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TOPIC Anointing of the Sick Ashes Authority: Jesus Wants us to Obey Apostolic Authority Authority: Ordained Leaders Share in Jesus' Ministry and Authority Baptism: Born Again in Water Baptism Baptism: Infant Baptism: Pouring and Sprinkling versus Immersion Baptism: Salvific, Not Just Symbolic Celibacy: Church Practice, Not Dogma Church: Controversies Church: Hierarchical Church: Infallible and Supernatural Church: Visible and One Communion of Saints Communion of Saints: Intercessory Prayer Communion of Saints: Veneration of Saints Confession Confirmation Contraception Deuterocanonical Deuterocanonical (cont) Divorce and Remarriage Drinking Eschatology Eucharist: Foreshadowing of Eucharistic Sacrifice Eucharist: Foreshadowing of Requirement to Consume Sacrifice Eucharist: Jesus in Glory Perpetually Offers the Father His Sacrifice on Our Behalf Eucharist: Jesus Institutes the Eucharist / More Proofs of the Real Presence Eucharist: Jesus' Passion is Connected to the Passover Sacrifice; The Lamb Must Be Eaten Eucharist: Makes Present Jesus' One Eternal Sacrifice

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TOPIC Eucharist: New Testament Eucharist: Old Testament Fasting Father: Jesus, Mary, the Apostles, and Others Refer to Spiritual Leaders as "Fathers" Father: Other Examples Where Jesus Uses the Word "Father" When Teaching Father: The Elders of the Church are Called "Fathers" and the Faithful "Children" Hell Holy Spirit is God Holy Water Homosexuality Husband's Headship Incense Just War Theory Justification: Faith Justifies Initially, but Works Perfect and Complete Justification Justification: Inner Change of Person (Infusion); Not Just a Declaration by God (Imputation) Justification: Jesus and Apostles Teach that Works are Necessary Justification: Some Examples of Justification as Ongoing (not a one-time event) Justification: Works of Law versus Good Works Mary: Assumption Mary: Coronation in Heaven Mary: Ever Virgin Mary: Jesus’ Apparent Rebuking Mary: Jesus’ Brothers Mary: Matt 1:25 "knew her not until…" Mary: Mother and Queen of the New Davidic Kingdom Mary: Mother of God Mary: Rom 3:23 "All have sinned…” Mary: The Ark of the New Covenant Mass Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus Christ

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TOPIC Oral Tradition: Jews and Apostles Reliance Oral Tradition: Learning Through Oral Apostolic Tradition Oral Tradition: Word of God is Transferred Orally Original Sin Papacy: Peter has the Keys of Authority over the Earthly Kingdom Papacy: Peter is the Rock on which the Church is Built Papacy: Peter's Keys and Papal Succession Papacy: Primacy of Peter Posture in Prayer Purgatory (cont.): Purification after Death By Fire Purgatory: A State after Death of Suffering and Forgiveness Rapture and Millennium Redemptive Suffering Relics Sacramentals Salvation: I am being saved Salvation: I have been saved Salvation: I save (Participating in Christ's Salvific Work) Salvation: I will be saved Salvation: Losing Salvation Salvation: Losing Salvation by Our Own Choice Salvation: Losing Salvation by Our Own Choice (cont) Salvation: Predestination to the Elect Salvation: Verses Used to Prove Once Saved Always Saved Septuagint Quotations in the NT Septuagint Quotations in the NT (cont) Sola Scriptura: 2 Tim 3:16-17 "All Scripture is Inspired " Sola Scriptura: Scripture Alone Disproves "Scripture Alone" Sunday Worship Tongues Tongues: Paul's Teachings

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THE CATHOLIC SCRIPTURE CHEATSHEET Drinking Matt. 26:27; Mark 14:23, 25; Luke 22:17-18; 1 Cor. 11:25-27 - Eucharist Luke 7:33-34 - God the Son drank wine, was accused of being a drunk. 1 Tim 5:23 - Paul tells Timothy to drink not just water, but a little wine Gen 14:18 - Melchizedek offers a bread and wine sacrifice Gen 27:25 - Isaac brought Jacob wine, and he drank, with God's favor. Neh 8:10 - Nehemiah commands faithful to drink sweet wine to celebrate Psalm 104:15 - the Psalmist writes "wine gladdens the heart of a man." Ecclesiastes 9:7 - "drink your wine with a merry heart, for God approves Wisdom 2:7 - "Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes!" Sir 31:25-28 - "Wine is like life if drunk in moderation." Sir 40:20 - "Wine gladdens the heart." Isaiah 25:6 - God will provide a feast of rich foods and choice wines. Amos 9:14 - God declares people shall plant vineyards and drink wine. Zech. 10:7 - heart be glad as with wine 2 Mac 15:39 - this verse also describes the pleasure of drinking wine. Homosexuality Gen. 19:24-28 - Sodom and Gomorrah Lev. 18:22, 29 - God commands a man never to lie with a male Lev. 20:13 - if a man lies with another man, he shall be put to death. Deut. 22:5 - cross-dressing is also considered an abomination before God. Rom. 1:26 - when a woman lies with another women, this is unnatural Rom. 1:27 –homosexuality shameless, unnatural and a perversity 1 Cor 6:9 - homosexuality is not part of God's plan for His kingdom.. 1 Tim. 1:10 - sodomites are called ungodly

Fasting Matt. 9:15; Mark 2:20; Luke 5:35 - Jesus says followers will fast once He is gone Matt. 6:16-18 - Jesus gives instructions Matt. 17-21; Mark 9:29 - only prayer and fasting had special power to cure a man Luke 2:37 - Anna the widow worshiped God with fasting and prayer night and day. Acts 13:2-3; 14:23 - apostles engaged in fasting 1 Tim. 4:3 - referring to abstinence that is performed apart from Christ's teachings Ez 8:21-23 - Ezra proclaims a fast as a prayer for humility and self-mortification Neh 1:4; 9:1 - also show historical practice of fasting. Tobit 12:8 - prayer accompanied by fasting. Judith 4:9-13 - people humbled with fasting Esther 4:3, 16 - people fasted for days Psalm 35:13 - I afflicted myself with fasting Psalm 69:10 - humbled my soul with fasting Jer. 36:9 - the peoples declared a fast Baruch 1:5 - they wept, fasted, and prayed Dan. 9:3; 10:2-3 - sought God through fasting Joel 1:14; 2:12, 15 - fasts called to sanctify Jonah 3:5, 10 - proclaim a fast to appease God 1 Macc. 3:47; 2 Macc. 13:12 - Judas and his army fasted in prayer

Divorce and Remarriage Gen. 2:20-24 - become one body Mal 2:16 - God says "I hate divorce." Matt. 19:6 - God joins husband and wife Matt. 19:9; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18. Rom. 7:2-3 - divorce and remarriage 1 Cor 7:10-11 - divorce and remarry. Matt. 5:31-32 - divorce only for "porneia." Greek word means unlawful sexual intercourse due to either blood relations (also called incest) or non-sacramental unions. The Lord does not permit divorce for "moicheia" (adultery). It is also important to note that in these cases, a marriage never existed in the first place, so Lord is not actually permitting divorce, but dissolution of unlawful union. Eph. 5:22-32 - husband and wife image of Christ and the Church. 1 Cor. 7:12-15 - these verses set forth what the Church calls the "Pauline privilege" - two unbaptized people marry, and afterwards one of the people is baptized. If the unbaptized person decides to leave the marriage, the Christian is free to remarry (a union between a baptized and an unbaptized person can jeopardize the baptized person's faith). Ezra 10:1-14 – “Petrine privilege" - baptized person marries unbaptized person. Rev. 19:9 - marital union reflects Christ's union with Church at marriage supper.

Contraception Gen 1:28, 9:1, 7; 35:11 - from the beginning, the Lord commands us to be fruitful ("fertile") and multiply. Gen. 28:3 - Isaac's prayer over Jacob shows that fertility and procreation are considered blessings from God. Gen. 38:8-10 - Onan is killed by God for practicing contraception and spilling his semen on the ground. Gen. 38:11-26 - Judah, like Onan, also rejected God's command to keep up family lineage, but he was not killed. Deut. 25:7-10 - penalty for refusing to keep up a family lineage is not death. Onan was killed for wasting seed. Gen. 38:9 - also, the author's usage of the graphic word "seed," which is very uncharacteristic for Hebrew writing, further highlights the reason for Onan's death. Exodus 23:25-26; Deut. 7:13-14 - God promises blessings which include no miscarriages or barrenness. Lev.18:22-23; 20:13 - wasting seed with non-generative sexual acts warrants death. Contraception was condemned by all of Christianity until the Anglican Church permitted it in certain cases at the Lambeth conference in 1930 Lev. 21:17, 20 - crushed testicles are defect and blemish Deut 23:1 crushed testicle, castrated can’t enter assembly Deut. 25:11-12 - there is punishment for potential damage to the testicles, for such damage puts new life at risk. 1 Chron. 25:5 - God exalts His people by blessing them with many children. When married couples contracept, they declare "not your will God, but my will be done." Psalm 127:3-5 - blessed is a full quiver. Hosea 9:11; Jer. 18:21 - God punishes Israel by preventing pregnancy. Contraception is a curse. Mal. 2:15 - What does God desire? Godly offspring Matt. 19:5-6 - husband and wife shall become one. They are no longer two, but one, just as God is three persons, yet one. Expression of authentic marital love reintegrates our bodies and souls to God, and restores us to our original virginal state (perfect integration of body and soul) before God. Matt. 19:6; Eph. 5:31 - contraception prevents God's ability to "join" together. Just as Christ's love for the Church is selfless and sacrificial, and a husband and wife reflect this union, so a husband and wife's love for each other must be selfless Rom.1:26-27 - Self-giving love is life-giving love, or the love is a lie. Unitive and procreative elements of marital love can never be divided, or the marital love is also divided, and God is left out 1 Cor. 7:5 - this supports the practice of natural family planning ("NFP"). Married couples should not refuse each other except perhaps by agreement for a season Eph. 5:25 - husbands love their wives as Christ loved the Church, by giving his entire body to her and holding nothing back. With contraception, husbands tell wives, I love you except your fertility, and you can have me except for my fertility. This love not self-giving and life-giving. Eph. 5:29-31; Phil. 3:2 - mutilating flesh is gravely sinful 1 Tim. 2:15 - childbearing is considered a "work" through which women may be saved by God's grace. Rev. 9:21; 21:8; 22:15; Gal. 5:20 - the word "sorcery." Greek word is "pharmakeia" includes abortifacients; prevent baby from attaching to uterine wall

Redemptive Suffering Col 1:24 Now I rejoice in my sufferings 1 Cor 3:9 for we are God's fellow workers... Eph 3:2 stewardship of God's grace given to me for you... Eph 3:7-8, 10-11 suffering for you, which is your glory. 2 Thess 1:4-5 made worthy …for which you are suffering Heb 3:14 for we share in Christ, if only we hold Phil 1:7, 12-14,23-24,29-30 granted to you that for sake of Christ you should not only believe in him but also suffer for his sake Phil 3:10-11 and may share his sufferings 1 Jn 3:16 ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. Lk 23:28, "Daughters of Jerusalem do not weep for me Gal 6:2 Bear one another's burdens, so fulfill law of Christ. Mt 27:32 this man they compelled to carry his cross. Mk 15:21 compelled a passer-by, to carry his cross. Lk 23:26, and laid on him cross, to carry it behind Jesus. Phil 2:17, 25, 30 poured as a libation … of your faith Heb 11:40 apart from us they should not be made perfect. 2 Cor 1:6, 11 if we are afflicted, it is for your salvation 2 Cor 2:5 if any one has caused pain…some measure to all 1 Cor 12:24 if one member suffers, all suffer together Gal 6:14 by which the world has been crucified to me Lk 14:27 whoever does not bear his own cross

Posture in Prayer Deut. 5:9 - God's command, "you shall not bow down to them" means "do not worship them." not all bowing is worship Rev. 3:9 - Jesus said people would bow down before the faithful members of the church of Philadelphia. Gen. 19:1 - Lot bowed down in veneration before angels . Gen. 24:52 -Abraham's servant bowed to earth before Lord. Gen. 42:6 - Joseph's brothers bow before him Jos. 5:14 - Joshua fell to ground prostrate before an angel. 1 Sam. 28:14 - Saul bows down before Samuel 1 Kings 1:23 - Nathan bows down before King David 2 Kings 2:15 - sons of the prophets bow down to Elisha at Jericho. 1 Chron. 21:21 - Ornan the Jebusite did obeisance to King David 1 Chron. 29:20 - bowed down to worship God and give honor to king. 2 Chron. 29:29-30 - King Hezekiah and the assembly venerate the altar by bowing down in worship before the sin offerings. Tobit 12:16 - fell down to the ground before the angel Raphael. Judith 14:7 - Achior the Ammonite kneels before Judith Psalm 138:2 - David bows down before God's Holy Temple. Dan. 2:46 - the king fell down on his face paying homage to Daniel Dan. 8:17 - Daniel fell down prostrate before the angel Gabriel. 1 Macc. 4:40, 55 - fell face down to praise heaven and worship God. 2 Macc. 10:4, 26; 13:12 - Maccabeus and his followers fall down prostrate praying to God. 1

Purgatory - A State after Death of Suffering and Forgiveness Matt. 5:26, 18:34; Luke 12:58-59 – You will not get out until you have paid the last penny.” Matt. 5:48 - Jesus says, "Be perfect, even as your heavenly Father is perfect." We are only made perfect through purification Matt. 12:32 – Jesus says, “And anyone who says a word against the Son of man will be forgiven; but no one who speaks against the Holy Spirit will be forgiven either in this world or in the next.” Jesus thus clearly provides that there is forgiveness after death. The phrase “in the next” (from the Greek “en to mellonti”) generally refers to the afterlife (see, for example, Mark 10.30; Luke 18.30; 20.34-35; Eph. 1.21 for similar language). Forgiveness is not necessary in heaven, and there is no forgiveness in hell. This proves that there is another state after death Luke 12:47-48 - when the Master comes (at the end of time), some will receive light or heavy beatings but will live. This state is not heaven or hell, because in heaven there are no beatings, and in hell we will no longer live with the Master. Luke 16:19-31 - in this story, we see that the dead rich man is suffering but still feels compassion for his brothers and wants to warn them of his place of suffering. But there is no suffering in heaven or compassion in hell because compassion is a grace from God and those in hell are deprived from God's graces for all eternity. So where is the rich man? He is in purgatory. 1 Cor. 15:29-30 - Paul mentions people being baptized on behalf of the dead, in the context of atoning for their sins (people are baptized on the dead’s behalf so the dead can be raised). These people cannot be in heaven because they are still with sin, but they also cannot be in hell because their sins can no longer be atoned for. They are in purgatory. These verses directly correspond to 2 Macc.12:44-45 which also shows specific prayers for the dead Phil. 2:10 - every knee bends to Jesus, in heaven, on earth, and "under the earth" which is the realm of the righteous dead, or purgatory. 2 Tim. 1:16-18 - Onesiphorus is dead but Paul asks for mercy on him “on that day.” Paul’s use of “that day” demonstrates its eschatological usage (see, for example, Rom. 2.5,16; 1 Cor. 1.8; 3.13; 5.5; 2 Cor. 1.14; Phil. 1.6,10; 2.16; 1 Thess. 5.2,4,5,8; 2 Thess. 2.2,3; 2 Tim. 4.8). Of course, there is no need for mercy in heaven, and there is no mercy given in hell. Heb. 12:14 - without holiness no one will see the Lord. Final sanctification to attain true holiness before God Heb. 12:23 - the spirits of just men who died in godliness are "made" perfect. They do not necessarily arrive perfect. They are made perfect after their death. But those in heaven are already perfect, and those in hell can no longer be made perfect. 1 Peter 3:19; 4:6 - Jesus preached to the spirits in the "prison." Rev. 21:4 - God shall wipe away their tears, and there will be no mourning or pain, but only after the coming of the new heaven and the passing away of the current heaven and earth. Note the elimination of tears and pain only occurs at the end of time. But there is no morning or pain in heaven, and God will not wipe away their tears in hell. These are the souls experiencing purgatory. Rev. 21:27 - nothing unclean shall enter heaven. The word “unclean” comes from the Greek word “koinon” which refers to a spiritual corruption. Even the propensity to sin is spiritually corrupt, or considered unclean, and must be purified before entering heaven. Luke 23:43 – many Protestants argue that, because Jesus sent the good thief right to heaven, there can be no purgatory. There are several rebuttals. First, when Jesus uses the word "paradise,” He did not mean heaven. Paradise, from the Hebrew "sheol," meant the realm of the righteous dead. This was the place of the dead who were destined for heaven, but who were captive until the Lord's resurrection. Second, since there was no punctuation in the original manuscript, Jesus’ statement “I say to you today you will be with me in paradise” does not mean there was a comma after the first word “you.” This means Jesus could have said, “I say to you today, you will be with me in paradise” (meaning, Jesus could have emphasized with exclamation his statement was “today” or “now,” and that some time in the future the good thief would go to heaven). Third, even if the thief went straight to heaven, this does not prove there is no purgatory (those who are fully sanctified in this life – perhaps by a bloody and repentant death – could be ready for admission in to heaven). Gen. 50:10; Num. 20:29; Deut. 34:8 - here are some examples of ritual prayer and penitent mourning for the dead for specific periods of time. The Jewish understanding of these practices was that the prayers freed the souls from their painful state of purification Baruch 3:4 - Baruch asks the Lord to hear the prayers of the dead of Israel. Zech. 9:11 - God, through the blood of His covenant, will set those free from the waterless pit, a spiritual abode of suffering which the Church calls purgatory. 2 Macc. 12:43-45 - the prayers for the dead help free them from sin and help them to the reward of heaven. Those in heaven have no sin, and those in hell can no longer be freed from sin. They are in purgatory.

Purgatory (cont.) - Purification after Death By Fire Heb. 12:29 - God is a consuming fire (of love in heaven, of purgation in purgatory, or of suffering and damnation in hell). 1 Cor. 3:10-15 - works are judged after death and tested by fire. Some works are lost, but the person is still saved. The venial sins (bad works) that were committed are burned up after death, but the person is still brought to salvation. 1 Cor. 3:15 – “if any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss, though he himself will be saved, but only as through fire.” The phrase for "suffer loss" in the Greek is "zemiothesetai." The root word is "zemioo" which also refers to punishment. The construction “zemiothesetai” is used in Ex. 21:22 and Prov. 19:19 which refers to punishment (from the Hebrew “anash” meaning “punish” or “penalty”). Hence, this verse proves that there is an expiation of temporal punishment after our death, but the person is still saved. 1 Cor. 3:15 – further, Paul writes “he himself will be saved, "but only" (or “yet so”) as through fire.” “He will be saved” in the Greek is “sothesetai” (which means eternal salvation). The phrase "but only" (or “yet so”) in the Greek is "houtos" which means "in the same manner." This means that man is both eternally rewarded and eternally saved in the same manner by fire. 1 Cor. 3:13 -this purification relates to his sins (not just his good works). 1 Cor. 3:17 - but this verse proves that the purgation after death deals with punishing sin. That is, destroying God's temple is a bad work, which is a mortal sin, which leads to death. 1 Cor. 3:14, 15, 17 - purgatory thus reveals the state of righteousness (v.14), state of venial sin (v.15) and the state of mortal sin (v.17), all of which are judged after death. 1 Peter 1:6-7 - Peter refers to this purgatorial fire to test the fruits of our faith. Jude 1:23 - the people who are saved are being snatched out of the fire Rev. 3:18-19 - Jesus refers to this fire as what refines into gold those He loves if they repent of their sins. This is in the context of after death because Jesus, speaking from heaven, awards the white garment of salvation after the purgation of fire (both after death). Dan 12:10 - Daniel refers to this refining by saying many shall purify themselves Wis. 3:5-6 - dead disciplined and tested by fire to receive heavenly reward. This is fire of purgatory Sirach 2:5 - for gold is tested in the fire, and acceptable men in the furnace of humiliation. Zech. 13:8-9 - God says 2/3 shall perish, and 1/3 shall be left alive, put into the fire, and refined like silver and tested like gold. Mal. 3:2-3 - also refers to God's purification of the righteous at their death.

Baptism is Salvific, Not Just Symbolic Matt. 28:19-20 - Jesus commands to baptize Acts 2:38 - repent and be baptized. Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 2:38 - nothing about baptism being symbolic. Mark 16:16 - Jesus said "He who believes AND is baptized will be saved." The Greek text also does not mandate specific order for belief and baptism John 3:3, 5 - unless we are "born again" of water and Spirit in baptism, we cannot enter into the kingdom of God. Acts 8:12-13; 36; 10:47 - if belief is all one needs to be saved, why is everyone instantly baptized after learning of Jesus? Acts 16:15; 31-33; 18:8; 19:2, 5 - these texts present more examples of people learning of Jesus, and then immediately being baptized. Acts 9:18 - Paul, even though directly chosen by Christ and immediately converted to Christianity, still had to be baptized to be forgiven his sin. Acts 22:16 - Ananias tells Paul, "arise and be baptized, and wash away your sins," Acts 22:16 - phrase "wash away" comes from the Greek word "apolouo." "Apolouo" means an actual cleansing which removes sin. Rom. 6:4 - in baptism, we actually die with Christ. This means that, by virtue of our baptism, our sufferings are not in vain. They are joined to Christ and become efficacious for our salvation. 1 Cor. 6:11 - Paul says they were washed, sanctified, and justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, in reference to baptism. Gal. 3:27 - whoever is baptized in Christ puts on Christ. Putting on Christ is not just symbolic. Christ actually dwells within our soul. Col. 2:12 - in baptism, we literally die with Christ and are raised with Christ. Titus 3:5-7 – “He saved us by the washing of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit. Heb. 10:22 - in baptism, our hearts are sprinkled clean from an evil conscience (again, dealing with the interior of the person) as our bodies are washed with pure water (the waters of baptism). 1 Peter 3:21 - “baptism, corresponding to Noah's ark”, deals with the interior life of the person (purifying the conscience, like Heb. 10:22), not the external life (removing dirt from the body). 1 Peter 3:21 also specifically say the grace and power of baptism comes “through Jesus Christ” Mark 16:16 - Jesus says he who believes and is baptized will be saved. Baptism is normative, not absolute. God not bound by sacraments. Luke 23:43 - baptism by desire Matt. 20:22-23; Mark 10:38-39; Luke 12:50 abaptism by blood. Lord says, "I have a baptism to be baptized with" referring to His death. 1 John 5:6 - Jesus came by water and blood. He was baptized by both water and blood. Martyrs are baptized by blood. 2

Infant Baptism Gen. 17:12, Lev. 12:3 - circumcision of eight-day old babies way of entering Old Covenant Col 2:11-12 - baptism is the new "circumcision" for all people of the New Covenant. God did not make His new Covenant narrower than the old Covenant. Job 14:1-4 - man that is born of woman is full of trouble and unclean. Psalm 51:5 - conceived in iniquity of sin. Shows necessity of baptism from conception Matt. 18:2-5 - Jesus says unless we become like children, we cannot enter into heaven. So why would children be excluded from baptism? Matt 19:14 - Jesus clearly says kingdom of heaven belongs to children. Mark 10:14 - the kingdom of God also belongs to them. Mark 16:16 - Jesus says to the crowd, "He who believes and is baptized will be saved." But in reference to the same people, Jesus immediately follows with "He who does not believe will be condemned." This demonstrates that one can be baptized and still not be a believer. This disproves the Protestant argument that one must be a believer to be baptized. There is nothing in the Bible about a "believer's baptism." Luke 18:15 – Jesus says, “Let the children come to me.” The people brought infants to Jesus that he might touch them. Receipt of grace is not dependent upon the age of reason. Acts 2:38 - Peter says to the multitude, "Repent and be baptized." Protestants use this verse to prove one must be a believer (not an infant) to be baptized. But the Greek translation literally says, "If you repent, then each one who is a part of you and yours must each be baptized” (“Metanoesate kai bapistheto hekastos hymon.”) This actually proves that babies are baptized based on parents’ faith. This is confirmed in next verse. Acts 2:39 - Peter says baptism is specifically given to children as well as adults. The word "children" that Peter used comes from Greek word "teknon" which also includes infants. Luke 1:59 - "teknon" includes infants. Here, John as a "teknon" (infant) was circumcised. See also Acts 21:21 which uses “teknon” for eight-day old babies. Acts 10:47-48 - baptized entire house of Cornelius, which generally included infants and young children. Acts 16:15 - Paul baptized Lydia and her entire household. The word "household" comes from the Greek word "oikos" which is a household that includes infants and children. Acts 16:15 - Paul baptizes household based on Lydia's faith, not faith of the members of the household. This demonstrates that parents can present their children for baptism based on parents' faith, not children's faith. Acts 16:30-33 - it was only the adults who were candidates for baptism that had to profess a belief in Jesus. Acts 16:33 - Paul baptized jailer (an adult) and entire household (had to include children). Chron. 10:6 which shows “oikos” generally includes children. Rom. 5:12 - sin came through Adam and death through sin. Babies' souls are affected by Adam's sin and need baptism just like adult souls. Rom. 5:15 - the grace of Jesus Christ surpasses that of the Old Covenant. So children can also enter the new Covenant in baptism. From a Jewish perspective, it would have been unthinkable to exclude infants and children from God's Covenant kingdom. 1 Cor. 1:16 - Paul baptized the household ("oikos") of Stephanus. Eph. 2:3 - by nature children of wrath, in sin, like all mankind. Infants are no exception. Matt. 9:2; Mark 2:3-5 - the faith of those who brought in the paralytic cured the paralytic's sins. This is an example of the forgiveness of sins based on another's faith, just like infant baptism. The infant child is forgiven of sin based on the parents' faith. Matt. 8:5-13 - the servant is healed based upon the centurion's faith. This is another example of healing based on another's faith. If Jesus can heal us based on someone else’s faith, then He can baptize us based on someone else’s faith as well. Mark 9:22-25 - Jesus exercises the child's unclean spirit based on the father's faith. This healing is again based on another's faith. 1 Cor. 7:14 –children are sanctified by God through belief of only one of their parents. Exodus 12:24-28 - the Passover was based on the parent's faith. If they did not kill and eat the lamb, their first-born child died. Joshua 5:2-7 - God punished Israel because people had not circumcised their children. This was based on parent's faith. The parents play a critical role in their child's salvation.

