conceptual  Age  –  a  time  where  logical  and   linear  thinking  is  valued,  especially  when  it  is  coupled   with  creativity  and  innovation.  Exploration,  visual   aesthetics,  problem  finding  and  problem  solving  have   been  identified  as  essential  skills  in  the  Conceptual  Age.      


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Hatch (2014),  author  of  the  book  Maker  Manifesto,   suggests  that  as  part  of  this  Conceptual  Age,  we  are   actually  entering  a  new  industrial  revolution.  If  the  first   revolution  was  fuelled  by  factories  powered  by  steam   and  the  second  by  electricity,  the  Conceptual  Age  is   powered  by  unlimited  access  to  information;  the   development  of  increasingly  reasonably  price,  p owerful   tools;  and  the  ability  to  obtain  a  range  globally  sourced   materials  and  resources  with  which  to  make  things.   Hatch  suggests  the  Maker  Movement  is  actually  an   Internet  of  Things  (see  representation  below).  He  claims   it  is  actually  bigger  than  the  online  version  because  it   consists  of  physical  objects  connected  via  sensors  to  the   Internet.      

Internet of  Things  

1.2.  The  Maker  Movement  –  A  Global  Perspective     We  all  have  a  need  to  make.  It  stems  from  our  curiosity   with  the  world  and  our  basic  desire  to  make  things  and   then  make  those  things  b etter.  Our  earliest  ancestors   led  the  way  in  making  when  they  crafted  the  first  hand   tools  in  East  Africa  and  experimented  with  fire.  They   continued  to  make  things  and  make  those  things  better   as  they  adapted  to  new  locations  and  migrated  around   the  world.     Currently,  there  is  a  new  interest  in  learning  how  to   make  things  –  it  is  called  the  Do-­‐It-­‐Yourself  (DIY)   movement.  People  are  growing  tired  of  cheaply  made,   disposal  goods  that  cannot  be  repaired  or  modified.   Increasingly,  people  are  turning  to  traditional  ways  of   doing  things.  Many  are  turning  away  from  pre-­‐packaged   food  items  with  little  nutritional  value  or  poorly  made   items  that  are  expensive,  complicated,  and  have  

6 proprietary  parts  that  are  not  interchangeable  and   cannot  be  reused.   Globally,  we  are  reclaiming  our  need  to  make,  and  we   are  formalizing  it  into  a  movement.  We  are  creating   shareable  workshops  (makerspaces),  providing  hours  of   online  instructional  videos  (e.g.  You  Tube,  Instructables   -­‐  www.Instructables.com),  and  offering  workshops   (professional  development  activities),  reclaiming  our   individuality  and  modifying  the  world  around  us.  What   is  different  this  time  is  we  are  using  a  human-­‐centered   design  thinking  approach  to  actually  design  things  that   are  worth  making  and  that  address  a  real  need.   Educators  have  a  role  to  play  in  this  return  to  making  by   introducing  design  thinking  and  active  learning  to  the   development  of  resources  and  school  activities  –  we  call   this  Taking  Making  Into  Our  Schools.     1.3.  The  Maker  Movement  –  A  Contextual  Perspective   for  Teaching  and  Learning  in  Challenging  Contexts   While  education  has  been  touted  as  a  key  to  positive   transformation  of  the  individual  and  the  community,  it   can  only  attain  this  function  if  it  is  delivered  in  the  right   way.  As  observed  earlier,  the  mind  numbing  repetitive   actions  of  teacher-­‐centered  delivery  do  not  necessarily   result  in  learning.  Teaching  and  listening  do  not   automatically  result  in  learning.  Transformative  learning   requires  active  learning  where  the  learners  modify  their   meaning  schemes  by  critically  reflecting  on  their   experiences.  A  first  step  is  to  create  a  conducive   learning  environment  that  allows  the  learners  to   experience,  critically  reflect,  and  make  meaning  of  their   experience.  Teaching  and  making  should  lead  to  active   learning  that  would  be  transformative.       Making  in  the  school  context  presents  a  great   opportunity  for  transformative  learning  where  the   learners  can  critically  contemplate  issues  in  their   context.  They  engage  in  inquiry  and  articulate  what  they   perceive  as  issues  worth  addressing.  Through  d ialogue,   they  empathetically  negotiate  solutions  and  design  and   create  solutions.  Throughout  this  process,  the  learner   takes  a  lead  in  the  activity  while  the  teacher  facilitates   and  offers  guidance  through  informally  assessing   progress.  Both  the  teacher  and  the  learners  learn  from   the  process,  articulate  their  understanding  by  co-­‐ designing  and  co-­‐creating  solutions.  This  learning  can  be   well  documented  through  the  steps  carried  out  and  also   evidenced  in  the  solutions  created.    


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Context is  an  important  parameter  in  determining  what   constitutes  quality  education.  While  some  parameters   are  global,  the  details  are  context-­‐dependent.  As  such,   ideas  about  achieving  quality  education  have  to  be   contextualized  so  as  to  be  successful.       Challenging  contexts  are  everywhere  –  it  could  be  an   urban  slum  area,  remote  rural  village,  harsh   geographically  complicated  area,  socially  disadvantaged   location  or  an  economically  disadvantaged  area.  The   context  could  have  a  combination  of  issues  that  makes  it   difficult  for  teachers  and  learners  to  experience  quality   education.  Some  of  these  issues  include  high  population,   diverse  learner  abilities  in  a  class,  low  literacy  levels,  lack   of  resources,  serious  underfunding,  lack  of  professional   learning  opportunities,  and  many  other  related  things.   Such  contexts  render  the  educational  reform  described   above  less  smooth  but  not  impossible.  In  fact  they   provide  an  opportunity  to  actualize  transformative   learning  where  education  responds  to  the  n eeds  of  the   individual  and  society  in  the  absence  of  or  instead  of   external  solutions  that  may  be  ill  suited  to  the  context.     The  Maker  Movement  has  been  successfully   experienced  in  various  contexts,  including  challenging   contexts  (i.e.,  aboriginal  reserves  in  Canada,  rural   villages  in  Tanzania).  In  these  contexts,  the  general   process  remains  the  same  -­‐  emphasizing  the  design   thinking  process  and  making.  The  purpose  of   establishing  a  space  to  make  in  the  teachers’  resource   centre  is  to  enable  educators  to  imagine  the  future  of   education  by  reflectively  engaging  in  design  thinking  and   innovatively  creating  solutions  to  respond  to   pedagogical  challenges  in  their  context.  This  approach  is   consistent  with  current  educational  reform  such  as  Big   Results  Now  (BRN)  in  Tanzania.  The  key  concerns   associated  with  these  reforms  are  ensuring  that  learners   are  not  just  attending  school  but  are  actually  learning;   teachers  are  motivated  to  spend  more  time  in  the   classroom  teaching;  and  that  there  should  be  evidence   based  results.  The  maker  movement  builds  the  teachers’   capacity  to  imagine  and  implement  education  under   such  initiatives.       Our  current  knowledge  age  employs  different  forms  of   literacy.  Apart  from  traditional  linguistic  literacy  –  there   is  a  need  to  embrace  multi-­‐literacies  that  represent   different  ways  of  knowing  and  expressing  learning.  New   forms  of  literacy  including  media,  digital,  spatial,  

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scientific, mathematical  literacies  which  are  crucial  in   accessing  and  utilizing  the  proliferation  of  knowledge   that  is  at  the  disposal  of  the  learner.  Multi-­‐literacies  tie   in  well  with  Gardner’s  Multiple  Intelligences.  The   recognition  and  d evelopment  of  multiple  literacies  in   this  way  ensures  that  multiple  intelligences  among   learners  are  addressed.  It  also  encourages  collaboration   and  complementary  working  among  learners.  This  in   turn  fosters  creativity  and  innovation  as  learners  stretch   their  imagination  and  utilize  their  skills.     The  contextual  realities  in  which  learners  and  teachers   operate  may  either  inform  and  support  their  creativity   or  constrain  innovation  and  their  creativity.  The  ability   to  leapfrog  existing  practice  is  a  response  to  contextual   realities.  The  term  leapfrog  is  borrowed  from  the   deployment  of  technology.  One  example  of  leapfrogging   is  contexts  where  mobile  telephony  gained  currency   much  faster  than  landline  telephones  allowing  those   users  to  quickly  adapt  newer  technologies.  Specifically,   exchanging  multi-­‐media  messages  and  conducting   financial  transactions  by  phone  are  examples  of   technological  applications  that  were  leapfrogged   because  of  the  widespread  use  of  mobile  phones.   Similarly,  knowledge,  information,  skills  and  practices   drawn  from  indigenous  ways  of  knowing  may  inform   innovation  and  creativity  in  similar  ways  resulting  in   leapfrogging  of  educational  practices.  Indigenous  forms   of  knowledge  include  folklore;  artifacts  (i.e.,  tools,  art,   crafts);  environmental  resources  (i.e.,  plants,  animals);   learning  systems;  taxonomies;  laws;  and  forms  of  

New forms  of  literacy  are  introduced  when  Making  


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communication  and  organization.  These  indigenous   ways  of  knowing  are  the  sources  of  background   contextual  knowledge  and  skills  that  the  learner  brings   to  class.  Indigenous  knowledge  also  provides  a  base  and   source  of  linguistic,  mathematical  and  scientific  content   for  d eveloping  learners’  competences  in  early  years.  This    

  knowledge  forms  the  base  upon  which  the  learner     constructs  new  learning.  S ome  of  this  knowledge  could   be  well  advanced  as  the  learner  may  have  been  engaged   as  an  apprentice  in  a  particular  trade.  Further,   indigenous  knowledge  takes  cognizance  of  sustainable   and  locally  available  resources.  The  use  of  such   resources  (including  human  resource)  is  important  in   developing  sustainable  solutions.     In  determining  creativity,  relevance  and  sustainability  of   solutions  and  applications,  careful  considerations  have   to  be  made  of  the  context.  Understanding  indigenous   sense  of  aesthetics,  needs  and  feasibility  of  proposed   solutions  is  vital.  Proposed  solutions  have  to  be  owned,  

Education is  both  a      goal  and  a  catalyst  for   development  


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appreciated and  sustained  by  the  users.  They  have  to  be   acceptable  not  imposed  solutions.     1.4.  Making  and  Development   Education  is  both  a  goal  and  a  catalyst  for  development.   The  importance  of  education  is  reflected  in  its  inclusion   in  the  Millennium  Development  Goals  (MDGs).  One  of   the  MDGs  is  to  achieve  Universal  Primary  Education  by   ensuring  “that  by  2015,  children  everywhere,  boys  and   girls  alike  will  be  able  to  complete  a  full  course  of   primary  education"  (UN,  2015).  Further,  the  MDGs   confirm  that  education  is  instrumental  to  the   achievement  of  the  other  M illennium  Development   Goals,  recognizing  that  "educating  children  gives  the   next  generation  the  tools  to  fight  poverty  and  prevent   disease,  including  malaria  and  AIDS"  (UN,  2015).  Sadly,   an  assessment  of  the  UN  MDGs’  gains  made  so  far   indicates  that  the  world  has  not  achieved  the  2015  goal   of  universal  p rimary  education.  Admittedly,  there  have   been  significant  gains  in  access,  but  it  has  become   evident  that  learning  outcomes  and  relevance  of  the   education  are  even  more  crucial  in  order  for  education   to  contribute  to  development.  The  ideas  shared  in  this   toolkit  directly  relate  to  ways  in  which  we  can  work  to   make  education  more  relevant  and  productive  for   children.     The  next  stage  of  the  UN  M illennial  Goal  targets  is  the   Sustainable  Development  Goals  (SDGs).  The  SDGs   recognize  the  need  for  each  country  to  focus  on  the   specific  challenges  it  needs  to  overcome  so  as  to  attain  

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contextually relevant  and  sustainable  development  (UN,   2014).  We  see  the  pedagogy  of  Making  as  a  natural  fit   for  schools  as  it  links  innovation,  creativity,  problem   finding  and  problem  solving  in  relation  to  the  needs  of   particular  contexts.    


