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community undertaking, the assessment of change and conflict is easier. The mapping exercise is beneficial for leadership to observe windows of opportunity, to know when a goal, element of a plan or project can be pulled from the shelf and pushed through. How to do this will depend on the ability of the leadership to connect strategy and tactics, to know which tools to embed in other tools, to make short-term responses useful for achieving long-term goals. That ability can be enhanced by the analyses covered at length in this guide, but it cannot rely on analysis alone. Local leadership needs good local knowledge beyond path and context mapping, and has to be served by the qualities any manager of public organizations needs. Public good and collective good can never be left out of focus or, or set too far in the background. Continue to ask the important questions: Why are we doing this again? Who is benefiting? How does this small thing fit into something larger? Is the larger goal actually good for our town? Tools in long-term strategies for a community can be diverse. A variety of instruments, narratives, and tactics can be used across different policy domains. No community is uniform, and a fractured approach, applying different methods and tools, can be useful under some conditions. If we see institutions, including the formal institutions of policies, plans and laws as the main tools for communities to pursue long term strategies, and we see a strategy as a unifying narrative frame which can tell us which tools to use when, we have to add that in reality, the strategy will never be able to completely coordinate all other stories, and all other tools embedded in local governance. That is not always a problem, and very different tools, sometimes reflecting different development approaches, can relate to each other in ways that minimize the dissonance, that allow them to coexist within a community without disrupting each other, and without undermining a general strategy. The use of partly contradictory tools and approaches can reflect legacies from the past, fissures in the community, but also the proven value of a tool in a certain domain of policy, as well as the appropriateness for quick use in tactical moves. There are a few traditional ways of relating and incorporating partly contradictory governance tools and approaches.

• Nesting Approaches can contain others at a more concrete level. For example, a city of neo-liberal inspiration can have a weak planning system, imposing few rules on land owners, but still be very attached to its heritage. That city might highly value architecture from a certain glory period, which is strictly protected and easily garners grants. Projects are often sites of experimentation, loosely fitting the general governance frame. Part VI: Analyzing and strategizing revisited

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Boom & Bust: A Guide, Managing Ups and Downs in Communities  

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