Baptism - Pouring and Sprinkling versus Immersion Ezek. 36:25 - Ezekiel prophesies that God "will 'sprinkle' clean water on you and you shall be clean." 2 Kings 5:14 - Namaan went down and dipped himself in the Jordan. Greek word for "dipped" is "baptizo." Here, baptizo means immersion. Num. 19:18 – verbs for dipping (“baptisantes”) and sprinkled (“bapsei”) refers to affusion (pouring) and sprinkling (aspersion), not immersion. Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16 -John the Baptist prophesied that Jesus will baptize ("baptisei") with the Holy Spirit and fire. In this case, "baptisei" refers to a "pouring" out over the head. This is confirmed by Matt. 3:16 where the Holy Spirit descends upon Jesus' head like a dove and Acts 2:3-4 where the Holy Spirit descended upon Mary and the apostles' heads in the form of tongues of fire. In each case, in fulfilling John the Baptist's prophecy, the Lord baptized in the form of pouring out His Spirit upon the head, not immersing Matt. 20:22-23; Mark 10:38-39; Luke 12:50 - Jesus also talks about His baptism (from "baptizo") of blood, which was shed and sprinkled in His passion. But this baptism does not (and cannot) mean immersion. Mark 7:3 - the Pharisees do not eat unless they wash ("baptizo") their hands. This demonstrates that "baptizo" does not always mean immersion. It can mean pouring water over something (in this case, over their hands). Mark 7:4 - we see that the Jews washed ("bapto" from baptizo) cups, pitchers and vessels, but this does not mean that they actually immersed these items. Also, some manuscripts say the Jews also washed (bapto) couches, yet they did not immerse the couches, they only sprinkled them. Luke 11:38 - Jesus had not washed ("ebaptisthe") His hands before dinner. Here, the derivative of "baptizo" just means washing up, not immersing. Acts 2:41 - at Peter's first sermon, 3,000 were baptized. There is archeological proof that immersion would have been impossible in this area. Instead, these 3,000 people had to be sprinkled in water baptism. Acts 8:38 - the verb to describe Phillip and the eunuch going down into the water is the same verb ("katabaino") used in Acts 8:26 to describe the angel's instruction to Phillip to stop his chariot and go down to Gaza. The word has nothing to do with immersing oneself in water. Acts 8:39 - the Greek word for "coming up out of the water" is "anebesan" which is plural. Both Phillip and the eunuch ascended out of the water, but does not prove that they were both immersed in the water. Phillip could not have baptized eunuch if Phillip was also immersed. Acts 9:18; 22:16 - Paul is baptized while standing up in the house of Judas. There is no hot tub or swimming pool for immersion. This shows Paul was sprinkled. Acts 10:47-48 - Peter baptized in house of Cornelius. Those in house had to be sprinkled. Acts 16:33 - baptism of jailer and his household appears to be in house, so immersion is not possible. Acts 2:17, 18, 33 - the pouring of water is like the "pouring" out of the Holy Spirit. Pouring is also called "infusion" (of grace). 1 Cor. 10:2 - Paul says that the Israelites were baptized ("baptizo") in the cloud and in the sea. But they could not have been immersed because Exodus 14:22 and 15:9 say that they went dry shod. Titus 3:6 – the “washing of regeneration” (baptism) is “poured out” upon us generally refers to the pouring of baptismal waters over head of newly baptized. Heb. 6:2 – on the doctrine of baptisms (the word used is “baptismos”) which generally referred to pouring and not immersion. Heb. 10:22 – the author writes, “with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience.” This “sprinkling” of baptism refers to aspersion, not immersion. Isaiah 44:3 - the Lord "pours" water on the thirsty land and "pours" His Spirit upon our descendants. The Lord is “pouring,” not “immersing.”

Born Again in Water Baptism John 1:32 - Jesus was baptized in water and Spirit, which descended upon Him. Jesus’ baptism was a royal anointing of Son of David (Jesus) conferred by a Levite (John the Baptist) to reveal Christ to Israel, as it was foreshadowed in 1 Kings 1:39 when the Son of David (Solomon) was anointed by the Levitical priest Zadok. See John 1:31; cf. Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:9; Luke 3:21. John 3:3, 5 - Jesus says, "Truly, truly, unless one is born of water and the Spirit John 3:22 - after teaching on baptism, Jesus and the disciples did what? John 4:1 - reference to baptism which flows from Jesus' baptismal teaching Acts 8:36 – the eunuch recognizes the necessity of water for his baptism. Acts 10:47 - Peter says "can anyone forbid water for baptizing these people..?" Acts 22:16 – “arise and be baptized” Titus 3:5-6 – “washing of regeneration,” Heb. 10:22 –hearts sprinkled from evil conscience, bodies washed water 2 Kings 5:14 - Naaman dipped himself seven times in Jordan, and flesh was restored Is 44:3 - Lord pours out His water and His Spirit. Ezek. 36:25-27 - He will sprinkle us with water to cleanse and give us new heart and spirit. Paul refers to this verse in Heb. 10:22.

Original Sin Rm 5:12-21 Sin entered through one man 1 Cor 15:21 - in Adam all die 1 Cor 21-22 - since death came through a man, resurrection of dead comes also through a man. In Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive. Eph 2:1-3 - by nature children of wrath Eph 2:1-3 -by nature objects of wrath. Gen 2-3; 6:5; 8:21 - Fall of Mankind Plsm 51, 58 - sinful at birth, from the time my mother conceived me. (51:5); brought forth in iniquity and in sin did my mother conceive me. (58:3); wicked go astray from womb, err from birth, speaking lies. Job 14:1; 15:14 - born of woman unclean Sir 25:24 - from Eve came death Wisdom 1:12-13; 2:23-24; Sir 25:24 - for God created man for incorruption, death entered world, and those who belong to his party experience it. From a woman sin had its beginning, and because of her we all die 3

Eucharist - Old Testament Foreshadowing of Eucharistic Sacrifice Gen. 14:18 - this is first time that the word "priest" is used in Old Testament. Melchizedek is both priest and king and he offers a bread and wine sacrifice to God. Psalm 76:2 - Melchizedek is the king of Salem. Salem is the future Jerusalem where Jesus, the eternal priest and king, established his new Kingdom and the Eucharistic sacrifice which He offered under the appearance of bread and wine. Psalm 110:4 - this is the prophecy that Jesus will be the eternal priest and king in the same manner as this mysterious priest Melchizedek. This prophecy requires us to look for an eternal bread and wine sacrifice in future. This prophecy is fulfilled only by Eucharistic sacrifice of the Catholic Church. Malachi 1:11 - this is a prophecy of a pure offering that will be offered in every place from the rising of the sun to its setting. Thus, there will be only one sacrifice, but it will be offered in many places around the world. This prophecy is fulfilled only by the Catholic Church in the Masses around the world, where the sacrifice of Christ which transcends time and space is offered for our salvation. If this prophecy not fulfilled by the Catholic Church, then Malachi is a false prophet. Exodus 12:14, 17, 24; cf. 24:8 - we see feast of paschal lamb is a perpetual ordinance. But it had not yet been fulfilled Exodus 29:38-39 – God commands the Israelites to “offer” (poieseis) the lambs upon the altar. The word “offer” is the same verb Jesus would use to institute the Eucharistic offering of Himself. Lev. 19:22 – priests of old covenant would make atonement for sins with guilt offering of an animal which had to be consumed. Jesus, High Priest of New Covenant, has atoned for our sins by His one sacrifice, He also must be consumed. Jer. 33:18 - God promises that His earthly kingdom will consist of a sacrificial priesthood forever. This promise has been fulfilled by priests of Catholic Church, who sacramentally offer sacrifice of Christ from rising of sun to its setting in every Mass around the world. Zech. 9:15-16 - prophecy that sons of Zion, which is site of establishment of the Eucharistic sacrifice, shall drink blood like wine and be saved. This fulfilled only by the priests of the Catholic Church. 2 Chron. 26:18 - only validly consecrated priests be able to offer sacrifice to God.

Eucharist - Foreshadowing of Requirement to Consume Sacrifice Gen. 22:9-13 - God saved Abraham's first-born son on Mount Moriah with substitute sacrifice which had to be consumed. This foreshadowed real sacrifice of Israel's true first-born son who must be consumed. Exodus 12:5 - paschal lamb had to be without blemish. Luke 23:4, 14; John 18:38 - Jesus is true paschal Lamb without blemish. Exodus 12:7, 22-23 - blood of the lamb had to be sprinkled on the two door posts. This paschal sacrifice foreshadows the true Lamb of sacrifice and the two posts of His cross on which His blood was sprinkled. Exodus 12:8, 11 - the paschal lamb had to be eaten by the faithful in order for God to "pass over" the house and spare their first-born sons. Jesus, the true paschal Lamb, must also be eaten by the faithful in order for God to forgive their sins. Exodus 12:43-45; Ezek. 44:9 - no one outside the "family of God" shall eat the lamb. Non-Catholics should not partake of the Eucharist until they are in full communion with the Church. Exodus 12:49 - no uncircumcised person shall eat of lamb. Baptism is new circumcision; one must be baptized to partake of Lamb. Exodus 12:47; Num. 9:12 - paschal lamb's bones could not be broken. John 19:33 - none of Jesus' bones were broken. Exodus 16:4-36; Neh 9:15 - God gave His people bread from heaven to sustain them on their journey to the Promised Land. This foreshadows the true bread from heaven which God gives to us at Mass to sustain us on our journey to heaven. Exodus 24:9-11 - Mosaic covenant was consummated with a meal in the presence of God. The New and eternal Covenant is consummated with the Eucharistic meal - the body and blood of Jesus Christ Exodus 29:33 – God commands they shall eat those things with which atonement was made. Jesus is true Lamb of atonement and must be eaten. Lev. 7:15 - Aaronic sacrifices absolutely had to be eaten to restore communion with God. These sacrifices all foreshadow the one eternal sacrifice which must also be eaten to restore communion with God. Lev. 17:11, 14 - in the Old Testament, we see that the life of the flesh is the blood which could never be drunk. In the New Testament, Jesus Christ's blood is the source of new life, and now must be drunk. Gen. 9:4-5; Deut.12:16, 23-24 - prohibitions on drinking blood, yet Jesus commands us to drink His blood because it is the true source of life. 2 Kings 4:43 - this passage foreshadows the multiplication of the loaves and the true bread from heaven which is Jesus Christ. 2 Chron. 30:15-17; 35:1,6,11,13; Ezra 6:20-21; Ezek. 6:20-21- the lamb was killed, roasted and eaten to atone for sin and restore communion with God. This foreshadows the true Lamb of God who was sacrificed for our sin and who must now be consumed for our salvation. Neh. 9:15 – God gave the Israelites bread from heaven for their hunger, which foreshadows the true heavenly bread who is Jesus. Psalm 78:24-25; 105:40 - the raining of manna and the bread from angels foreshadows the true bread from heaven, Jesus Christ. Isaiah 53:7 - this verse foreshadows the true Lamb of God who was slain for our sins and who must be consumed. Wis. 16:20 - this foreshadows true bread from heaven which will be suited to every taste. All will be welcome to partake of heavenly bread. Sir 24:21 - God says those who eat Him will hunger for more, and those who drink Him will thirst for more. Ezek. 2:8-10; 3:1-3 - God orders Ezekiel to open his mouth and eat the scroll which is the Word of God. This foreshadows the true Word of God, Jesus Christ, who must be consumed. Zech. 12:10 - foreshadows true first-born Son who was pierced for the sins of the inhabitants of the New Jerusalem. Zech. 13:1 - on day of piercing, a fountain (of blood and water) will cleanse the sins of those in the new House of David.

Eucharist - New Testament Jesus Promises His Real Presence in the Eucharist John 6:4, 11-14 - on eve of the Passover, Jesus performs miracle of multiplying loaves. This was prophesied in, 2 Kings4:43, and foreshadows heavenly bread which is Him. Matt. 14:19, 15:36; Mark 6:41, 8:6; Luke 9:16 - these passages are additional accounts of the multiplication miracles, this points to the Eucharist. Matt. 16:12 - Jesus explains term "bread." In John 6, He eliminates any metaphorical uses John 6:4 - Jesus on eve of Passover, lambs are gathered to be slaughtered and eaten. John 6:35, 41, 48, 51 - Jesus says four times "I AM the bread from heaven." John 6:27, 31, 49 - manna physically consumed, and "new" bread must be consumed. John 6:51-52- then Jesus says that the bread He is referring to is His flesh. John 6:53 - 58 - Jesus does not correct their literal interpretation. Instead, Jesus eliminates any metaphorical interpretations by swearing an oath and being even more literal about eating His flesh. Says four times must eat His flesh and drink His blood. John 6:23-53 - symbolic interpretation is not plausible. The Greek text uses the word "phago" nine times. "Phago" literally means "to eat" or "physically consume." John 6:54, 56, 57, 58 - He uses an even more literal verb, translated as "trogo," which means to gnaw or chew or crunch. He increases the literalness and drives his message home. The word “trogo” is only used two other times in the New Testament (in Matt. 24:38 and John 13:18) and it always means to literally gnaw or chew meat. While “phago” might also have a spiritual application, "trogo" is never used metaphorically in Greek. There is not one verse in Scripture where "trogo" is used symbolically John 6:55 - to clarify further, Jesus says "For My Flesh is food indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed." This phrase can only be understood as being responsive to those who do not believe that Jesus' flesh is food indeed, and His blood is drink indeed. Further, Jesus uses the word which is translated as "sarx." "Sarx" means flesh (not "soma" which means body). See, for example, John 1:13,14; 3:6; 8:15; 17:2; Matt. 16:17; 19:5; 24:22; 26:41; Mark 10:8; 13:20; 14:38; and Luke 3:6; 24:39 which provides other examples in Scripture where "sarx" means flesh. It is always literal. John 6:55 - phrases "real" food and "real" drink use the word "alethes." "Alethes" means "really" or "truly," and would only be used if were doubts concerning reality of Jesus' flesh and blood as being food and drink. Jesus is emphasizing the miracle of His body and blood being actual food and drink. John 6:61-63 - disciples need supernatural faith, not logic, to understand John 3:6 - "spirit versus flesh" necessity of possessing supernatural faith versus a natural understanding. In Mark 14:38 Jesus also uses the "spirit/flesh" comparison. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. We must go beyond the natural to understand the supernatural. In 1 Cor. 2:14, 3:3; Rom 8:5; and Gal. 5:17, the "spirit/flesh" comparison John 6:63 - use of phrase "the spirit gives life" shows Jesus was only speaking symbolically. Not one place in Scripture where "spirit" means "symbolic.” This relates to supernatural faith John 6:66-67 - disciples leave, rejecting literal interpretation that we must eat His flesh Mark 4:34 - Jesus always explained to His disciples the real meanings of His teachings. John 6:37 - Jesus says He would not drive those away from Him. John 3:5, 11; Matt. 16:11-12 - some examples of Jesus correcting wrong impressions of His teaching. In the Eucharistic discourse, Jesus does not correct the scandalized disciples. John 6:64, 70 - Jesus ties the disbelief in the Real Presence of His Body and Blood in the Eucharist to Judas' betrayal. Those who don't believe in this miracle betray Him. Psalm 27:2; Isa. 9:20; 49:26; Mic. 3:3; 2 Sam. 23:17; Rev. 16:6; 17:6, 16 - symbolically eating body and blood is always used in a negative context of a physical assault. It always means “destroying an enemy,” not becoming intimately close with him. John 10:7 - Jesus says, "I am the door.". They understood him metaphorically. John 15:1, 5 - Jesus says, "I am the vine." Again, no one asked if He was literally a vine. Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:18 –the Greek word for fruit is “genneema” which literally means “that which is generated from the vine.” In John 15:1, 5 Jesus says “I am the vine.” So “fruit of the vine” can also mean Jesus’ blood. In 1 Cor. 11:26-27, Paul also used “bread” and “the body of the Lord” interchangeably in the same sentence. Also, see Matt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33 for examples were “genneema” means “birth” or “generation.” Rom. 14:14-18; 1 Cor. 8:1-13; 1 Tim. 4:3 –.Paul taught all foods, even meat offered to idols, strangled, or with blood, could be consumed by the Christian if it didn’t bother the brother’s conscience and were consumed with thanksgiving to God. 4

Eucharist - Jesus Institutes the Eucharist / More Proofs of the Real Presence Matt. 26:26-28; Mark. 14:22, 24; Luke 22; 19-20; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - Jesus says, this IS my body and blood. Matt. 26:26; Mark. 14:22; Luke 22:19-20 - the Greek phrase is "Touto estin to soma mou." This phraseology means "this is actually" or "this is really" my body and blood. 1 Cor. 11:24 - the same translation is used by Paul - "touto mou estin to soma." The statement is "this is really" my body and blood. Nowhere in Scripture does God ever declare something without making it so. Matt. 26:26; Mark. 14:22; Luke 22:19 - was Jesus really saying "this represents (not is) my body and blood." Aramaic, had over 30 words for "represent," but Jesus did not use any of them. He used Aramaic word for "estin" which means "is." Matt. 26:28; Mark. 14:24; Luke 22:20 - use of "poured out" in reference to His blood emphasizes reality of its presence Exodus 24:8 - emphasizes reality of His actual blood being present by using Moses' statement "blood of the covenant." 1 Cor. 10:16 - Paul asks the question, "The cup of blessing and the bread of which we partake, is it not an actual participation in Christ's body and blood?" Paul's questions are obviously rhetorical. This IS the actual body and blood. Further, the Greek word "koinonia" describes an actual, not symbolic participation in the body and blood. 1 Cor. 10:18 - in this verse, Paul is saying we are what we eat. We are not partners with a symbol. We are partners of the one actual body. 1 Cor. 11:23 - Paul does not explain what he has actually received directly from Christ, except in the case when he teaches about the Eucharist. Here, Paul emphasizes the importance of the Eucharist by telling us he received directly from Jesus instructions on the Eucharist which is the source and summit of the Christian faith. 1 Cor. 11:27-29 - in these verses, Paul says that eating or drinking in an unworthy manner is the equivalent of profaning (literally, murdering) the body and blood of the Lord. If this is just a symbol, we cannot be guilty of actually profaning (murdering) it. 1 Cor. 11:30 - this verse alludes to the consequences of receiving the Eucharist unworthily. Receiving the actual body and blood of Jesus in mortal sin results in actual physical consequences to our bodies. 1 Cor. 11:27-30 - thus, if we partake of the Eucharist unworthily, we are guilty of literally murdering the body of Christ, and risking physical consequences to our bodies. This is overwhelming evidence for the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Acts 2:42 - from the Church's inception, apostolic tradition included celebrating the Eucharist (the "breaking of the bread") Acts 20:28 - Paul charges the Church elders to "feed" the Church of the Lord, that is, with the flesh and blood of Christ. Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3 - in the Our Father, we ask God to give us this day our daily bread, that is the bread of life, Jesus Christ. Matt. 12:39 – Jesus says no “sign” will be given except the “sign of the prophet Jonah.” this verse demonstrates that a sign can be followed by the reality (here, Jesus’ resurrection, which is intimately connected to the Eucharist). Matt. 19:6 - Jesus says a husband and wife become one flesh which is consummated in the life giving union of the marital act. This union of marital love which reflects Christ's union with the Church is physical, not just spiritual. Thus, when Paul says we are a part of Christ's body (Eph. 1:22-23; 5:23, 30-31; Col. 1:18, 24), he means that our union with Christ is physical, not just spiritual. But our union with Christ can only be physical if He is actually giving us something physical, that is Himself, which is His body and blood to consume Luke 14:15 - blessed is he who eats this bread in the kingdom of God, on earth and in heaven. Luke 22:19, 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - Jesus commands the apostles to "do this," that is, offer the Eucharistic sacrifice, in remembrance of Him. Luke 24:26-35 - in the Emmaus road story, Jesus gives a homily on the Scriptures and then follows it with the celebration of the Eucharist. This is the Holy Mass, and the Church has followed this order of the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist for 2,000 years. Luke 24:30-31, 35 - Jesus is known only in the breaking of bread. Luke is emphasizing that we only receive the fullness of Jesus by celebrating the Eucharistic feast of His body and blood, which is only offered in its fullness by the Catholic Church. John 1:14 - literally, this verse teaches that the Word was made flesh and "pitched His tabernacle" among us. The Eucharist, which is the Incarnate Word of God under the appearance of bread, is stored in the tabernacles of Catholic churches around the world. John 21:15, 17 - Jesus charges Peter to "feed" His sheep, that is, with the Word of God through preaching and the Eucharist. Acts 9:4-5; 22:8; 26:14-15 – Jesus asks Saul, “Why are you persecuting me?” when Saul was persecuting the Church. Jesus and the Church are one body (Bridegroom and Bride), and we are one with Jesus through His flesh and blood (the Eucharist). 1 Cor. 12:13 - we "drink" of one Spirit in the Eucharist by consuming the blood of Christ eternally offered to the Father. Heb. 10:25, 29 - allude to the reality that failing to meet together to celebrate the Eucharist is mortal sin. Heb. 12:22-23 - the Eucharistic liturgy brings about full union with angels in festal gathering, the just spirits, and God Himself, which takes place in the assembly Heb. 12:24 - couldn't come to Jesus' sprinkled blood if it were no longer offered by Jesus to Father and made present for us. 2 Pet. 1:4 - we partake of His divine nature, through the Eucharist - a sacred family bond where we become one. Rev. 2:7; 22:14 - we are invited to eat of tree of life, which is the resurrected flesh of Jesus which, before, hung on the tree.

Eucharist - Jesus' Passion is Connected to Passover Sacrifice; Lamb Must Be Eaten Matt. 26:2; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7 - Jesus' passion is clearly identified with the Passover sacrifice (where lambs were slain and eaten). John 1:29, 36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19 - Jesus is described as the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world. The Lamb must be sacrificed and eaten. Luke 23:4, 14; John 18:38; 19:4, 6 - under Old Covenant, lambs were examined on Nisan 14 to ensure that they had no blemish. Gospel writers also emphasize that Jesus the Lamb was examined on Nisan 14 and no fault was found in him. He is true Passover Lamb Heb. 9:14 - Jesus offering Himself "without blemish" refers to the unblemished lamb in Exodus 12:5 which had to be consumed. Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25 - Jesus is celebrating the Passover Seder meal with the apostles which requires them to drink four cups of wine. But Jesus only presents the first three cups. He stops at the Third Cup (called “Cup of Blessing” - that is why Paul in 1 Cor. 10:16 uses the phrase “Cup of Blessing” to refer to the Eucharist – he ties the Seder meal to the Eucharistic sacrifice). But Jesus conspicuously tells his apostles that He is omitting the Fourth Cup called the “Cup of Consummation.” The Gospel writers point this critical omission of the Seder meal out to us to demonstrate that the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacrifice on the cross are one and the same sacrifice, and the sacrifice would not be completed until Jesus drank the Fourth Cup on the cross. Matt. 26:30; Mark 14:26 - they sung the great Hallel, which traditionally followed the Third Cup of the Seder meal, but did not drink the Fourth Cup of Consummation. The Passover sacrifice had begun, but was not yet finished. It continued in the Garden of Gethsemane and was consummated on the cross. Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:36; Luke 22:42; John 18:11 - our Lord acknowledges He has one more cup to drink. This is the Cup of Consummation which he will drink on the cross. Psalm 116:13 - this passage references this cup of salvation. Jesus will offer this Cup as both Priest and Victim. This is the final cup of the New Testament Passover. Luke 22:44 - after the Eucharist, Jesus sweats blood in the garden of Gethsemane. This shows that His sacrifice began in the Upper Room and connects the Passion to the Seder meal where the lamb must not only be sacrificed, but consumed. Matt. 27:34; Mark 15:23 - Jesus, in his Passion, refuses to even drink an opiate. The final cup will be drunk on the cross, after the Paschal Lamb's sacrifice is completed. John 19:23 - describes "chiton" garment Jesus wore when He offered Himself on the cross. These were worn by the Old Testament priests to offer sacrifices. See Ex 28:4; Lev. 16:4. John 19:29; cf. Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; - Jesus is provided wine (the Fourth Cup) on a hyssop branch which was used to sprinkle the lambs' blood in Exodus 12:22. This ties Jesus' sacrifice to the Passover lambs which had to be consumed in the Seder meal which was ceremonially completed by drinking the Cup of Consummation. Then in John 19:30, Jesus says, “It is consummated.” The sacrifice began in upper room and was completed on cross. Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; John 19:14 - Gospel writers confirm Jesus' death at sixth hour, just when Passover lambs were sacrificed. Again, this ties Jesus' death to death of Passover lambs. Like the Old Covenant, in the New Covenant, the Passover Lamb must be eaten. 1 Cor. 5:7 - Paul tells us that the Lamb has been sacrificed. But what do we need to do? Some Protestants say we just need to accept Jesus as personal Lord and Savior. 1 Cor. 5:8 - But Paul says that we need to celebrate the Eucharistic feast. This means that we need to eat the Lamb. We need to restore communion with God. Heb. 13:15 - "sacrifice of praise" or "toda" refers to the thanksgiving offerings of Lev. 7:1215; 22:29-30 which had to be eaten. 1 Cor. 10:16 - Paul's use of the phrase "the cup of blessing" refers to the Third Cup of the Seder meal. This demonstrates that the Seder meal is tied to Christ's Eucharistic sacrifice. John 19:34-35 - John conspicuously draws attention here. The blood (Eucharist) and water (baptism) make the fountain that cleanses sin as prophesied in Zech 13:1. Just like the birth of the first bride came from the rib of the first Adam, the birth of the second bride (the Church) came from the rib of the second Adam (Jesus). Gen. 2:22. John 7:38 - out of His Heart shall flow rivers of living water, the Spirit. Consequently, Catholics devote themselves to Jesus' Sacred Heart. Matt. 2:1, Luke 2:4-7 - Jesus born in a feeding trough, which means "house of bread." Luke 2: 7, 12 - Jesus was born in a "manger" (which means "to eat"). This symbolism reveals that Jesus took on flesh and was born to be food for the salvation of the world. 5

The Eucharist Makes Present Jesus' One Eternal Sacrifice Gen. 14:18 - Melchizedek's bread and wine foreshadowed re-presentation of Jesus' offering. Luke 22:19; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - the translation of Jesus' words of consecration is "touto poieite tan eman anamnasin." Jesus literally said "offer this as my memorial sacrifice." The word “poiein” (do) refers to offering a sacrifice (see, e.g., Exodus 29:38-39, where God uses the same word – poieseis – regarding the sacrifice of the lambs on the altar). The word “anamnesis” (remembrance) also refers to a sacrifice which is really or actually made present in time by the power of God, as it reminds God of the actual event (see, e.g., Heb. 10:3; Num. 10:10). It is not just a memorial of a past event, but a past event made present in time. In other words, the “sacrifice” is the “memorial” or “reminder.” If the Eucharist weren’t a sacrifice, Luke would have used the word “mnemosunon” (which is the word used to describe a nonsacrificial memorial. See, for example, Matt. 26:13; Mark 14:9; and especially Acts 10:4). So there are two memorials, one sacrificial (which Jesus instituted), and one non-sacrificial. Lev. 24:7 - word "memorial" in Hebrew in sacrificial sense is "azkarah" which means to actually make present (see Lev. 2:2,9,16;5:12;6:5; Num.5:26 where “azkarah” refers to sacrifices that are currently offered, thus present in time). Jesus' instruction to offer bread and wine as a "memorial offering" demonstrates that offering of His body and blood is made present in time over and over again. Num. 10:10 - "remembrance" refers to sacrifice, not just symbolic memorial. So command to offer memorial “in remembrance” of Him demonstrates that memorial offering is indeed a sacrifice currently offered. It is a re-presentation of actual sacrifice made present in time Mal. 1:10-11 - Jesus' command to his apostles to offer His memorial sacrifice of bread and wine fulfills the prophecy that God would reject the Jewish sacrifices and receive a pure sacrifice offered in every place. This pure sacrifice of Christ is re-presented from rising of sun to setting Heb. 9:23 - in this verse, the author writes that the Old Testament sacrifices were only copies of the heavenly things, but now heaven has better “sacrifices” than these. Why is the heavenly sacrifice called “sacrifices,” in the plural? Jesus died once. While Christ’s sacrifice is transcendent in heaven, it touches down on earth and is sacramentally re-presented over and over again from the rising of the sun to its setting around the world by the priests of Christ’s Church. This is because all moments to God are present in their immediacy, and when we offer the memorial sacrifice to God, we ask God to make sacrifice that is eternally present to Him also present to us. Jesus’ sacrifice transcends time and space because it was sacrifice of God Himself. Heb. 9:23 - the Eucharistic sacrifice also fulfills Jer. 33:18 that His kingdom will consist of a sacrificial priesthood forever, and fulfills Zech. 9:15 that sons of Zion shall drink blood like wine and be saved. Heb. 13:15 - this "sacrifice of praise" refers to the actual sacrifice or "toda" offering of Christ who, like the Old Testament toda offerings, now must be consumed. See, for example, Lev. 7:12-15; 22:29-30 which also refer to the “sacrifice of praise” in connection with animals who had to be eaten after they were sacrificed. 1 Peter 2:5-6 - Peter says that we as priests offer "sacrifices" to God through Jesus, and he connects these sacrifices to Zion where the Eucharist was established. These sacrifices refer to the one eternal Eucharistic sacrifice of Christ offered in every place around the world. Rom. 12:1 - some Protestants argue that the Eucharist is not really the sacrifice of Christ, but a symbolic offering, because the Lord's blood is not shed (Heb. 9:22). However, Paul instructs us to present ourselves as a "living sacrifice" to God. This verse demonstrates that not all sacrifices are bloody and result in death (for example, see the wave offerings of Aaron in Num. 8:11, 13, 15, 21 which were unbloody sacrifices). Eucharistic sacrifice is unbloody and life-giving, supreme and sacramental wave offering of Christ, mysteriously presented in a sacramental way, but nevertheless the one actual and eternal sacrifice of Christ. Our bodies cannot be a holy sacrifice unless united with Christ's sacrifice made present on altar of Holy Mass 1 Cor. 10:16 - "the cup of blessing" or Third cup makes present actual paschal sacrifice 1 Cor. 10:18 - Paul indicates that what is eaten from the altar has been sacrificed 1 Cor. 10:20 - compares the sacrifices of pagans to the Eucharistic sacrifice - both are sacrifices, but one is offered to God. This proves that the memorial offering of Christ is a sacrifice. 1 Cor. 11:26 - Paul teaches that as often as you eat the bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death. This means that celebrating the Eucharist is proclaiming the Gospel. 1 Cor. 10:21 - The Jews always understood the phrase "table of the Lord" to refer to an altar of sacrifice. See, for example, Lev. 24:6, Ezek. 41:22; 44:16 and Malachi 1:7, 12, where the phrase "table of the Lord" in these verses always refers to an altar of sacrifice. Heb. 13:10, 15 - earthly altar used to offer sacrifice of praise to God through eternal Priest