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Emphasizes collaboration,  innovation,  creativity  and   critical  thinking   • Is  a  process  of  problem  finding  and  problem  solving   • Naturally  leads  to  active  learning  –  learners  discuss,   design  and  make  things   • Leads  to  learner  engagement    (intellectual,   emotional,  behavioral,  social  and  cultural)  –  high   levels  of  student  engagement  are  evident  when   learners  are  inquisitive,  interested  and  therefore   motivated  to  pursue  more  learning     • Is  goal  oriented  hence  very  motivating   • Renders  both  process  and  product  important   • Ensures  that  the  learning  is  in  the  p rocess     1.5.2.  Making  And  Constructionism   The  key  to  quality  education  is  establishing  conducive   learning  environments  (OECD,  2011).  These   environments  lead  to  active  learning  where  learners  can   collaboratively  co-­‐construct  knowledge  in  ways  that  are   contextually  relevant  and  appropriate.  Learning  entails   the  acquisition  of  new  knowledge  or  the  modification   and  reinforcement  of  existing  knowledge.  According  to   constructionists,  learning  requires  the  individual  to   engage  in  a  p rocess  of  constructing  (making)  meaning  of   their  world.  The  learners  do  not  imbibe  knowledge   already  constructed  for  them  (from  teachers)  but  they   are  presented  with  opportunities  to  construct   knowledge  individually  and  collaboratively.       In  order  to  do  this,  constructionist  educators  embrace   the  following  beliefs:   • Learning  should  be  an  active  process  -­‐  the  learner   uses  sensory  data  to  construct  knowledge  (this   recognizes  multiple  intelligences  as  sources  of   sensory  data)   • Learners  learn  to  learn  through  constructing   meanings  and  systems  of  meaning  –  creating  some   order  –  patterns,  classes,  groups,  chronologies   • Construction  of  meaning  has  to  be  both  a  physical   and  cognitive  engagement  –  involve  some  physical   representation  of  one’s  meaning  together  with   explanations  of  the  choices  we  make  and  why   • Language  is  a  crucial  aspect  of  learning  –  we  make   meaning  in  the  language  that  we  are  most   comfortable  with  h ence  the  importance  of  choosing,   for  instance,  a  local  language  for  instruction  or   expressing  learning   • Learning  is  a  social  activity  -­‐  traditional  education   tended  to  isolate  the  learner,  progressive  education   •

We see  making  as  a  natural  fit  in  schools  

Making links  innovation,  creativity,  problem  finding  and  problem   solving  

1.5. Making  the  Connection     Making  can  be  adapted  as  an  effective  pedagogical   orientation.  It  starts  by  using  a  Design  Thinking   Approach.  Making  highlights  a  new  culture  in  learning   that  is  not  confined  to  traditional  classrooms.       1.5.1.  Making  and  Active  Learning     This  new  culture  of  active  learning  draws  on  play,   questioning  and  imagination  (Thomas  &  Brown,  2011).   As  a  pedagogical  orientation,  making:  

 


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recognizes learning  as  a  social  endeavor  (social   constructivism)  where  learners  work  collaboratively   to  co-­‐construct  knowledge  which  is  meaningful  in  a   given  context   Learning  does  not  occur  in  a  vacuum  –  it  is   contextual-­‐  hence  the  need  for  contextually  relevant   and  appropriate  knowledge.  Imported  ‘knowledge’   may  not  be  relevant  or  appropriate  thus  losing  the   ‘value’  of  being  regarded  as  knowledge  in  the  target   context.   Learning  requires  knowledge  -­‐  there  is  need  for  the   facilitators  and  learners  to  draw  from  prior   knowledge.  For  instance,  indigenous  knowledge  is  a   great  source  of  prior  knowledge  that  informs  new   knowledge  construction  because  it  is  contextually   relevant  and  appropriate   Learning  takes  time  –  it  is  not  instantaneous.  It   requires  planning,  practice,  reflection  and  revisiting-­‐   new  insights  and  understanding  occur  during  these   phases.   Learning  requires  motivation  -­‐  learners  need  a   reason  to  want  to  learn.  The  learning  process  and   the  product  (the  new  construction)  provides   motivation  to  learn.  

Constructionism  therefore  presents  learning  as  a  process   of  experiencing  things  and  reflecting  on  those   experiences.  It  fosters  deeper  and  longer  lasting   understanding.       1.5.3.  Making  And  Big  Results  N ow   Tanzania,  like  other  developing  economies  aspires  to   transit  from  a  low  income  to  a  middle-­‐income  economy.   In  order  to  achieve  this,  it  has  adapted  the  M alaysian   Development  M odel  (Big  Fast  Results)  and  launched  the   Big  Results  Now  (BRN)  initiative.  This  initiative  targets   four  key  areas  and  education  is  one  of  them.  Education   is  considered  a  strategic  agent  to  providing  impetus  for   development.  However,  in  order  for  education  to  deliver   on  its  agency  mandate,  some  reforms  are  necessary.       It  is  important  to  note  that  while  Tanzania  has  recorded   remarkable  achievements  in  providing  access  to  basic   education  over  the  past  10  years,  there  h as  been  a   steady  slide  in  the  quality  of  education,  begging  the   question  of  whether  are  the  children  learning  or  simply   attending  school  (World  Bank  report  July  2014;  UWEZO   reports  2011-­‐2014).  Under  the  BRN  initiative,  the  World   Bank  and  other  development  partners  in  Tanzania  target  

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to improve  learning  outcomes  by  addressing  specific   concerns  found  to  contribute  to  the  p oor  learning   outcomes.       Specifically  with  regard  to  learning,  they  propose  to   ensure:   • Teachers  are  motivated  to  spend  more  time  in  class   teaching   • Data  are  gathered  and  results  monitored  regularly   so  that  education  is  managed  more  efficiently   • More  students  learn  to  read,  write  and  do  basic   math  by  the  end  of  grade  2  (World  Bank,  2014)     While  steps  have  been  taken  to  isolate  what  needs  to  be   done,  the  actual  process  of  motivating  teachers,   engaging  learners  and  gathering  data  is  a  pedagogical   issue.  The  proposed  p edagogical  orientation,  Making,   would  offer  some  practical  solutions  to  how  these  noble   targets  could  be  met  (see  Section  2.5).  Through  M aking,   the  teachers  can  have  reason  to  stay  longer  in  class  and   the  students  will  be  well  engaged;  there  are  many   opportunities  for  gathering  data  that  evidences  the   learning  process  and  provides  authentic  data  for  both   formative  and  summative  assessment.  That  data  informs   school  management  and  other  stakeholders  on  both   achievements  and  areas  that  require  attention  and   provide  a  process  that  develops  both  literacy  (the   broader  understanding  of  literacy  see  Kalantzis  and   Cope,  2012)  and  numeracy  in  practical  and  evident  ways.   Ultimately,  the  process  of  making  d elivers  meaningful       learning  for  both  the  teacher  and  the  learner  that  is   contextually  relevant  and  will  empower  education  to  

Learning is  a  social  activity  


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play the  agency  role  in  driving  development.     1.5.4.  Making  and  Thinking  Visibly     Rooted  in  constructionist  theory  and  p ractice,  making  is   an  excellent  way  of  providing  evidence  of  the  cognitive   processes  that  occur  during  learning.  At  various  stages   of  the  design  thinking  process,  there  is  an  overt   representation  of  the  thinking  process.  From  the  outset,   participants  share  their  views  about  particular  issues  and   through  dialogue  envision  the  concern  shared  by  a   partner.  Then  through  a  process  of  gaining  empathy   they  can  seek  to  develop  some  solutions.  Dialogue   reveals  the  partners  thinking,  the  summaries  articulate   the  thinking  and  the  suggested  solutions  (in  sketch  and   annotations)  represent  the  problem  solving  process  –  a   response  to  the  articulated  need.  Further  on,  more   negotiations  provide  evidence  of  mental  assessments  of   the  suggested  solutions  and  the  final  sketch  is  evidence   of  collaborative  thought.  The  prototype  is  the  tangible   evidence  of  the  process  of  thinking.  Final  self  and  peer   assessments  articulated  in  the  reflections  provide   evidence  of  the  congruence  between  the  initial  concern   shared  and  the  solution  presented.  (See  Section  2.5.)     1.6.  Design  Thinking     “Design  thinking  is  generally  considered  the  ability  to   combine  empathy  for  the  context  of  a  problem,   creativity  in  the  generation  of  insights  and  solutions,  and   rationality  to  analyze  and  fit  solutions  to  the  context”   (Wikipedia,  n.d.).  It  is  human  centered  design  process   that  considers  the  user  rather  than  solely  the  problem  or   potential  product  or  outcome.  Design  thinking  is  a   significant  part  of  the  intentional  process  we  u se  in  our   Taking  Making  Into  the  Schools  workshops.  We  have   observed  that  often  if  people  are  given  a  problem  to   solve,  they  tend  to  rush  to  a  solution  without   considering  all  the  confounding  variables  and  potential   solutions.       1.6.1.  Introduction     Design  Thinking  is  a  process  by  which  designers  can   thinker  (think  and  tinker  —  play  purposefully)  and  talk   collaboratively  within  their  groups  while  considering,   discussing,  researching,  and  exploring  options.  This  is   often  called  lateral  thinking,  or  the  kind  of  thinking  that   tends  to  foster  creativity  and  innovation.  Design  thinking   aligns  nicely  with  M aking  by  helping  makers  consider   what  they  would  like  to  create  and  what  might  be   needed.  It  allows  makers  to  “creatively  attack  the  

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world’s greatest  problems  and  meet  people’s  most   urgent  needs”  (Hatch,  2014,  p.  10).  As  Walt  Disney,  the   inventor  of  Mickey  M ouse  once  said,  “It  is  kind  of  fun  to   do  the  impossible!”     The  process  of  design  thinking  involves  a  series  of   decisions  and  activities  that  inform  the  designer.  “Design   doesn’t  just  make  things  beautiful,  it  makes  them  work”   (Dadich,  2013).  Good  design  can  be  described  with  ten   principles  (Vitsoe,  2013).  They  include   • Good  design  is  innovative   • Good  design  makes  a  product  useful   • Good  design  is  aesthetic   • Good  design  makes  a  product  understandable   • Good  design  is  unobtrusive   • Good  design  is  honest   • Good  design  is  long-­‐lasting   • Good  design  is  thorough  down  to  the  last  detail   • Good  design  is  environmentally  friendly   • Good  design  is  as  little  design  as  possible.     Design  thinking  is  a  process  for  solving  problems,  and  it   typically  consists  of  seven  steps:  define,  research,  ideate,   prototype,  choose,  implement,  and  learn.       Define   • Decide  what  issue  you  are  trying  to  resolve   • Agree  on  who  the  audience  is   • Determine  what  will  make  the  project  successful     Research   • Review  the  h istory  of  the  issue;  try  to  determine   why  is  it  a  problem   • Collect  /  share  examples  of  other  attempts  to  solve   the  same  issue   • Talk  with  people  who  share  or  who  have   encountered  this  problem   Ideation   • Identify  the  needs  and  motivations  of  your  u sers   • Generate  as  many  ideas  as  possible  to  serve  these   identified  needs   • Sketch  as  many  ideas  as  possible   • Do  not  judge  or  debate  ideas   • During  brainstorming,  have  one  conversation  /   interview  at  a  time  


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Prototype • Combine,  expand,  and  refine  ideas.   • Create  multiple  drafts   • Seek  feedback  from  a  diverse  group  of  people,   include  your  users   • Share  your  prototype  with  others   • Reserve  judgment  and  maintain  neutrality   • Create  and  present  actual  working  p rototype(s)  

Choose • Review  the  objective   • Set  aside  emotion  and  ownership  of  ideas   • Avoid  consensus  thinking   • Remember:  the  most  practical  solution  isn't  always   the  best   • Select  the  powerful  ideas   Implement   • Make  sample  descriptions   • Execute   • Test  your  idea  with  your  users   Learn   • Gather  feedback  from  the  u ser(s)   • Determine  if  the  solution  met  its  goals   • Discuss  what  could  b e  improved   • Measure  success;  collect  data   • Document  

Increasingly, educators  are  being  called  upon  to  be     designers  of  learning  experiences  


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Although design  is  always  subject  to  personal  taste,   design  thinkers  share  a  common  set  of  values  that  drive   innovation:  these  values  are  mainly  creativity,   ambidextrous  thinking,  teamwork,  end-­‐user  focus,   curiosity  (Wikipedia,  n.d.).   Stanford’s  d.School  offers  a  great  series  of  resources  on   design  thinking.  Please  explore   http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/  

Design thinking  and  Making  align  quite  nicely!  

