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Issue 1: Form Follows Function

An Exploration of Modernism and Postmodernism 2014


“Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to remove� - Antoine de Saint-Exupery

1-8 9-18 19-20 21-32 33-34



EXPERIMENTATION Textured Collages Line Art Illustrations

New Visual Language: Street Graphics

I began my experimentation with something new

oranges and reds. Although collage can be chaotic,

to me; collage. This was greatly inspired by Kurt

Schwitters controlled the chaos by creating a range

Schwitters and the Merz collection. Like Schwitters,

of well aligned complementary materials. When

“I could see no reason why used tram tickets, bits

gluing my found materials, I used PVA and strived

of driftwood, buttons and old junk from attics and

to show textures through layering different materials,

rubbish heaps should not serve well as materials

constantly working on top of each other. By using

for paintings”. Influenced by the Streets, I gathered

the PVA, it helped show the textures, providing a

materials such as tickets, envelopes, booklets and

“wet look” that eventually created a gloss finish.

various papers. Rather than a brush to paint, I used

Doing this resulted in a impressive visual and

glue to paper, and really tried to capture collage

helped show the complexity of materials and how

like Schwitters, focussing on shape, colour and

they can be reused. Each collage was well layered,

structure. The shapes vary but there tends to be

therefore thick and strong. This led me punch a

good use of squares and rectangles. The colours

hole through each, tie them together with fishing

also vary, but there is a strong use of browns,

wire and create a little book of collage textures. 3-4

Using my photography as a guide, I created digital Line drawings representing key aspects of the street: Buildings, People, transportation etc. However, I also wanted to include found items that was explored in my collage work; therefore I created drawings of objects such as: wallets, keys, bottles, and tickets. The main reason for experimenting in this style was because I wanted clear visuals portraying the “street” influence; so that when it came to final pieces I would have more to work with. The idea of “Line Art” came about whilst researching. I discovered illustrators such as Zoe More O’Ferrall and Lucinda Rodgers, who both explore different styles. Lucinda Rodgers has a looser creative approach: using pen, ink and watercolours. Whereas, Zoe More O’Ferrall creates precise digital illustrations. I liked the simplicity of both illustrators, but preferred the use of black and white- creating general outlines rather than in depth drawings. I decided that, like Zoe More O’Ferrall, my drawings would be digital, so I could easily use and manipulate them; but do so in a less detailed way. With digital illustrations, it is much harder to pull off a messy style. Lucinda Rodgers greatly inspired my drawings; however, the end result looks similar to the work of Zoe More O’Ferrall. This is because, even though my illustrations are outlines, they are precise, as I ensured they had a neat, clean finish. The content however, is much more similar to Lucinda Rodgers. This is because she too represents elements of the street. My illustrations were created on Photoshop, and although I am happy with them, looking back, I would have used Illustrator to make them look even more professional. New Visual Language: Street Graphics


FINAL PIECES “Reusing the Streets� The collages not clearly shown in the final pieces still contribute towards them; doing so by adding layers and texture to the background. Rather than placing the line drawings randomly on top of the background, like when experimenting; I wanted each to be placed precisely so that it not only compliments the position, but represents a meaning which can be interpreted by the viewer. This was done by emphasising some drawings more New Visual Language: Street Graphics

Every day, people walk through the

of the street: the people that use it, the

streets living their lives and going about

transportation that supports it and

their daily routines; everybody appears

the items found from it. The collage

to have somewhere to be and something

background represents the re-usability of

to do. Transportation, such as buses,

these elements, and is so linked due to

taxis and trains are endlessly used to

the collages being made from gathered

tend to people’s needs. It becomes a

reusable materials. By using acetate with

routine where you begin to recognise

my Line drawings and experimenting with

people going about their lives, reusing

my collages, it helped me visualise how

public transport such as buses or trains

I wanted my final pieces to be. I wanted

in order to get to where they want to go.