Eucharist - Jesus in Glory Perpetually Offers the Father His Sacrifice on Our Behalf Rev. 1 to 22 - Jesus described as "Lamb" 28 times in Revelation. Emphasizes His sacrifice in heaven and in Church. Rev. 1:13 - Jesus clothed in heaven with a long robe and golden girdle like the Old Testament priests. See Exodus 28:4. Rev. 2:17 - the spiritual manna, our Lord's glorious body and blood, is emphasized in the heavenly feast. Rev. 3:20 - as Priest and Paschal Lamb, our Lord shares the Eucharistic meal with us to seal His New Covenant. Through the covenant of his body and blood, we are restored to the Father and become partakers of the divine nature. Rev. 5:6 - this verse tells us that Jesus in His glory still looks like a lamb who was slain. Also, Jesus is "standing" as though a Lamb who was slain. Lambs that are slain lie down. This odd depiction shows Jesus stands at the Altar as our eternal priest in forever offering Himself to the Father for our salvation. Rev. 7:14 - the blood of the Lamb is eternally offered in heaven with the washing of the robes to make them white. Rev. 14:1, Heb. 12:22 - Zion is the city where Jesus established the Eucharist and which was miraculously preserved after the destruction of Jerusalem. See also Psalms 2:6 and 132:13. It represents union of heaven and earth, of divinity and humanity. This is why those who enter into Eucharistic celebration on earth enter into the presence of innumerable angels, souls of just made perfect, Jesus the Mediator of the Covenant and His sprinkled blood, and God the Judge of all. Rev. 19:13 - Jesus' sacrifice is eternally present as He presents Himself to the Father clothed in a robe dipped in blood. Jesus' sacrifice is focus in heaven and in Mass. When the Father beholds His Son, He beholds His sacrifice for humanity. Rev. 19:9 - we are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb where we become one with Him by consuming His body and blood. This is the nuptial union of divinity and humanity. Heb. 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 8:1; 9:11, 25; 10:19, 22 - Jesus repeatedly described as "High Priest." To be a priest, “it is necessary to have something to offer.” Heb. 8:3. This offering of the eternal sacrifice of His body and blood to the Father Heb. 2:18 - although His suffering is past tense, His expiation of our sins is present tense because His offering is continual. Therefore, He is able (present tense) to help those who are tempted. Heb. 5:6, 10; 6:20; 7:15, 17 - Jesus restores father-son priesthood after Melchizedek. Jesus is new priest and King of Jerusalem and feeds new children of Abraham with His body and blood. His eternal sacrifice is offered in same manner as bread and wine offered by Melchizedek in Gen. 14:18. But bread and wine Jesus offers is different, just as Passover Lamb of New Covenant is different. Bread and wine become His body and blood by overshadowing of Holy Spirit Heb. 4:3 – God’s works were finished from foundation of world. This means Christ’s sacrifice (the single act that secured the redemption of our souls and bodies), are forever present in eternity. Jesus’ suffering is over and done with (because suffering was earthly and temporal), but His sacrifice is eternal, because His priesthood is eternal Heb. 4:14 – Jesus the Sacrifice passes through the heavens by the glory cloud of God, just like the sacrifices of Solomon were taken up into heaven by glory cloud of God in 2 Chron. 7:1. See also Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51; and Acts 1:10. Heb. 7:24 – Jesus holds His priesthood is forever because He continues forever, so His sacrificial offering is forever. He continues to offer His body and blood to us because He is forever our High Priest. Heb. 8:2 - Jesus is a minister in sanctuary offering up (present tense) His eternal sacrifice to Father which is perfected in heaven. Same sanctuary we enter with confidence by blood of Jesus as written in Heb. 10:19. See also Heb. 12:22-24. Heb. 8:3 - as High Priest, it is necessary for Jesus to have something to offer. What is Jesus offering in heaven? As eternal Priest, He offers the eternal sacrifice of His body and blood. Heb. 8:6; 9:15; cf. Heb. 12:22-24; 13:20-21 - the covenant Jesus mediates (present tense) is better than the Old covenant. The covenant He mediates is the covenant of His body and blood which He offers in the Eucharist. See Matt. 26:26-28; Mark. 14:22,24; Luke 22;19-20; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - which is the only time Jesus uses the word “covenant” Heb. 9:12 – Jesus enters into heaven, the Holy Place, taking His own blood. How can this be? He wasn’t bleeding after the resurrection. This is because He enters into the heavenly sanctuary to mediate the covenant of His body and blood by eternally offering it to the Father. This offering is made present to us in the same manner as Melchizedek’s offering Heb. 9:14 - blood of Christ offered in heaven purifies our consciences from dead works to serve the living God Heb. 9:22 – blood is indeed required for the remission of sin. Jesus' blood was shed once, but it is continually offered to the Father. This is why Jesus takes His blood, which was shed once and for all, into heaven. Heb. 9:12. Heb. 9:23 – Jesus’ sacrifice, which is presented eternally to the Father in heaven, is described as “sacrifices” (in the plural) in the context of its re-presentation on earth Heb. 9:26 – Jesus’ once and for all appearance into heaven to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself shows that Jesus’ presence in heaven and His sacrifice are inseparable. This also shows that “once for all,” which refers to Jesus’ appearance in heaven, means perpetual (it does not, and cannot mean, “over and done with” because Jesus is in heaven for eternity). “Once for all” also refers to Jesus’ suffering and death (Heb. 7:27; 9:12, 26; 10:10-14). But “once for all” never refers to Jesus’ sacrifice, which is eternally presented to Father. This sacrifice is the Mal. 1:11 pure offering made present in every place from rising of sun to its setting in the Eucharist offered in same manner as Melchizedek offering. Heb. 10:19 - we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus on earth in the Eucharistic liturgy, which is the heavenly sanctuary where Jesus’ offering is presented to God in Heb. 8:2. Heb. 10:22 - our hearts and bodies are (not were) washed clean by the action of Jesus' perpetual priesthood in heaven. Heb. 13:10 – the author writes that we have an altar from which those who serve the tent have no right to eat. This altar is the heavenly altar at which Jesus presides as Priest before the Father, eternally offering His body and blood on our behalf. See. Mal. 1:7,12; Lev. 24:7; Ez. 41:22; 44:16; Rev. 5:6; 6:9; 9:13; 11:1; 16:7. 6

Confession Christ Granted the Apostles His Authority to Forgive Sins John 20:21 - "as the Father sent me, so I send you." As Christ was sent by the Father to forgive sins, so Christ sends the apostles John 20:22 - the Lord "breathes" on the apostles, and then gives them the power to forgive and retain sins. The only other moment in Scripture where God breathes on man is in Gen. 2:7 John 20:23 - Jesus says, "If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven. If you retain the sins of any, they are retained." Matt. 9:8 - God has given the authority to forgive sins to "men." Matt. 9:6; Mark 2:10 - Christ forgave sins as a man (not God) to convince us that "Son of man" has authority to forgive sins on earth. Luke 5:24 - Jesus' authority to forgive sins is as a man, not God. Matt. 18:18 - The authority to bind and loose includes administering and removing the temporal penalties due to sin John 20:22-23; Matt. 18:18 - the power to remit/retain sin is also the power to remit/retain punishment due to sin. 2 Cor. 2:10 - Paul forgives in the presence of Christ 2 Cor. 5:18 - ministry of reconcile given to ambassadors of Church. James 5:15-16 - sins are forgiven by priests in sacrament of sick. 1 Tim. 2:5 - Christ is the only mediator, but He was free to decide how His mediation would be applied to us. Lev. 5:4-6; 19:21-22 - even under the Old Covenant, God used priests to forgive and atone for the sins of others. The Necessity and Practice of Orally Confessing Sins James 5:16 - “confess our sins to one another,” not just privately to God. When James says “therefore” in verse 16, he must be referring to the men he was writing about in verses 14 and 15 – these men are ordained priests of the Church, to whom we must confess our sins. Acts 19:18 - many came to orally confess sins Matt. 3:6; Mark 1:5 - people confessing their sins before others (here to John the Baptist). 1 Tim. 6:12 - refers to historical practice of confessing both faith and sins in the presence of many witnesses. 1 John 1:9 - if we confess are sins, God is faithful to us and forgives us and cleanses us. But must confess sins to one another. Num. 5:7 - publicly confessing sins, making public restitution. 2 Sam. 12:14 - even though the sin is forgiven, there is punishment due for the forgiven sin. David is forgiven but his child was still taken (the consequence of his sin). Neh. 9:2-3 - the Israelites stood before the assembly and confessed sins publicly and interceded for each other. Sir. 4:26 - God tells us not to be ashamed to confess our sins, and not to try to stop the current of a river. Baruch 1:14 - confession in house of the Lord, before assembly. 1 John 5:16-17; Luke 12:47-48 - mortal and venial sins. Matt. 5:19 - Jesus teaches that breaking the least of commandments is venial sin (the person is still saved but is least in the kingdom), versus mortal sin (the person is not saved). Confirmation Acts 8:14-17 laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. Acts 19:1-6 laid his hands upon them, Holy Spirit came on them Heb 6:1-2 the laying on of hands Anointing of the sick James 5:14-15 pray over him, anointing with oil Mk 6:12-13 and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed

Jesus & Apostles Reliance on Oral Tradition Matt. 2:23 - prophecy "shall be a Nazarene". Matt 23:2 - Moses' seat of authority Acts 20:35 - "better to give than to receive" not recorded in the Gospels. 1 Cor. 7:10 - a wife should not separate 1 Cor. 10:4 - rock following Moses. Not in Old Testament. See Ex 17:1-17, Num. 20:2-13. Eph 5:14 - Christian hymn "awake O sleeper” Heb. 11:37 - martyrs being sawed in two Jude 9 – dispute over Moses body Jude 14-15 - Enoch's prophecy

Learning through Oral Apostolic Tradition Matt. 15:3 - Jesus condemns human traditions that void God's word. Mark 7:9 - this is the same as Matt. 15:3 distinction between human tradition (we should reject) and apostolic tradition (we must accept). Gal. 1:14; Col. 2:22 – “the traditions of my fathers” and “human precepts and doctrines” Acts 2:42 - members obeyed apostolic tradition (doctrine, prayers, and breaking of bread). Acts 20:7 - changing the Lord's day from Saturday to Sunday is understood primarily from oral apostolic tradition. John 17:20 - Jesus prays for all who believe in Him through the oral word of the apostles 1 Cor. 11:2 - commends faithful for maintaining apostolic tradition they received Eph. 4:20 – Paul refers the Ephesians to the oral tradition they previously received when he writes, “You did not so learn Christ!” Phil. 4:9 - Paul says that what you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, do. Col. 1:5-6 – this you have heard before in word of truth, the gospel, which has come to you 1 Thess.1:5 – our gospel came to you not only in word, but in the power of the Holy Spirit. 1 Thess. 4:2 –again refers the Thessalonians to the instructions they already had received 2 Thess. 2:5 –refers Thessalonians to previous teachings received when he taught them orally. 2 Thess. 2:15 - Stand firm and hold traditions which taught, either by word of mouth or letter. 2 Thess. 2:15 - in fact, it was this apostolic 2 Thess. 3:6 - commands faithful live in accord with tradition they received from apostles 2 Thess. 3:7 - they already know how to imitate elders. He is referring them to the tradition they have learned by his oral preaching and example. 1 Tim. 6:20 - guard what has been "entrusted" 2 Tim. 2:2 - what you have heard from me entrust to faithful men who will teach others 2 Tim. 3:14 - continue in what you have learned 1 John 2:7 – John refers to oral word his disciples have heard which is old commandment that we love one another.

Word of God is transferred orally Mark 13:31 - but Jesus' Word will not pass away. Mark 16:15 - Jesus commands the apostles to preach the Gospel Mark 3:14; 16:15 - commands apostles to preach (not write) gospel If Jesus wanted Christianity to be limited to a book, wouldn't He have said so Luke 10:16 - He who hears you (not "who reads your writings"), hears me. Luke 24:47 repentance and forgiveness of sins must be preached (not written) Acts 2:3-4 - Holy Spirit came to apostles in form of "tongues" of fire so that they would "speak" (not just write) the Word. Acts 15:27 - Judas and Silas, successors to the apostles, were sent to bring God's infallible Word by "word of mouth." Rom. 10:8 - Word is near you, on your lips and in heart, which is word of faith which is preached Rom. 10:17 - faith comes by what is "heard" (not just read) which is Word that is "preached" 1 Cor. 15:1, 11 - faith comes from what is "preached" (not read). Gal. 1:11-12 - Gospel which is "preached" (not read) is not a man's Gospel. Eph. 1:13 - hearing (not reading) the Word of truth is the gospel of our salvation Col. 1:5 - of this you have "heard" (not read) before in the word of truth 1 Thess. 2:13 - the Word of God is what you have "heard" (not read). 2 Tim. 1:13 - oral communications protected by Spirit. 2 Tim. 4:2, 6-7 – Paul charges Timothy to preach (not write) the Word. Titus 1:3 - God's word is manifested "through preaching" (not writing). 1 Peter 1:25 - the Word of the Lord abides forever and that Word is the good news that was "preached" (not read) 2 Peter 1:12, 15 - he will leave a "means to recall these things in mind." But since this was his last canonical epistle, this "means to recall" must therefore be the apostolic tradition and teaching authority of his office that he left behind. 2 John 1:12; 3 John 13 - John prefers to speak and not to write. Throughout history, the Word of God was always transferred orally and Jesus did not change this. To do so would have been a radical departure from the Judaic tradition. Deut. 31:9-12 - Moses had the law read only every seven years. Was the word of God absent during the seven year interval? Of course not. Isa. 40:8 - grass withers, flower fades, but Word of God (not necessarily written) will stand forever. Isa. 59:21 - Isaiah prophesies promise of living voice to hand on Word of God by mouth Joel 1:3 - tell your children of Word of Lord, and they tell their children, and their children tell. Mal. 2:7 - the lips of a priest guard knowledge

Deuterocanonicals in NT James 5:3 - describing silver which rusts and laying up treasure, Sir 29:10-11. James 5:6 - condemning and killing the "righteous man" follows Wisdom 2:10-20. 1 Peter 1:6-7 - testing faith by purgatorial fire as described in Wis 3:5-6 and Sir 2:5. 1 Peter 1:17 - God judging each one according to his deeds refers to Sir 16:12 2 Peter 2:7 - God's rescue of a righteous man (Lot) is also described in Wis 10:6. Rev. 1:4 – seven spirits who are before throne is from Tob 12:15 Rev. 1:18; Matt. 16:18 - power of life over death and gates of Hades from Wis. 16:13. Rev. 2:12 - two-edged sword, similar to description of God's Word in Wis 18:16. Rev. 5:7 - God is described as seated on His throne, description used in Sir 1:8. Rev. 8:3-4 - prayers of saints presented to God by hand of angel, Tob 12:12,15. Rev. 8:7 - raining of hail and fire to earth follows Wis 16:22 and Sir 39:29. Rev. 9:3 - raining of locusts on the earth follows Wisdom 16:9. Rev. 11:19 - vision of ark of covenant (Mary) in cloud of glory, 2 Macc. 2:7. Rev. 17:14 - description of God as King of kings from 2 Macc. 13:4. Rev. 19:1 - cry "Hallelujah" at coming of New Jerusalem from Tob 13:18. Rev. 19:11 - Lord on white horse follows 2 Macc. 3:25; 11:8. Rev. 19:16 - Lord as King of kings is taken from 2 Macc. 13:4. Rev. 21:19 - new Jerusalem with precious stones is prophesied in Tob 13:17. Ex 23:7 - do not slay innocent and righteous, Dan. 13:53 1 Sam. 28:7-20 – intercessory mediation of deceased Samuel for Saul, Sir 46:20. 2 Kings 2:1-13 – Elijah being taken up into heaven follows Sirach 48:9. . 7

Deuterocanonicals in NT (cont.) Matt. 2:16 - Herod's decree of slaying children was prophesied in Wis. 11:7 - slaying holy innocents. Matt. 6:19-20 - laying up for yourselves treasure in heaven follows Sirach 29:11 - lay up your treasure. Matt. 7:12 - "do unto others" is the converse of Tobit 4:15 - what you hate, do not do to others. Matt. 7:16, 20 - "you will know them by their fruits", Sirach 27:6 - the fruit discloses the cultivation. Matt. 9:36 - people were "like sheep without a shepherd", Judith 11:19 - sheep without a shepherd. Matt. 11:25 - "Lord of heaven and earth" is the same as Tobit 7:18 - Lord of heaven and earth. Matt. 12:42 - Jesus refers to the Wisdom of Solomon which was made part of the deuterocanonical Matt. 16:18 - Jesus' reference to the "power of death" and "gates of Hades" references Wisdom 16:13. Matt. 22:25; Mark 12:20; Luke 20:29 - Gospel writers refer to the canonicity of Tobit 3:8 and 7:11 regarding the seven brothers. Matt. 24:15 - the "desolating sacrilege" is also taken from 1 Macc. 1:54 and 2 Macc. 8:17. Matt. 24:16 - let those "flee to the mountains" is taken from 1 Macc. 2:28. Matt. 27:43 - if He is God's Son, let God deliver him from His adversaries follows Wisdom 2:18. Mark 4:5, 16-17 - seeds falling on rocky ground and having no root follows Sirach 40:15. Mark 9:48 - hell where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched references Judith 16:17. Luke 1:42 - declaration of Mary's blessedness above all women, Uzziah's declaration in Judith 13:18. Luke 1:52 - magnificat addressing mighty falling from thrones and replaced by lowly Sirach 10:14. Luke 2:29 - Simeon's declaration that he is ready to die after seeing the Child Jesus follows Tobit 11:9. Luke 13:29 - description of men coming from east and west to rejoice in God follows Baruch 4:37. Luke 21:24 - Jesus' usage of "fall by the edge of the sword" follows Sirach 28:18. Luke 24:4 and Acts 1:10 - the two men in dazzling apparel reminds us of 2 Macc. 3:26. John 1:3 - all things were made through Him, the Word, follows Wisdom 9:1. John 3:13 - who has ascended into heaven but He who descended from heaven references Baruch 3:29. John 4:48; Acts 5:12; 15:12; 2 Cor. 12:12 - "signs and wonders" follows Wisdom 8:8. John 5:18 - Jesus claiming that God is His Father follows Wisdom 2:16. John 6:35-59 - Jesus' Eucharistic discourse is foreshadowed in Sirach 24:21. John 10:22 - the identification of the feast of the dedication is taken from 1 Macc. 4:59. John 10:36 – Jesus accepts the inspiration of Maccabees as He analogizes the Hanukkah consecration to His own consecration to the Father in 1 Macc. 4:36. John 15:6 - branches that don't bear fruit are cut down follows Wis. 4:5 where branches are broken off. Acts 1:15 - the 120 may be a reference to 1 Macc. 3:55 - leaders of tens / restoration of the twelve. Acts 10:34; Rom. 2:11; Gal. 2:6 - God shows no partiality references Sirach 35:12. Acts 17:29 - description of false gods as like gold and silver made by men follows Wisdom 13:10. Rom 1:18-25 - teaching on knowledge of the Creator and ignorance and sin of idolatry, Wis. 13:1-10. Rom. 1:20 - specifically, God's existence being evident in nature follows Wis. 13:1. Rom. 1:23 - sin of worshipping mortal man, animals and reptiles, Wis. 11:15; 12:24-27; 13:10; 14:8. Rom. 1:24-27 - this idolatry results in all kinds of sexual perversion which follows Wis. 14:12, 24-27. Rom. 4:17 - Abraham is a father of many nations follows Sirach 44:19. Rom. 5:12 - description of death and sin entering into the world is similar to Wisdom 2:24. Rom. 9:21 - usage of the potter and the clay, making two kinds of vessels follows Wisdom 15:7. 1 Cor. 2:16 - Paul's question, "who has known the mind of the Lord?" references Wisdom 9:13. 1 Cor. 6:12-13; 10:23-26 - while all things good, beware of gluttony, follows Sirach 36:18, 37:28-30. 1 Cor. 8:5-6 - Paul acknowledging many "gods" but one Lord follows Wis. 13:3. 1 Cor. 10:1 - our fathers being under the cloud passing through the sea refers to Wisdom 19:7. 1 Cor. 10:20 - what pagans sacrifice they offer to demons and not to God refers to Baruch 4:7. 1 Cor. 15:29 - if no expectation of resurrection, it would be foolish to be baptized on their behalf follows 2 Macc. 12:43-45. Eph. 1:17 - prayer for a "spirit of wisdom" follows the prayer for the spirit of wisdom in Wisdom 7:7. Eph. 6:14 - breastplate of righteousness is same as Wis. 5:18. See also Isaiah 59:17 and 1 Thess. 5:8. Eph. 6:13-17 - whole discussion of armor, helmet, breastplate, sword, and shield follows Wis. 5:17-20. 1 Tim. 6:15 - Paul's description of God as Sovereign and King of kings is from 2 Macc. 12:15; 13:4. 2 Tim. 4:8 - Paul's description of a crown of righteousness is similar to Wisdom 5:16. Heb. 4:12 - Paul's description of God's word as a sword is similar to Wisdom 18:15. Heb. 11:5 - Enoch being taken up; Wis 4:10 & Sir 44:16; 2 Kings 2:1-13 & Sir 48:9 regarding Elijah. Heb 11:35 - Paul teaches about the martyrdom of the mother and her sons described in 2 Macc. 7:1-42. Heb. 12:12 - the description "drooping hands" and "weak knees" comes from Sirach 25:23. James 1:19 - let every man be quick to hear and slow to respond follows Sirach 5:11. James 2:23 - reckoned to him as righteousness, 1 Macc. 2:52 - reckoned to him as righteousness. James 3:13 - James' instruction to perform works in meekness follows Sirach 3:17.

Septuagint Quotations in the NT Of approximately 300 Old Testament quotes in New Testament, approximately 2/3 came from Septuagint Matt. 1:23 / Isaiah 7:14 - behold, a "virgin" shall conceive. Hebrew - behold, a "young woman" shall conceive. Matt. 3:3; Mark 1:3; John 1:23 / Is 40:3 - make "His paths straight." Hebrew - make "level in desert highway." Matt. 9:13; 12:7 / Hosea 6:6 - I desire "mercy" not sacrifice. Hebrew - I desire "goodness" and not sacrifice. Matt. 12:21 / Isaiah 42:4 - in His name will Gentiles hope (or trust). Hebrew - the isles shall wait for his law. Matt. 13:15 / Is 6:10 heart grown dull; eyes closed; to heal. Heb - heart is fat; ears heavy; eyes shut; be healed Matt. 15:9; Mark 7:7 / Isaiah 29:13 - teaching as doctrines precepts of men. Hebrew - a commandment of men Matt. 21:16 / Psalm 8:2 - out of mouth of babes "perfect praise." Hebrew - thou has "established strength." Mark 7:6-8 – Jesus quotes Isaiah 29:13 from the Septuagint Luke 3:5-6 / Is 40:4-5 - crooked be made straight, rough ways smooth, see salvation. Hebrew - omits phrases Luke 4:18 / Is 61:1 - and recovering of sight to the blind. Hebrew - the opening of prison to them that are bound. Luke 4:18 / Is 58:6 - to set at liberty those that are oppressed (or bruised). Hebrew - to let the oppressed go free. John 6:31 / Psalm 78:24 - gave "bread" out of heaven to eat. Hebrew - gave "food" or "grain" from heaven. John 12:38 / Isaiah 53:1 - who has believed our "report?" Hebrew - who has believed our "message?" John 12:40 / Is 6:10 - lest should see with eyes...turn for me to heal. Hebrew - shut their eyes...and be healed. Acts 2:19 / Joel 2:30 – blood, fire, "vapor" of smoke. Hebrew – blood, fire and "pillars" or "columns" of smoke. Acts 2:25-26 / Ps 16:8 -I saw; tongue rejoiced; dwell in hope; Hebrew - I have set; glory rejoiced; dwell safety Acts 4:26 / Psalm 2:1 - the rulers "were gathered together." Hebrew - rulers "take counsel together." Acts 7:14 / Gen. 46:27; Deut. 10:22 - "seventy-five" souls went to Egypt. Hebrew - "seventy" people went. Acts 7:27-28 / Ex 2:14 - "ruler"; killed the Egyptian "yesterday" Heb - "prince" and no reference to "yesterday" Acts 7:43 / Amos 5:26-27 - tent of "Moloch", star of god of Rephan. Hebrew - "your king," star of your god Acts 8:33 / Is 53:7-8 - in his humiliation justice was denied him. Hebrew - by oppression...he was taken away. Acts 13:41 / Hab 1:5 - "scoffers" and wonder and "perish." Hebrew - "among the nations," and "be astounded." Acts 15:17 / Amos 9:12 - the rest (or remnant) of "men." Hebrew - the remnant of "Edom." Rom. 2:24 / Is 52:5 - name of God blasphemed among Gentiles. Hebrew - blasphemed (no mention of Gentiles). Rom. 3:4 / Psalm 51:4 - may "prevail" when thou art judged. Hebrew - might "be clear" when thou judges Rom. 3:12 / Psalm 14:1,3 - they "have gone wrong." Hebrew - they are "corrupt" or "filthy." Rom. 3:13 / Psalm 5:9 - use tongues to deceive. Hebrew - flatter with tongues. There is no "deceit" language. Rom. 3:13 / Psalm 140:3 - the venom of "asps" is under their lips. Hebrew - "Adder's" poison is under their lips. Rom. 3:14 / Psalm 10:7 - mouth is full of curses and "bitterness." Hebrew - cursing and "deceit and oppression" Rom. 9:17 / Ex 9:16 - my power "in you"; name be "proclaimed." Hebrew - show "thee"; name be "declared" Rom. 9:25 / Hosea 2:23 - call my people; call my beloved. Hebrew - I will have mercy (love versus mercy). Rom. 9:27 / Isaiah 10:22 - a remnant of them "will be saved." Hebrew - a remnant of them "will return." Rom. 9:29 / Isaiah 1:9 - had not left us "children." Hebrew - Jehovah had left us a "very small remnant." Rom. 9:33; 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6 / Is 28:16 - believes will not be "put to shame." Hebrew - shall not be "in haste." Rom. 10:18 / Psalm 19:4 - their "voice" has gone out. Hebrew - their "line" is gone out. Rom. 10:20 / Is 65:1 - I have "shown myself" to those who did not ask. Hebrew - I am "inquired of" by them. Rom. 10:21 / Isaiah 65:2 - a "disobedient and contrary" people. Hebrew - a "rebellious" people. Rom. 11:9-10 / Psalm 69:22-23 - "pitfall", "retribution" & "bend backs" Hebrew - "trap" & "make loins shake" Rom. 11:26 / Isaiah 59:20 - will banish "ungodliness." Hebrew - turn from "transgression." Rom. 11:27 / Isaiah 27:9 - when I take away their sins. Hebrew - this is all the fruit of taking away his sin. Rom. 11:34; 1 Cor. 2:16 / Is 40:13 -"mind" of Lord; His "counselor" Hebrew - "spirit" of Lord; "taught" Him Rom. 12:20 / Prov. 25:21 - feed him and give him to drink. Hebrew - give him "bread" to eat "water" to drink. Rom. 15:12 / Is 11:10 - root of Jesse..."to rule Gentiles." Hebrew - stands for an ensign. Nothing about Gentiles Rom. 15:21 / Is 52:15 - told "of him"; heard "of him" Hebrew - does not mention "him" (object of prophecy). 1 Cor. 1:19 / Is 29:14 - "I will destroy" wisdom of the wise. Hebrew - wisdom of their wise men "shall perish." 1 Cor. 5:13 / Deut. 17:7 - remove "wicked person." Hebrew - purge the "evil." This is more generic evil in NT. 1 Cor. 15:55 / Hosea 13:14 - O death, where is thy "sting?" Hebrew - O death, where are your "plagues?" 2 Cor. 4:13 / Psalm 116:10 - believed so I spoke (past tense). Hebrew - believe, for I will speak (future tense) 2 Cor. 6:2 / Isaiah 49:8 - I have "listened" to you. Hebrew - I have "answered" you. Gal. 3:10 / Deut. 27:26 - everyone who does not "abide" by all things. Hebrew - does not "confirm" the words Gal. 3:13 / Deut. 21:23 - cursed who hangs on a "tree." Heb - hanged man is accursed. "Tree" doesn’t follow Gal. 4:27 / Isaiah 54:1 - "rejoice" and "break forth and shout." Hebrew - "sing" and "break forth into singing." 2 Tim. 2:19 / Num. 16:5 - The Lord "knows" those who are His. Hebrew - God will "show" who are His. Heb. 1:6 / Deut. 32:43 - angels of God worship Him. Hebrew - Masoretic text omits phrase from Deut. 32:43. Heb. 1:12 / Psalm 102:25 - "mantle", "roll them", "be changed." Hebrew - "raiment", "change", "pass away." Heb. 2:7 / Psalm 8:5 - made Him a little "lower than angels." Hebrew - made Him but a little "lower than God." Heb. 2:12 / Psalm 22:22 - " sing" thy praise. Hebrew - praise thee. The LXX & most NTs have "sing." Heb. 2:13 / Isaiah 8:17 - I will "put my trust in Him." Hebrew - I will "look for Him." 8