Prototype: Combine,  expand  and  refine  ideas  

 

 

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1.6.2. Tie  to  Education   Increasingly  educators  are  called  upon  to  be  designers  of   learning  experiences  as  suggested  in  the  OECD  report   shared  in  Section  1.2.  The  Maker  Movement  –  A  Global   Perspective.  This  is  a  shift  from  their  previous  roles  as   implementers  or  interpreters  of  curriculum.  A  good  way   to  incorporate  design  thinking  in  the  classroom  is  to  use   it  to  help  students  intentionally  find  linkages  between   authentic  learning  experiences  and  curricular  problems.       Because  of  its  emphasis  on  empathy,  design  thinking   invites  teachers  and  students  to  focus  on  human   centered  design  and  think  about  things  worth   considering.  It  aligns  nicely  with  STEMx  projects   grounded  in  improving  the  human  experience.  Globally,   many  educators  and  researchers  suggest  teachers   should  incorporate  the  p rocess  of  creative  thinking  –   imagine,  create,  play,  share,  reflect  (Resnick,  2007)  in   their  practices  as  it  “reflects  the  natural  way  that  young   children  learn  and  play”  (Martinez  &  Stager,  2013).   Design  thinking  and  making  align  quite  nicely!         One  caution  though,  as  with  any  process,  honor  the   steps.  Trust  The  Process.  There  are  n o  shortcuts  to   innovation!     1.7.  Assessment   Assessment  is  an  integral  part  of  the  curriculum.   Essentially,  assessment  should  co-­‐occur  with  teaching   and  learning  in  the  course  of  instruction.  In  the  process   of  making,  assessment  serves  as  a  driving  force  that   keeps  the  making  on  track  and  ensures  that  there  is   evidence  of  learning  (or  lack  of  it).       Formative  assessment,  also  referred  to  as  assessment   for  learning,  is  what  moves  the  p rocess  from  one  step  to   the  next.  Whether  conducted  by  self,  peers  or   facilitators,  formative  assessment  contributes  to  the   completion  of  the  product.  Formative  assessment  is   carried  out  when  the  learners  share  their  thoughts,   sketches  and  engage  in  the  process  of  developing  the   prototype.  During  this  period,  the  teacher  can  monitor   and  scaffold  learners  to  ensure  that  they  get  good   results.  Formative  assessment  contributes  to  the   production  of  the  prototype  that  is  then  summatively   evaluated  by  self,  peers  and  facilitator  during  the  gallery   tour.  The  physical  product,  sample  description  record   can  be  availed  for  further  assessment  and  as  evidence  of   the  learner’s  competence.  


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1.8. Indigenous  Ways  of  Knowing   Constructionist  practice  encourages  the  construction  of   knowledge  from  prior  knowledge  (see  Section  1.5.2.).   Indigenous  ways  of  knowing  (or  indigenous  funds  of   knowledge)  are  an  excellent  source  of  prior  knowledge.   Learners  come  to  school  with  a  bank  of  indigenous  ways   of  knowing  that  represents  their  community’s  way  of   life.  The  knowledge  includes:  folklore,  artifacts  (tools,   art,  crafts),  environmental  resources  (plants  and   animals),  learning  systems,  taxonomy,  laws,  equipment,   forms  of  communication  and  organization.  The  folklore   for  instance,  would  provide  a  good  starting  point  for   various  linguistic  literacy  competences  while  artifacts   and  equipment  would  inspire  relevant  creativity  and   aesthetics  for  new  or  modified  designs.  Taxonomies  and   environmental  resources  would  be  a  good  starting  point   for  mathematical  and  scientific  literacies.  In  addition,  the   prior  knowledge  would  be  key  in  determining  what  is   contextually  relevant  and  appropriate,  an  important   consideration  for  sustainable  innovations  and   interventions.       1.9.  Professional  Learning  –  Making  a  Case  for   Immersive,  Recursive  Experiences     Research  into  quality  teaching  and  educational  change   theory  is  clear  –  teachers  need  continuous  learning   opportunities  if  they  are  to  adopt  new  approaches,   adapt  to  Ministry  of  Education  initiatives,  and  remain   relevant  and  vibrant  in  their  work.  Teachers  must   engage  in  career  long,  professional  learning  for  the  same   reasons  that  other  professionals  such  as  physicians  and   nurses  do  –  to  remain  current,  to  learn  new  approaches,   and  to  form  professional  communities  of  practice  and   support.     Access  to  professional  development  is  difficult  due  to   travel  costs  and  availability  for  many  teachers  in   challenging  contexts.  Also,  all  too  often,  professional   development  is  offered  in  a  “sit  and  get”  passive   learning  format.  This  toolkit,  Taking  Making  Into  Schools:   A  Toolkit  for  Innovation  and  Change  in  Teaching  and   Learning,  offers  a  different  approach.  It  is  designed  to   help  you  facilitate  recursive,  immersive  professional   learning  for  practicing  teachers.  It  also  can  be  used  with   other  educators  to  introduce  them  to  Design  Thinking   and  M aking.  

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Section 2.1.  provides  a  sample  agenda  for  a  one-­‐day   immersive  professional  development  event.  The     immersive  aspect  of  the  day  requires  p articipants  to   thoughtfully  and  fully  engage  in  design  thinking  and   creative  problem  finding.  At  the  heart  of  the  day  is  the   Maker  ethos  which  "values  learning  through  direct   experience  and  the  intellectual  and  social  benefits  that   accrue  from  creating  something  shareable"  (Martinez  &   Stager,  2013).  It  also  links  Design  Thinking  and  Making  to   the  curriculum  competencies  currently  required  for  East   Africa.     Immersive  professional  learning  recognizes  that  it  is   hard  to  share  meaningfully  things  that  we  have  not   experienced  deeply.  If  teachers  are  going  to  Take   Making  into  their  schools,  we  believe  educators  need  to   participate  actively  in  a  full  day  experience  to  help  them   feel  confident  and  own  the  ideas  of  design  thinking,   problem  finding,  collaborative  making,  collegial  and   convivial  critique,  and  reflection.       References     Crichton,  S.  &  Carter,  D.  (2015).  Taking  Making  Into  the:   An  Immersive  Professional  Development  Approach.  In   M.  Niess  &  H.  Gillow-­‐Wiles  (Eds.).  Handbook  of  Research   on  Teacher  Education  in  the  Digital  Age.  IGI  Global.     Dadich,  S.  (August,  2013).  The  age  of  invisible  design     has  arrived.  Retrieved  from   http://www.wired.com/design/2013/08/the-­‐age-­‐of-­‐ invisible-­‐design/       Dougherty,  D.  (2013).  The  maker  mindset.  In  M.  Honey   &  D.  Kanter  (Eds.),  Design,  M ake,  Play:  Growing  the  Next   Generation  of  STEM  Innovators  (pp.  7-­‐11).  New  York,  NY:   Routledge.     Hatch,  M.  (2014).  The  Maker  Schools  Movement   Manifesto:  Rules  for  Innovation  in  the  New  World  of   Crafters,  Hackers,  and  Tinkerers.  NY:  McGraw-­‐Hill.     Kalantzis,  M.,  and  Cope,  B.  (2012)  Literacies.  Cambridge   University  Press.  

 

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Martinez,  S.  &  Stager,  G.  (2013).  Invent  to  learn:  Making,   tinkering,  and  engineering  in  the  classroom.  Torrance,   CA:  Constructing  Modern  Knowledge  Press.     Organization  for  economic  co-­‐operation  and   development  (OECD).  (May  2011).  Innovative  learning   environments  –  A  leading  OECD/CERI  project.  Retrieved   from   http://www.innovations.sa.edu.au/files/links/ILEMay.pd f     Resnick,  M.  (2007).  All  I  really  need  to  know  (about   creative  thinking)  I  learned  (by  studying  how  children   learn)  in  kindergarten.  Paper  presented  at  the   Proceedings  of  the  6th  ACM  SIGCHI  conference  on   Creativity  &  Cognition.       Thomas,  D  and  Seely  Brown,  J.S.  (2011)  .  A  New  Culture   of  Learning:  Cultivating  the  Imagination  for  a  World  of   Constant  Change.  Seattle,  WA:  Createspace.     Vitsoe.  (2013).  Dieter  Rams:  ten  principles  for  good   design.  Retrieved  from   https://www.vitsoe.com/us/about/good-­‐design       United  Nations,  2015   http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/     United  Nations,  2014   https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/sustainab ledevelopmentgoals/       Wikipedia.  (n.d.).  Design  thinking.  Retrieved  from   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_thinking    


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2. Facilitating  a  Taking  Making  into  the  Schools  Workshop   Sample  Design  Challenge  

This Sample  Design  Challenge  was  used   during  our  field  testing  with  teachers  in  the   Turiani,  Morogoro  Region.    

Bakground Teachers  in  rural  and  remote  schools  often  struggle  to   find  appropriate  resources  to  support  learner-­‐centered,   participatory  learning.  They  often  forget  that  many  of  the   most  valuable  resources  are  sitting  right  in  front  of  them   or  right  outside  their  classroom  doors.       Design  Rationale   Teachers  in  Tanzania  are  expected  to  get  Big  Results   Now  in  their  classrooms.  Many  are  struggling  to   understand  what  results  based  education  looks  like  and   how  to  develop  participatory  learning  activities  for  their   students.     Your  Task   Your  group  has  b een  given  the  task  of  creating  a  sample   learning  resource  that  helps  students  learn  essential   competencies  that  lead  to  Big  Results  Now.  Your  sample   resource  must  encourage  and  enable  learner-­‐centered,   participatory  learning.     Success  of  Your  Sample  Resource  Will  be     Determine  By:   • Can  the  sample  be  made  using  the  materials   available?   • Can  the  sample  be  made  using  found  or  local   materials?   • Does  the  sample  support  the  essential  learning  of  the   competency  your  group  selected  during  the  Design   Thinking  Activity?   • Can  other  teachers  made  sense  of  your  sample  and   see  benefit  for  it  in  their  classrooms?     Parameters   • You  must  use  items  from  the  shared  Maker  Tool   collection   • You  must  use  items  you  can  find  locally     • You  must  complete  the  Sample  Description  sheet     • You  must  have  a  working  sample  for  the  Gallery  Tour    