my final pieces to look professional and

This is what my Final Pieces represent,

multifunctional, therefore could be used

and was established as soon as I began

in several ways, such as a banner buses,

experimenting with my Collage and Line

or an exhibition on the street. Therefore

art, combining the two. By printing my

taking this idea forward, I digitally

line drawings on acetate, I placed them

combined my collages with my line

over my collages in order to see how they

drawings. For the same reason, I decided

look when combined. This was interesting that I did not just want the one final piece, because, I could try different collage

but a few. Looking at my collages, I

backgrounds with my line drawings and

thought three would be appropriate- not

see what worked well together, and what

too many, or too little. However I mainly

didn’t. The drawings represent elements

used only six out of the eight collages.

than others, thinking about the size and composition of the image, using the collage background as a canvas to work with. I am generally rather pleased with the outcome of the final pieces. Not only do they look visually appealing, but have an in depth representation. If I was to take this project further, I would have liked to have shown these final pieces presented in different outputs, such as a banner, poster or booklet which could be used in the streets. 7-8



After looking at my Mum’s travel journal, and

holiday. Looking through the material, the majority

researching Andy Warhol’s time capsules, I was

tended to be from New York City, items such as

inspired to create collages influenced by Travel.

tickets, leaflets, maps and brochures. There was

Artist Melissa Markell works a lot with collage, and

also lots of other material from countries such

she has one collection inspired by travel. Each

as Spain and Greece, however, not one specific

collage represents a different place that she has

place. Therefore I chose to represent the countries

been to, and I intended on doing the same. Rather

themselves. My first created collage represents

than using random bits of paper; I gathered papers

Spain. Although I think this is the weakest out of the

and memorabilia that were collected from various

three, I am still glad to have done it as it allowed me

countries where my family and I have been on

to get a feel for the style and improve.

EXPERIMENTATION Travel inspired Collages Travel inspired Mixed Media String and Pin Art New Visual Language: Cabinet of Curiosity

My second collage represents Greece, where my

its composition and special awareness reflecting

family and I have been numerous times. Therefore

well on the works of Melissa Markell. The collage

we had gathered lots of material from different

represents two aspects of NYC discovered whilst I

places. In this collage, the only material that didn’t

was there. One being the spectacular city, with its

come from holidays was the old Greek stamps.

big lights, shows and yellow taxis; the other being

These stamps came from Huddersfield Open

the history and difficulties of NYC. For example, Ellis

Market; I got them with no intention of using them,

Island immigration and the 9/11. What’s important

simply because I was interested in them. My final

about these collages is that the materials are

and favourite collage represents New York- one

personal, collected from various places. Each place

of the most fascinating places I’ve been to. Out

holds memories and experiences which I have learnt

of the three, this collage is the strongest due to

from, influencing the composition of the collages. 11-12

Whilst researching, I discovered “Pin Art” used

develop order but not chance; you can only use

in themes of travel. In response to this I printed a

the chance again”. I was inspired by this interesting

map and pinned the places I have been and want

approach, and after basic experimentation, I

to go, identified with a change of colour. I did not

decided to incorporate it within my Pin art. Using

feel fulfilled with this experimentation and therefore

the maps intersection points, I numbered them,

took it further. Kenneth Martin- constructivist artist

and picked pairs of numbers randomly. Each

worked with abstraction. He created paintings

pair was pinned on the map and attached with a

called the “chance and order series”. This used a

thread of string- creating the line. I alternated with

numbered grid and intersection points, so he could

coloured string to show the different pairs. As well

randomly select a pair of numbers and illustrate

as photographing the Pin/String art, I scanned

them on paper, creating a seemingly endless

them in for better quality. I think the experiment was

succession of line combinations. “You can only

successful in creating an interesting in depth visual.

New Visual Language: Cabinet of Curiosity

Mae Chevrette is a mixed media

it’s always a nice thought knowing

artist who experiments with

you’ll be going back home, and

photography, found objects,

having a place you can call home.

paper ephemera and type.