Septuagint Quotations in NT (cont.) Heb. 3:15 / Psalm 95:8 - do not harden your hearts as "in the rebellion." Hebrew harden not your hearts "as at Meribah." Heb. 3:15; 4:7 / Psalm 95:7 - when you hear His voice do not harden not your hearts. Hebrew - would hear His voice! Heb. 8:9-10 / Jer. 31:32-33 - (nothing about husband); laws into their mind. Hebrew - I was a husband; law in inward parts. Heb. 9:28 / Isaiah 10:22 - "to save those" who are eagerly awaiting for Him. Hebrew - a remnant of them "shall return." Heb. 10:5 / Psalm 40:6 - "but a body hast thou prepared for me." Hebrew - "mine ears hast thou opened." Heb. 10:38 / Hab. 2:3-4 - if he shrinks (or draws) back, my soul shall have no pleasure. Hebrew - his soul is puffed up, not upright. Heb. 11:5 / Gen. 5:24 - Enoch was not "found." Hebrew - Enoch was "not." Heb. 11:21 / Gen. 47:31 - Israel, bowing "over head of his staff." Hebrew - there is nothing about bowing over head of his staff. Heb. 12:6 / Prov. 3:12 - chastises every son whom He receives. Hebrew - even as a father the son in whom he delights. Heb. 13:6 / Psalm 118:6 - the Lord "is my helper." Hebrew - Jehovah "is on my side." The LXX and NT are identical. James 4:6 / Prov. 3:34 - God opposes proud but gives grace to humble. Hebrew scoffs at scoffers and gives grace to lowly. 1 Peter 1:24 / Isaiah 40:6 - all its "glory" like the flower. Hebrew - all the "goodliness" as the flower. 1 Pet. 2:9 / Exodus 19:6 - you are a "royal priesthood." Hebrew - you shall be "kingdom of priests." 1 Pet. 2:9 / Isaiah 43:21 - God's own people...who called you out of darkness. Heb. - which I formed myself. These are different actions. 1 Pet. 2:22 / Isaiah 53:9 - he "committed no sin." Hebrew - he "had done no violence." 1 Pet. 4:18 / Prov. 11:31 - if a righteous man "is scarcely saved." Hebrew - if righteous "is recompensed." 1 Pet. 5:5 / Prov. 3:34 - God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble. Hebrew - He scoffs at scoffers and gives grace to lowly. Isaiah 11:2 - this verse describes the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit, but the seventh gift, "piety," is only found in the Septuagint.

Scripture Alone Disproves "Scripture Alone" Gen. to Rev. - Scripture never says that Scripture is the sole infallible authority for. Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15 - those that preached the Gospel to all creation but did not write the Gospel were not less obedient to Jesus, or their teachings less important. Matt. 28:20 - "observe ALL I have commanded," but, as we see in John 20:30; 21:25, not ALL Jesus taught is in Scripture. Mark 16:15 - Jesus commands apostles to "preach," not write, three apostles wrote. Luke 1:1-4 - Luke acknowledges that the faithful have already received teachings of Christ, and is writing his Gospel only so they "realize the certainty of the teachings you have received." Luke writes to verify oral tradition they already received John 20:30; 21:25 - Jesus did many other things not written in the Scriptures. Acts 8:30-31; Heb. 5:12 - these verses show that we need help in interpreting the Scriptures. We cannot interpret them infallibly on our own. We need divinely appointed leadership within the Church to teach us. Acts 15:1-14 – Peter resolves the Church’s first doctrinal issue regarding circumcision without referring to Scriptures. Acts 17:28 – Paul quotes the writings of the pagan poets when he taught at the Aeropagus. Thus, Paul appeals to sources outside of Scripture to teach about God. 1 Cor. 5:9-11 - this verse shows that a prior letter written to Corinth is equally authoritative but not part of the New Testament canon. Paul is again appealing to a source outside of Scripture to teach the Corinthians. This disproves Scripture alone. 1 Cor. 11:2 - Paul commends the faithful to obey apostolic tradition, Phil. 4:9 - Paul says what you learned and received and heard and seen in me, do. Col. 4:16 - this verse shows that a prior letter written to Laodicea is equally authoritative but not part of the New Testament canon. Paul once again appeals to a source outside of the Bible to teach about the Word of God. 1 Thess. 2:13 – Paul says, “when you received the word of God, which you heard from us..” How can the Bible be teaching first century Christians that only the Bible is their infallible source of teaching if, at the same time, oral revelation was being given to them as well? Protestants can’t claim that there is one authority (Bible) while allowing two sources of authority (Bible and oral revelation). 1 Thess. 3:10 - see the Thessalonians face to face and supply what is lacking. 2 Thess. 2:14 - Paul says that God has called us "through our Gospel." 2 Thess. 2:15 - the fullness of the Gospel is the apostolic tradition which includes either teaching by word of mouth or by letter. Scripture does not say "letter alone." 2 Thess 3:6 - Paul instructs us to obey apostolic tradition. There is no instruction in the Scriptures about obeying the Bible alone 1 Tim. 3:14-15 - writing only event that he is delayed and cannot be with Timothy. 2 Tim. 2:2 - Paul says apostolic tradition is passed on to future generations, but he says nothing about all apostolic traditions being eventually committed to the Bible. 2 Tim. 3:14 - continue in what you have learned and believed knowing from whom you learned it. Again, this refers to tradition which is found outside of the Bible. James 4:5 - James even appeals to Scripture outside of the Old Testament canon ("He yearns jealously over the spirit which He has made...") 2 Peter 1:20 - interpreting Scripture is not a matter of one's own private interpretation. Therefore, it must be a matter of "public" interpretation of the Church. The Divine Word needs a Divine Interpreter. Private judgment leads to divisions 2 Peter 3:15-16 - Peter says Paul's letters are inspired, but not all his letters are in the New Testament canon. See, for example, 1 Cor. 5:9-10; Col. 4:16. Also, Peter's use of the word "ignorant" means unschooled, which presupposes the requirement of oral apostolic instruction that comes from the Church. 2 Peter 3:16 - the Scriptures are difficult to understand and can be distorted by the ignorant to their destruction.. 1 John 4:1 - again, God instructs us to test all things, test all spirits. 1 Sam. 3:1-9 - for example, the Lord speaks to Samuel, but Samuel doesn't recognize it is God. The Word of God is not self-attesting. 1 Kings 13:1-32 - man can't discern between God's word (the commandment "don't eat") and a prophet's erroneous word (that God had rescinded his commandment "don't eat"). The words of the Bible are not always clear and understandable. Gen. to Rev. - you must look outside the Bible to see how its books were selected.

"All Scripture is Inspired"- 2 Tim. 3:16-17 2 Tim. 3:14 - Here, Paul appeals to apostolic tradition right before 2 Tim. 3:15 - referring to the Old Testament Scriptures 2 Tim. 3:16 - Scripture is "profitable" for every good work, but not exclusive. "profitable" is "ophelimos" in Greek. "Ophelimos" only means useful, 2 Tim. 3:16 - "all Scripture" uses the words "pasa graphe" which actually means every (not all) Scripture. This means every passage of Scripture is useful. Thus, the erroneous Protestant reading of "pasa graphe" would mean every single passage of Scripture is exclusive. Also, "pasa graphe" cannot mean "all of Scripture" because there was no NT canon which Paul could have been referring 2 Tim. 3:17 - Paul's reference to the "man of God" who may be complete refers to a clergyman, not a layman. It is an instruction to a bishop of the Church. 2 Tim. 3:17 - further, Paul's use of the word "complete" for every good work is "artios" which simply means the clergy is "suitable" or "fit." James 1:4 - steadfastness also makes a man "perfect (teleioi) and complete (holoklepoi), lacking nothing." This verse is important because "teleioi"and "holoklepoi" are much stronger words than "artios," but Protestants do not argue that steadfastness is all one needs to be a Christian. Titus 3:8 - good deeds are also "profitable" to men. 2 Tim 2:21- purity is also profitable for "any good work" ("pan ergon agathon"). wording is same as 2 Tim. 3:17, which shows that Scriptures are not exclusive, and other things (good deeds and purity) are also profitable to men. Col. 4:12 - prayer also makes men "fully assured." 2 Tim. 3:16-17 - Finally, if these verses really mean that Paul was teaching sola Scriptura to the early Church, then why in 1 Thess. 2:13 does Paul teach that he is giving Revelation from God orally? Other Passages used to Support "Sola Scriptura" John 5:39 - when Jesus said "search the Scriptures," He was rebuking the Jews who did not believe that He was the Messiah. Jesus tells them to search the Scriptures to verify the Messianic prophecies and His oral teaching, and does not say "search the Scriptures alone." Moreover, since the New Testament was not yet written, passage is not relevant to the Protestant claim of sola Scriptura. John 10:35 – try to use this "Scripture cannot be broken" to somehow prove sola Scriptura. But this statement refers to the Old Testament Scriptures and has nothing to do with the exclusivity of Scripture and the New Testament. John 20:31 - Indeed, Scripture assists in learning to believe in Jesus, but this passage does not say Scripture is exclusive, or even necessary, to be saved Acts 17:11-12 - here we see the verse "they searched the Scriptures." This refers to the Bereans who used the Old Testament to confirm the oral teachings about the Messiah. The verses do not say the Bereans searched the Scriptures alone (which is what Protestants are attempting to prove when quoting this passage). Moreover, the Bereans accepted the oral teaching from Paul as God's word before searching the Scriptures Acts 17:11-12 - Also, the Bereans, being more "noble" or "fair minded," meant that they were more reasonable and less violent than the Thessalonians in Acts. 17:5-9. Their greater fair-mindedness was not because of their use of Scripture, which Paul directed his listeners to do as was his custom (Acts 17:3). 1 Cor. 4:6 - Many scholars believe the phrase "don't go above the line" was inserted by a translator as an instruction to someone in the translation process. Others say Paul is quoting a proverb regarding kids learning to write by tracing letters. By saying don't go above line, Paul is probably instructing them not to be arrogant. But even if the phrase is taken literally, to what was Paul referring? The Talmud? The Mosaic law? The Old Testament Scriptures? Rev. 1:11, 19 Yes, Jesus commands John to write because John was in exile in Patmos and could not preach the Word (which was Jesus' usual command).. Rev. 22:18-19 - "don't add to the prophecies in this book." But this commandment only refers to the book of Revelation, not the entire Bible Deut 4:2; 12:32 - this did not preclude Christians from accepting the Old Testament books after Deuteronomy or the New Testament. 9

The Uniqueness of Mary as the Mother of God Gen. 3:15 - I will put enmity between you and the woman, between your seed and her seed Gen 3:15 / Rev. 12:1 - the Scriptures begin and end with the woman battling Satan. John 2:4, 19:26 - Jesus calls Mary "woman" as she is called in Gen. 3:15. John 1:14 - God in flesh dwelt among us. Mary is the Virgin Mother of God. Matt. 2:11 - Luke emphasizes Jesus is with Mary His Mother Luke 1:35 - the child will be called holy, the Son of God. Luke 1:28 - "Full of grace" is only used again in John 1:14. Luke 1:38 - Mary's fiat is "let it be done to me according to thy word Luke 1:42 - "Blessed are you among women Luke 1:43 - Elizabeth's use of "Mother of my Lord" Luke 1:44 - Mary's voice causes John the Baptist to leap for joy Luke 1:46 - Mary claims that her soul magnifies the Lord Luke 1:48 - Mary prophesies that all generations shall call her blessed Eph. 1:1; Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:2 - "saints" (in Hebrew "qaddiysh") means "holy" ones. Luke 2:35 - Simeon prophesies that a sword would also pierce Mary's soul Luke 2:19,51 - Mary kept in mind all these things as she pondered them in her heart. Mary - the Immaculate Ark of the New Covenant Exodus 25:11-21 - the ark of the Old Covenant was made of the purest gold for God's Word. 2 Sam. 6:7 - Ark is so holy and pure that when Uzzah touched it, the Lord slew him 1 Chron. 13:9-10 - this is another account of Uzzah and the Ark 1 Chron. 15 and 16 - show the awesome reverence the Jews had for the ark Luke 1:39 / 2 Sam. 6:2 - comparisons between Mary and the Ark Luke 1:41 / 2 Sam. 6:16 - John the Baptist / King David leap for joy Luke 1:43 / 2 Sam. 6:9 - How can the Mother / Ark of the Lord come to me? Luke 1:56 / 2 Sam. 6:11 and 1 Chron. 13:14 - Mary / Ark remained for three months. Rev 11:19 - Ark not seen for six centuries (see 2 Macc. 2:7), now seen in heaven. Rev 12:1 - "woman" that John is describing is Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant Rev. 12:17 - Mary's offspring are those who keep God's commandments… Rev. 12:2 - birth pangs describe both birth of Church and Mary's offspring Isaiah 66:7 - Isaiah prophesying that before she (Mary) was in labor she gave birth Gal 4:19 - Paul describes his pain as birth pangs in forming the disciples in Christ Jer. 13:21 - Jeremiah describes the birth pangs of Israel, like a woman in travail Hos. 13:12-13 - Ephraim is also described as travailing in childbirth for his sins Micah 4:9-10 - Micah also describes Jerusalem as being seized by birth pangs. Rev. 12:13-16 - devil still seeks to destroy the woman even after the Savior is born. Mary is our Mother and Queen of the New Davidic Kingdom John 19:26 - Jesus makes Mary the Mother of us all Rev. 12:17 - proves meaning of John 19:26. Offspring are those who follow Jesus John 2:3 - Mary tells all of us to do whatever Jesus tells us. Further John 2:7 - Jesus allows His mother to intercede for the people on His behalf Psalm 45:9 - the psalmist teaches that the Queen stands at the right hand of God 1 Kings 2:17, 20 - in Old Testament Davidic kingdom, King does not refuse mother 1 Kings 2:18 -. She is the Queen Mother (or "Gebirah") 1 Kings 15:13 - the Queen Mother is a powerful position in Israel's royal monarchy. Neh. 2:6 - the Queen Mother is the primary intercessor before the King. Mary is ever Virgin Exodus 13:2, 12 - "first-born” means the first child to open the womb. Exodus 34:20 - under the Mosaic Law, the "first-born" son had to be sanctified. Ezek. 44:2 - no man shall pass through gate by which the Lord entered the world. Mark 6:3 - Jesus was always referred to as "the" son of Mary, not "a" son of Mary. Luke 1:31, 34 - How shall this be?" Luke 2:41-51 - never mention of other siblings. John 7:3-4; Mark 3:21 - younger "brothers" were advising Jesus. This would have been extremely disrespectful for devout Jews if these were Jesus' biological brothers.

Mary is Ever Virgin (cont.) John 19:26-27 - unthinkable to commit care of mother to friend if had brothers John 19:25 - Mary the wife of Clopas is the sister of the Virgin Mary. Matt. 27:61, 28:1 - refers to Mary the wife of Clopas as "the other Mary." Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:47 - Mary wife of Clopas, mother of James and Joseph Mark 6:3 - James and Joseph are called “brothers" of Jesus. Jesus' cousins. Matt. 10:3 - James also called son of "Alpheus." Does not disprove James is son of Clopas. Name Alpheus may be Aramaic for Clopas, or James took a Greek name like Saul (Paul), or Mary remarried a man named Alpheus. Jesus' "Brothers" (adelphoi)) = Cousins or Kinsmen Luke 1:36 - Elizabeth is Mary's kinswoman. Luke 22:32 - Jesus tells Peter to strengthen his "brethren." Acts 1:12-15 - the gathering of Jesus' "brothers" amounts to about 120. Acts 7:26; 11:1; 13:15, 38; 15:3, 23, 32; 28:17, 21 "brethren" not mean blood Rom. 9:3 - Paul uses "brethren" and "kinsmen" interchangeably. Gen. 11:26-28 - Lot is Abraham's nephew ("anepsios") / Gen. 13:8; 14:14, 16 - Lot called Abraham's brother (adelphos). This proves that, although Greek word for cousin is "anepsios," Scripture also uses "adelphos" to describe cousin Gen. 29:15 - Laban calls Jacob is "brother" even though Jacob is his nephew. Deut. 23:7; 1 Chron. 15:5-18; Jer. 34:9; Neh. 5:7 Hebrew & Aramaic have no word for "cousin." 2 Sam. 1:26; 1 Kings 9:13, 20:32 - "brethren" can even be one unrelated 2 Kings 10:13-14 - King Ahaziah's 42 "brethren" were really his kinsmen. 1 Chron. 23:21-22 – Eleazar’s daughters married "brethren" who were cousins Neh. 4:14; 5:1, 5, 8, 10, 14 - examples of "brothers" meaning "cousins" Tobit 5:11 - Tobit asks Azarias to identify himself, but still calls him "brother" Amos 1: 9 - brotherhood can also mean an ally (where there is no bloodline). Mary's Assumption into Heaven Gen. 5:24, Heb. 11:5 - Enoch 2 Kings 2:11-12; 1 Mac 2:58 - Elijah was assumed into heaven Psalm 132:8 - O Lord, and go to thy resting place, thou and the Ark (Mary) 2 Cor. 12:2 - a man in Christ who was caught up to the third heaven. Matt. 27:52-53 - when Jesus died and rose, bodies of the saints were raised. 1 Thess. 4:17 - we shall be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air Rev. 12:1 - the "woman," clothed with the sun. While in Rev. 6:9 we only see souls of the martyrs in heaven, in Rev. 12:1 we see Mary, both body and soul. Mary's Coronation in Heaven 2 Tim 4:8 - Paul says that there is laid up for him the crown of righteousness. The saints are crowned in heaven, and Mary is the greatest saint of all. James 1:12 - those who endure will receive the crown of life 1 Peter 5:4 - when Chief Shepherd manifested we will receive unfading crown Rev. 2:10 - Jesus will give the faithful unto death the crown of life. Rev. 12:1 - "woman," is crowned with twelve stars. She is Queen of heaven Wis. 5:16 - we will receive a glorious crown Misunderstanding about Matthew 1:25 (Joseph knew her "not until") Matt. 1:25 - Joseph knew her "not until ("heos", in Greek)" she bore a son. Matt. 28:29 - I am with you "until the end of the world." Luke 1:80 - John was in desert "up to the point of his manifestation to Israel." Luke 2:37 - Anna was a widow "up to the point that" she was eighty-four Luke 20:43 - "take your seat at my hand until I have made your enemies 1 Tim. 4:13 - "up to the point that I come," attend to teaching and preaching Gen. 8:7 - raven flew back and forth "up to the point that" [until] waters dried Gen. 28:15 - the Lord won't leave Jacob "up to the point that" Deut. 34:6 - but "up to the point of today" no one knows Moses' burial place. 2 Sam. 6:23 - Micah was childless "up to the point" [until] her death. 1 Macc. 5:54 - not one was slain "up to the point that" they returned in peace

Romans 3:23 ("All have sinned") Rom 3:23 infant, retarded, senile can’t sin Rom. 3:23 - Greek word for all "pantes” 1 Cor. 15:22 - in Adam all ("pantes") have died, and in Christ all ("pantes") shall live. "All" does not mean "every single one." This is because not all have died (such as Enoch and Elijah) and not all will go to heaven (because Jesus said so). Rom. 5:12 - death did not spread to all men (Enoch and Elijah). Rom. 3:10-11 - all human beings are sinful Psalm 14 - among the wicked, all are sinful. Righteous continue to seek God. Psalm 53:1-3 - "there is none that does good" expressly refers to those who have fallen away. Those who remain faithful do good, and Jesus calls such people "good." Luke 18:19 - Jesus says, "No one is good but God alone." But then in Matt. 12:35, Jesus also says "The good man out of his good treasure..." So Jesus says no one is good but God then calls another good. Rom. 9:11 - God distinguished between Jacob & Esau in womb, before they sinned Luke 1:48 - Lowliness is sign of humility Jesus "rebuking" Mary Matt. 12:48; Mark 3:33; Luke 8:21 emphasizing spiritual family over biological family Matt. 12:48; Mark 3:33; Luke 8:21 argue Jesus violated 4th commandment. Luke 11:28 - Jesus is exalting Mary by emphasizing her obedience to God's word as being more critical than her biological role of mother. This affirms Luke 1:48. Luke 11:28 - also, the Greek word for "rather" is "menounge." Menounge means "Yes, but in addition," or "Further." Luke 11:27-28 - Jesus is the one being complimented, not Mary. Jesus is refocusing attention from Him to others who obey word of God. If He is refocusing attention to others, His comment can’t be rebuke of Mary John 2:4 - Jesus' question is an invitation to His mother to intercede on behalf of all believers and begin His ministry. Mary thus immediately intercedes, Jesus obeys her, and performs miracle which commenced His ministry Luke 8:28 - demons tell Jesus same thing, "what have you to do with us." Demons are not rebuking Jesus. Instead are acknowledging power of Jesus by their question to Him. John 2:4; 19:26 - uses title "woman" (gnyai), it is title of dignity and respect 10

Verses Used to Prove “Once Saved, Always Saved” 2 Tim. 4:8 –But it is only at end of Saint Paul's life that he has a moral certitude of salvation. This is after a lifetime of perseverance. As faithful believers in Christ, we indeed have a moral certitude of our salvation, but this is different from being certain of our salvation. Also, Catholics have more assurance of salvation that those who espouse “once saved, always saved.” This is because the only distinction between a true Christian and a superficial Christian is that the superficial Christian will not persevere – but this is something a Christian can’t know during his life, and this necessarily imposes uncertainty upon him until the end. For Catholics, we know that salvation is ours to lose. Rom. 11:29 – “the gifts and the call of our God our irrevocable.” This verse has nothing to do with our response to salvation. It deals with God’s unmerited gifts and call to us. Moreover, if a person is in “the elect,” then his salvation is irrevocable. But we can never know if we are in the elect during our lives (“the elect” only deals with God’s knowledge). Rom. 14:4 – and he will be upheld, for the Master is able to make him stand. This is another verse Protestants use to prove “once saved, always saved.” But the verse speaks only to what God is able to do. It does not address what the person is free to do (accept God’s grace or reject it). Phil. 1:6 – “I am sure that He who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ.” No one would argue that the whole Philippi church was saved, so this statement must be qualified. In fact, Paul does qualify it in Phil. 2:13 when he warns them to work out their salvation “in fear and trembling,” and in Phil. 3:11-14 when he writes that “if possible,” he may obtain the resurrection, and that he has not yet received the prize (of salvation). Moreover, the verse tells us what God will do (He will give all the grace to bring us to completion), but says nothing about our cooperation with God’s grace. Phil. 4:3 – some Protestants point to this verse about names which are in the book of life. Indeed, because God knows the future, He knows who will persevere (the elect). These are the people whose names are in the book of life. But Jesus in Rev. 3:5 warns us that He can blot our names out of the book of life if we fail to persevere. Col. 3:23-24 – “work heartily as serving the Lord, not men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward.” This verse says our inheritance depends on “working heartily.” It’s not just a matter of accepting Christ as Savior, but working heartily in perseverance 2 Tim. 1:12 – “But I am not ashamed, for I know whom I have believed, and I am sure that he is able to guard until that Day what has been entrusted to me.” Another verse proving “once saved, always saved?” Of course not. Paul is writing about the Revelation of faith with which God has entrusted him, and specifically that God will preserve his ability to teach the faith until the end of his life (see v. 13 where Paul then exhorts Timothy to safeguard this deposit of faith as well). 2 Tim. 4:18 – “the Lord will rescue me from every evil and save me for his heavenly kingdom.” Again, this verse demonstrates God’s faithfulness to us, but God’s ability to save us also depends upon our cooperation. God preserves His elect, only He knows who elect by His foreknowledge. 1 Peter 1:3-5 – Peter says we are born anew to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ and to an inheritance which is imperishable, who by God’s power are guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. No Protestant, however, would argue that all of northern Asia Minor (to whom the letter was addressed) was saved. The verse simply sets forth the tautology that God’s elect are saved, but only God knows who are His elect. 1 John 5:18 – John writes that anyone born of God does not sin (this, of course, doesn’t say or prove anything about salvation). This is an example of proverbial literature which John uses frequently. For example, see 1 John 1:8 – if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. Proverbial literature tries to make a point by using an absolute, even though the absolute is necessarily qualified (here, as seen by 1 Jn 1:8 which seemingly contradicts 1 Jn 5:18). Psalm 37:28 – “For the Lord loves justice; He will not forsake His saints. The righteous shall be preserved forever, but the children of the wicked shall be cut off.” Again, this verse shows that God will give the graces necessary for the elect to persevere. Thus, they will be preserved. But the verse says nothing about how we can ever know who is among God’s elect. Psalm 121:3, 7-8 – “He will not let your foot be moved, He who keeps you will not slumber. The Lord will keep you from all evil; He will keep your life. The Lord will keep your going out and your coming in from this time forth and forever more.” This is another example of proverbial literature about how God will preserve His elect. But this also depends upon human cooperation. The verse is about how faithful God will be, not how faithful we will be. Jer. 32:40 – God will make them an everlasting covenant, that He will not turn away from doing good to them; and He will put the fear of me in their hearts, that they may not turn from me. This is another verse which describes the faithfulness of God and how He, through His grace, causes elect to persevere to end. Nothing in Scripture about how we know whether we are part of God’s elect.