The goal  of  the  workshop  is  to  encourage  participants  to   experience  making  through  design  thinking  and  hands-­‐ on  activities.  The  recursive  aspect  of  the  immersive   approach  is  made  possible  by  offering  the  Taking   Making  Into  Schools  workshop  over  2  -­‐  3  consecutive   days.  If  you  can  manage  that,  we  suggest  you  use  the   same  agenda  each  day.  This  allows  participants  to  gain  a   deeper  understanding  of  the  process.  We  discovered   their  work  improving  with  each  of  the  iterations  in  the   design  process,  making,  and  reflection  steps.     Taking  Making  Into  Schools  introduces  participants  to   Making  and  resource  d evelopment  by  focusing  on  five   distinct  yet  related  elements:   • Design  challenge     • Design  thinking  process   • Design  solution  through  collaborative  making     • Gallery  tour   • Reflection     2.1.  A  Sample  Agenda   At  the  end  of  this  section  (p.  21),  a  Sample  Agenda  with   suggested  times,  p re-­‐readings  and  materials  required   has  been  p rovided.     2.2.  Workshop  Elements   2.2.1.  Design  Challenge   Design  thinking  and  making  are  fun  processes  and   activities.  But,  teachers  n eed  something  to  think  about   and  to  make  when  they  are  creating  education   resources.  This  is  where  a  Design  Challenge  can  b e  used.   A  design  challenge  focuses  each  group  of  teachers  on  a   task,  allowing  the  facilitator  to  engage  the  group  in  the   design  process.       In  the  task  of  teaching  and  learning,  we  know  that   simply  covering  the  curriculum  using  a  teacher  d irected   approach  does  little  to  improve  learning  and  even  less  to   foster  curiosity.  It  is  suggested  that  less  than  10%  of   what  is  taught  is  retained  two  years  later  (Lambert,   2012).  Teaching  more  using  the  same  rote  learning   approaches  isn’t  the  answer.   Countries  such  as  Singapore  have  already  radically   changed  their  national  policies  and  embraced  


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movements such  as  Teach  Less  Learn  M ore.  This   movement  began  in  2006  as  a  way  to  help  “teachers  and   schools  to  focus  on  the  fundamentals  of  effective   teaching,  so  that  …  students  are  engaged,  learn  with   understanding,  and  are  developed  holistically,  beyond   preparing  for  tests  and  examinations.  …  [It  has  required   schools  to  change  in  terms  of]  curriculum  (what  to   teach),  pedagogy  (how  to  teach)  and  assessment  (how   much  have  learners  learnt)”  (Singapore  M inistry  of   Education,  2015).  While  we’re  not  huge  fans  of  h igh   stakes  exams,  the  2012  PISA  results,  which  was  the  first   year  to  assess  creative  problem  solving,  ranked   Singapore  #1  …  Canada  was  5th  followed  by  Finland  7th   and  the  USA  13th  (http://www.oecd.org/pisa/singapore-­‐ and-­‐korea-­‐top-­‐first-­‐oecd-­‐pisa-­‐problem-­‐solving-­‐ test.htm).  Samples  of  the  types  of  questions  asked  can   be  found  at  http://www.oecd.org/pisa/test/.       We  see  Taking  Making  Into  Our  Schools  as  a  purposeful   way  to  intentionally  link  the  process  of  Making   (designing,  making,  testing,  reflecting)  with  a   thoughtfully  crafted  Design  Challenge  that  requires   participants  to  gain  empathy  and  consider  new  ideas.   The  Design  Challenge  provides  the  curricular  content.       Creating  A  Design  Challenge   Our  experience  suggests  there  are  three  primary  ways  to   structure  a  design  challenge:     • As  an  inquiry  question     • As  a  problem  to  be  solved   • As  a  scenario  to  play  out     1. Inquiry  allows  curriculum  to  be  explored  through   authentic  learning  experiences  (Alberta  Learning,   2004)  –  a  key  contribution  of  MAKING  to  teaching   and  learning  activities.  Authentic  learning   encourages  learners  to  inquire  into  things  that  are   real  and  of  interest  to  them.  It  positions  the  learning   activities  as  problems  to  be  solved.  Edutopia  has  a   site  sharing  tools,  tips  and  ideas  about  problem-­‐ based  learning  (PBL)   (http://links.edutopia.mkt5094.com/ctt?kn=17&ms= NzE3NDM0OAS2&r=MjcyODg5NjI0MjMS1&b=0&j=O TMyNDg3NjYS1&mt=1&rt=0)     2. Problem  solving  is  “cognitive  p rocessing  directed  at   achieving  a  goal  when  no  solution  method  is  obvious   to  the  p roblem  solver”  (Mayer  &  Wittrock,  2006,  p.  

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287). They  explain  learners  n eed  five  kinds  of   knowledge  to  be  successful  p roblem  solvers:   • Facts:  knowledge  about  characteristics  of   elements  or  events,  such  as  there  are  100  cents   in  a  Canadian  dollar;   •

Concepts: knowledge  of  a  categories,  principles,   or  models,  such  as  knowing  what  place  value   means  in  arithmetic  or  how  hot  air  rises  in   science;  

Strategies: knowledge  of  general  methods,  such   as  how  to  break  a  problem  into  parts  or  how  to   find  a  related  problem;  

Procedures: knowledge  of  specific  procedures,   such  as  how  to  carry  out  long  division  or  how  to   change  words  from  singular  to  plural  form;  and  

Beliefs: cognitions  about  one's  p roblem-­‐solving   competence  (such  as  “I  am  not  good  in  math”)   or  about  the  nature  of  problem  solving  (e.g.,  “If   someone  can't  solve  a  problem  right  away,  the   person  never  will  be  able  to  solve  it”).     3. Scenarios  are  a  form  of  story  or  narrative.  They  can   be  used  to  introduce  learners  to  a  project.  The   purpose  of  a  scenario  is  to  set  a  scene  for  a  project   and  to  create  a  common  starting  point.  A  scenario   can  also  get  the  parameters  for  the  project,  outlining   any  limiting  factor,  special  conditions  and  time  /   context  constraints.  Scenarios  are  creative  ways  of   imagining  a  “different  future”  or  an  alternative  way   of  doing  something.  They  help  the  learners  visualize   the  context  for  the  task  as  they  usually  cover   environmental,  social,  technical,  political  and   economic  concerns.       Why  We  Prefer  Design  Challenge  Scenarios   We  briefly  shared  three  ways  to  craft  a  Design   Challenge.  There  are  many  other  ways,  and  we  are  sure   you  will  find  the  one  that  fits  your  teaching  style  the   best.  We  prefer  casting  our  Design  Challenges  as   scenarios  as  our  Maker  Day  professional  development   activities  are  completed  in  small  groups  of  four   individuals.  A  scenario  supports  a  group  approach.   Typically,  we  try  to  make  groups  heterogeneous  and   attempt  to  make  learning  as  interdisciplinary  as  possible.       Our  scenarios  consist  off  the  following  components:   • Overview  Statement  which  provides  the  background   for  the  challenge  


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• • •

Design Rationale  which  provides  the  authentic   context  for  why  the  challenge  is  important   Problem  Scenario  which  situates  the  challenge   within  the  group  that  has  been  tasked  to  solve  it   Success  Determinants  which  provide  the  criteria  for   how  the  design  solutions  will  be  assessed  /  or  peer   evaluated  during  the  Gallery  Tour     Parameters  or  the  rules  and  limitations  to  which   groups  have  to  follow  or  adhere    

2.2.2.  Design  Thinking  Process  -­‐-­‐  Participant   Worksheet   Once  you  have  organized  your  participants  into  small   groups,  you  can  start  the  Design  Thinking  Activity.  For   tips  on  how  to  organize  your  groups,  see  Section  3.1   Formation  of  Groups.        A  sample  worksheet  is  included  in  Section  5.2.  If  your   budget  allows,  please  p rint  one  copy  of  this  worksheet   for  each  participant.  The  worksheet  is  to  be  printed   double  sided  on  A3  paper.  If  you  do  not  have  access  to  a   photocopier  or  cannot  afford  to  make  copies,   participants  can  make  their  own  version  of  the   worksheet  using  blank  A3  paper.     Section  5.1.  provides  a  facilitator’s  guide  to  help  you   time  the  steps  of  the  process  and  provide  instruction  to   the  participants.  Please  review  the  guide  before  you   facilitate  your  workshop,   Sample  Description     Title:       Curricular  Competence:       Description  of  Sample:       Description  of  Use  in  Classroom:       Steps  to  Make  this  Sample:       Suggested  Assessment:  

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2.2.3.  Design  Thinking  Process  -­‐-­‐  Facilitator  Guide   Design  Thinking  is  a  facilitated,  timed  process.  It  requires   workshop  participants  to  work  in  small  groups  to   consider  solutions  for  a  Design  challenge  (Section  2.5.2).   The  design  thinking  process  was  developed  at  Stanford   University  near  Silicon  Valley  –  the  heart  of  innovative   design  and  computer  development.     Prior  to  starting  the  Design  Thinking  activity,  you  may   want  to  introduce  simple  sketching  tips  to  your   participants  (Section  3.2).  Many  adults  are  reluctant  to   draw,  so  this  is  a  good  time  to  help  them  remember  the   fun  they  had  as  children  drawing  their  world.  Also,   because  participants  are  going  to  make  prototypes   (scaled  models  actual  objects)  sketches  are  more  helpful   than  abstract  concepts  expressed  only  in  words.     Tell  participants  of  all  the  parts  of  the  process  so  you   don’t  take  shortcuts:   • Design  challenge   • Design  Thinking  process   • Sample  Description     • Gallery  Tour   • Reflection     Make  sure  you  have  read  through  the  following   instructions  before  you  facilitate  your  first  workshop.   You  will  need  to  have  a  timing  device  with  you  (a  mobile   phone  works  well,  especially  if  it  has  a  digital  timer).     2.2.4.  Sample  Description   The  Sample  Description  sheet  provides  reflection  for  the   participants.  Reflection  is  an  important  aspect  of   professional  learning  and  growth.  Educators  need   opportunities  to  learn  to  be  a  reflective  practitioner  –   someone  who  thinks  about  what  they  have  done  and   attempts  to  align  their  actions  to  specific  outcomes  or   competencies.       The  Sample  Description  activity  invites  workshop   participants  to  consider  the  Design  challenge  they  were   given  and  then  reflect  on  their  Design  Thinking  and   Making  activities.  It  is  also  a  tool  for  sharing  quality   resource  ideas.  The  Teacher  Resource  Centre  (TRC)   coordinator  who  is  hosting  the  workshop  may  want  to   collect  the  Sample  Descriptions  and  create  a  resource   bank  of  excellent  ideas  and  examples  for  teachers   visiting  the  TRC  to  use.  


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2.2.5. Gallery  Tour     The  Gallery  Tour  is  a  way  of  celebrating  the  act  of  Design   and  M aking.  The  Gallery  Tour  lets  all  participants  see   how  amazing  the  creative  process  can  be.  Participants   have  the  opportunity  to  see  what  different  the  solutions   are,  remembering  everyone  started  with  the  same   Design  challenge,  Design  Process,  and  access  to  the   same  materials  and  tools.     A  Gallery  Tour  is  a  form  of  professional  growth  and   reflection.  Participants  should  be  encouraged  to  ask   good,  hard,  respectful  questions  and  offer  suggestions.       Typically  in  a  Gallery  Tour,  one  member  from  each  group   stays  with  the  group’s  prototype,  answering  questions   and  offering  explanations  of  the  problem  and  the   process.  Group  members  are  encourage  to  trade  off   staying  with  the  group’s  display,  so  all  group  members   get  to  see  every  group’s  prototype.   2.2.6.  Reflection   Reflection  is  an  essential  element  of  professional   growth.  Time  must  be  given  to  participants  to  think   about  their  learning  and  h ow  it  might  inform  their   practice.       Participant  reflections  are  also  important  for  the  

workshop facilitator  as  they  offer  insights  into   participant  learning,  workshop  challenges,  important   next  steps  in  the  group’s  learning,  and  suggestions  for   future  workshops.  While  the  participants  are  completing  

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their reflections  on  #8  of  the  Design  Thinking  Participant   Worksheet,  you  might  want  to  spend  some  time   reflecting  on  the  workshop  and  planning  changes.     2.3.  Evaluation  of  a  Professional  Learning  Workshop     Participant  feedback  is  essential  so  you  learn  from  your   facilitation  experiences  and  make  any  necessary   adjustments  for  your  next  workshop.  Workshop   evaluations  may  be  required  from  funders  or  donors  if   you  have  received  support  for  your  workshop.     Participants  do  not  need  a  special  form  for  evaluation;   you  can  post  evaluation  questions  around  the  room  and   give  participants  a  piece  of  paper.  It  is  up  to  you  and  the   group  to  decide  if  you  want  participants  to  include  their   names  on  the  Evaluation.     Sample  Workshop  Evaluation  questions  might  include:   • Please  reflect  on  your  personal  learning.  Summarize   your  experience  during  workshop  and  tell  us  what   are  the  main  ideas  you  are  taking  back  to  your   schools  from  this  workshop?   • How  will  you  use  your  learning  from  this  workshop?   • Please  suggest  ways  in  which  we  could  make  this   workshop  better   • What  further  support  will  you  require  to  Take   Making  Into  Your  School?     References   Alberta  Learning.  (2004).  Focus  on  inquiry:  a  teacher’s   guide  to  implementing  inquiry-­‐based  learning.   Edmonton,  AB:  Learning  Resource  Centre.  Retrieved   from   http://education.alberta.ca/media/313361/focusoninqui ry.pdf       Edutopia.  (2013).  Problem  based  learning  (2013).   Retrieved  from   http://links.edutopia.mkt5094.com/ctt?kn=17&ms=NzE 3NDM0OAS2&r=MjcyODg5NjI0MjMS1&b=0&j=OTMyND g3NjYS1&mt=1&rt=0     Mayer,  R.  E.,  &  Wittrock,  R.  C.  (2006).  Problem  solving.   In  P.  A.  Alexander  &  P.  H.  Winne  (Eds.),  Handbook  of   Educational  Psychology  (2nd  ed.,  pp.  287–304).   Mahwah,  NJ:  Erlbaum.  