I think the excitement of travel

Chevrette’s work is inspired by

eventually begins to calm down,

travel and she creates captivating

and you want to be in a place

visuals. I intended on using my

you feel safe and comfortable.

own passion for travel in my

Again, I printed off a photo and

experimentation. My first piece

worked back on top of the image

represents Switzerland, from a

with various media, including

holiday 2009. Like Chevrette’s

the word “forget”. When I had

use of photography, I used my

finished the mixed media pieces,

own as a guide for the mixed

I scanned them in, tweaked them

media. I started by printing off a

and digitally added text so that

photo, and once printed, worked

each piece reads something

back on top of it with paints,

appropriate. By adding text to the

inks, tape and papers. Like

first mixed media piece, it now

Chevrette, I also included type

reads “LIVE travel explore”. This

saying “travel” intending on using

shows my passion for travel. By

it at a later date. For my second

adding text to the second mixed

experiment, I wanted to focus

media piece it now reads “NEVER

less on travel and more about my

forget home”. Both experiments

home Blackpool. I have been to

used the same process but have

phenomenal places in my life, but

very different meanings.


Time capsules fascinate me, and I was fortunate

memorabilia I had got from these places, therefore

enough to have found Andy Warhol’s examples.

they are personal to me; items such as: key rings,

Doing research into time capsules, I came across

leaflets, buttons, etc. I personalised the outside of

time capsule jars. These jars would contain items

the jars- printing the Arc De Triomphe on the Paris

and memorabilia or something; a place, person,

lid, and labelled it, and printed Greek stamps on

memory or experience and seal them within the jar. I the Greek lid and labelled it. This was a nice touch. decided that I would experiment with this procedure, Each item within the jar brings back a memory, but use items from different places of travel, to see

experience or event that occurred when I was

how well it may or may not work. I used three jars

there. The third jar was to represent a place that I

for this experimentation. Two of the jars represent

am yet to go; therefore was left empty, untouched

two places I have travelled to; Paris and the

and unopened. The jars look intriguing but I wasn’t

Greek Islands. Within the jars contained items and

satisfied enough to have them as my “Cabinet”.

FINAL PIECE DEVELOPMEN FINAL PIECE DEVELOPMEN Time Capsule Travel inspired Jars Creating The Cabinet of Curiosity New Visual Language: Cabinet of Curiosity


My Cabinet of Curiosity uses an old suitcase which I bought from the market. Inside the suitcase is an obstruct visual with an in depth representation. My cabinet represents the past and unknown future. In my life I have been inspired by travel and want to pursue it when I’m older and financially stable. The bottom half of my cabinet is a collage using all items, ephemeral papers and memorabilia from the places I have been travelled to. In addition to this, the suitcase itself works well with the travel theme. However, within the box represents the future; the boxes are empty because the future is unknown, but the attached strings to the map represent how there are so many possibilities in a life time and you never know where you will be, what you achieve or what kind of person you are going to become. As I want my future to involve travel, I did this on the map; when it came to pinning the strings on the map I used Kenneth Martins chance and order procedure in which numbers are picked randomly and placed on a grid. I used a black and white map because not only does coloured string look better but, it symbolises how the world and your life is dull unless you embrace life’s possibilities, adding colour to your own. Overall I am pleased with my final piece; it looks how I envisioned. The obstruct visual looks “curious”, but is personal, conceptually and physically. Choosing suitcase I thought may be obvious as to the theme, but when closed, it looks completely normal and when opened, it is surprising and interesting- the unknown and unexpected.


New Visual Language: Cabinet of Curiosity


My typeface was inspired by three designers; El Lissitzky, Herbert Bayer and Wolfgang Weinhart. In studio we were to choose three images to influence our type; I was drawn to these designers. I firstly focused on Lissitzky and constructivism in sketching my draft. With this I emphasised shapes and dynamics in Lissitzky’s work; although I was happy with this draft, it was not consistent. My

TYPEFACE New Visual Language: Form Follows Function

second draft was inspired by Herbert Bayer who worked within Bauhaus and the New Typography movements. Again, I liked the use of shapes, but

also the simplicity created a clever visual. I was

different, and inconsistent. When I had refined my

pleased with my interpretation of this style, however type, I was pleased with the outcome- it looked more the type letters were hard to identify. For my third

like a family. However, to take it a step further, areas

typeface, I wanted it to be simple so the letters

required tweaking to ensure consistency, very minor

were obvious. I decided to use Wolfgang Weinhart

things such as the width of a shape. By ensuring that

as inspiration, who worked within the New Wave

all the shapes within the type are the same size, it

and postmodern movement. This typeface was my

made creating it digitally a smoother process. I am

least favourite; however it still contributed to the

happy with my finished typeface. It is consistent, yet

final outcome. My favourite typeface was inspired

each letter is unique. Obviously my type wouldn’t be

by El Lissitzky; I felt it had most potential, however

used for an essay, however it was never intended for

needed to be refined as the type sizes were all

that; it is more visually effective than practical. 19-20



EXPERIMENTATION Communication Methods Semiotics & Blind Art Body Language and Gestures Information Graphics