Predestination and the "Elect" Eph. 1:5 - "Predestination" means that God knows what we will do before we do it (it does not mean that God determines what we do; otherwise, we would have no freewill). Predestination is taken from the Greek word "prooridzo" which means to know or declare in advance by God’s foreknowledge. See, for example, 1 Peter 1:2 where Peter writes about the “elect according to the foreknowledge of God.” There are two types of "predestination," to grace and to glory. Paul is teaching about predestination to grace, means becoming Christian. 1 Pet. 1:1-2 –destined by God for obedience to Christ. This is another example of predestination to grace. Rom. 8:29-30 –we are predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son. Now Paul is writing about predestination to glory, persevering to the end 1 Cor. 15:49 –we are conformed in His image at the resurrection, when we shall bear the image of the man of heaven. These are people who were predestined to glory. Rev. 3:5 –He can blot out the names that are in the book of life. This refers to those currently, not ultimately, justified (those who predestined to grace, but not to glory) Eph. 1:5; 1 Peter 1:2; Rom. 8:29-30; 1 Cor. 15:49 therefore, predestination is either to grace (which we could lose) or to glory (which we cannot lose). Ezek. 18:23-24, 32 - God takes no pleasure in death of the wicked. Our death is our freewill 2 Peter 3:9 – God is forbearing toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance. God wills all to be saved, but salvation depends on willingness to repent and receive God’s grace. Matt. 18:14 - Jesus says it is not the will of the Father that any children should perish. If we did not have freewill, we would not be able to love, and if we would not be able to love, we would not have been created in God's image Acts 10:35, 45 - non-Christians can be saved if they fear God, even if haven't formally accepted Jesus as Savior 1 Tim. 2:4 - God desires all men to be saved. But our freewill may choose to reject God's grace 2 Pet. 3:9 - the Lord doesn't wish that any should perish James 1:13-14 - Each person is tempted by his own desire 1 Cor. 10:13 - God permits temptation, but does not author it. God provides us sufficient grace to overcome John 3:16-17 - God so loved the world He sent His Son, that world might be saved (not only "elect" might). John 4:42 - Jesus Christ is Savior of the world (not just the Savior of the elect). Some will perish by own choosing Rom. 5:6, 18 - Christ died for the ungodly (all of us), and His righteousness leads to life for all men (not just elect). 2 Cor. 5:14-15 - Christ has died for all (not just the elect), that those who live might live for Him. 1 Tim. 2:6 - Jesus gave Himself as ransom for all (not just for elect). Only those predestined to glory will be saved. 1 Tim. 4:10 - our hope is on the living God who is the Savior of all men (not just the elect). Titus 2:11 - for the grace of God has appeared for the salvation of all men (not just the elect). 1 John 2:2 - Christ is the expiation for the sins of the whole world (not just the elect). 1 John 4:14 - Savior of world (not just Savior of the elect)

I Save (participating in Christ's salvific work) Rom. 11:13-14 - save some of them. 1 Cor. 7:16 - wife can save her husband 1 Cor. 9:22 - that he might save some. 1 Tim. 4:16 - you will save both yourself James 5:20 - brings back a sinner will save Jude 22-23 - instructed to save some people Prov. 16:6 - by love … iniquity is atoned I Have Been Saved (past event) Rom. 8:24 - for in this hope we were saved Eph. 2:5, 8 - for by grace you have been saved 2 Tim. 1:9 - He saved us and called us through Titus 3:5 - saved us in virtue of His own mercy I Am Being Saved (present event) 1 Cor. 1:18 - but for to us who are being saved 2 Cor. 2:15 - among those who are being saved. Phil. 2:12 - we are working out our salvation 1 Peter 1:9 - obtain salvation as outcome of faith. I Will Be Saved (future event) Matt. 10:22, 24:13; Mark 13:13 - we must endure Mark 16:16 – believes and baptized will be saved. Acts 15:11 - we believe that we shall be saved Rom. 5:9-10 - we shall be saved. Rom. 13:11 - salvation nearer than first believed. 1 Cor. 3:15 - he will be saved, only through fire. 1 Cor. 5:5 – deliver…, he will be saved 2 Tim. 2:11-12 - if we endure, we shall also reign Heb. 9:28 - save those who are eagerly waiting James 5:15 - anointing will save the sick

Losing Salvation Matt. 7:18 - sound trees bear good fruit. Matt. 7:21 - "Lord, Lord" on last day not be saved Matt. 12:30-32 - is not with Him is against Him Matt. 22:14 - many are called but few are chosen. Luke 8:13 - receive word, but have no root Luke 12:42-46 - assigned a place with unfaithful. Luke 15:11-32 – parable of the prodigal son John 6:70-71 - Jesus elected twelve, Judas fell. John 15:1-10; Rom.11:20-23 - don't bear fruit, cut John 17:12 - given to Jesus by Father, yet not stay John 6:37 continue come to Jesus, won't cast out John 6:39 - Jesus will not lose those the Father gives Him, but we can fall away, like Judas. John 6:40 - everyone who sees the Son and believes means the person "continues" to believe John 6:44 - no one can come to me unless the Father "draws" him. "drawing" is ongoing process. John 10:27-28 - "no one shall snatch them out my hands," does not mean we can't leave His hands. Rev. 2:4-5 –Ephesians abandoned first love Rev. 3:4 - received white garment and soiled it Rev. 3:5; Ex 32:33 - who conquers not blotted out Rev. 3:11 – hold fast, so no one may seize crown. Rev. 13:10; 14:12 - called for endurance and faith. Rev. 21:7 - must conquer to share in our heritage Rev. 22:19 - share in tree of life, have taken away


Losing Salvation by our Own Choice Acts 7:51 - you stiff-necked people, you always resist the Holy Spirit. We, by our own freewill, can resist God and His grace Rom. 11:20-23 – in expounding on Jesus’ teaching in John 15, Paul teaches that the Jews (the natural branches) were broken off by lack of faith (v.20), but says that the Romans stand fast through faith (v. 21). So the Romans are justified. However, Paul then says that the Romans can also be cut off if they don’t persevere in faith and kindness (v. 22-23). Hence, those justified before God can fall away from the faith and lose their salvation (be “cut off”). Paul also says that those who are cut off can be grafted back in if they do not persist in their unbelief, for God has the power to graft them in again (v.23). 1 Cor. 9:24-27 – Paul says that all the runners compete, but only one wins the prize. Paul recognizes that if he doesn’t train himself properly in perseverance, he too can become “disqualified.” The word "disqualified" comes from the Greek word "adokimos" which literally means cut off from Christ, or reprobate. When “adokimos” is used in the Scriptures, it always refers to those who are to be condemned by God. It has nothing to do with going to heaven with fewer rewards. See, for example, Rom. 1:28; Titus 1:16; 2 Tim. 3:8; Heb. 6:8; 2 Cor. 13:5-7. This proves that Saint Paul thought he could lose his salvation. 1 Cor. 9:24 – Paul says that only one wins the “prize” (brabeion). To further prove that the race Paul is writing about refers to our journey to heaven, “brabeion” always has a soteriological implication. See, for example, Phil. 3:14 where “prize” refers to the upward call of God in Christ Jesus (which is heaven). 1 Cor. 9:25 – Paul writes about achieving the “imperishable” (aphthartos) wreath. Again, to further prove Paul is writing about salvation, “aphthartos” always refers to the eternal. See, for example, 1 Cor. 15:51 (the only other place in NT Scripture where “aphthartos” appears relative to humans) where Paul says the dead will be raised “imperishable.” This refers to the resurrection of our salvation. See also 1 Tim. 1:17 where the King of ages is called “immortal” (imperishable). Rom. 13:11 – salvation is nearer to us now than when first believed. If we already have salvation, then how can we only be nearer to it? 1 Cor. 4:4 - Paul says he is not aware of anything against himself, but he is still not acquitted. Paul is not presumptuous about his salvation. 1 Cor. 6:9-11 - we can be washed, sanctified, and justified, yet Paul still warns us that we can be deceived and become unrighteous. 1 Cor. 10:6-13 – the passage is about how the Israelites, once justified before God, fell away from God. Therefore, let anyone who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall (v.12). You can be standing in God's grace, and then fall away. 1 Cor. 15:1-2 - we can be believers (predestined to grace) but believe in vain. 2 Cor. 6:1 - we can receive the grace of God (predestined to grace) in vain. We can choose not to cooperate with His grace. 2 Cor. 11:2-3 – Paul writes, “I betrothed you to Christ, but I am afraid that your thoughts will be led astray from a devotion to Christ.” The Corinthians already had a sincere devotion to Christ, for Paul wrote to them earlier in the letter, “you stand firm in your faith.” (2 Cor. 1:24). They are already “saved.” But Paul warns them that they can fall away just like Eve fell away Gal. 1:8-9 – “if we or an angel from heaven should preach to you a gospel to that which we preached to you…let him be accursed.” Paul says “if we,” which means he believed even the sacred writers (currently “saved”) could fall away and teach a heretical gospel. Gal. 4:9 – Paul asks those who know God how they can now turn back again to the weak and beggarly elemental spirits, whose slaves they once were. Paul acknowledges and warns of this possibility. Gal. 5:1 – Paul writes that the Galatians are free in Christ, but warns them to stand fast, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery. You cannot be severed from Christ if you were never connected to Christ. Gal. 5:4 - Paul teaches that we can be in Christ, then be severed from Him and fall away from God's grace. You cannot be severed from something unless you were previously connected to it. Phil. 2:12 - we cannot assume salvation. We need to work it out to the end with fear and trembling. If "once saved, always saved" were true, why would the great apostle Paul have to work his salvation out in fear and trembling? What is there to fear if salvation is assured? Phil. 3:11-14 – Paul writes that “if possible,” he may attain the resurrection, says he is not perfect, and presses on toward the prize of salvation. Paul has no presumption of salvation but works it out in fear and trembling. Col. 1:21-23 - we have now been reconciled in His body to be presented holy and blameless, provided we continue in the faith, stable and steadfast, not shifting from the hope of the gospel which we heard. Col. 2:18-19 - a man puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind has lost the connection with Jesus. He had the connection and lost it. 1 Tim. 1:5-6 - some people have wandered away from a sincere faith, a pure heart and a good conscience. They had a sincere (not a fake) faith, and still fell away. 1 Tim. 1:19-20 - Paul tells Timothy to hold fast to the faith, and not shipwreck it like Alexander and Hymenaeus. 1 Tim. 4:1 - the Spirit "expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by giving heed to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons." God Himself is telling us that some people who had the faith will lose the faith. 1 Tim. 5:8 - if we do not provide for our relatives, we have disowned the faith (we had the faith, and we lost it). 1 Tim. 5:15 –some have already turned away and gone after Satan. There is never any distinction between falling away from a true faith versus a false faith. 1 Tim. 6:10 - for the love of riches we may wander from the faith (we had the faith, and we can lose the faith). Heb. 2:1 - we must pay closer attention to what we have heard, lest we drift away from it. We have it, but we can drift away from it. Heb. 3:12 – the author warns the Hebrews to take care, lest there be in any one of you an evil heart, leading you to fall away from the living God. We can be with God, and choose to fall away from Him. Heb. 3:13-14 – the author warns the Hebrews that they need to exhort one another every day, so that none of them may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. Paul teaches that we share in Christ, but only if we hold our first confidence firm to the end. Heb. 4:1 - while promise of entering his rest remains, let us fear lest any of you be judged to have failed to reach it. There would be nothing to fear if salvation were assured.

Losing Salvation by our Own Choice (cont.) Heb. 4:6, 11 - we can receive the good news (predestined to grace) and then disobey it and fall away. The author thus exhorts us to strive to enter that rest that no one falls by the same sort of disobedience. Heb. 6:4-6 - those who have been enlightened and partakers of the Holy Spirit (predestined to grace) can fall away, commit apostasy and crucify the Son of God. Heb. 10:23-29 - we can sin deliberately after receiving knowledge of the truth and then face a fire. Heb. 10:26 - if we continue to sin after knowing truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sin Heb. 10:35 - we can have confidence in salvation (predestined to grace), and then throw it away. Heb. 10:36: - we have the need of endurance, so that we may do the will of God and receive what is promised. There is no need for endurance to get what is promised if salvation is assured. Heb. 10:38-39 – the author says that the righteous live by faith, but can shrink back. He then exhorts the people not to shrink back and be destroyed, but to keep their souls. James 5:19-20 - can be in truth, and then wander from truth which means death, unless brought back. 1 Peter 1:14 – Peter warns that, as obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance. Thus, you can first be ignorant, then receive the truth and become obedient, and later revert back to the passions of your former ignorance. 2 Peter 2:1 - can be bought by Christ, and then become false teachers of heresies and destroy ourselves. 2 Peter 1:10 – we must be zealous to confirm our call and election; for if we do this we will never fall. But Peter is saying that it is possible to fall, without zeal and perseverance. 2 Peter 2:15 – forsaking the right way they have gone astray; they have followed the way of Balaam, the son of Beor, who loved gain from wrongdoing. They had the right way, and then chose to forsake it. 2 Peter 2:20-22 - we can escape the defilements of the world through Jesus (predestined to grace) and then become entangled again therein. 2 Peter 3:16-17 - be the beloved of God and then lose our stability and be carried away 1 John 1:7 - if we walk in the light, the blood of Jesus cleanses us. Need continual cleansing 1 John 1:9 - if we confess our sins, Jesus will forgive them and cleanse us. But we need continual cleansing. Growing in holiness is a lifelong process. 1 John 2:19 - "they left, but didn't not belong to us" refers to those who were Christians who did not persevere, thus not predestined to glory. 1 John 2:28 - must abide in Him so have confidence and don't shrink in shame 2 John 8 - look to yourselves that you may not lose what you worked for Jude 6 - even some of the angels, who beheld the face of God, fell. How much more could we fall? Gen. 3:6 - Adam and Eve, who were already living the divine life of supernatural grace, fell away Ezek. 3:20; 18:24; 33:12,13,18 – the Lord clearly teaches us in these verses that a righteous man can turn away from his righteousness and commit iniquity.

Ephesians 4:15 Instead, speaking the truth in love, we will in all things grow up into him who is the Head, that is, Christ.


Communion of Saints Eph. 3:14-15- we are all one family ("Catholic") in heaven and on earth, united together, as children of the Father, through Jesus Christ. Our brothers and sisters who have gone to heaven before us are not a different family. We are one and same family Eph. 1:22-23; 5:23-32; Col. 1:18, 24 - family is in Jesus Christ, head of the body, which is the Church. 1 Cor. 12:12,27; Rom. 12:5; Col. 3:15; Eph. 4:4 - we are the members of the one body of Christ, supernaturally linked together by our partaking of the Eucharist. Rom. 8:35-39 - therefore, death does not separate the family of God and the love of Christ. We are still united with each other, even beyond death. Matt. 17:3; Mark 9:4; Luke 9:30 - Jesus converses with "deceased" Moses and Elijah. Matt. 22:32; Mark 12:27; Luke 20:38 - God is the God of the living not the dead. Luke 15:7, 10 – if the angels and saints experience joy in heaven over our repentance, then they are still connected to us and are aware of our behavior. John 15:1-6 - Jesus is the vine and we are the branches. The good branches are not cut off at death. 1 Cor. 4:9 – because we can become a spectacle not only to men, but to angels as well, this indicates angels are aware of our earthly activity. Those in heaven are connected to those on earth. 1 Cor. 12:26 - when one member suffers, all suffer. When one is honored, all rejoice. 1 Cor 13:12; 1 John 3:2 - in heaven we see face to face. The saints are more alive than we are! Heb. 12:1 - we are surrounded by a great glory cloud (shekinah) of witnesses, our family in heaven. We are not separated. The “cloud of witnesses” (nephos marturon) refers to a great amphitheatre with the arena for the runners (us on earth), and many tiers of seats occupied by the saints (in heaven) rising up like a cloud. The “martures” are not mere spectators (“theatai”), but testifiers (witnesses) who testify from their own experience to God’s promises and cheer us on in our race to heaven. 1 Peter 2:9; Rev. 20:6 - we are a royal family of priests by virtue of baptism. As priests intercede on behalf of each other. 2 Peter 1:4 - since God is the eternal family and we are His children, we are partakers of His divine nature as united family 1 Cor. 1:2; Rom. 1:7 - we are called to be saints. Saints refer to both those on earth and in heaven who are in Christ. Proof: Acts 9:13,32,41; 26:10; 1 Cor. 6:1-2; 14:33; 2 Cor. 1:1; 8:4; 9:1-2; 13:13; Rom. 8:27; 12:23; 15:25,26, 31; 16:2,15; Eph. 1:1,15,18; 3:8; 5:3; 6:18; Phil. 1:1; 4:22; Col 1:2,4,26; 1 Tm 5:10; Philemon 1:5,7; Heb. 6:10; 13:24; Jude 1:3; Rev. 11:18; 13:7; 14:12; 16:6; 17:6;18:20,24; Rev 19:8; 20:9 - in these verses, we see Christians still living on earth are called saints. Matt. 27:52; Eph. 2:19; 3:18; Col. 1:12; 2 Thess. 1:10; Rev. 5:8; 8:3-4; 11:18; 13:10 - in these verses, we also see that "saints" also refer to those in heaven who united with us. Dan. 4:13, 23; 8:23 –angels in heaven are also called “saints.” The same Hebrew word “qaddiysh” (holy one) is applied to both humans and angels in heaven. Hence, there are angel saints in heaven and human saints in heaven and on earth. Loving beings (whether angels or saints) are concerned for other beings, and prayer is spiritual way of expressing that love

Veneration / Honor of the Saints Matt. 18:10 - the angels in heaven always behold the face of God. We venerate them for their great dignity and union with God. Matt. 15:4; Luke 18:20; Eph. 6:2-3 Exodus 20:12; Lev. 19:3; Deut. 5:16 - are instructed to honor our father and mother. Luke 1:28 - Gabriel venerates Mary by declaring "Hail, full of grace." Romans 13:7 - we are to give honor where honor is due. 1 Cor. 4:16 - the most important form of veneration of the saints is "imitating" the saints, as Paul commands us to do. 1 Cor. 11:1 - again, Paul says, "Be imitators of me, as I am of Christ." The ultimate objective of veneration is imitation. Phil. 2:25-29 - Paul teaches us to honor Epaprhoditus who almost died for the faith. How much more honor is owed to saints that did die Phil. 3:17 - Paul says to imitate him and others 1 Thess. 1:6 – Paul says to the Thessalonians, “You became imitators of us and of the Lord.” This is the goal of veneration. 2 Thess. 3:7 - Thessalonians should imitate him and the other bishops. Hebrews 3:3 - Jesus is worthy of "more" glory and honor than Moses. Does not mean saints are worthy of no glory and honor. Heb. 6:12 – the author teaches us to be imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises. Heb. 13:7 - must imitate faith of our faithful leaders. We ask for their intercession and venerate them for their holiness. James 5:10-11 – James teaches us to take heart in the examples of the prophets and Job, who endured suffering. 1 Peter 2:17 - honor all men, fear God, honor emperor. Gen. 19:1 - Lot venerates the two angels in Sodom, bowing himself Gen. 42:6 - Joseph's brothers bow before Joseph with the face to the ground. This is veneration, not worship. Exodus 28:2 - it is especially important to honor religious leaders. Sacred garments for Aaron give him dignity and honor. Lev. 19:32- we should also honor "the face of an old man." 1 Sam. 28:14 - Saul bows down before Samuel 2 Chron. 32:33 - Hezekiah was honored at his death. Sir. 44:1-2 - we should praise and give honor to those who the Lord apportioned great glory. It is our family in Christ

God Desires and Responds to Our Subordinate Mediation / Intercessory Prayer 1 Tim 2:1-2 - before Paul's teaching about Jesus as the "one mediator," Paul urges supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people. 1 Tim 2:3 - God invites us to participate in Christ role as mediator. 1 Tim. 2:5 - although Jesus Christ is sole mediator between God and man, there are many intercessors 1 Cor. 3:9 - God invites us to participate in Christ's work, we are God's "fellow workers" and one family in body of Christ. The phrase used to describe "fellow workers" is "sunergoi," which literally means synergists, or cooperators with God in salvific matters. Mark 16:20 - this is another example of how the Lord "worked with them" ("sunergountos"). Rom. 8:28 - God "works for good with" (the Greek is "sunergei eis agathon") those who love Him. 2 Cor. 6:1 - "working together" (the Greek is "sunergountes") with him, don't accept His grace in vain. God allows us to participate in His work, not because He needs our help, but because He loves us and wants to exalt us in His Son. like the father who lets his child join him in carrying the groceries in the house. The father does not need help, but he invites child to assist to raise up the child in dignity and love. Heb. 12:1 - the “cloud of witnesses” actively participate and cheer us on, in our race to salvation. 1 Peter 2:5 - holy priesthood, instructed to offer spiritual sacrifices to God. We are therefore subordinate priests to the Head Priest, but we are still priests who participate in Christ's work of redemption. Rev. 1:6, 5:10 - made us a kingdom of priests. Priests intercede through Christ on behalf of God's people. James 5:16; Proverbs 15:8, 29 - the prayers of the righteous (the saints) have powerful effects. 1 Tim 2:5-6 - therefore, it is because Jesus Christ is the one mediator before God that we can be subordinate mediators. He does it all but loves us so much He desires our participation.

Husband’s Headship This order of authority reflects the divine order between God, Christ and man. God blessed the marital covenant with this order to maintain peace and harmony in the family, the “domestic church.” Just as Christ is Head of the Catholic Church (the family of God), so the father is head of his domestic church (his family). 1 Cor. 11:3 – “But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ Eph. 5:22-24 – “Wives, be subject to husbands, Col. 1:18 – “Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.” Titus 2:5 – Wives be submissive to husbands 1 Peter 3:1-2 – “Likewise you wives be submissive to your husbands 1 Peter 3:5-6 – “So once the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves and were submissive to their husbands Gen. 2:18; 1 Cor. 11:9; 1 Tim. 2:12-13 God designated the man as the head of his family from the very beginning of creation, even before original sin. Gen. 3:16 –God revealed that women would want to usurp husband’s authority as result of original sin. Gen. 4:17 – also shows that the Hebrew word for “desire” refers not to a hunger for affection, but a desire to rule over someone. Isaiah 3:12 – the prophet laments about how women were usurping the authority of men, Husbands must love their wives sacrificially, as Christ loves the Church: Eph. 5:25, 28 – just as wives must submit to husbands, husbands must love your wives Eph. 5:33 – “let each one of you love his wife as himself.” Col. 3:19 – “husbands, love your wives, and do not be harsh with them.” 1 Peter 3:7 – “Likewise you husbands live considerately with your wives Because men are spiritual fathers to their families (as both ministerial and royal priests), God revealed that women should be silent in church, and not usurp the roles that God intended for men: 1 Cor. 14:34-35 – “the women should keep silence in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as even the law says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. It is shameful for a woman to speak in church.” 1 Tim. 2:11-15 – “Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness. 1 Cor. 14:34-35 – “the women should keep silence in the churches.” In verse 37, he reiterates “what I am writing you is a command of the Lord.” Paul is explaining that forbidding women to speak in church is a divine command from Almighty God 1 Cor. 11:4-10 –a woman must cover her head when she prays or prophesies, especially in church: 13

The Church is Visible and One Matt. 5:14 - Jesus says a city set on a hill cannot be hidden, and this is in reference to the Church. The Church is not an invisible, ethereal, atmospheric presence, but a single, visible and universal body through the Eucharist. The Church is an extension of the Incarnation. Matt. 12:25; Mark 3:25; Luke 11:17 - kingdom divided against itself will not stand. Matt. 16:18 - Jesus says, "I will build my 'Church' (not churches)." Matt. 16:19; 18:18 - Jesus gave the apostles binding and loosing authority. But this authority requires a visible Church because "binding and loosing" are visible acts. The Church cannot be invisible, or it cannot bind and loose. John 10:16 - Jesus says there must only be one flock and one shepherd. This cannot mean many denominations and many pastors, all teaching different doctrines. John 17:11, 21, 23 - Jesus prays that His followers may be perfectly one as He is one with the Father. Jesus' oneness with the Father is perfect. It can never be less. Thus, the oneness Jesus prays for cannot mean the varied divisions of Christianity John 17:9-26 - Jesus' prayer, of course, is perfectly effective, as evidenced by the miraculous unity of the Catholic Church during her 2,000 year history. John 17:21 - Jesus states that the visible unity of the Church would be a sign that He was sent by God. This is an extremely important verse. Jesus tells us that the unity of the Church is what bears witness to Him and the reality of who He is and what He came to do for us. There is only one Church that is universally united, and that is the Catholic Church. Rom. 15:5 - Paul says that we as Christians must live in harmony with one another. But this can only happen if there is one Church with one body of faith. Rom. 16:17 - Paul warns us to avoid those who create dissensions and difficulties. This includes those who break away from the Church and create one denomination after another. 1 Cor. 1:10- Paul prays for no dissensions and disagreements among Christians, being of the same mind and the same judgment. Eph. 1:22-23; 5:23-32; Col. 1:18, 24 - Church does not mean "invisible" unity, because Paul called it the body (not the soul) of Christ. Bodies are visible, and souls are invisible. Eph. 4:11-14 - God gives members of the Church various gifts to attain to the unity of the faith. Eph. 4:3-5 - we are of one body, one Spirit, one faith and one baptism. Requires doctrinal unity. Eph. 5:25 - the Church is the Bride of Christ. Jesus has only one Bride, not many. Eph. 5:30; Rom. 12:4-5; 1 Cor. 6:15 - are one visible body in Christ, not many bodies. Phil. 1:27 - stand firm in one spirit, with one mind striving side by side for faith of the Gospel. Phil. 2:2 - Paul prays that Christians be of the same mind, of one accord. Col. 1:18 - Christ is the Head of the one body, the Church. He is not the Head of many bodies 1 Tim. 6:4 - Paul warns about those who seek controversy and disputes about words. There must be a universal authority to appeal to who can trace its authority back to Christ. 2 Tim. 2:14 - do not dispute about words which only ruin the hearers. 2 Tim. 4:3 - this is a warning on following our own desires and not the teachings of God. It is not a cafeteria where we pick and choose. We must humble ourselves and accept all of Christ's teachings which He gives us through His Church. Rev. 7:9 - the heavenly kingdom is filled with those from every nation and from all tribes, peoples and tongues. This is "catholic," which means universal. 1 Peter 3:8 - Peter charges us to have unity of spirit 1 Cor. 14:33 - God cannot be the author of the Protestant confusion. Only the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church claims and proves to be Christ's Church.