Taking   Making  into  Schools  

Agenda  Topic   1. Welcome   • Introduction  of   guests  &  hosts     • Registration   • Climate  setting  

Suggested   Time   10  minutes  

2. Introduction to   Making  Movement  

10 minutes  

3. Connecting Making   to  Changes  in   Teaching  and   Learning  

15 minutes  

21       Toolkit  Reference  for  Suggested     Pre-­‐reading  for  Facilitators   Materials  Needed   Section  1.9.  Professional  Learning  –   Registration  sheets   Making  a  Case  for  Immersive,   Recursive  Experiences       Section  3.4.  Suggested  Makerspace   Components   Section  1.2.  The  Maker  Movement  –   Chart  paper  &  pens   A  Global  Perspective       Paper  &  p encils  for  participants  

Section 1.3.  The  Maker  Movement  –   A  Contextual  Perspective,  Especially   In  Challenging  Contexts       Section  1.5.1.  Making  and  Active   Learning   5  –  10  minutes   Section  3.1.  Formation  of  Groups  

Chart paper  &  pens     Paper  &  p encils  for  participants  

5. Introduction to   Design  Thinking   6. Design  Thinking   Activity  

10 minutes  

Section 1.9.  Design  Thinking  

Paper &  p encils  for  participants  

60 minutes  

Section 2.2.1.  Design  Challenge     Section  5.2.  Design  Thinking  Process   -­‐  Participant  Worksheet     Section  5.1.  Design  Thinking  Process   -­‐  Facilitator  Guide  

Timing device  (mobile  phone)     Copies  of  Section  2.2.1  per  table     Copies  of  Section  2.2.2  per   participant     Copy  of  Section  2.2.3  per  facilitator  

7. Making Activity  

120 minutes  

Participants’ Design  Thinking   Worksheet   Paper  &  p encils  for  participants    

4. Forming Groups  

8. Gallery Tour    

20 minutes  

Section 3.3.  Tips  for  Making  Sample   Resources     Section  2.2.4.  Sample  Description     Section  3.4.  Suggested  M akerspace   Components   Section  2.2.5.  Gallery  Tour    

9. Reflection

15 minutes  

Section 2.2.6.  Reflection  

10. Conclusion • Debrief  of  the   day   • Clean  up  &  tool   collection   • Discussion  of   next  steps  

15 minutes  

Section 2.3.  Evaluation  of  a   Professional  Learning  Workshop  

Small slips  of  paper  &  pencils  

• •

Copies of  Section  2.2.4  per   participant   Makerspace   Consumable  materials  

• •

Completed prototypes   Completed  Sample  Descriptions  


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3. Tips  and  Suggestions  for  Facilitating  Your  Workshop   Over  the  years  we  h ave  learned  some  tips  that  might   help  you  facilitate  your  workshop.  One  thing  we  h ave   learned  through  our  Taking  Making  Into  Schools   workshops  is  that  careful  planning  is  essential.  The   following  tips  are  offered  as  suggestions  only  as  each   group  and  location  will  be  different.     3.1.  Formation  of  Groups   This  workshop  is  designed  to  support  active  learning  in   small  groups.  As  participants  arrive,  they  can  sit  in  table   groups  of  four  anywhere  in  the  room.  Just  before  the   Design  Thinking  activity  start,  the  facilitator  should  poll   the  group  to  see  which  subject  areas  are  represented.   Initial  groupings  should  be  by  subject  area  rather  than   school  or  grade  level.  Try  to  make  the  groups  as   heterogeneous  much  as  possible  (e.g.  gender,  age,  years   of  teaching,  etc.).  Unless  problems  surface,  we  suggest   keeping  the  groups  together  throughout  the  workshop.     3.2.  Simple  Sketching  Tips   Many  adults  are  reluctant  to  d raw.  Some  never  learned   tips  and  tricks  to  making  simple  sketches.  Not  only  is  it   important  for  teachers  to  encourage  their  students  to   draw,  it  is  important  that  they  model  and  teach  many  of   these  tips  for  their  students  to  encourage  creativity  and   visual  thinking.  When  we  draw,  we  use  another  p art  of   our  brain  and  this  allows  us  to  think  more  fully  and  come   of  up  divergent  and  innovative  ideas.     Drawings  can  be  very  simple.  They  merely  need  to   suggest  shapes  and  ideas  …  our  eyes  will  fill  in  the   missing  details  and  parts.       Drawing  p eople  and  showing  actions  that  they  might  be   doing  can  be  a  tad  trickier.  However,  there  are  a  few   basic  tips  you  might  consider.       Tip  #1  -­‐  recognize  that  the  h uman  body  is  proportional.   We  use  the  ratio  of  1:  8  for  adults  and  1:5  for  children.   This  means  that  the  size  of  a  person’s  body  and  legs  is   equal  to  approximately  7  of  their  heads!   (http://www.drawinghowtodraw.com/drawing-­‐ lessons/drawing-­‐faces-­‐lessons/proportions-­‐human-­‐ figures-­‐bodies.html    

Tip  #1:  Recognize  the  human  b ody  is  proportional  

Tip #2  –  in  the  examples  b elow,  notice  several  features:   • All  the  drawings  start  with  a  simple  rectangle.  The   rectangle  can  be  narrow  to  indicate  thin  p eople  or   wider  to  indicate  thicker  people.   • Arms  must  be  attached  to  the  top  of  the  rectangle;   legs  to  the  bottom.  The  top  and  bottom  corners  of   the  rectangle  form  the  shoulder  and  hip  joints.   • Arms  need  to  bend  slightly  at  the  elbows  or  bend   more  radically  at  the  elbow  to  indicate  action.   • Legs  need  to  bend  slightly  at  the  knees  or  bend   more  radically  to  indicate  running  or  jumping  or   other  movements.   • After  the  figures  are  proportionately  drawn  using   the  steps  above,  you  can  dress  them  or  add  details   like  hats  or  things  the  figures  might  be  holding  or   throwing.  


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Add the  nose  to  indicate  which  way  your  figure  is   looking.  

Tip #2:  Adding  features  

Drawing can  be  very  simple  

23 3.3.  Tips  for  Making  Sample  Resources   Many  teachers  struggle  to  make  resources  that  ensure   active  learning.  When  we  introduce  the  making  process   into  our  classrooms,  we  want  to  develop  resources   together  with  our  students  that  encourage  creativity,   active  engagement,  and  evidence  based  demonstrations   of  learning.     Section  4  offers  Sample  Descriptions  of  resources   developed  in  previous  workshops.       Resources  for  active  learning  could  be   • Math  manipulatives  to  aid  in  counting   • Puppets  to  encourage  d ialogue     • Masks  to  foster  language  acquisition   • Letter  blocks  to  encourage  letter  recognition  and   spelling  


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• • • • • •

Counting blocks  to  encourage  numeracy   Building  blocks  to  foster  spatial  literacy   Tangrams  for  spatial  knowledge  and  shapes   Insect  habitats  for  observations   Globes  for  geography   And  many,  many  more  ideas  

3.4. Suggestions  for  Makerspace  Components  -­‐-­‐  Tools   and  Materials  Required  for  your  Workshop     Hand  tools   • small  drywall  saw   • 3  pairs  of  pliers  with  wire  cutters  included   • 2  small  clamps   • protractor   • 10  small  steel  rulers  (12”)   • 10  utility  knives  with  replaceable  blades   • 1  pair  of  scissor     Consumable  Items   • tie  wire   • tongue  d epressors   • bamboo  skewers   • Velcro  if  available   • Glue  sticks  

24 • Liquid  glue   • Flour  for  papier  mache   • 3  liter  plastic  bowl  for  papier  mache   • small  sticks  /  wood  scraps   • cardboard   • newspaper   • plastic  bottles  of  various  sizes   • bottle  caps   • recycled  Styrofoam   • found  objects  that  can  be  used     • chart  and  manila  paper     • masking  tape   • brad  fasteners     Workshop  materials  (see  Section  5.  Appendices)   • Photocopy  Design  Thinking  worksheet  for   participants   • A3  paper  for  participants   • Chart  paper   • Felt  pens   • Pencils  for  participants   • Pencil  sharpeners  


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4. Sample  Descriptions  –  Resources  from  Previous  Workshops   4.1.  Three  Dimensional  (3D)  Globes       Title:    Making  a  3d  Globe   (http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/ProjPoly/Foldout/Dodecahedron/Files/Res3/gnDod-­‐s500_pof-­‐ bw.pdf)         Curricular  Competence  in  Tanzania  Schools:   Social  Studies  Goals:   • Appreciate  the  interdependence  between  human  being  and  the  environment   • Consolidate  the  spirit  of  national  unit  and  cooperation  between  Tanzanian  societies  and  those  of  other  parts  of  the   world   • Be  able  to  identify  and  relate  events  in  Tanzania  and  those  taking  place  in  other  nations     Standard  Three   • Our  School  –  Pictures  and  maps;  Main  cardinal  points;  4  points  of  the  compass   Standard  Four   • Our  District  –  Map  reading  skills;  Relief,  climate  and  vegetation;  Physical  feature,  climate  conditions  and  vegetation;   natural  resources   Standard  Five   • Map  reading  skills;  8  points  of  the  compass;  Map  symbols;  Locate  Tanzania;  Physical  features;  Climate;  Vegetation;   Agents  of  colonialisms;  Our  economy;  Tourism;  Trade   Standard  Six   • Map  reading  skills;  The  Earth;  Location  and  p hysical  features  of  East  Africa;  Climate;  Commerce  and  Trade;  Location   of  Southern  African  countries;  Colonial  invasion;  African  continent;  Refugees  in  Africa;  Africa  and  International   Organizations   Standard  Seven   • Our  world  –  physical  features;  Climate;  Communications  and  transport     Description  of  Sample:   A  map  of  the  world  with  political  boundaries  outlined  and  labeled.  The  map  can  be  cut  and  glued  to  form  a  3   dimensional,  dodecahedron  (12  sided  http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Dodecahedron.html)  globe  with  a  gnomonic   projection  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnomonic_projection).  A  gnomonic  projection  is  the  oldest  map  shape.     Suggestions  for  Use  in  the  Classroom:   • To  understand  Tanzanian’s  p lace  in  the  world   • To  understand  the  Earth  is  round   • To  show  relationships  b etween  n orthern  and  southern  hemispheres   • To  show  trade  routes  and  distances  –  regionally,  nationally,  continentally,  globally   • To  visualize  abstract  ideas  (boundaries,  compass  points,  latitude,  longitude,  etc.)   • To  compare  flat  maps  to  3d  globes  –  what  is  lost  and  gained  in  b oth  formats?   • Talk  about  different  map  projections  and  orientations.  Generate  questions  (e.g.  why  is  north  usually  at  the  top  of   most  maps  when  Tanzania  and  many  other  countries  are  in  the  southern  hemisphere?    