New Visual Language: Earth Artifact

With the Earth Artifact project, I felt that communication was an important theme. I researched into the less obvious communication methods, such as: body language, gestures, light, sound, and discovered blind, self-taught artist Esref Armagan. Using a Braille stylus, he etches an outline of his drawing so he can feel his painting first. I found this fascinating, and it opened my eyes to how blind people can appreciate art. I decided, I would experiment with how a blind person could perceive my own work and began by printing photography onto glossy paper so I could etch the outline- leaving a rough surface. The photography used came from my Gestures and Body Language photo-shoot. I hoped that the general gestures would help identify them. The etching was messy due to the thin gloss material; therefore I decided to take experimentation further. My photography etches clearly linked with blind art, however, I didn’t think a blind person could perceive it. Therefore I changed my material to a thick A3 foam board. With the foam board, I drew on it using my gestures and body language photography, before etching into it with my scalpel. The material worked much better when etching, as it was thicker- it allowed me to go deeper, meaning that if you were to feel it, the outline would be more obvious and therefore easier for a blind person to perceive. Once my etched experimentation was complete I scanned them in. Looking at the experimentation digitally doesn’t quite do it as justice. As it was on white foam board, the drawings were not easily visible and depended on the angle and lighting; however, I managed to get my digital version to a visible and intriguing standard. Feeling satisfied with my blind art experimentation. I began researching semiotics, which led me to creating silhouette illustrations using my body language and gestures photography. I found it interesting how simple visuals can communicate. However, I wanted to take these illustrations a step further and combine them with another form of communication- information graphics. Semiotics, Pictograms and Information graphics all compliment each other, and I hoped that it would do the same for me. I decided to focus my “info-graphics” and body language and gestures. 23-24


postu Body language means more than simply physical mann voice posture

Did you know that the human face is capable of an estimated 250,000 expression

How we communicate Eyes 82%

In conversation, the speaker maintains eye sigh t fo


Whereas the listen The tone of a persons v oice acco u nts for 38% an

ox i


at ely on

mmunica o c n e h w t s e g a s ly 7 % of mes

Position- Who they are Coercive- How tough they are


reward- how supportive they are

expertise- how informed they are

charisma- how unique they are

New Visual Language: Earth Artifact



ure tell you a lot, but so does less obvious nerisms such as eye contact, speed, tone of e, expression and sounds

ns and that there are over 1000 different postures and gestures?

Ears 11%

Other Senses 7%

or 40% of the time

ner maintains eye sight for 75%

nd can theref

fa c e o c r t h cu

hw or

ting face to

ore se t t he mood


g u ro

Aggresive sURPRISED


Confused Fearful






gestures are a type of body language commonly using your limbs

Gest thou comp

Did you know that the human face is capable of an estimated 250,000 expressions


the “thum INFO GRAPHIC


most places th done” or “okay some european In america, It i hitch-hiking Avoid using in s greece unless

fOUR CATEGORIES OF gESTURES Greeting Beckoning The handshake saying hello for the first meeting

New Visual Language: Earth Artifact

The hand raise “stop” or “stay”- authoritative

tures are a non-vocal way of expressing ughts and feelinggs ; eventually, gestures plement vocalized ideas and that there are over 1000 different postures and gestures?

The classic wave

mbs up” signal

his gesture means“good” “well y” ns use it more when coutning is a gesture common for

southern sardinia or northern s you want a fight!