The Church is Hierarchical Matt. 16:18; 18:18 - Jesus uses the word "ecclesia" only twice in the New Testament Scriptures, which demonstrates that Jesus intended a visible, unified, hierarchical, and authoritative Church. Acts 20:17, 28 - Paul refers to both the elders or priests ("presbyteroi") and the bishops ("episkopoi") of the Church. Both are ordained leaders within the hierarchical structure of the Church. 1 Cor. 12:28 - God Himself appoints the various positions of authority within the Church. As a loving Father, God gives His children the freedom and authority to act with charity and justice to bring about His work of salvation. Eph. 4:11 - the Church is hierarchical and includes apostles, prophets, pastors, and teachers, all charged to build up the Church. The Church is not an invisible entity with an invisible foundation. Phil. 1:1 - Paul addresses the bishops and deacons of the Church. They can all trace their unbroken lineage back to the apostles. 1 Tim. 3:1; Titus 1:7 - Christ's Church has bishops ("episkopoi") who are direct successors of the apostles. The bishops can trace the authority conferred upon them back to the apostles. 1 Tim. 5:17; Titus 1:5; James 5:14 - Church also has elders or priests ("presbyteroi") who serve bishops. 1 Tim. 3:8 - Christ's Church also has deacons ("diakonoi"). Thus, Jesus Christ's Church has a hierarchy of authority - bishops, priests and deacons, who can all trace their lineage back to Peter and the apostles. Exodus 28:1 and 19:6 – shows the three offices of the Old Testament priesthood (1). High priest – Aaron (Ex. 28:1); (2). Ministerial priests – Aaron’s sons (Ex. 19:6; 28:1); and (3). Universal priests – Israel (Ex. 19:6). The New Testament priesthood also has three offices: (1) High Priest – Jesus Christ (Heb. 3:1); (2) Ministerial priests – the ordained bishops and priests (Rom. 15:16; 1 Tim. 3:1,8; 5:17; Titus 1:7); and (3) Universal priests - all the baptized (1 Pet. 2:5,9; Rev. 1:6).

Controversies in the Church Matt. 13:24-30 - scandals have always existed in the Church, just as they have existed outside of the Church. This should not cause us to lose hope in the Church. God's mysterious plan requires the wheat and the weeds to be side by side in the Church until the end of time. Matt. 13:47-50 - God's plan is that the Church (the kingdom of heaven) is a net which catches fish of every kind, good and bad. God revealed this to us so that we will not get discouraged by the sinfulness of the Church’s members. Matt. 16:18 - no matter how sinful its members conduct themselves, Jesus promised that the gates of death will never prevail against the Church. Matt. 23:2-3 - the Jewish people would have always understood the difference between a person's sinfulness and his teaching authority. We see that the sinfulness of the Pharisees does not minimize their teaching authority. They occupy the "cathedra" of Moses. Matt. 26:70-72; Mark 14:68-70; Luke 22:57; John 18:25-27 - Peter denied Christ three times, yet he was chosen to be the leader of the Church, and taught and wrote infallibly. Mark 14:45 - Judas was unfaithful by betraying Jesus. But his apostolic office was preserved and this did not weaken the Church. Mark 14:50 - all of Jesus' apostles were unfaithful by abandoning Him in the garden of Gethsemane, yet they are the foundation of the Church. John 20:24-25 - Thomas the apostle was unfaithful by refusing to believe in Jesus' resurrection, yet he taught infallibly in India. Rom. 3:3-4 - unfaithful members do not nullify the faithfulness of God and work of Holy Spirit in the Church. Eph. 5:25-27 - just as Jesus Christ has both a human and a divine nature, the Church, His Bride, is also both human and divine. It is the holy and spotless bride of Christ, with sinful human members. 1 Tim. 5:19 - Paul acknowledges Church elders might be unfaithful. 2 Tim. 2:13 - if we remain faithless, God remains faithful for He cannot deny Himself. 2 Tim. 2:20 - great house has not only gold and silver, but also wood and earthenware, some for noble, some for ignoble use. Jer. 24:1-10 - God's plan includes both good and bad figs. The good figs will be rewarded, and the bad figs will be discarded. 1 Kings 6, 7, 8 - the Lord commands us to build elaborate places of worship. Some nonCatholics think that this is controversial and the money should be given to the poor, even though no organization does more for the poor of the world that the Catholic Church. We create our churches with beauty because Christ our King lives in churches in blessed Eucharist Matt. 26:8-9; Mark 14:4-5; John 12:5 - negative comments concerning the beauty of the Church are like the disciples complaining about the woman anointing Jesus' head with costly oil. Jesus desires that we honor Him with our best gifts, not for Him, but for us, so that we realize He is God and we are His creatures. Matt. 26:10-11 - Jesus says we have both a duty to honor God and give to the poor - a balanced life of reverence and charity.

John 17:20-21 My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me. 14

The Church is Infallible and Supernatural Isa. 35:8, 54:13-17 - this prophecy refers to the Church as the Holy Way where sons will be taught by God and they will not err. The Church has been given the gift of infallibility when teaching about faith and morals, where her sons are taught directly by God and will not err. This gift of infallibility means that the Church is prevented from teaching error by the power of the Holy Spirit (it does not mean that Church leaders do not sin!) Acts 9:2; 22:4; 24:14,22 - the early Church is identified as the "Way" prophesied in Isaiah 35:8 where fools will not err therein. Matt. 10:20; Luke 12:12 - Jesus tells His apostles it is not they who speak, but the Spirit of their Father speaking through them. If the Spirit is the one speaking and leading the Church, the Church cannot err on matters of faith and morals. Matt. 16:18 - Jesus promises the gates of Hades would never prevail against the Church. This requires that the Church teach infallibly. If the Church did not have the gift of infallibility, the gates of Hades and error would prevail. Also, since the Catholic Church was the only Church that existed up until the Reformation, those who follow the Protestant reformers call Christ a liar by saying that Hades did prevail. Matt. 16:19 - for Jesus to give Peter and the apostles, mere human beings, the authority to bind in heaven what they bound on earth requires infallibility. This is a gift of the Holy Spirit and has nothing to do with the holiness of the person receiving the gift. Matt. 18:17-18 - the Church (not Scripture) is the final authority on questions of the faith. This demands infallibility when teaching the faith. She must be prevented from teaching error in order to lead her members to the fullness of salvation. Matt. 28:20 - Jesus promises that He will be with the Church always. Jesus' presence in the Church assures infallible teaching on faith and morals. Mark 8:33 - non-Catholics sometimes use this to down play Peter's authority. Jesus rebukes Peter to show the import of His Messianic role as Savior of humanity. Moreover, at this point, Peter was not yet the Pope with the keys, and Jesus did not rebuke Peter for his teaching. Jesus rebuked Peter for his lack of understanding. Luke 10:16 - whoever hears you, hears me. Whoever rejects you rejects me. Jesus is very clear that bishops of the Church speak with Christ's infallible authority. Luke 22:32 - Jesus prays for Peter, that his faith may not fail. Jesus' prayer for Peter's faith is perfectly efficacious, and this allows Peter to teach faith without error John 11:51-52 - some non-Catholics argue that sinners cannot have the power to teach infallibly. But in this verse, God allows Caiaphas to prophesy infallibly, even though he was evil and plotted Jesus' death. God allows sinners to teach infallibly, just as He allows sinners to become saints. As a loving Father, He exalts His children, and is bound by His own justice to give His children a mechanism to know truth from error. 1 & 2 Peter - for example, Peter denied Christ, he was rebuked by his greatest bishop (Paul), and yet he wrote two infallible encyclicals. Further, if Peter could teach infallibly by writing, why could he not also teach infallibly by preaching? And why couldn't his successors so teach as well? Gen. to Deut.; Psalms; Paul - Moses and maybe Paul were murderers and David was an adulterer and murderer, but they also wrote infallibly. God uses us sinful human beings because when they respond to His grace and change their lives, we give God greater glory John 14:16 - Jesus promises that the Holy Spirit would be with the Church forever. The Spirit prevents the teaching of error on faith and morals. John 14:26 - Jesus promises that the Holy Spirit would teach the Church (the apostles and successors) all things regarding the faith. This means that the Church can teach us the right moral positions on such things as in vitro fertilization, cloning and other issues that are not addressed in the Bible. After all, these issues of morality are necessary for our salvation, and God would not leave such important issues to be decided by us sinners without His divine assistance. John 16:12 - Jesus had many things to say but the apostles couldn't bear them at that point. This demonstrates that the Church's infallible doctrine develops over time. All public Revelation was completed with the death of the last apostle, but the doctrine of God's Revelation develops as our minds and hearts are able to welcome and understand it. God teaches His children only as much as they can bear, for their own good. John 16:13 - Jesus promises that Spirit will "guide" Church into all truth. Our knowledge of the truth develops as Spirit guides Church, and this happens over time. 1 Cor. 2:13 – Paul explains that what the ministers teach is taught, not by human wisdom, but by the Spirit. Eph. 4:13, 15 – Paul indicates that attaining to the unity of the faith and the knowledge of the Son of God to mature manhood is a process. We are to grow up in every way into Christ. Doctrine (which means “teaching”) develops as we understand God’s Revelation. Acts 15:27-28 - the apostles know that their teaching is being guided by the Holy Spirit. He protects the Church from deception. Gal. 2:11-14 - non-Catholics sometimes use this verse to diminish Peter's evident authority over the Church. This is misguided. In this verse, Paul does not oppose Peter's teaching, but his failure to live by it. Infallibility (teaching without error) does not mean impeccability (living without sinning). Peter was the one who taught infallibly on the Gentile's salvation in Acts 10, 11. With this rebuke, Paul is really saying "Peter, you are our leader, you teach infallibly, and yet your conduct is inconsistent with these facts. You of all people!" The verse really underscores, and not diminishes, the importance of Peter's leadership in the Church. Eph. 3:10 - the wisdom of God is known, even to the intellectually superior angels, through the Church (not the Scriptures). God's infinite wisdom comes to us through the Church. For that to happen Church must be protected from teaching error on faith and morals (or she wouldn't be endowed with the wisdom of God). Eph. 3:9 - this, in fact, is a mystery hidden for all ages - that God manifests His wisdom through one infallible Church for all people. Eph. 3:20 - God's glory is manifested in the Church by the power of the Spirit that works within the Church's leaders. As a Father, God exalts His children to roles of leadership within the body of Christ. Eph. 5:23-27, Col. 1:18 - Christ is head of Church, His Bride, which He died to make Holy and without blemish. Only one Church, as Christ only has one Bride. Eph. 5:32- Paul calls the Church a "mystery." This means that the significance of the Church as the kingdom of God in our midst cannot be understood by reason alone. Understanding the Church also requires faith. "Church" does not mean a building of believers. That is not a mystery. Non-Catholics often view church as mere community, but not the supernatural mystery of Christ physically present among us. 1 Thess. 5:21 - Paul commands us to test everything. But we must have something against which to test. This requires one infallible guide that is available to us, 1 Tim. 3:15 - Paul says the apostolic Church (not Scripture) is the pillar and foundation of the truth. But for the Church to be the pinnacle and foundation of truth, she must be protected from teaching error, or infallible. She also must be the Catholic Church, whose teachings on faith and morals have not changed for 2,000 years. God loves us so much that He gave us a Church that infallibly teaches the truth so that we have the fullness of means of salvation in His only begotten Son. 1 John 4:6 – John writes that whoever knows God “listens to us” (the bishops and successors to the apostles). This is how we discern truth and error. If listening to mere human beings helps us discern truth and error, God would have had to endow his chosen leaders with special gift of infallibility, so they would be prevented from teaching error. Matt. to Rev. - Why accept Church's teaching on three persons of Trinity, two natures of Christ in one divine person, and New Testament canon of Scripture (all defined by the Catholic Church), but not other teachings regarding the Eucharist, Mary, the saints, and purgatory?

Peter's Keys and Papal Succession Jer. 33:17 - Jeremiah prophesies that David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the earthly House of Israel. Either this is a false prophecy, or David has a successor of representatives throughout history. Dan. 2:44 - Daniel prophesies an earthly kingdom that will never be destroyed. Either this is a false prophecy, or the earthly kingdom requires succession. Isa. 22:20 - in told Davidic kingdom, Eliakim succeeds Shebna as chief steward of the household of God. The kingdom employs a mechanism of dynastic succession. King David was dead for centuries, but his kingdom is preserved through succession of representatives Isa. 22:19 - Shebna is described as having an "office" and a "station." An office, in order for it to be an office, has successors. In order for an earthly kingdom to last, a succession of representatives is required. This was the case in the Old Covenant kingdom, and it is the case in the New Covenant kingdom which fulfills the Old Covenant. Jesus our King is in heaven, but He has appointed a chief steward over His household with plan for succession of reps. Isa. 22:21 - Eliakim is called “father” or “papa” of God's people. The word Pope used by Catholics to describe the chief steward of the earthly kingdom simply means papa or father in Italian. This is why Catholics call the leader of the Church "Pope." The Pope is the father of God's people, the chief steward of the earthly kingdom and Christ's representative on earth. Isa. 22:22 - we see that the keys of the kingdom pass from Shebna to Eliakim. Thus, the keys are used not only as a symbol of authority, but also to facilitate succession. The keys of Christ's kingdom have passed from Peter to Linus all the way to our current Pope with an unbroken lineage for almost 2,000 years. Acts 1:20 - we see in the early Church that successors are immediately chosen for the apostles' offices. Just as the Church replaced Judas, it also replaced Peter with a successor after Peter's death. John 21:15-17; Luke 22:31-32 - Jesus' creation of Peter's office as chief shepherd with keys passed to Linus, Cletus, Clement I, etc. Matt. 23:2 - shows that the Jews understood importance of succession to the chair and its attendant authority. Here, Jesus respects Moses' seat ("cathedra") of authority which was preserved by succession. In the Church, Peter's seat is called the "cathedra," and when Peter's successor speaks officially on a matter of faith or morals, it may rise to level of "ex cathedra" (from the chair) teaching. Eph. 3:21 - this divine word tells us that Jesus Christ's Church will exist in all generations.


Primacy of Peter Matt. to Rev. - Peter is mentioned 155 times and the rest of apostles combined are only mentioned 130 times. Peter is also always listed first except in 1 Cor. 3:22 and Gal. 2:9 (which are obvious exceptions to the rule). Matt. 10:2; Mark 1:36; 3:16; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:3; 2:37; 5:29 - where Peter is mentioned first among the apostles. Matt. 14:28-29 - only Peter has the faith to walk on water. No other man in Scripture is said to have the faith to walk on water. Matt. 16:16, Mark 8:29; John 6:69 - Peter is first among the apostles to confess the divinity of Christ. Matt. 16:17 - Peter alone is told he has received divine knowledge by a special revelation from God the Father. Matt. 16:18 - Jesus builds the Church only on Peter, the rock, with the other apostles as the foundation and Jesus as the Head. Matt. 16:19 - receives keys, which represent authority over Church and facilitate dynastic succession to his authority Matt. 17:24-25 - the tax collector approaches Peter for Jesus' tax. Peter is the spokesman for Jesus. He is the Vicar of Christ. Matt. 17:26-27 - Jesus pays half-shekel tax with one shekel, for both Jesus and Peter. Peter is Christ's representative on earth. Matt. 18:21 - in the presence of the disciples, Peter asks Jesus about the rule of forgiveness. One of many examples where Peter takes a leadership role among the apostles in understanding Jesus' teachings. Matt. 19:27 - Peter speaks on behalf of the apostles by telling Jesus that they have left everything to follow Him. Mark 10:28 - here also, Peter speaks on behalf of the disciples by declaring that they have left everything to follow Him. Mark 11:21 - Peter speaks on behalf of the disciples in remembering Jesus' curse on the fig tree. Mark 14:37 - at Gethsemane, Jesus asks Peter, and no one else, why he was asleep. Peter is accountable to Jesus for his actions on behalf of the apostles because he has been appointed by Jesus as their leader. Mark 16:7 - Peter is specified by an angel as the leader of the apostles Luke 5:3 – Jesus teaches from Peter’s boat which is metaphor for the Church. Jesus guides Peter and the Church into all truth. Luke 5:4, 10 - Jesus instructs Peter let down nets for a catch, and miraculous catch follows. Peter, the Pope, is "fisher of men" Luke 7:40-50- Jesus addresses Peter regarding the rule of forgiveness and Peter answers on behalf of the disciples. Jesus also singles Peter out and judges his conduct vis-à-vis the conduct of the woman who anointed Him. Luke 8:45 - when Jesus asked who touched His garment, it is Peter who answers on behalf of the disciples. Luke 8:51; 9:28; 22:8; Acts 1:13; 3:1, 3, 11; 4:13, 19; 8:14 - Peter always mentioned before John, disciple whom Jesus loved Luke 9:28;33 - Peter is mentioned first as going to mountain of transfiguration and the only one to speak at the transfiguration. Luke 12:41 - Peter seeks clarification of a parable on behalf of the disciples. This is part of Peter's formation as the chief shepherd of the flock after Jesus ascended into heaven. Luke 22:31-32 - Jesus prays for Peter alone, that his faith may not fail, and charges him to strengthen the rest of the apostles. Luke 24:12, John 20:4-6 - John arrived at tomb first, stopped and waited for Peter. Peter then arrived and entered tomb first Luke 24:34 - two disciples distinguish Peter even though they both had seen risen Jesus the previous hour. See Luke 24:33. John 6:68 - after the disciples leave, Peter is the first to speak and confess his belief in Christ after the Eucharistic discourse. John 13:6-9 - Peter speaks out to the Lord in front of the apostles concerning the washing of feet. John 13:36; 21:18 - Jesus predicts Peter's death. Peter was martyred at Rome in 67 A.D. John 21:2-3, 11 - Peter leads the fishing and his net does not break. The boat ("barque of Peter") is a metaphor for the Church. John 21:7 - only Peter got out of the boat and ran to the shore to meet Jesus. Peter is the earthly shepherd leading us to God. John 21:15 - in front of the apostles, Jesus asks Peter if he loves Jesus "more than these," which refers to the other apostles. John 21:15-17 - Jesus charges Peter "feed my lambs," "tend my sheep," "feed my sheep." Means all people, even apostles. Acts 1:13 - first when entering upper room after our Lord's ascension. First Eucharist and Pentecost were given in this room Acts 1:15 - Peter initiates the selection of a successor to Judas right after Jesus ascended into heaven, and no one questions him. Further, if the Church needed a successor to Judas, wouldn't it need one to Peter? Of course. Acts 2:14 - Peter first to speak for apostles after Holy Spirit descended upon them at Pentecost. Peter first to preach Gospel Acts 2:38 - Peter gives first preaching in the early Church on repentance and baptism in the name of Jesus Christ. Acts 3:1, 3, 4 - Peter is mentioned first as going to the Temple to pray. Acts 3:6-7 - Peter works the first healing of the apostles. Acts 3:12-26, 4:8-12 - Peter teaches the early Church the healing through Jesus and that there is no salvation other than Christ. Acts 5:3 - Peter declares the first anathema of Ananias and Sapphira which is ratified by God, and brings about their death. Acts 5:15 - Peter's shadow has healing power. No other apostle is said to have this power. Acts 8:14 - Peter is mentioned first in conferring the sacrament of confirmation. Acts 8:20-23 - Peter casts judgment on Simon's quest for gaining authority through the laying on of hands. Acts 9:32-34 - Peter is mentioned first among the apostles and works the healing of Aeneas. Acts 9:38-40 - Peter is mentioned first among the apostles and raises Tabitha from the dead. Acts 10:5 - Cornelius is told by an angel to call upon Peter. Peter was granted this divine vision. Acts 10:34-48, 11:1-18 - Peter is first to teach about salvation for all (Jews and Gentiles). Acts 12:5 - implies that the "whole Church" offered "earnest prayers" for Peter, their leader, during his imprisonment. Acts 12:6-11 - Peter is freed from jail by an angel. He is the first object of divine intervention in the early Church. Acts 15:7-12 - Peter resolves the first doctrinal issue on circumcision at the Church's first council at Jerusalem, and no one questions him. After Peter the Papa spoke, all were kept silent.

Primacy of Peter (cont.) Acts 15:12 - only after Peter speaks do Paul and Barnabas speak in support of Peter's definitive teaching. Acts 15:13-14 - then James speaks to further acknowledge Peter's definitive teaching. Rom. 15:20 - "another man's foundation" referring to Peter, who built Church in Rome 1 Cor. 9:5 – Peter is distinguished from rest of the apostles and brethren of the Lord. 1 Cor. 15:4-8 - Paul distinguishes Jesus' post-resurrection appearances to Peter from those of the other apostles. Christ appeared “to Cephas, then to the twelve.” Gal. 1:18 - Paul spends fifteen days with Peter privately before beginning his ministry, even after Christ's Revelation to Paul. 1 Peter 5:1 - Peter acts as chief bishop by "exhorting" all other bishops of the Church. 1 Peter 5:13 - Some Protestants argue against the Papacy by trying to prove Peter was never in Rome. First, this argument is irrelevant to whether Jesus instituted the Papacy. Secondly, this verse demonstrates that Peter was in fact in Rome. Peter writes from "Babylon" which was a code name for Rome during these days of persecution. See, for example, Rev. 14:8, 16:19, 17:5, 18:2, 10, 21, which show that "Babylon" meant Rome. Rome was the "great city" of New Testament period. Because Rome during this age was considered center of the world, Lord wanted His Church to be established in Rome. 2 Peter 1:14 - Peter writes about Jesus' prediction of Peter's death, embracing martyrdom 2 Peter 3:16 - Peter is making a judgment on the proper interpretation of Paul's letters. Peter is the chief shepherd of the flock. Matt. 23:11; Mark 9:35; 10:44 - yet Peter, as the first, humbled himself to be the last

The Holy Spirit is God Job 33:4 - "The Spirit of God made me and the breath of the Almighty has given me life." Matt. 12:31; Luke 12:10 - Jesus says blasphemy against Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. John 4:24 - God is a spirit and they who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. John 14:16,26; 15:26; 16:7 - the Father and the Son send the Counselor, the Holy Spirit Isaiah 9:6 - the Counselor is Mighty God. Acts 5:3-4, 9 - Ananias lied to the Holy Spirit, not lied to men, but to God Acts 28:25-27 - Holy Spirit said "Go to this people and say..." - Is 6:8-10 - Lord said "Go to this people and say..." Rom. 8:11 - the Spirit that raised Jesus up from the dead - Gal. 1:1 - God raised Jesus 1 Cor. 2:10 - the Spirit searches everything - Jer. 17:10 - the Lord searches the heart. 1 Cor. 3:16 - you are the temple of God - 1 Cor. 6:19 - you are temple of the Holy Spirit. 1 Cor. 12:4-6 - there are varieties of gifts but the same Spirit 2 Cor. 3:6, 17 - ministers of covenant in the Spirit. Now the Lord (God) is the Spirit. Heb. 10:16 - Holy Spirit said this is covenant I will make - Jer. 31:33 - Lord said this is covenant I will make. 1 Peter 1:2 - sanctified by the Holy Spirit - 1 Thess. 5:23 - God of peace sanctifies you The Holy Spirit is a Person Luke 12:12 - the Holy Spirit will teach you John 14:17 - world neither sees Him or knows Him ("Him" is referring to the Holy Spirit). John 14:26 - the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, He will teach you all things John 15:26 - the Spirit, who proceeds from the Father, He will bear witness to me. John 16:7 - Counselor will not come to you. But if I go, I (Jesus) will send Him to you. John 16:7 - the Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son. John 16: 8 - when He (the Holy Spirit) comes, He will convince the world John 16:13-14 - when the Spirit of truth comes He will guide you into all truth. Acts 8:29; 10:19-20; 11:12; 13:2; Rev. 22:17 - Holy Spirit speaks like a human person Acts 15:25, 28 - it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us. Rom. 8:26 - the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for words. Rom. 8:16 - it is the Spirit Himself bearing witness Rom. 15:30 - I appeal to you by the Lord Jesus and the love of the Spirit. 1 Cor. 12:11 - the Holy Spirit apportions His gifts to each one individually as He wills 2 Cor. 13:14 - the Holy Spirit can have fellowship with the faithful like a human person. Eph. 4:30 - the Holy Spirit can be grieved, just as human persons can be grieved.


Peter is the Rock on which the Church is Built Mark 3:16; John 1:42 – Jesus renames Simon "Kepha" in Aramaic which literally means "rock." This was an extraordinary thing for Jesus to do, because "rock" was not even a name in Jesus' time. When God changes a person's name, He changes their status. Gen.17:5; 32:28; 2 Kings 23:34; Acts 9:4; 13:9 - Abram to Abraham; Jacob to Israel, Eliakim to Jehoiakim, Saul to Paul. 2 Sam. 22:2-3, 32, 47; 23:3; Psalm 18:2,31,46; 19:4; 28:1; 42:9; 62:2,6,7; 89:26; 94:22; 144:1-2 - in these verses, God is also called "rock." Some assume words used in Scripture can only have one meaning. For example: 1 Cor. 3:11 - Jesus is called the only foundation of the Church, and yet in Eph. 2:20, the apostles are called the foundation of the Church. Similarly, in 1 Peter 2:25, Jesus is called the Shepherd of the flock, but in Acts 20:28, the apostles are called the shepherds of the flock. Matt. 16:18 - Jesus said in Aramaic, you are "Kepha" and on this "Kepha" I will build my Church. In Aramaic, "kepha" means a massive stone, and "evna" means little pebble. Some non-Catholics argue that, because the Greek word for rock is "petra” that "Petros" actually means "a small rock", and therefore Jesus was attempting to diminish Peter right after blessing him by calling him a small rock. Not only is this nonsensical in the context of Jesus' blessing of Peter, Jesus was speaking Aramaic and used "Kepha," not "evna." Using Petros to translate Kepha was done simply to reflect the masculine noun of Peter. Moreover, if translator wanted to identify Peter as "small rock," he would have used "lithos" which means a little pebble in Greek. Also, Petros and petra were synonyms at the time the Gospel was written, so any attempt to distinguish the two words is inconsequential. Thus, Jesus called Peter massive rock, not little pebble, on which He would build Church. (renamed“rock” in Mk 3:16 and Jn 1:42). Matt. 16:17 - to further demonstrate that Jesus was speaking Aramaic, Jesus says Simon "Bar-Jona." The use of "Bar-Jona" proves that Jesus was speaking Aramaic. In Aramaic, "Bar" means son and "Jonah" means John or dove (Holy Spirit). See Matt. 27:46 and Mark 15:34 which give another example of Jesus speaking Aramaic as He utters in rabbinical fashion the first verse of Psalm 22 declaring that He is the Christ, the Messiah. This shows that Jesus was indeed speaking Aramaic, as the Jewish people did at that time. Matt. 16:18 - also, in quoting "on this rock," the Scriptures use the Greek construction "tautee tee" which means on "this" rock; on "this same" rock; or on "this very" rock. "Tautee tee" is a demonstrative construction in Greek, pointing to Peter, the subject of the sentence (and not his confession of faith as some non-Catholics argue) as the very rock on which Jesus builds His Church. The demonstrative (“tautee”) generally refers to its closest antecedent (“Petros”). Also, there is no place in Scripture where “faith” is equated with “rock.” Matt. 16:18-19 - in addition, to argue that Jesus first blesses Peter for having received divine revelation from the Father, then diminishes him by calling him a small pebble, and then builds him up again by giving him the keys to the kingdom of heaven is entirely illogical, and a gross manipulation of the text to avoid the truth of Peter's leadership in the Church. This is a three-fold blessing of Peter - you are blessed, you are the rock on which I will build my Church, and you will receive the keys to the kingdom of heaven (not; you are blessed for receiving Revelation, but you are still an insignificant little pebble, yet I am going to give you the keys to the kingdom). Matt. 16:18-19 – to further rebut the Protestant argument that Jesus was speaking about Peter’s confession of faith (not Peter himself) based on the revelation he received, the verses are clear that Jesus, after acknowledging Peter’s receipt of divine revelation, turns the whole discourse to the person of Peter: Blessed are “you” Simon, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to “you,” and I tell “you,” “you” are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church. I will give “you” the keys to the kingdom, and whatever “you” bind and loose on earth will be bound and loosed in heaven. Jesus’ whole discourse relates to the person of Peter, not his confession of faith. Matt. 16:17 - Simon in Aramaic means "grain of sand." If Simon's name meant "grain of sand," it would be pointless to change his name from "grain of sand" to "pebble." Matt. 16:13 - also, from a geographical perspective, Jesus renames Simon to rock in Caesarea Philippi near a massive rock formation on which Herod built a temple to Caesar. Jesus chose this setting to further emphasize that Peter was indeed the rock on which the Church would be built. Matt. 7:24 - Jesus, like the wise man, builds His house on the rock (Peter), not on grain of sand (Simon) Luke 6:48 - the house (the Church) built upon the rock (Peter) cannot be shaken by floods Matt. 16:21 - it was only after Jesus established Peter as leader of the Church that He began to speak of His death and departure. This is because Jesus had now appointed His representative on earth. John 21:15 - if he loves Jesus "more than these," referring to other apostles. Jesus singles Peter out John 21:15-17 - selects Peter to be chief shepherd of apostles, "feed my lambs" "tend my sheep" "feed my sheep" Luke 22:31-32 - "Simon, Satan demanded to have you (plural, referring to all the apostles) to sift you (plural) like wheat, but I prayed for you (singular) that your (singular) faith may not fail, and when you (singular) have turned again, strengthen your brethren. Acts 1, 2,3,4,5,8,15 - no one questions Peter's authority to speak for the Church, declare anathemas, and resolve doctrinal debates. John 1:49-51 - Nathana-el, “you are the Son of God”, but no name change