2

Taking   Making  into  Schools   Steps  To  Make  This  Sample   • Download  the  map   (http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/ProjPoly/Foldout/Dodecahedron/Files/Res3/gnDod-­‐s500_pof-­‐ bw.pdf)  or  copy  the  map  provided  on  page  28.   • Depending  on  your  intended  use,  make  a  copy  of  the  map  for  each  student.  Suggested  size  =  A3  paper   • Use  a  pencil  to  d arken  the  lines  on  the  printed  copy   • Use  coloured  pencils  or  watercolours  to  illustrate  specific  regions,  countries,  or  whatever  subject  for  which  you  are   using  the  map     • Cut  the  map  carefully.  Make  sure  you  do  not  cut  off  the  tabs  that  will  be  used  later  to  glue  the  globe  together   • Carefully  fold  the  map,  forming  the  12-­‐sided  globe   • Glue  the  globe  partially  together  and  gently  begin  to  stuff  it  with  d iscarded  paper  scraps.  This  will  add  weight  and   substance  to  the  finished  globe.   • Finish  gluing  the  globe.       Suggestions  for  Assessment     Standard  Three   • Locate  Tanzania  on  the  map  and  then  on  the  globe   • Locate  main  cardinal  points  and  4  points  of  the  compass  on  the  map  and  globe     Standard  Four   • Locate  places  on  the  map  and  globe   • Identify  d ifferent  climate  zones  and  vegetation  regions  on  the  map  and  globe   • Locate  significant  physical  feature  (e.g.  Zanzibar,  Mt  Kilimanjaro,  Dodoma)   • Identify  most  likely  location  of  various  natural  resources     Standard  Five   • Find  various  locations  on  the  map  and  globe   • Locate  8  points  of  the  compass   • Use  various  map  symbols  to  locate  places  on  the  map  and  globe     • Locate  Tanzania  and  its  prominent  physical  features   • Explain  how  location  impacts  climate   • Show  the  original  location  of  colonialist  and  map  how  they  came  to  East  Africa   • Agents  of  colonialisms   • Explain  how  location  impacts  our  economy   • Identify  areas  for  tourism   • Explain  how  location  impacts  trade     Standard  Six   • Find  various  locations  on  the  map  and  globe   • Locate  physical  features  of  East  Africa   • Explain  impact  of  location  on  climate   • Explain  impact  of  location  on  commerce  and  trade   • Locate  Southern  African  countries   • Demonstrate  routes  for  colonial  invasion  –  indicating  original  locations  and  the  colonies   • Locate  the  African  continent   • Demonstrate  the  original  location  of  refugees  and  indicate  their  pathways  in  Africa   • Explain  the  impact  of  location  on  Africa’s  relationships  and  involvement  with  international  Organizations  

   

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Standard  Seven   • Find  various  locations  on  the  map  and  globe   • Explain  impact  of  location  on  climate   • Explain  the  impact  of  location  on  communications  and  transport  (e.g.  Eastern  Africa  Submarine  Cable  System   (EASSy)  is  an  undersea  fibre  optic  cable  system  connecting  countries  in  Eastern  Africa  to  the  rest  of  the  world   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EASSy)                                                                                      

The map   can  be  coloured,  cut  and  glued   to   form   a  three dimensional  (3D),   dodecahedron  (12  sided)  globe.  


Taking   Making  into  Schools  

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Taking   Making  into  Schools   4.2.  Tangrams     Title:  Tangrams  and  Geometric  Shapes   http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/tangrams       Curricular  Competence  in  Tanzanian  Schools:   • Spatial  knowledge  of  shapes  and  sizes   • Identifying  and  solving  by  measuring  and  constructing   • Identification  of  rectangles  and  squares     Description  of  Sample:   Tangrams  are  a  square  that  h as  been  cut  into  7  pieces.  The  challenge  is  u sing  the  7  pieces  to  reform  the  square  and   other  more  complicated  shapes.     Suggestions  for  Use  in  the  Classroom:   • Introduce  tangrams  to  the  class  as  a  way  to  u nderstand  geometric  shapes     • Have  learners  make  their  own  Tangram  sets  using  cardboard  or  flat  plastic  they  can  easily  cut   • Provide  different  Tangram  shapes  for  the  learners  to  work  out   • Remind  learners  they  have  to  ALWAYS  use  the  7  pieces   • Use  Tangrams  as  a  play  activity  to  encourage  active  learning   • Use  Tangrams  as  a  puzzle  for  problem  solving     Steps  To  Make  This  Sample   • Print  copies  of  the  Tangram  shape   • Have  the  learners  cut  the  shapes  out       Suggestions  for  Assessment     • Informal  assessment  –  observe  learners’  problem  solving  approaches   • Formative  assessment  –  ask  learners  to  make  basic  shapes  and  record  the  number  of  steps  they  take  to  complete   the  tasks.  Increase  the  complexity  of  the  shapes     Tangram  Pattern     NOTE:  before  photocopying  for  the  learners,  enlarge  this  square  to  the  size  you  want  but  make    sure,  it  remains  a   square.     NOTE:  Tangrams  can  be  made  using  paper,  cardboard,  plastic,  wood  or  any  other  flat,  sturdy  material.    

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Taking   Making  into  Schools   4.3.  Duck     Title:  Duck     Curricular  Competence:     English     Standard  1  and  2   1.  Make  statements,  ask  and  answer  simple  questions  about  the  immediate  environment  (home  and  school   o Identifying  and  naming  things   o Describing  things   o Identifying  parts  of  the  body   Standard  3  and  4   1.  Understand  and  use  frequently  used  expressions  in  the  family,  school  and  local  environment  settings  and  situations   2.  Communicate  in  simple  routine  tasks  requiring  simple  exchange  of  information  using  all  the  four  language  skills   o Expressing  similarity   o Expressing  location   o Expressing  quality  in  terms  of  size     Kiswahili     Standard  1  and  2   1.  Understand  and  use  simple  sentences  for  everyday   communicative  needs   2.  To  communicate  simply  about  issues  in  the  immediate   environment   o Identifying  and  naming  things  in  the  immediate   environment   o Identifying  different  colors   o Describing  things  in  terms  of  quality   Standard  3  and  4   1.  Listening  and  speaking  to  meet  one’s  needs     2.  Communicating  effectively  in  Kiswahili  about  everyday   issues  in  different  contexts     Science   Standard  1  and  2   1.  Appreciating  and  using  scientific  principles  and  technology     in  everyday  life   o Naming,  listing,  explain  characteristics  of  living   things,  draw  and  make  models  of  living  things   o Identifying    and  imitating  sounds  of  various  animals   o Mentioning    sources  of  food   o Describing  the  habitat  of  different  animals     Standard  3  and  4   o Explaining  the  natural  habitat  of  living  things   o Explaining  locomotion  among  living  things      

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Mathematics Standard  1  and  2   1. Recognizing  numbers   2. Counting     3. Writing  number  1,  2     Description  of  Sample:   A  model  of  a  duck  made  from  old  socks,  pieces  of  fabric  or  sponge,  sticks,  card  box,  buttons,  paper,  glue  and  thread.  The   model  is  painted  black/grey  and  white  to  make  it  look  like  a  real  duck.  Ducks  are  one  of  the  domestic  animals  kept  in   central  Tanzania  and  are  easily  recognizable  by  children  from  this  context.  They  are  also  non-­‐taboo  animals  –  hence  the   children  can  freely  touch  and  talk  about  the  duck.     Suggestions  for  Use  in  the  Classroom:     • To  generate  communication  about  things  in  the  environment   • To  provide  a  basis  for  discussion  on  personal  preferences       • To  generate  discussion  on  characteristics  of  living  things  and  parts  of  their  bodies   • To  prompt  learners  to  identify,  name,  classify  things  in  their  immediate  environment   • To  teach  simple  numbers  1  and  2   • To  generate  discussion  on  sounds  made  by  different  animals     • To  generate  discussion  on  uses  of  various  d omestic  animals   • To  count  up  to  4   • To  relate  the  shape  of  the  duck  with  number  2     Steps  To  Make  This  Sample     The  materials  needed  to  make  this  model  can  be  sourced  from  cast  offs  and  recycled  materials.     • First  collect  all  the  materials  needed   • Cut  up  the  pieces  of  cloth  and  sponge   • Stuff  the  cut  up  pieces  in  the  sock  –  shaping  it  accordingly.     • Use  straps  of  clothe  to  shape  narrow  and  wide  sections  of  the  body  of  the  duck     • Make  two  holes  in  the  bottom  part  of  the  body     • Use  card  box  to  make  wings-­‐  insert  these  into  the  sides  of  the  body   • Use  two  pieces  of  wood  to  make  the  beak  and  use  a  knife  to  shape  it  appropriately   • Take  two  sticks  and  attach  card  box  shaped  like    the  webbed  feet  of  a  duck   • Insert  the  two  sticks  in  the  two  holes   • Attach  the  beak  to  the  head   • Attach  two  buttons  for  the  eyes   • Glue  up  the  attachments   • Paint  the  model  with  appropriate  colors  (white,  black  or  grey)     Suggestions  for  Assessment     • Make  statements  about  the  model   • State  the  color  of  the  model   • Identify/  name/describe  the  model   • State  the  h abitat  of  the  model   • Name  and  identify  (by  touching  or  p ointing)  the  different  parts  of  the  body  of  the  model   • Count  the  number  of  legs,  eyes  on  the  model  

 


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• • • • •

Explain the  uses  of  the  animal   Explain  what  the  animal  feeds  on   Explain  the  similarities  and  differences  between  the  modeled  animal  and  other  animals  in  your  environment   Draw  a  picture  of  a  duck   Make  your  own  simple  model  of  a  duck  

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Taking   Making  into  Schools     4.4.  House   Title:  House   Curricular  Competence:   English     Standard  1  and  2   1. Make  statements,  ask  and  answer  simple  questions  about  the  immediate  environment  (home  and  school   2. Take  part  in  a  simple  conversation   o Identifying  and  naming  things   o Describing  things   o Counting   o Grouping  things  with  similar  characteristics  e.g.  shape  or  color     Standard  3,  4  and  5   1.  Understand  and  use  frequently  used  expressions  in  the  family,  school  and  local  environment  settings  and  situations   2.  Communicate  in  simple  routine  tasks  requiring  simple  exchange  of  information  using  all  the  four  language  skills   o Expressing  similarity   o Expressing  location   o Expressing  q uality  in  terms  of  size   o Counting   Standard  5   1. Understand  information  communicated  by  others  in  their  immediate  environment   2. Communicate  accurately  and  appropriately  with  other  people  in  her/his  immediate  environment  using  simple   expressions  in  all  the  four  language  skills   Asking  for  and  giving  reasons   Expressing  comparison   Using  adjectives  of  appearance   Kiswahili   Standard  1  and  2   1.  Understand  and  use  simple  sentences  for  everyday  communicative  n eeds   2.  To  communicate  simply  about  issues  in  the  immediate   environment   o Identifying  and  naming  things  in  the  immediate   environment   o Identifying  different  colors   o Describing  things  in  terms  of  quality   o Counting  things   o Distinguishing  singular  and  plural     Standard  3  and  4   1.  Listening  and  speaking  to  meet  one’s  needs     2.  Communicating  effectively  in  Kiswahili  about  everyday   issues  in  different  contexts   o Describing  things  in  terms  of  size   o Comparing  and  contrasting  things   o Differentiating  things   Taking  Resources  (House)  into  Classroom   Science   Standard  1  and  2   1.  Appreciating  and  using  scientific  principles  and  technology  in  everyday  life  

   

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Naming, listing,  explain  characteristics  of  things,  draw  and  make  models  of  things   Describing  the  habitat  of  people   Keeping  the  environment  clean  and  safe  

