Assessment for Learning and Motivation in Bilingual Primary Classrooms Presenter: Rachel Lofft Basse Thesis Director: Dra. Rachel Whittaker UAM Research Seminar on CLIL March 21, 2012
Research Aims 1. To observe and analyze assessment techniques present in classes that implement Assessment for Learning (AfL) and traditional summative assessment. 2. To determine whether presence of AfL techniques leads to an increase in L2 motivational features and whether this leads to increased student motivation.
Summative vs. Formative Assessment Assessment of Learning Summative Assessment
Occurs at end of academic unit or year Summative review on everything that students have learned. Usually written: test, quiz, exam
Assessment for Learning Formative Assessment
Occurs on an ongoing basis throughout the academic year. Students set short term goals and are facilitated by teacher in order to achieve these goals. Can be based on a variety of sources (teachers questions, portfolios, written work)
Feedback in form of a mark, error correction.
No grades or scores given. Plenty of oral feedback, peer correction, self-correction
Black and Wiliam, 1998
Features of Assessment for Learning (AfL) Feedback Effective Questioning Techniques
Establishing Clear Learning Objectives
AfL in Action
Two Stars And a Wish WALT and WILF
RESEARCH QUESTIONS: 1. Do teachers who implement Assessment for Learning use more second language learning motivational techniques than non-AfL teachers? 2. Do students in Assessment for Learning classes feel more motivated than students who encounter traditional summative assessment practices?
Participants and Data Participants: Two bilingual teachers, one who was an AfL expert and the other who employed summative assessment. Two Year 5 classes (students aged 10-11) with approximately 22 students in each class Data Collected
Corpus of Classroom Recordings
Four 45 minute Citizenship classes taught in English, Two Afl and Two nonAfL classes Totaling 18,641 words
Student motivational surveys
Administered to all AfL and non-AfL students at the end of the unit
Student Motivational Interviews
Three selected lower achieving students, end of unit
Biographical information, assessment techniques used, assessment beliefs
Why Motivation? â€œLearning a second language is a longitudinal process and there is nothing more important than motivation in sustaining this long-term goalâ€? (DĂśrnyei and Guilloteaux, 2008) Formative assessment introduces a new pedagogy in which the learners are actively involved in the assessment process, seeking to improve their motivation and self-esteem (Black and Wiliam, 1998)
Measuring Motivation Instruments Motivational Orientation of Language Teaching (MOLT) Observation Scheme (Guilloteaux and Dornyei, 2001) Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich and DeGroot, 1989)
Coding Instrument: UAM Corpus Tool (O’Donnell, 2011)
MOLT Observation Scheme: Features Teacher Discourse Signposting Referential Questions Promoting Cooperation Promoting Autonomy Scaffolding Establishing Relevance Social Chat Arousing Curiosity Stating the Communicative Purpose
Group and Pair Work Group Work Pair Work
Encouraging SelfEvaluation Effective Praise Neutral Feedback Peer and Self-Correction Classroom Applause
Activity Design Tangible Reward Intellectual Challenge Tangible Task Product Personalization Creative or Fantasy Element (Guilloteaux and Dornyei, 2008)
Classroom Data Results AfL Teacher
Peer and SelfCorrection
Group and Pair Work
Conclusions 1. Do teachers who implement Assessment for Learning use more second language learning motivational techniques than nonAfL teachers? Yes. The AfL teacher used +94 more motivational techniques during the two lessons than the non-AfL teacher. Also, these techniques were more varied throughout all four categories. 2. Do students in Assessment for Learning classes feel more motivated than students who encounter traditional summative assessment practices? In the first part of the survey, non-AfL students demonstrated more motivation in categories of self-efficacy, cognitive strategies and intrinsic value. However, in the second part of the survey, AfL students demonstrated more internal motivation than non- AfL students.
Current Research Extending corpus to include four schools, more subjects and many more units. Investigating characteristics of motivation (from the MOLT scheme) that correspond directly to formative assessment. Integrating Autonomy and finding/ developing a framework for measurement in the classroom. Appraisal theory- Judgment (resources for assessing behavior according to various normative principles).
Tips for Taking the First Steps 1. Develop research questions. First write some general queries that you may have and gradually adapt them into strong questions that will have measurable results. 2. Read everything that you can about your area of interest. This will help you see what has already been done and how you can contribute research to the field. 3. Think about the corpus that you will be using to measure your research questions. You can use a corpus that is already available or start planning on how to collect your own. 4. Start writing a little bit every day, even if it’s only 15 minutes. It’s a great way to break the ice that’s not too overwhelming. Writing is a great way to develop your ideas, and you will see in time that the small pieces you have written will snowball into something bigger.
Thank You For Your Attention!!
Bibliography Black, Paul, Dylan, Wiliam (1998). ¨Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment¨. Phi Delta Kappan Dörnyei, Z. & Guilloteaux, Marie J. (2008). “Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation.” TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 42. No. 1. 55-77. O’Donnell, Mick. (2011). UAM Corpus Tool. Pintrich, Paul & DeGroot, Elizabeth. (1989) Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. University of Michigan. Shohamy, Elana. (2001) The Power of Tests: A Critical Perspective on the Uses of Language Tests. London: Longman. 1-30.