Peter has the Keys of Authority over the Earthly Kingdom, the Church 2 Sam. 7:16; Psalm 89:3-4; 1 Chron.17:12, 14 - God promises to establish the Davidic kingdom forever on earth. Matt. 1:1 - Matthew clearly establishes this tie of David to Jesus. Jesus is the new King of the new House of David, and the King will assign a chief steward to rule over the house while the King is in heaven. Luke 1:32 - the archangel Gabriel announces to Mary that her Son would be given "the throne of His father David." Matt. 16:19 - Jesus gives Peter the "keys of the kingdom of heaven." While most Protestants argue that the kingdom of heaven Jesus was talking about is the eternal state of glory (as if Peter is up in heaven letting people in), the kingdom of heaven Jesus is speaking of actually refers to the Church on earth. In using the term "keys," Jesus was referencing Isaiah 22 (which is the only place in the Bible where keys are used in the context of a kingdom). Isaiah 22:22 - in the old Davidic kingdom, there were royal ministers who conducted the liturgical worship and bound the people in teaching and doctrine. But there was also a Prime Minister or chief steward of the kingdom who held the keys. Jesus gives Peter these keys to His earthly kingdom, the Church. This representative has decision-making authority over the people - when he shuts, no one opens. See also Job 12:14. Rev. 1:18; 3:7; 9:1; 20:1 - Jesus' "keys" undeniably represent authority. By using the word "keys," Jesus gives Peter authority on earth over the new Davidic kingdom, and this was not seriously questioned by anyone until the Protestant reformation 1,500 years later after Peter’s investiture. Matt. 16:19 - whatever Peter binds or looses on earth is bound or loosed in heaven / when the Prime Minister to the King opens, no one shuts. This "binding and loosing" authority allows the keeper of the keys to establish "halakah," or rules of conduct for the members of the kingdom he serves. Peter's "keys" fit into the "gates" of Hades which also represent Peter’s pastoral authority over souls. Matt. 23:2-4 - the "binding and loosing" terminology used by Jesus was understood by the Jewish people. For example, Jesus said that the Pharisees "bind" heavy burdens but won't move ("loose") them with their fingers. Peter and the apostles have the new binding and loosing authority over the Church of the New Covenant. Matt. 13:24-52 -Jesus comparing the kingdom of heaven to a field, a mustard seed, leaven, and a net demonstrate that the kingdom Jesus is talking about is the universal Church on earth, not the eternal state of glory. Therefore, the keys to the “kingdom of heaven” refer to the authority over the earthly Church. Matt. 25:1-2 - Jesus comparing the kingdom of heaven to ten maidens, five of whom were foolish, further shows that the kingdom is the Church on earth. This kingdom cannot refer to the heavenly kingdom because there are no fools in heaven! Mark 4:26-32 - again, "kingdom of God" is like seed which grows and develops. The heavenly kingdom is eternal, so kingdom to which Peter holds the keys of authority is the earthly Church. Luke 9:27 - Jesus says that there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the "kingdom of God." This kingdom refers to the earthly kingdom of Christ, which Jesus established by His death and resurrection on earth. Luke 13:19-20 - again, Jesus says the kingdom of God is like a mustard seed which grew into a tree. This refers to the earthly Church which develops over time, from an acorn to an oak tree (not the heavenly state of glory which is boundless and infinite). Matt 12:28; Mark 1:15; Luke 11:20; 17:21 - these verses provide more examples of the "kingdom of God" as the kingdom on earth which is in our midst. 1 Chron. 28:5 - Solomon sits on the throne of the kingdom of the Lord. This shows that the "kingdom of God" usually means an earthly kingdom. 1 Chron. 29:23 - Solomon sits on the throne of the Lord as king in place of King David. The throne of God refers to the earthly kingdom. Matt. 16:19 - Peter holds keys to this new Davidic kingdom and rules while the real King of David (Jesus) is in heaven. Luke 12:41-42 - when Peter asks Jesus if the parable of the master and the kingdom was meant just for the apostles or for all people, Jesus rhetorically confirms to Peter that Peter is the chief steward over the Master's household of God. "Who then, (Peter) is that faithful and wise steward whom his master will make ruler over His household..?" Ezek. 37:24-25 - David shall be king over them forever and they will have one shepherd. Jesus is our King, and Peter is our earthly shepherd. 17

Ordained Leaders Share in Jesus' Ministry and Authority Matt. 10:1, 40 - "he, who receives you, receives Me” Matt. 16:19; 18:18 - decisions on earth will be ratified in heaven. Luke 9:1; 10:19 - authority over the natural and the supernatural Luke 10:16 - Jesus tells His apostles, "He who hears you, hears Me." Luke 22:29 - gift is transferred from Father to the Son to apostles. Num 16:28 - the Father's authority is transferred to Moses John 5:30 - Jesus acts under the authority of the Father. John 7:16-17 - authority not His own will transfer authority to men. John 8:28 - Jesus says He does nothing on His own authority. John 12:49 - The father's authority is transferred to the Son. John 13:20 - "he who receives anyone who I send, receives Me." John 14:10 - The gift is from the Father to Jesus to the apostles. John 16:14-15 - what the Father has, the Son has, gives it to apostles. John 17:18; 20:21 - as Father sends the Son, Son sends the apostles. Acts 20:28 - the apostles are shepherds appointed by the Holy Spirit 1 Peter 2:25 - Jesus is the Shepherd and Guardian. Jer. 23:1-8; Ezek. 34:1-10 - the shepherds must shepherd the sheep Eph. 2:20 - Christian faith is built upon the foundation of the apostles. Eph. 2:20; Rev. 21:9, 14 "household," "Bride of Lamb," metaphors Authority is Transferred by the Sacrament of Ordination Acts 1:15-26 - Matthias is ordained with full apostolic authority. Acts 1:22 - literally, "one must be ordained" to be a witness with us Acts 6:6 - apostolic authority transferred through laying on of hands. Acts 9:17-19 - Paul only minister after laying on of hands by a bishop. Acts 13:3 - apostolic authority transferred through laying on of hands Acts 14:23 - appointed elders to have authority throughout the Church. Acts 15:22-27 - preachers of the Word must be sent by the bishops 2 Cor 1:21-22 - commissioned and sealed them with the Holy Col 1:25 - Paul calls his position a divine "office." Heb. 7:23 – an office continues with successor after death. 1 Tim. 3:1 - Paul uses "episcopoi" (bishop) which requires office. 1 Tim. 4:14 - authority transferred through the laying on of hands 1 Tim. 5:22 - Paul urges Timothy to be careful in laying on hands 2 Tim. 1:6 – remind Timothy gift he received through laying on hands 2 Tim. 4:1-6 - Paul charges Timothy with the office of his ministry 2 Tim. 2:2 - Paul to Timothy to 3rd to 4th generation Titus 1:5; Luke 10:1 - elders of Church appointed and hold authority 1 John 4:6 - whoever knows God listens to us Ex 18:25-26 - Moses appoints various heads over people of God. Ex 40:15 - anointing shows God intended a perpetual priesthood Nmb 3:3 - the sons of Aaron were formally "anointed" priests in Nmb 16:40 - God's intention of unbroken succession in His kingdom Nmb 27:18-20 - "laying on of hands," one is commissioned Deut. 34:9 - Moses laid hands upon Joshua Sirach 45:15 - Moses ordains Aaron and anoints him with oil.

Jesus Wants Us to Obey Apostolic Authority Acts 5:13 - people acknowledged apostles' authority Acts 15:6, 24; 16:4 - teaching authority granted to 1 Cor. 5:3-5; 16:22; 1 Tim. 1:20; Gal 1:8; Matt 18:17 excommunicate 2 Cor. 2:17 - It is not self-appointed authority. 2 Cor. 3:6 – qualified by God to be ministers 2 Cor. 5:20 - we are "ambassadors" for Christ. 2 Cor. 10:6 –punish every disobedience. 2 Cor. 10:8 - Paul acknowledges his authority 1 Thess. 5:12-13 - respect those who have authority 2 Thess. 3:14 – if a person does not obey 1 Tim. 5:17 - to honor appointed elders (“priests”) Titus 2:15 - exhort and reprove with all authority, Heb. 13:7, 17 - obey leaders who have authority 1 Peter 5:5; Jude 8 - members to be subject to elders. 2 Peter 2:10 - warn faithful about despising authority 3 John 9 - Diotrephes does not acknowledge John's apostolic authority Deut. 17:10-13 - Lord commands Israel obey priests Num. 16:1-35 - rebellion against God's chosen Sirach 7:29-30 - fear the Lord and honor His priests

1 Peter 3:15

Sacramentals Images and Statues Deut. 4:15 - "no form" of the Lord, we should not make graven images of Him. Deut. 4:16 - of course, in early history Israel was forbidden to make images of God because God didn't yet reveal himself visibly "in the form of any figure." Deut. 4:17-19 - had Israelites depicted God not yet revealed, might be tempted to worship Him in form of a beast, which was a common error of times. Exodus 3:2-3; Dan 7:9; Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32; Acts 2:3later on, however, we see God did reveal himself in visible form (a dove, fire, etc). Deut. 5:8 - God's commandment "thou shall not make a graven image" is entirely connected to the worship of false gods. God does not prohibit images to be used in worship, but He prohibits the images themselves to be worshiped. Exodus 25:18-22; 26:1, 31 - for example, God commands the making of the image of golden cherubim. This heavenly image, of course, is not worshiped by the Israelites. Instead, image disposes minds to supernatural and draws them to God Num. 21:8-9 - God also commands making of bronze serpent. Image of bronze serpent not an idol to be worshiped, but an article that lifts mind to the supernatural. I Kings 6:23-36; 7:27-39; 8:6-67 - Solomon's temple contains statues of cherubim and, oxen and lions. God did not condemn images that were used in worship. 2 Kings 18:4 - it was only when the people began to worship the statue did they incur God's wrath, and the king destroyed it. The command prohibiting the use of graven images deals exclusively with the false worship of those images. 1 Chron. 28:18-19 - David gives Solomon the plan for the altar made of refined gold with cherubim images. These were used in Jews' most solemn place of worship. 2 Chron. 3:7-14 - house lined with gold with elaborate cherubim carved in wood Ezek. 41:15 - Ezekiel describes graven images in the temple Col. 1:15 - the only image of God that Catholics worship is Jesus Christ, who is the "image" (Greek "eikon") of the invisible God.

Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have.

Relics Mark 15:43; John 19:38 - Joseph of Arimathea sought Christ's dead body instead of leaving it with the Romans. Joseph gave veneration to our Lord's body. Mark 16:1; Luke 24:1 - the women came to further anoint Christ's body John 19:39 - Nicodemus donated over one hundred pounds of spices to wrap in Jesus' grave clothes. This is also veneration of our Lord's body. Matt. 9:21; Mark 5:28 - woman with the hemorrhage just sought the hem of Christ's cloak and was cured. God uses physical things to affect supernatural. Acts 19:11-12 - Paul's handkerchiefs healed the sick and those with unclean spirits. This is another example of physical things effecting physical and spiritual cures. Acts 5:15 - Peter's shadow healed sick. Proves relics of saints have healing power Rev. 6:9 - the souls of the martyrs are seen beneath the heavenly altar. Their bones are often placed beneath altars in Catholic churches around the world. 2 Kings 13:21 - Elisha's bones bring a man back to life.

Sunday Worship Isaiah 1:13 - God begins to reveal His displeasure with the Sabbath. Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2, 9; John 20:1, 19- the Gospel writers purposely reveal Jesus' resurrection and appearances were on Sunday. Acts 20:7 -, the "first day of the week." Principle worship was on Sunday because this was departure from Jewish form of worship. 1 Cor. 16:2 - Paul instructs the Corinthians to make contributions to the churches "on the first day of the week," which is Sunday.. Col. 2:16-17 - the Sabbath was only a shadow of what was fulfilled in Christ, "let no one pass judgment any more over a Sabbath." Heb. 4:8-9 - regarding the day of rest, if Joshua had given rest, God would not later speak of "another day," which is Sunday Heb. 7:12 - when there is a change in the priesthood, there is a change in the law as well. Because we have a new Priest and a new sacrifice, we also have a new day of worship, which is Sunday. Rev 1:10 - John specifically points out that he witnesses the heavenly Eucharistic liturgy on Sunday, the Lord's Day

Holy Water Ex. 29:4; Lev. 8:6 - Aaron and his sons were washed in holy water in their consecration to priesthood. Use of holy water during beginning of salvation history. Ex. 30:18-19 - the Lord requires Aaron and his sons to wash their hands and feet in holy water before they offered sacrifices to Him. Num. 5:17 - here again, the priest uses holy water. God uses natural matter to convey the supernatural, just as God who is Spirit became flesh in Christ Jesus. Num. 8:7 - the Lord says to "sprinkle them with the water of remission." 1 Kings 7:38-39 - in King Solomon's temple, there were ten large basins of holy water. Holy water has always been used in the context of worship. John 9:6-7 – Jesus uses clay and spittle to heal the blind man’s eyes, and ordered him to wash in the pool of Siloam to affect the cure. John 19:34 - water and blood flowed from Jesus' pierced side on the Cross. The Church uses holy water as a symbol of our Lord's life giving water that flowed from His sacred Heart, and as the property which brings about the power of Jesus Christ itself, in baptism, the Eucharist, and other sacred rites of the Church. 18

The Elders of the Church are Called "Fathers" and the Faithful "Children" Matt. 23:9 - Jesus warns us not to elevate anyone to level of our heavenly Father. Matt. 23:8 –Jesus also says not to call anyone teacher or rabbi. But don’t Protestants call their teachers “teacher?” Judges 17:10; 18:19 - priesthood and fatherhood always identified together. Eph. 3:14-15 - every family in heaven and on earth is named from the "Father." Acts 7:2; 22:1, 1 John 2:13 - elders of the Church are called "fathers." 1 Cor. 4:15 - "I became your father…” 1 Cor. 4:17 - Paul calls Bishop Timothy a beloved and faithful "child" in the Lord. 2 Cor. 12:14 - Paul describes his role as parent over his "children" Phil. 2:22 - Paul calls Timothy's service to him as a son serves a "father." 1 Thess. 2:11- Paul compares the Church elders' ministry to the people like a father with his children. 1 Tim. 1:2, 18; 2 Tim. 1:2-3 Paul calls Timothy his true "child" in the faith and his son. Titus 1:4 - Paul calls Titus his true "child" in a common faith. Priests are our spiritual fathers in the family of God. Philemon 10 - Paul says he has become the "father" of Onesimus. Heb. 12:7, 9 - emphasizes our earthly "fathers." But these are not just biological but also spiritual (the priests of the Church). 1 Peter 5:13 - Peter refers to himself as father by calling Mark his "son." 1 John 2:1, 13, 14 - John calls the elders of the Church "fathers." 1 John 2:1, 18, 28; 3:18; 5:21; 3 John 4 - John calls members of the Church "children." 1 Macc. 2:65 - Mattathias the priest tells his sons that Simeon will be their "father."

Jesus, Mary, the Apostles and Others Refer to Spiritual Leaders as "Fathers" Matt. 3:9; Luke 3:8 - Jesus refers to Abraham as our "father." Mark 11:10 - the people cried out blessed is the kingdom of our "father" David Luke 1:32 - Jesus will be great and given throne of his "father" David. Luke 1:55 - Mary says that He spoke to our "fathers," to Abraham Luke 1:73 - Zechariah says the oath which he swore to our "father" Abraham. Luke 16:24, 30 - Jesus, in His parable about rich man, says our "father" Abraham John 4:12 - woman asks Jesus if He is greater than our "father" Jacob. John 7:22 - Jesus refers to the "fathers" who gave the Jews the practice of circumcision. John 8:56 - Jesus tells the Jews your "Father" Abraham rejoiced that he was to see my day. Acts 3:13, 25; 5:30 - Peter teaches that the God of our "fathers" glorified His servant Jesus and raised Him to life. Acts 4:25 - Peter and John pray to God and refer to our "father" David. Acts 7:11-12, 15, 19, 38, 44-45, 51-52 Stephen refers to our "fathers" in the faith. Acts 7:32 - the God of our "fathers." Acts 13:17, 32, 36; 24:14; 26:6; 28:17, 25 - the God of our "fathers" in the faith. Acts 22:3 - Paul says he was educated according to the strict law of our "fathers." Acts 22:14 - the God of our "fathers." Rom. 4:1 - calls Abraham our forefather Rom. 4:16-17 - Paul says Abraham is the "father" of us all and the "father" of many Rom. 9:10 - Paul calls Isaac, a spiritual leader, our "forefather." 1 Cor. 10:1 - Paul says that our "fathers" were all under the cloud, referring to the Old Testament spiritual leaders. Gal. 1:14 - Paul says that he was zealous for the tradition of his "fathers." 2 Tim. 1:3 - serves with a clear conscience as did his "fathers" Heb. 1:1 - God spoke of old to our fathers Heb. 3:9 - Holy Spirit says your "fathers" Heb. 8:9 - God says not like the covenant that I made with their "fathers." James 2:21 - was not our "father" Abraham 1 Peter 1:18 - Peter says you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your "fathers." 2 Peter 3:4 - Peter says ever since the "fathers" fell asleep, all things have continued as they were from the beginning.

Other Examples Where Jesus Uses the Word "Father" When Teaching Matt. 15:4-5; 19:19 - Jesus uses "father" when He teaches God's commandment to "Honor your father and your mother." Mark 7:10-12; Luke 18:20 these are more examples of Jesus using "father" when teaching about honoring our fathers and mothers. Eph. 6:2, 4 - Paul also teaches to honor your "father" and mother, and says "fathers," do not provoke your children. Matt. 10:21; 35, 37; Mark 13:12 - Jesus says "father" will deliver up his child in the last days. Matt. 19:5; Mark 10:7, 19 Jesus says a man shall leave his "father" and mother and be joined to his wife. See also Eph. 5:31. Matt. 19:29; Mark 10:29-30 Jesus says whoever has left mother or "father" for His sake shall receive a hundredfold. Matt. 21:31 - Jesus uses "father" when he teaches about the parable of the two sons and asks, "who did the will of his "father?" Luke 6:23, 26 - Jesus speaks about reward and punishment with reference to what their "fathers" did to the prophets. Luke 11:11 - Jesus says what "father" among you will give his child a serpent when he asks for a fish. Luke 11:47-48 - Jesus tells the lawyers they are witnesses to deeds of their "fathers." Luke 14:26 - Jesus says we must leave our "fathers" and mothers and come to him, or we cannot be His disciple. Luke 15:12, 17-18,20-22,2729 - Jesus repeatedly uses "father" when teaching about the prodigal son. Luke 16:27 - Jesus uses "father" when teaching about the rich man in purgatory. John 6:49, 58 - Jesus says your "fathers" ate the manna in the wilderness and died.

Celibacy is Church Practice, Not Dogma Matt. 19:11-12 - Jesus says celibacy is a gift from God and whoever can bear it should bear it. Jesus praises and recommends celibacy for full-time ministers in the Church. Because celibacy is a gift from God, those who criticize the Church's practice of celibacy are criticizing God and this wonderful gift He bestows on His chosen ones. Matt. 19:29 - whoever gives up children for sake of His name will receive a hundred times more and will inherit eternal life. Jesus praises celibacy when done for sake of His kingdom Matt. 22:30 - Jesus explains that in heaven there are no marriages. To bring about Jesus' kingdom on earth, priests live the heavenly consecration to God by not taking a wife in marriage. This way, priests are able to focus exclusively on the spiritual family, and not have any additional pressures of the biological family (which is for the vocation of marriage). This also makes it easier for priests to be transferred to different parishes where they are most needed without having to worry about the impact of their transfer on wife and children. 1 Cor 7:1 – Paul teaches that it is well for a man not to touch a woman. This is the choice that Catholic priests of the Roman rite freely make. 1 Cor. 7:7 - celibacy is a gift from God and wishes that all were celibate like he is. 1 Cor. 7:27 – Paul teaches men that they should not seek marriage. In Paul’s opinion, marriage introduces worldly temptations that can interfere with one’s relationship with God, specifically regarding those who will become full-time ministers in the Church. 1 Cor. 7:32-33, 38 - Paul recommends celibacy for full-time ministers in the Church so they are able to focus entirely upon God and building up His kingdom. He “who refrains from marriage will do better.” 1 Tim. 3:2 - Paul instructs that bishops must be married only once. Many Protestants use this verse to prove that the Church's celibacy law is in error. But they are mistaken because this verse refers to bishops that were widowers. Paul is instructing that these widowers could not remarry. The verse also refers to those bishops who were currently married. They also could not remarry (in the Catholic Church's Eastern rite, priests are allowed to marry; celibacy is only a disciplinary rule for the clergy of the Roman rite). Therefore, this text has nothing to do with imposing a marriage requirement on becoming a bishop. 1 Tim. 4:3 - Paul refers to deceitful doctrines that forbid marriage. Many non-Catholics also use this verse to impugn the Church's practice of celibacy. This is entirely misguided because the Catholic Church (unlike many Protestant churches) exalts marriage to a sacrament. In fact, marriage is elevated to a sacrament, but consecrated virginity is not. The Church declares marriage sacred, covenantal and life-giving. Paul is referring to doctrines that forbid marriage and other goods when done outside teaching of Christ. Celibacy is giving up one good (marriage and children) for a greater good (complete spiritual union with God). 1 Tim. 5:9-12 - Paul recommends that older widows take a pledge of celibacy. This was the beginning of women religious orders. 2 Tim. 2:3-4 - Paul instructs his bishop Timothy that no soldier on service gets entangled in civilian pursuits, since his aim his to satisfy the One who enlisted him. Paul is using an analogy to describe the role of the celibate priesthood in the Church. Rev. 14:4 - unlike world of the flesh, in heaven, those consecrated to virginity are honored Is 56:3-7 - eunuchs who keep God's covenant will have special place in kingdom of heaven Jer. 16:1-4 - Jeremiah is told by God not to take a wife or have children. Ashes Mt 11:21 would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. Gen 3:19 for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return Gen 18:27 I who am but dust and ashes. Esther 4:1 Mordecai rent his clothes and put on sackcloth and ashes Job 42:6 therefore I despise myself, and repent in dust and ashes." Lam 3:16 He has made my teeth grind on gravel, and made me cower in ashes... Incense Luke 1:10 And whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense Psalm 141:2 Let my prayer be counted as incense before thee Ex 30:8 he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations. Rev 5:8 golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints... Rev 8:3-4 given much incense to mingle with prayers …smoke of incense rose with prayers 19

Paul's Teachings on Speaking in Tongues Paul teaches that tongue-speaking is gift of Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 12:4, 10-11). Paul therefore does not prohibit tongue-speaking (1 Cor. 14:39) and even encourages it (1 Cor. 14:5) when received according to his parameters. However, Paul warns us that tongue-speaking is not always a gift of the Spirit, but may originate out of spiritual pride and immaturity. This is why Paul called the Corinthians immature (1 Cor. 3:1-3; 14:20), and said they were seeking the wisdom of men and not God (1 Cor. 2:5, 13; 3:18). Many people in the Corinthian church claimed to have the gift of tongues, but were actually mimicking the divine gift in order to gain ascendancy in the church. This caused arrogance, dissensions and jealousies among them (1 Cor. 1:10-13; 3:3; 4:6-7, 18; 5:2; 11:17-22). Tongue-speaking can also have demonic origins. When people are unfaithful and motivated by pride and not love for God, God can allow demons to enter the church to punish the unfaithful. These demons can appear holy and good, and inspire tongue-speaking and other speech, but they are really deceivers who wish to confuse the faithful and lead them away from the truth (cf. Ezek. 14:6-11; 1 Kings 22:22-23). Paul warns that some will depart from the faith by giving heed to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons (1 Tim. 4:1). This is why John tells us to “test the spirits to see whether they are of God” (1 John 4:1). Therefore, tongue-speaking can be a gift of the Holy Spirit, or may be of human or demonic origin. Paul makes several important points regarding the gift of tongues: 1 – The gift of tongues is a lesser gift from God. While speaking in tongues is a gift of the Spirit, Paul teaches that it is a lesser gift on the continuum of divine gifts from God (1 Cor. 12:10, 28, 30). For example, Paul says that tongues is a much lesser gift than the gift of prophecy (1 Cor. 14:1-5, 19, 22). In fact, the gift of tongues is not even mentioned among the gifts of the Spirit in the latter books of the New Testament (Rom. 12:4-8; Eph. 4:11-12; Gal. 5:22; 1 Peter 4:7-11; 1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6). 2 – The gift of tongues will cease. Paul says “as for tongues, they will cease” (1 Cor. 13:8). Greek word for “cease” (pauomai) means that the gift of tongues will end abruptly, on its own, and will not be replaced by another gift. The gift of tongues is the only gift of the Holy Spirit that is said to “cease” in this way. When Paul says prophecies and knowledge will “pass away” (1 Cor. 13:8), phrase “pass away” (in Greek, katargeo) indicates that these gifts will be replaced by a superior power. This appears to take place when we begin our life in eternity (1 Cor. 13:10-12). Not so with tongues. Paul does not say when the gift of tongues would cease, and whether the gift would return intermittently after its cessation. However, Augustine wrote that the gift of tongues had ceased by the time of his day. Augustine explained that this was because the Catholic Church now spoke the language of the nations, and tongue-speaking was only for purposes of evangelization (Aquinas agreed). The fact that the gift of tongues is not recorded in later books of the New Testament suggest that the gift may have even been ceasing during the biblical period. Nevertheless, there are a few recorded instances of saints’ speaking in tongues over the centuries (Sts. Dominic, Anthony of Padua, Francis Xavier, John of the Cross, Ignatius of Loyola). This demonstrates that gift of tongues is very rare, and given to the holiest of people. 3 – Tongue-speaking has strict parameters. Finally, Paul prescribed strict parameters for those who would receive the gift of tongues: (a) The person who speaks in tongues should pray for the power to interpret his own tongue (1 Cor. 14:13), or have someone who has the gift of interpretation present to interpret the tongue (1 Cor. 14:27). If the tongue cannot be interpreted, the person is to remain silent (1 Cor. 14:28). Therefore, tongues should not be unintelligible utterances, but should be understood (1 Cor. 14:6-12). (b) In a congregation, only two or three people at most should speak in tongues (1 Cor. 14:27), and each must speak in turn. This is the case even though there may be hundreds or even thousands of people in a church. The many Protestant churches that call upon many people, even hundreds during a service, to speak in tongues contravenes Paul’s divine mandate, and raises doubts about its authenticity. (c) The tongue-speaking must be done for the edification of the Church (1 Cor. 14:5, 26). Paul says that a person who speaks in tongues edifies himself (1 Cor. 14:4) which is good, but Paul also says tongues must edify the Church. This is why Paul requires one to interpret the tongue, and why Paul says only two or three at the most should speak in tongues during an assembly. A mass proliferation of tongue-speaking in an assembly would lead to confusion. This would not be of divine origin because Paul says, in connection with tongue-speaking, that God is not the author of confusion (1 Cor. 14:33). (d) After setting the parameters of tongue-speaking and warning against avoiding confusion, Paul says that “women should keep silence in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak but should be subordinate, even as the law says” (1 Cor. 14:34). This means that women are not allowed to speak in tongues in church. Paul is underscoring that this is a divine command from God when he ends his statement with “even as the law says.” Many churches contravene this divine command by allowing women to speak “in tongues” in their assemblies. (e) Paul teaches that a proliferation of tongue-speaking in a church may actually be a sign of unbelief and God’s ensuing judgment upon them. When Paul teaches the Corinthians about the proper use of tongues (1 Cor. 14:21), he quotes from Isaiah 28:11-12: “By men of strange tongues and by the lips of foreigners will I speak to this people, and even then they will not listen to me, says the Lord.” Paul’s use of Isaiah is significant because he is referring to the apostate Jews of the 8th century right before they were destroyed by the Assyrians. To punish the Jews, God first allowed the Assyrians to speak in foreign tongues to them to confuse them before they were ultimately destroyed. God’s judgment being revealed in the form of foreign tongues was first prophesied to Israel in the 15th century, B.C. (see Deut. 28:49-50). Remember also how God sent unintelligible tongues to punish His people for their lack of faith at the tower of Babel (Genesis 11). Therefore, Paul is warning the Corinthians that their abuse of tongue-speaking is a sign of God’s judgment against them. These abuses included many people speaking in tongues, out of turn, without an interpreter, and for pride and not the edification of the church. This is why Paul says that “tongues are a sign…for unbelievers” (1 Cor. 14:22). This is the same “sign” that God gave the unbelieving Jews before they were punished. This is also why Paul says that unbelievers look at the whole Corinthian church speaking in tongues and conclude that they “are mad” (1 Cor. 14:23). Paul is telling the Corinthians that their abuse of tongues makes them look insane, and this is a sign of their unbelief (that is why tongues are a “sign for unbelievers”; the “unbelievers” were the Corinthians themselves). This is the same reason why Jesus spoke in parables, to further harden the hearts of those who did not believe in Him, as a punishment for their lack of faith (Matt. 13:13-15).