Standard  3  and  4   o Explaining  the  natural  habitat  of  living  things   o Keeping  the  environment  clean  and  safe     Mathematics   Standard  1  and  2   1. Recognizing  numbers   2. Counting     3. Writing  numbers   4. Recognizing,  p lane  figures  quadrilaterals,  triangles,  circles     Standard  3  and  4   o Drawing  and  cutting  plane  figures  quadrilaterals,  triangles,  circles   o Measuring  length  of  figures  and  objects   o Explaining  properties  of  rectangles,  squares  and  triangles   o Finding  perimeter  and  area  of  squares  and  rectangles   o Recognizing  types  of  angles  –  acute,  right       Vocational  Skills     Standard  1-­‐4   o Understanding  and  applying  skills  of  pictorial  art,  decoration  and  modeling   o Drawing  shapes  and  things  using  templates   o Matching  shapes  and  templates   o Modeling  with  clay   o Decorating  models     o Drawing  p ictures  of  real  objects   o Painting  using  water  colors   History   1. Understanding  families   2. Understanding  progress  made  in  their  communities   o Basic  needs  of  the  family   o Activities  and  d uties  in  the  family  and  community   o Understanding  customs,  norms  and  traditions  related  to  housing     Geography   o Recognizing  actions  that  affect  the  environment,  their  effects  and  take  appropriate  measures  for  conserving  and   protecting  it   o Understanding  the  interdependence  between  human  beings  and  the  environment,  and  applying  the  knowledge   for  social  and  economic  development   o Describing  the  environment   o Identifying  objects  at  home  and  school  environments     Description  of  Sample:   A  model  of  a  house  made  from  recycled  card  b ox,  sticks,  reeds,  ash,  paint  and  glue.  The  model  is  representative  of   current  types  of  houses  found  in  the  context  (rural  Tanzania).  It  is  also  representative  of  what  is  considered  modern  


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   housing  especially  in  rural  areas  where  some  traditional  types  of  housing  like  the  manyatta  (made  from  clay,  cow  dung   and  sticks)  or  round  mud  houses  may  still  be  seen.       Suggestions  for  Use  in  the  Classroom:   • To  develop  vocabulary  in  both  English  and  Kiswahili   • To  practice  counting   • To  practice  recognition  of  shapes   • To  practice  recognition  of  colors   • To  practice  measurement  of  length,  width,  perimeter  and  area   • To  generate  discussion  on  the  environment,  conservation  and  care   • To  generate  discussion  on  habitats   • To  generate  discussion  on  development     • To  generate  discussion  on  modeling   • To  practice  the  use  of  descriptive  words   • To  generate  discussion  on  interdependence  of  human  beings  and  the  other  things  in  the  environment     Steps  To  Make  This  Sample   Some  of  the  materials  needed  to  make  this  model  can  be  sourced  from  the  environment  at  no  cost  or  low  cost  for   instance,  recycled  card  box,  sticks,  reeds  and  ash.  Paint  and  glue  may  be  purchased.     • First  collect  all  the  materials  needed.   • Draw  a  sketch  of  the  intended  model  (to  take  care  of  the  detail  required).   • Cut  out  rectangular  pieces  of  card  box  for  the  front  and  back  parts  of  the  house   • On  these  pieces,  d raw  the  designated  positions  of  windows  and  d oors   • Cut  three  sides  of  the  outlined  windows  and  d oors,  leaving  the  side  that  would  be  connected  to  the  ‘wall’  so  that  the   ‘doors’  and  ‘windows’  can  be  ‘opened’  and  ‘closed’.  This  is  helpful  as  it  provides  opportunities  for  more  activities   and  learning  of  vocabulary.   • Using  the  reeds,  make  a  skeletal  frame  of  the  house.   • Cut  out  another  piece  of  card  box  for  the  roof.   • Peel  off  the  paper  on  one  side  to  have  a  corrugated  surface   • Use  glue  and  sticks  to  attach  the  card  box  pieces  on  the  frame   • Mix  some  ash  with  water  and  paint  the  house  model-­‐  this  hardens  the  card  box  and  also  preserves  it  from  termites   • Let  the  model  dry     • Choose  the  paint  for  the  house  and  paint  the  model   • Cut  a  piece  of  the  card  box  to  act  as  the  base  (and  floor)  of  the  house.     • Paint  this  with  ash  as  well  and  let  it  dry   • Attach  the  base  to  the  rest  of  the  model     Suggestions  for  Assessment     • Make  statements  about  the  model   • State  the  colors  on  the  model   • Identify/  name/describe  the  model   • Name  and  identify  (by  touching  or  p ointing)  the  different  parts  of  the  model   • Count  the  number  of  windows,  sides,  angles,  shapes,  etc.  on  the  model   • Explain  the  uses  of  the  house   • Explain  what  real  houses  are  made  of   • Explain  the  similarities  and  differences  between  the  modeled  house  and  other  houses  in  your  environment   • Draw  a  picture  of  a  house   • Make  your  own  simple  model  of  a  house  


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4.5. Letter  Blocks     Title:  Letter  blocks     Curricular  Competence:   English       Standard  1  and  2   o Identifying  and  naming  things  in  the  immediate  environment   o Describing  things   o Counting   o Identifying  letters  of  the  English  alphabet   o Distinguishing  capital  and  small  letters   o Using  letters  of  the  alphabet  to  spell  and  write  short  words     Standard  3,  4  and  5   1. Understand  and  use  frequently  used  expressions  in  the  family,  school  and  local  environment  settings  and   situations   2. Communicate  in  simple  routine  tasks  requiring  simple  exchange  of  information  using  all  the  four  language  skills   o Spelling,  reading  and  writing  short  words  and  sentences     o Expressing  location   o Expressing  q uality  in  terms  of  size   o Counting     Kiswahili     Standard  1  and  2     1.  Understand  and  use  simple  sentences  for  everyday   communicative  needs   2.  To  communicate  simply  about  issues  in  the  immediate   environment     o Identifying  letters  of  the  alphabet   o Distinguishing  capital  and  small  letters   o Forming,  reading  and  writing  syllables  and  short   words  and  sentences     o Identifying  and  naming  things  in  the  immediate   environment   o Identifying  different  colors   o Describing  things  in  terms  of  quality   Letter  Blocks  made  from  recycled  water  bottles   o Reading       Standard  3  and  4   1.  Listening  and  speaking  to  meet  one’s  needs       2.  Communicating  effectively  in  Kiswahili  about  everyday  issues  in  d ifferent  contexts     o Describing  things  in  terms  of  size  


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Comparing and  contrasting  things   Differentiating  things   Reading  verse   Reading  for  comprehension  and  pleasure   Writing  brief  accounts  of  happenings   Mathematics  (letter  blocks  could  b e  replaced  with  number  blocks)  

Standard  1  and  2   1.  Recognizing  and  reading  numbers   2.  Reading  n umber  n ames   3.  Counting     4.  Writing  numbers   5.  Arranging  numbers       Description  of  Sample:     Letter  blocks  (can  also  be  number  blocks)  are  made  from  recycled  plastic  water  bottles  and  strips  of  paper  on  which  the   letter  or  number  is  written.  The  use  of  recycled  plastic  bottles  for  challenging  contexts  h as  the  double  benefit  of  keeping   the  environment  clean  and  reducing  the  cost  of  producing  instructional  material  that  is  low  cost  or  cost  free  but  fairly   durable.  It  is  important  that  the  bottle  is  transparent  (colorless)  or  a  light  enough  hue  so  that  the  letters  are  easily  seen.   Additionally,  any  decorations  should  not  interfere  with  the  visibility  of  what  is  to  be  read.       Suggestions  for  Use  in  the  Classroom:     • To  develop  learners  ability  to  recognize  letters   • To  develop  the  ability  to  distinguish  capital  and   small  letters   • To  develop  learners  ability  to  read  letters,  words   and  sentences   • To  develop  vocabulary  in  both  English  and  Kiswahili   • To  practice  spelling,  word  formation  and  sentence   construction   • To  learn  through  play  e.g.  engaging  word  search,   spelling  competitions,  simple  crosswords   • To  practice  recognition  of  colors  –  the  papers  or   letters  can  have  different  colors  for  this  purpose   To  practice  the  use  of  descriptive  words  

Blocks may  include  letters,  numbers,  syllables,  or  words  

• Steps  To  Make  This  Sample     Some  of  the  materials  needed  to  make  this  model  can  be  sourced  from  the  environment  at  no  cost  or  low  cost  for   instance,  recycled  plastic  water  bottles.  Pen  and  paper  may  be  purchased  as  well  as  a  knife  for  cutting  the  blocks.       • First  collect  all  the  materials  needed  –  one  may  enlist  the  help  of  the  learners  in  collecting  empty  plastic  water   bottles   • Cut  bottom  parts  of  the  bottles  (about  6cm  or  2.5in)     • Ensure  the  cutting  is  smoothly  done  –  avoid  sharp  jagged  edges   • Cut  strips  of  plain  paper  or  manila  paper  (about  4cm  by  4cm)  

 


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Write letters  of  the  alphabet  on  the  strips  of  paper.  One  letter  or  number  per  block.   Have  multiple  letters  especially  of  vowels  and  popularly  used  consonants  (for  making  words,  multiple  letters  are   needed)   • Insert  the  strips  of  paper  in  one  cut  off  part  of  the  b ottle   • Cover  the  piece  with  another  cut  off  piece  making  a  block  with  the  strip  of  paper  inside     Suggestions  for  Assessment       • Identify  letters  by  picking  the  specific  letter  from  the  pile   • State  the  n ame  of  the  letter  displayed   • Form  simple  words  by  arranging  blocks  of  letters   • Form  syllables  by  arranging  blocks  of  letters   • Form  simple  sentences,  rhymes  and  poems     • Match  capital  and  respective  small  letters   • Complete  simple  crosswords  using  blocks   • Make  words  starting  with  the  same  letter   • Read  letters,  syllables,  words  and  sentences  displayed  on  the  sets  of  blocks   • State/  identify  the  color  of  the  different  letters  presented   • Copy  letters,  words  from  the  blocks   In  groups  build  word  banks  from  the  blocks  of  letters  according  to  guidelines  e.g.  words  starting  or  ending  in  a  specific   letter;  words  associated  with  an  object(s)   • •


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5. Appendices   5.1.  Design  Thinking  Process  -­‐-­‐  Facilitator  Guide   Design  Thinking  is  a  facilitated,  timed  process.  It   requires  workshop  participants  to  work  in  small  groups   to  consider  solutions  for  a  Design  challenge  (Section   2.5.2).  The  design  thinking  process  was  developed  at   Stanford  University  near  Silicon  Valley  –  the  heart  of   innovative  design  and  computer  development.     Prior  to  starting  the  Design  Thinking  activity,  you  may   want  to  introduce  simple  sketching  tips  to  your   participants  (Section  3.2).  Many  adults  are  reluctant  to   draw,  so  this  is  a  good  time  to  help  them  remember  the   fun  they  had  as  children  drawing  their  world.  Also,   because  participants  are  going  to  make  prototypes   (scaled  models  actual  objects)  sketches  are  more  helpful   than  abstract  concepts  expressed  only  in  words.  

 

Tell  participants  of  all  the  parts  of  the  process  so  you   don’t  take  shortcuts:   • Design  challenge   • Design  Thinking  process   • Sample  Description     • Gallery  Tour   • Reflection     Make  sure  you  have  read  through  the  following   instructions  before  you  facilitate  your  first  workshop.   You  will  need  to  have  a  timing  device  with  you  (a  mobile   phone  works  well,  especially  if  it  has  a  digital  timer).  


Taking   Making  into  Schools       Step   1.    

Instruction Tell  participants  this  activity  takes  60  minutes  and  there  can   be  more  interruptions  once  the  process  starts.  

41 With  All  /   Group  of  4  /   Partner  /   Individually   All  

Time   5  mins.  

2.