Insulting The “loser” sign most popular in the u.s.a

tOUCHING The eSKIMO KISs eskimos use as a personal greeting


A common theme which I explored from the outset of the project was the question was “what does it mean to be human?” This is because I wanted to think less about the physical Earth and more on the people on it. I was also interested in the phrase “I’m only human” showing imperfection and vulnerability. I realised what it means to be human is a hard question to answer, yet I asked it through a survey, in which I got 38 responses. I analysed the results and wrote them down in the book style from the film “Seven” –exploring the seven deadly sins. Therefore I used black ink, and wrote down each answer, along with that individual’s age and gender. I found the range of answers interesting; the words “live life” kept appearing. Writing each answer down, gave me time to think about the question. I came to conclusion that, it doesn’t matter how you live your life, or what you do, as long as you are happy. New Visual Language: Earth Artifact

Although inspired by semiotics and Info-graphics, for my final piece I wanted something more visually effective and that did not use type, relying on visual communication and representation. Inspired by designer Dawn Gardner, I combined my photography and illustrations to create a more visually appealing image. This helped me establish my approach for final pieces; I wanted them to be attractive and bold, but with a subtle representation. I liked the idea of using type within my work, however, not accompanying the images, but acting as the design itself, within the image. I tried including my written “Seven” experiment within my Dawn Gardner inspired work, which gave an interesting visual. However, I found it conceptually more beneficial. I liked the idea of inputting my “What it means to be human” feedback within my final pieces, so it reflects on the question in a subtle manner, and therefore so does the viewer. 29-30

“Observe and give meaning to life”

“Have felt pain in your life and relieve others”

“Not only to have a brain and heart, but a soul”

“Understanding one another”

FINAL PIECES What does it mean to be Human? “O.N.L.Y H.U.M.A.N” Illustrations

New Visual Language: Earth Artifact

“Mankind with

“Love and compassion are necessities not luxuries”

Human rights”

“Yourself- being human is being you”

“Achieve, discover and innovate in what we do”

“Not to be perfect but have decency towards ones fellow race”

My Final Pieces are a series of Illustrations

interpretation was by portraying Earth from our own

titled “O.N.L.Y H.U.M.A.N” which combine my

perspective- as if with fresh eyes; less about the

experimentation and development throughout

physical Earth and more about humans. By having

the project, as well as my own created typeface.

a subtle representation for each visual, it allows

Each visual is symbolic and representational,

the viewer to create their own interpretation, just as

answering the question “what does it mean to be

they would have their own idea as to what it means

human?” from individuals on my questionnaire. I

to be human. My final pieces are a combination of

selected responses with the intention to represent

developed and in depth work, which are visually

each visual, so it reads “only human”. The brief,

effective. Yet, they have a representation from

influenced by the Voyager Golden Records,

diverse individuals. Even though my final pieces

suggested communication with E.T, or other life

came from my own interpretation, they still meet

form, by portraying what we know on Earth. My

the brief representing Earth and the Human species. 31-32

MANIFESTO “You are a Creative” Artist, Graphic designer, Photographer, Illustrator, Typographer: Why must you label yourself as one thing? You are a creative. Don’t be a sheep: be daring, different and experience something new, gaining a multitude of skills. Remember that everybody has freedom of expression. As a creative, we can critique, but should not judge. Re-frame yourself from extreme methods; recognition comes to those who deserve it most. Inspiration is everywhere, but can only be found if we are open-minded. Computers are brilliant, but we cannot rely on technology. A creative must be able to think outside the box. Financial gain should not be priority; creativity is a life style. You must experience life and capture it through visuals. Work beyond your comfort zone, if you make a mistake, so what? Learn from that mistake, and better yourself. Perfection is impossible, but that does not mean we should not strive for it. Don’t settle; always aim for higher. Artist, Graphic designer, Photographer, Illustrator, Typographer: Why must you label yourself as one thing? You are a creative.

New Visual Language: Form Follows Function

After researching existing manifestos from a range of designers, and showing various outputs, I wanted my manifesto to be a list of principles I believe in- not only as a Graphic Designer, but as a creative. Using the text from the written manifesto, I created a type art piece of myself, made completely out of text, showing how personal the manifesto is from the perspective of a creative, in hope that it may inspire other creatives. Andrew Edward Fish



New Visual Language Final Magazine