Organize participants  into  small  groups  –  4  participants  per   group  is  perfect.    

All

10 mins.  

3.

Give each  group  a  copy  of  your  Design  challenge  (Section   2.2.1.)    Ask  someone  in  each  group  to  read  it  aloud  to  the   others.  Ask  if  there  are  any  questions  about  the  sketch.  

All

10 mins.  

4.

Hand out  copies  of  the  Design  Thinking  Participant  Worksheet   (Section  5.2).  Make  sure  everyone  has  a  pencil.  

All

5 mins.  

5.

6.

7.

Partner Ask  participants  to  find  #1  Interview  Notes  (Empathy)  on   their  worksheets.     • Tell  them  to  pick  a  partner  within  their  group  and  to  stay   with  that  partner  throughout  the  Design  Thinking  activity.     • Ask  them  to  interview  their  partner  to  find  out  what  topic   does  their  learners  find  most  challenging?    Ask  lots  of   questions  trying  to  gain  empathy  for  why  the  learners  are   struggling  with  that  topic.   • Tell  them  to  record  their  interview  notes  on  #1  of  their   worksheet.     • Monitor  the  groups  to  make  sure  one  p erson  is  doing  the   interviewing  and  recording.   Set  your  timer  for  4  minutes  for  this  step.   Partner   • When  the  timer  goes  off,  ask  the  partners  to  switch  roles   and  to  begin  the  interview  /  note  taking  process  again.   Set  your  timer  for  4  minutes  for  this  step.  

4 mins.  

Partner

3 mins.  

Ask partners  to  review  their  notes  and  ask  their  p artners   for  more  d etails,  stories,  examples  about  the  problems   learners  are  having  with  the  topics.  Ask  them  what  they   have  tried  –  what  worked  and  what  didn’t  work.   Start  the  interview  process  again,  starting  with  the  first   interviewers  from  Step  5.  Tell  them  to  record  their  n otes   on  #2  Detailed  Interview  (Empathy).   Set  your  timer  for  3  minutes  for  this  step.  

4 mins.  


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Taking   Making  into  Schools         Step   8.  

• •

9.

• •

10.

• •

11.

• • •

12.

• • •

13.

14.

• • •

15.

• • • • •

Instruction When  the  timer  goes  off,  ask  the  partners  to  switch  roles   and  to  begin  the  interview  /  note  taking  process  again.     Set  your  timer  for  3  minutes  for  this  step.  

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With All  /   Group  of  4  /   Partner  /   Individually   Partner    

Time   3  mins.  

Individually 3  mins.   Ask  participants  to  locate  #3  Defining  the  Issue  on  their   worksheets.     Working  individually,  they  need  to  determine  what  their   partner’s  Goal  and  Wishes  are.  GOAL  =  what  is  their   partner  trying  to  do  to  help  h is  /  her  learners?       Also,  record  any  Insight  they  have  gained.  Insights  =  did   they  learn  something  new  about  the  problem  or  the   learners’  challenges?   Set  your  timer  for  3  minutes  for  this  step.   Individually     10  mins.   Ask  participants  to  sketch  5  ideas  to  help  their  partner   with  their  challenge.  Use  #4  Sketch  5  Ideas  on  their   worksheets.  Encourage  participants  to  sketch  rather  than   use  words  to  illustrate  the  ideas.   Set  your  timer  for  10  minutes  for  this  step.     Partner   5  mins.   Ask  participants  to  share  their  5  sketches  with  their     partners.     Tell  them  to  record  their  p artner’s  feedback  and   suggestions  on  #5  Gain  Feedback  From  Your  Partner.     Set  your  timer  for  5  minutes  for  this  step.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Partner   5  mins.   When  the  timer  goes  off,  ask  the  partners  to  switch  roles   and  d o  the  process  again.     Set  your  timer  for  5  minutes  for  this  step   Partner   Based  on  the  feedback  from  their  partners,  ask  the   participants  to  u se  #6  Redesign  Your  Idea  Based  on   Feedback  to  redesign  their  ideas.  It  can  be  combination  of   all  the  ideas,  a  new  idea,  or  a  modified  idea  based  on  their   partner’s  feedback.   Again,  stress  the  need  to  sketch  their  ideas.   Set  your  timer  for  5  minutes  for  this  step   Group  of  4   Ask  partners  to  share  their  #6  Sketches  within  their  small   groups.   Remember  groups  of  the  Design  challenge  parameters.   Ask  each  small  group  to  select  one  sketch  to  p rototype.   Set  your  timer  for  15  minutes  for  this  step   Group  of  4     Once  each  group  has  selected  the  design  will  prototype,   ask  them  to  design  it  on  #7  Sketch  Your  Group’s  Idea.     Once  this  is  sketch  is  completed,  the  group  can  explore   the  Makerspace  and  use  the  tools  and  materials  that  are   available  to  make  their  prototypes.  

5 mins.  

15 mins.  

Time will  vary  by   group  


Taking   Making  into  Schools  

Step   16.  

17.

18.

19.

20.

• •

Instruction Help  groups  to  use  the  Makerspace  tools  and  materials.     Encourage  them  to  push  for  details  and  to  test  out  their   prototypes.  

Once groups  have  begun  to  finish  their  p rototypes,   encourage  them  to  begin  to  clean  up  their  areas  and   return  the  tools  to  the  Makerspace.   • Encourage  recycling  and  reuse  of  the  materials.   • Make  sure  you  count  all  the  tools  and  make  sure   everything  has  been  returned.   • Give  a  copy  of  the  S ample  Description  (Section  2.2.4)  sheet   to  all  participants  and  explain  the  sections.   •  Ask  them  to  complete  this  sheet  prior  to  the  Gallery  Tour.     • Clear  of  the  tables  and  prepare  prototypes  and  Sample   Descriptions  for  the  Gallery  Tour.   Gallery  Tour     • Ask  1  member  of  each  group  to  stay  at  their  table  and   explain  their  work  to  the  other  groups.       • Other  group  members  can  wander  the  room  talking  with   the  representative  from  each  group.   • Remind  groups  to  trade  turns  of  staying  at  the  table.   • Remind  participants  to  ask  good  and  respectful  questions   of  each  group’s  representatives.  This  is  an  opportunity  for   idea  sharing,  iteration,  and  professional  learning.   Reflection   • Ask  participants  to  return  to  their  groups  and  share  what   they  have  learned.   Ask  them  to  complete  #8  Reflection  on  their  worksheets.   •

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With All  /   Group  of  4  /   Partner  /   Individually   Group  of  4  

Time   2  hours  or  time   available  

Group of  4  

Individually &   Group  of  4  

15 mins.  

All

30 mins.   Time  depends  on   degree  of   interest  

Individually

10 mins.  


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Taking   Making  into  Schools  

5.2. Design  Thinking  Process  -­‐-­‐  Participant  Worksheet   Once  you  have  organized  your  participants  into  small   groups,  you  can  start  the  Design  Thinking  Activity.  For   tips  on  how  to  organize  your  groups,  see  Section  3.1.   Formation  of  Groups.        If  your  budget  allows,  please  print  1  copy  of  this   worksheet  for  each  participant.  The  worksheet  is  to  be   printed  double  sided  on  A3  paper.  If  you  do  not  have   access  to  a  photocopier  or  cannot  afford  to  make  copies,   participants  can  make  their  own  version  of  the   worksheet  using  blank  A3  paper.    

     

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Section 5.1.  offers  you  a  facilitator’s  guide  to  h elp  you   time  the  steps  of  the  process  and  provide  instruction  to   the  participants.  Please  review  the  guide  before  you   facilitate  this  process.  You  also  need  a  timing  device  to   manage  the  Design  Thinking  activity  (e.g.  your  mobile   phone).  


Taking   Making  into  Schools  

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Taking   Making  into  Schools  

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Taking   Making  into  Schools  

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6. Suggested  Web-­‐based  Resources  to  Explore  

NOTE: Unfortunately,  all  these  resources  need  good  access  to  a  stable  Internet  connection.   Free  Software  to  Explore   Autodesk  123D  (http://www.123dapp.com/)     Free  3D  modeling  software  that  is  integrated  with  content  and  fabrication  services.  It  also  has  links  to  projects,  patterns,   models.     Scratch  (http://scratch.mit.edu/)       With  Scratch,  you  can  program  your  own  interactive  stories,  games,  and  animations  —  and  share  your  creations  with   others  in  the  online  community.  Scratch  helps  young  people  learn  to  think  creatively,  reason  systematically,  and  work   collaboratively  —  essential  skills  for  life  in  the  21st  century.  Scratch  is  a  project  of  the  Lifelong  Kindergarten  Group  at  the   MIT  M edia  Lab.  It  is  provided  free  of  charge.       Hardware  to  Explore   Arduino  (http://www.arduino.cc/)   Arduino  is  an  open-­‐source  electronics  prototyping  p latform  b ased  on  flexible,  easy-­‐to-­‐use  hardware  and  software.  It's   intended  for  artists,  d esigners,  hobbyists  and  anyone  interested  in  creating  interactive  objects  or  environments.     Sites  to  Check  Out   Adafruit  (http://www.adafruit.com/)     Site  for  Adruino  hardware  and  project  ideas.     Instructable  (www.Instructables.com)     A  site  to  share  what  you  make  with  others.  Instructables  has  directions  for  a  range  of  projects.     Invent  to  Learn  Resources  (http://www.inventtolearn.com/resources/)  lists  a  range  of  resources  mentioned  in  the  book.   Periodically,  they  offer  free  downloads  of  their  book.     Khan  Academy  (https://www.khanacademy.org/)       A  site  to  learn  –  just  for  free.  The  library  of  content  covers  math,  science  topics  such  as  biology,  chemistry,  physics,  and   the  humanities  with  playlists  on  finance  and  history.     Things  to  Read   Invent  to  Learn  -­‐  Making,  Tinkering,  and  Engineering  in  the  Classroom  (http://www.inventtolearn.com/)  Sylvia  Libow   Martinez  &  Gary  Stager     Using  technology  to  make,  repair,  or  customize  the  things  we  need  brings  engineering,  design,  and  computer  science   to  the  masses.  Fortunately  for  educators,  this  maker  movement  overlaps  with  the  natural  inclinations  of  children  and   the  power  of  learning  by  doing.       Make  M agazine  (http://makezine.com/)     Designed  after  Popular  Mechanics,  Make  Magazine  is  the  go  to  site  for  all  things  Maker  –  from  ideas  to  tools.     Sites  to  Visit   MIT  Center  for  Bits  to  Atoms  (http://cba.mit.edu/about/)     MIT's  Center  for  Bits  and  Atoms  is  an  interdisciplinary  initiative  exploring  the  boundary  between  computer  science  and   physical  science.  CBA  studies  how  to  turn  data  into  things,  and  things  into  data.      


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Taking   Making  into  Schools  

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MIT Media  Lab  –  Lifelong  Kindergarten  (http://llk.media.mit.edu/)   The  home  of  Scratch  –  Mitch  Resnick  and  his  team  design  tools  and  software  to  support  design,  creation  and  learning.     Stanford’s  Hasso  Plattner  Institute  of  Design  –  d.school  (http://dschool.stanford.edu/)   Home  of  design  thinking  …  The  school  was  founded  by  Stanford  mechanical  engineering  professor  David  Kelley  in   2004.  It  is  a  joint  project  between  the  university  and  the  Hasso  Plattner  Institute  of  University  of  P otsdam  in  Germany.   Like  some  other  design  schools,  it  integrates  business  and  management  training  into  more  traditional  engineering  and   product  design  education.       Innovative  Learning  Centre    (ILC)–  Faculty  of  Education,  University  of  British  Columbia   Originators  of  Taking  Making  Into  Our  Schools  –  an  immersive  professional  learning  approach   (www.innovativelearningcentre.ca)    

         

Toolkit4cc english  

Thanks to funding from International Development Research Centre's (IDRC) Canada Africa Research Exchange Grant (CAREG), Drs. Susan Crichton...

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