Eschatology The Time is Unknown Matt. 24:36 - "no one but the Father knows the day and the hour." Matt. 24:36 - explains He chose to know by His human knowledge only that which He wanted to know for mission of salvation. Matt. 24:44 –Son of Man is coming at an hour we do not expect. Matt. 25:13 –for you know neither the day nor the hour.” Mark 13:35-37 –do not know when Master of the House will come Luke 12:46 - come on a day and at an hour when He is not expected. Acts 1:7 - Jesus says it is not for us to know the times or seasons 1 Thess. 5:2; 2 Peter 3:10; Rev. 3:3 - will come like a thief in the night. James 5:7 - be patient until the coming of the Lord The Rapture and Millenium 1 Thess. 4:16-17 - Paul writes that "we will be caught up in the clouds John 14:3; 1 Cor. 15:52 - other passages use to support the rapture Rev. 20:2-3; 7-8 –seizes Satan and binds him for a thousand years. Psalm 50:10, we see the cattle on a "thousand hills." Dan. 7:10, a "thousand thousands" served him. 2 Peter 3:8, one day is "thousand" years and "thousand" years one day. (1) Post-millennialism –Scriptures does not teach that the world will be even relatively Christianized before the Second Coming. For example, in Matt. 13:24-30; 36-43, Jesus says the wicked and the righteous will co-exist until the end of the world, when they will be judged, and either inherits eternal life, or be thrown into eternal fire. (2) Pre-millennialism; Scripture does not teach that there is a thousand year span between the Second Coming and Final Judgment. Instead, Jesus said that when He comes a second time in glory, He will immediately repay every man for what he has done. Matt. 16:27. When Jesus comes, He will separate the sheep from the goats and render judgment. Matt. 25:31-46. There is nothing about any period of time between His coming and final judgment. (3) Amillennialism –millennium is the period of Christ’s rule in heaven and on earth through His Church. This is because the saints who reign with Christ and to whom judgment has been committed are said to be on their thrones in heaven. Rev. 20:4; cf. 4:4; 11:16. During this time, Satan is bound and cannot hinder the spread of the gospel. Rev. 20:3. This is why, they explain, Jesus teaches the necessity of binding the “strong man” (Satan) in order to plunder his house and rescue people from his grip. Matt. 12:29. This is also why, after the disciples preached the gospel and rejoiced that the demons were even subject to them, Jesus declared, “I saw Satan fall like lightening from heaven.” Luke 10:18. Nevertheless, during this period, world will not be entirely Christianized because Satan, though bound, is still in some sense able to prowl around. cf. 1 Peter 5:8. 2 Thess. 2:1-4 – concerning the Second Coming of Christ (1) Post-tribulational view –This view can be consistent with Scripture and Catholic teaching to extent it holds that rapture and Christ’s Second Coming occur together, after tribulation and Church Militant on earth. (Matt. 24:29-31; Mark 13:24-27; 2 Thess. 1:1-12) (2) Pre-tribulational view –this view is that it requires three comings of Christ – first, when He was born in Bethlehem; second, when He returns for the rapture before the tribulation; third, when He returns at the end of the tribulation and establishes the millennium. Scripture rejects three comings of Christ. In Heb. 9:28, it is clear that Christ will appear a second and final time, when he comes in glory to save us. This view also is inconsistent with Matt. 24:24-31; Mark 13:24-27; and 2 Thess. 2:1-12 where rapture and Second Coming occur together. (3) Mid-tribulational view –.this view also requires three comings 20

Tongues Mark 16:17 – right before Jesus ascended into heaven, He prophesied “they will speak in new tongues.” There are only four instances in the New Testament where people speak in tongues: 1 - Acts 2:3 – when the Holy Spirit descended…, they began to speak in tongues. Acts 2:6 says that men from fifteen different nations each heard the apostles speaking in their own language. 2 – Acts 10:44-46 – after Peter preached the gospel, the Holy Spirit fell upon all who heard the word, and they (including the Gentiles) began to speak in tongues. 3 – Acts 19:5-6 – after Paul baptized and confirmed about twelve Ephesians, they spoke with tongues. 4 – 1 Cor. 12-14 – Paul teaches that members of Corinthian church had the gift of speaking in tongues. In each instance in the book of Acts, tongue speaking is heard as if it is a foreign language. This gift of Holy Spirit was for purpose of spreading gospel to all peoples of the world. Peter supports this view when he equates Gentile tongue-speaking with tongue-speaking at Pentecost (which was heard as foreign languages) when he says “Holy Spirit fell on them just as on us at the beginning” (Acts 11:15). The Gift of Tongues in the Corinthian Church Foreign languages 1 Cor. 14:21 – when Paul instructs Corinthians about speaking in tongues, he quotes from Isaiah 28:11 which is about “alien tongue” of foreign invaders, which means a foreign language. For Paul to quote Isaiah without any other explanation suggests that tongue-speaking at Corinth was in form of foreign languages. In fact, no where in 1 Cor. 12-14 does Paul make any distinction between tongue-speaking in Acts and tongue-speaking at Corinth (and this is important because the Ephesians’ tongue-speaking in Acts 19:5-6 chronologically occurred around the same time as the Corinthian tongue-speaking). If there would have been a significant difference between the two (foreign languages versus ecstatic utterances), Paul would have likely acknowledged distinction as he gave instructions about speaking in tongues. 1 Cor. 14:5 – when Paul says “unless someone interprets,” the word for interprets (in Greek, diermhneuvh) always refers to the interpretation of a foreign language (see John 1:42; 9:7; Heb. 7:2). Ecstatic utterances The following Scriptures, however, suggest that the tongue-speaking at Corinth was in the form of unintelligible ecstatic utterances, and not foreign languages. For example: 1 Cor. 14:2 – Paul says “For one who speaks in a tongue speaks not to men but to God; for no one understands him, but he utters mysteries in the Spirit.” Describing these utterances as “mysteries” may indicate that such speech was unintelligible. This type of tongue was also spoken to God, and not to men, which means that the tongue did not have to be in any particular language (God would understand the utterances in the Spirit). This may be similar to the divine “tongues of angels” (1 Cor. 13:1). 1 Cor. 14:4 – Paul says “He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself.” If the person is speaking a foreign language he cannot understand, then he would not be edifying himself, unless the language would be interpreted for him. This may be why Paul required someone to interpret the tongues at Corinth (1 Cor. 14:13, 27-28). Gift of interpretation could have been for interpreting unintelligible divine utterances also 1 Cor. 14:10-11 – Paul describes the tongues at Corinth as “sound” (in Greek, phonon). While foreign languages are heard as sounds, this seems different from the tongues which were described in the book of Acts as “language” (in Greek, dialektos). However, Luke also describes the tongue-speaking of Acts 2:6 as “sound,” even though it was heard as “language.” 1 Cor. 14:16-17 – Paul says that the tongues at Corinth were spoken to give thanks to God. While speaking the gospel in a foreign language does indeed give thanks to God, this type of speech may be private communication between God and speaker, which would not require use of a foreign language. 1 Cor. 14:23 – Paul says that unbelievers who hear the Corinthians speaking in tongues will conclude that they “are mad.” This suggests that the Corinthians were speaking in unintelligible utterances, although outsiders would also be tempted to call those “mad” who were speaking foreign languages they did not know (perhaps implying that they were possessed by demons). Ecstatic utterances that were heard as foreign languages Possible that Corinthians were making unintelligible ecstatic utterances that were then understood by gifted hearers as intelligible foreign languages (both inspired and interpreted by power of Holy Spirit Acts 2:6 – the Pentecost tongue-speaking is described as a “sound,” yet it was heard as specific foreign “language” by men of fifteen different nations. This type of tongue-speaking appears to be a translation of sound into language. Moreover, Acts 2:4 suggests that apostles began to speak at one time, yet their many voices are described as one “sound” in Acts 2:6. This suggests that the tongue-speaking was in the form of one sound, but was heard as many languages (only twelve apostles speaking, fifteen languages heard). 1 Cor. 14:5 – fact that Corinthians’ utterances were actually being translated into language by Holy Spirit for certain people may be reason why Paul required Corinthians to have gifted interpreters when they spoke 1 Cor. 14:10-11 – Paul’s use of “sound” to describe tongues of Corinthian church is same word “sound” (from Greek, phonee) that Luke uses to describe tongues in Acts 2:6, which heard as foreign languages.

Hell Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17 - John the Baptist said the Lord will burn the chaff with unquenchable fire. Matt. 25:41 - Jesus says, "Depart from me, you cursed, into eternal fire prepared for the devil Matt. 25:46 - Jesus says, "They will go away into eternal punishment" which is reference to this eternal fire. Mark 9:47-48 - Jesus refers to hell as where the worm does not die and the fire is not quenched. 2 Thess. 1:6-9 - the angels will come with flaming fire and the disobedient will suffer punishment of eternal destruction. It is important to note that "destruction" does not mean "annihilation," as some Protestant denominations teach. It means eternal exclusion from the presence of God. Jude 6-7 - rebelling angels, Sodom and Gomorrah, serve as example undergoing punishment of eternal fire Rev. 14:11 - the worshipers of the beast suffer and the smoke of their torment goes up for ever and ever. Rev. 20:10 - they're tormented in the lake of fire and brimstone day and night forever and ever. Isaiah 33:14 - "Who of us can dwell in the everlasting fire?" This is a reference to hell which is forever. Isaiah 66:24 - their worm shall not die and their fire shall not be quenched. Jer. 15:14 - a fire is kindled which shall burn forever. Hell is proper compliment to eternal bliss of heaven. Judith 16:17 - day of judgment Lord will take vengeance on wicked and they shall weep in pain forever.

Jesus and Apostles Teach that Works are Necessary for Justification Matt. 5:2-11 - Jesus' teaching of the beatitudes goes beyond faith - being pure, merciful, and peacemakers are all good works. They are acts of the will that are necessary for a right relationship with God. Matt. 5:16 - Jesus confirms this by teaching, "let your light shine before men that they may see your 'good works' and give glory to God." Good works glorify God and increase our justification before the Father. Matt. 5:39-42 - give your striker the other cheek, give away your cloak, and go with him two miles. Matt. 5:44-47 - this means even loving our enemies and praying for those who persecute us. Matt. 6:12 - forgive us our sins, not by how much faith we have, but as we forgive who trespass against us Matt. 7:19-23 - just saying "Lord, Lord" and accepting Jesus as personal Savior is not enough. Matt. 19:16-22 - Jesus teaches the man to sell all he has and give it to the poor. It is not just about accepting Jesus as personal Lord and Savior. We also need good works by keeping Jesus' commandments. Matt. 22:39; Mark 12:31 - love your neighbor as yourself. Love is a good work - act of intellect and will. Mark 9:39 - no one who does good works in His name will be able to soon after speak evil of Him. Luke 6:46-47 - the Lord asks us to do what he tells us, and that is to keep His commandments Luke 6:20-38 - again, beatitudes, the love of enemies, giving to the needy, forgiving, bearing fruit Luke 8:21 - Jesus says that His mother and brothers are those who hear the word of God and do it. John 5:24 - "eternal life" here means sanctifying grace (life of God within us). Choose to fall from grace John 5:36, 10:37-38 - Jesus emphasizes that His works testify to who He is. John 5:39-42 - knowing the Scriptures is not enough if you do not have love in your heart. John 8:31-32 - Jesus requires works even from those who believe in Him. Mere belief is not enough. John 13:34-35 - new commandment, love one another as He loves us. Commands love which is act of will John 14:15 - "If you love me, you will keep my commandments." requires works, not just faith John 14:21 – he who hears my commandments and keeps them, he it is who loves me. John 15:8 – Jesus requires us to bear the good fruit of works if we are to be His disciples. These fruits are merits in Catholic teaching, all borne from God’s unmerited gift of grace. John 15:10 - if keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, as I have kept Father commandments John 15:12 - this is My commandment that you love one another as I have loved you Rom. 12:10 - love one another. Love is good work, an act of intellect and will, not just a feeling. 1 Cor. 3:8 –he who plants and he who waters are equal, each shall receive his wages according to his labor. 1 Cor. 13:2 –if our faith moves mountains, but we have not the works of love, we are nothing indeed. 1 Cor. 13:13 - abide in faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love. Love is the greatest work which justifies us (not faith, and most importantly, not faith alone!) 1 Tim. 6:18-19 - do good and be rich in good works,laying up good foundation for chance at eternal life. Titus 1:16 - claim to know God, but deeds deny Him. Like Jesus, our works testify to our faith in Christ. 1 John 2:3-5 - and by this we may be sure that we know Him, if we keep His commandments. 1 John 3:23 - God's commandment is to believe in His Son Jesus and love one another. 1 John 4:7-21 - and this commandment we have from Him, that he who loves God should love his brother also. John gives us repeated exhortations to love one another. 1 John 5:2-3 - we know we love God and God's children when we keep His commandments. We need to love which is manifested in good works and not faith alone. 2 John 6 -must love one another and keep Jesus' commandments. We must cooperate with Christ's grace. 21

Justification = Inner Change of Person (Infusion); Not Just a Declaration by God (Imputation) Psalm 51:1-2 - blot out my transgressions, wash me thoroughly from my iniquity and cleanse me from my sin. Psalm 51:7-9 - purge me and I shall be clean, wash me whiter than snow, fill me with joy, blot out my iniquities. We are purged and filled up internally, not just covered up externally. Psalm 51:10 - create in me a clean heart, oh God, and put a new and right spirit within me (not "cover" me). Isaiah 1:18 - though my sins are like scarlet, they shall be white as snow; Isaiah 43:25 - I am He who blots out your transgressions and forgets your sins. Isaiah 44:22 - I have swept away your transgressions like a cloud, and your sin like mist. Isaiah 64:5 – thou meetest him that joyfully works righteousness. This means righteousness is not just imputed to us. We can actually do works of righteousness by God’s grace. Ezek. 36:26-27 - a new heart I will give you and a new spirit I will put within you. These are interior changes Ezek. 37:23 –save His people from backslidings in which they sinned, and will cleanse them (not cover them). Matt. 5:3, 5, 8 - blessed are poor in spirit….. These are internal dispositions, not just an external reality. Matt. 5:6; Luke 6:21 - those who hunger for righteousness "may be filled." Matt. 5:20; Luke 1:6; Acts 10:35 - here are more examples of "doing" righteousness, not just being "imputed" external righteousness. We are not just defendants in a courtroom who have been exonerated. We are children of God endowed with the power of the Holy Spirit by whose grace we can become righteous. Matt. 5:28 - just looking lustfully is adultery. Avoiding this involves inner change, a response to God's grace. Matt. 6:1 – practicing righteousness before men. Not just declared righteous; can practice righteousness Matt. 8:3 – Jesus cleanses man’s leprosy. His power reaches external and internal conditions; Matt. 11:5. Matt. 15:18; Mark 7:15 - interior disposition is what defiles. God's infusion of grace changes us interiorly. Matt. 23:25-28 - Pharisees appeared outwardly righteous to men, but inside they were filled with hypocrisy. God desires and helps us affect an inner change of heart. He doesn't just declare that we are righteous. Luke 11:39-40 - the Pharisees cleansed the outside of the cup but inside they were full of wickedness. God demands an internal change and gives us the grace to make that change. John 1:29 - Lamb of God literally takes away sin of the world. He does not just cover up the sins of the world. Acts 3:19 - repent, that your sins may be "blotted" out. The word blotted comes from the Greek word "exalipho" which means an actual wiping away or removal, not a covering up. Acts 22:16; 1 Cor. 6:11 - again, the phrase "wash away" is from the word "apolouo" which mean a literal removal or an infusion of cleansing, not an imputation or covering. Rom. 4:3 - it was "credited" to him as righteousness. The word "credited" comes from the Greek word "elogisthe" which means a book entry. God records what there actually is Rom. 5:17 - we do not receive Christ's personal level of righteousness (which is impossible), but we are made righteous on His account by God's mercy and the Lord's work on the cross. The word “made” in Greek is “katestathesan” which refers to a real, actual, ontological change in the person’s soul. Rom. 5:19 - through "Adam/Christ" we were made "sinners/righteous." This means that there is not just a relational change in status, but an objective change in nature. We are not just declared righteous, but are actually made righteous. God does not declare something without making it so. Gen. 1:3, God declares that there is light, and there is light. The declaration is followed by the reality. 2 Cor. 3:18 – Paul says that we are being changed into the Lord’s likeness from one degree of glory to another, by the power of the Spirit. This shows that justification is ongoing, and changes in degrees throughout one’s life, based upon one’s obedience of faith. 2 Cor. 4:16 –outer nature is wasting away; our inner nature is being renewed every day. Justification does not happen all at once, and is not an external declaration. It happens every day, and concerns our inner nature. 2 Cor. 5:17 - Paul says that if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation 2 Cor. 7:1 –cleanse ourselves from every defilement of body and spirit; make holiness perfect in fear of God. Holiness deals with being, what is, because its source is God, who is. Does not deal with what appears to be 2 Cor. 13:5 – do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you? Gal. 6:15 – for neither circumcision counts for anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. Eph. 4:22-24 - putting off old nature for the new nature, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness. Required for us to become adopted sons (not just defendants acquitted in a courtroom) Phil. 2:13 - God is at work "in you." God is so powerful; he can actually transform us by working in us. Col. 3:10 – have put on new nature, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator. Titus 3:5 - justification is a generation of supernatural life in a former sinner. 1 John 1:7, 9 – Jesus will "cleanse" us from sin and unrighteousness. The word cleanse comes from the Greek word "katharizo" which means an actual "infused" cleansing, not an "imputed" pretend cleansing. 1 John 3:7, 10 - righteousness may be obtained by "doing." One who practices righteousness is righteous. Rev. 19:8 - when we are clothed in fine linen in heaven, the fine linen is "our righteous acts." 2 Peter 1:4 - actually made righteous because God is eternal family, we partake of divine nature as children. 1 Cor. 3:9 - we are His fellow workers. God is not threatened by the grace and glory He gives His children!

Some Examples of Justification as Ongoing (not a one-time event) 2 Cor. 4:16 - though our outer nature wasting away, our inner nature being renewed "every day." Proves that justification is internal (not legal and external), and that it is also ongoing (it's not a one-time event of accepting Jesus). Our inner nature is being renewed every day as we persevere in faith, hope and love. John 3:16 - justification is ongoing, not a one-time event. God so loved (past) the world, that He gave (past) His only Son, that whoever believes (ongoing) in Him may have eternal life. The word “believes” is “pisteuo” in Greek which necessarily includes obedience throughout one’s life. This is proved by 1 Peter 2:7-8 which also uses “pisteuo” (to obey) and “apitheo” (to disobey). The same word “pisteuo” is used in many other verses about “believing in Christ” such as John 3:36; 5:24; Rom. 4:24; 10:9-10; cf. Rom. 1:5,16; 6:17; 16:26; 1 John 5:13 (often used by Protestants to support their “faith alone” theology). To “believe” means to “obey” throughout one’s life; not one-time acceptance as Savior Heb. 5:9 – Paul also confirms this by writing that Jesus became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him. Examples of justification as on-going process, and not one-time event: Gen. 12:1-4 – Abram is justified here, as God promises to make his name great and bless the families of the earth through his seed. Abram is justified by his faith in God. Heb. 11:8-10 confirms Abraham's justification occurred here, before Gen. 15:6 (later) by referring to Gen. 12, not Gen. 15. Abraham's justification increased over time because justification not one-time event, but ongoing process of growing in holiness Gen. 14:19, 22-23 - Abram is also justified here, by being blessed by the priest-king Melchizedek. Melchizedek calls Abram blessed and Abram gives him a tenth of everything. Gen. 15:6 – Abram is further justified here, as God promises him that his descendants will be as numerous as the stars. Because the Scripture says, “He believed the Lord, and He reckoned it to him as righteousness,” Protestants often say this was Abram’s initial justification, and cite Rom 4:2 to prove Abram was justified by his faith. Yes, it is true Abram was justified by his faith, but he was justified 25 years earlier in Gen. 12:1-4, as Heb. 11:8-10 proves. Gen. 22:1-18 – Abraham is further justified here, this time by works, when he offered his son Isaac as a sacrifice to God. James 2:21 proves this as James writes, “Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar?” James then confirms this by writing, “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness” (James 2:23). These verses prove that justification before God is an on-going process, not a one-time event of accepting Jesus as personal Lord and Savior, and is accomplished by faith and works. 1 Sam. 13:14 - David is justified here, as God describes him as “a man after his own heart.” No one in Scripture is described like this. Acts 13:22 confirms David’s justification before God. 1 Sam. 16:13 – David also justified here. “Spirit of Lord came upon David from that day forward.” 1 Sam. 17:37-54 – David further justified, as he responds to God’s grace and God delivers from Goliath 2 Sam. 6:9,14 – David is further justified here, as he expresses a fear for the Lord in the presence of His ark, and dances before the ark of the Lord with all his might. 2 Sam. 12:7-15 - however, after David’s on-going justification before God, David falls out of justification by committing adultery with Bathsheba and slaying Uriah the Hittite. David still had faith in God, but he lost his justification because of his evil works. Psalm 32:1-2; Rom. 4:7-8; cf. 51:2,7-10,17 – David repents of his sin and writes these beautiful psalms about God’s mercy and forgiveness. Of himself, he writes, “Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered up.” David is re-justified before God. This proves that we can be justified before God, lose our justification, and be re-justified through repentance and reconciliation with God. Matt. 16:18-19 – Jesus blesses Simon for receiving a Revelation from God, changes his name to Peter, and gives him the keys to the kingdom of heaven. In John 6:68-69, Peter, justified before God, declares that Jesus has the words of eternal life. In Luke 22:31-32, Jesus prays for Peter that his faith may not fail. In these and many other examples, Peter is justified before God. Matt. 26:75; Mark 14:72; John 18:17, 25-27 – Peter denies Jesus and loses justification before God. John 21:15-17 – Peter is re-justified before God after he negates his three-fold denial of Jesus with a three-fold confirmation of his love for him. Jesus then charges Peter to feed the Lord’s sheep. Peter was justified, loses his justification, and regains it again through repentance and love. Luke 15:24, 32 - the prodigal son was dead, and now is alive again; he was lost and now is found. The prodigal son regained his father’s favor through repentance (v. 18-19, 21). When we ask our Father for forgiveness, we too will regain His favor and be justified. Acts 9:1- 17 - Protestants would say that Paul is instantly justified here, when he encounters Christ, obeys His command to enter the city, and is moved by the Holy Spirit. They would say that Paul’s sins are now covered up and Christ’s righteousness is imputed to him. Acts 9:18; 22:16 - why does Ananias command Saint Paul (who was directly chosen by Christ) to stand up and be baptized and "wash away" his sins? Because justification, is ongoing, not a one-time event of accepting Jesus as Lord and Savior. Justification is freely given by God through faith, hope, love. 22

Faith Justifies Initially, but Works Perfect and Complete Justification James 2:24 - phrase "faith alone" (the Greek "pisteos monon") occurs once in Bible. "justified by works NOT faith alone. Word “justified” (dikaiow) same word for justification in Rom. 4:3 in regard to Abraham Heb. 11:6 - faith is minimum requirement without which we cannot please God. But this is just the beginning of the process leading toward justification Eph. 2:8-9 –faith is root of justification, that faith excludes “works of law.” Does not exclude other works Luke 24:47; Acts 2:38, 3:19, 17:30 - faith we have must be a repentant faith, not just an intellectual faith Psalm 51:17 –we need a “broken and contrite heart,” not just an intellectual assent of faith. John 3:36; Rom. 1:5, 6:17; 15:18; 16:26; 2 Cor. 9:13; 1 Thess. 1:3; 2 Thess. 1:11; 1 Peter 2:7-8; Heb. 5:9; Rev. 3:10; Ex. 19:5 – this faith must also be an “obedient faith” and a “work of faith.” 2 Cor. 10:15 – this faith must increase as result of our obedience, as Paul hopes for in this verse.. 2 Cor. 13:5 – Paul also admonishes us to examine ourselves, to see whether we are holding to our faith. Gal. 5:6 –the faith that justifies us is “faith working through love,” not faith alone. Faith and love (manifested by works) are always connected. Faith (a process of thought) and love (an action) are never separated in the Scriptures. Eph. 3:17; 1 Thess. 3:6, 12-13; 2 Thess. 1:3; 1 John 3:23; Rev. 2:4-5, 19. Further, all faith (initial and perfected) are gratuitous gifts from God, and not earned or merited by any human action. God affects everything, both the willing and the achievement. James 1:22-25 - "doers" who are justified, not hearers. There is nothing about “false faith.” Hearers may have faith, but they need to accompany faith by works, or they will not be justified. See also Rom. 2:13. James 2:17, 26 - James clearly teaches that faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead. They are distinct (mind and action), yet must act together to receive God’s unmerited gift James 2:19 - even demons believe that Jesus is Lord. But they tremble. Faith is not enough. James 2:20 - do you want to be shown, you shallow man, that faith apart from works is barren? James 2:22 - faith is active with works and is completed by works. James 4:17 - in fact, James writes that the failure to do works is a sin! James 2:15-17 - corporal works of mercy (giving food and shelter to those in need). James 1:27 - "works" is visiting orphans and widows. Do not perform these works, their religion is in vain. James 2:25 - another example of "works" is when Rahab assisted the spies in their escape. Joshua 2:9-11 - Rahab's fellow citizens had faith, but in Jsh 6:22-25, Rahab alone acted and was saved. Jms 2:18 – Some argue justification James is referring to in Jms 2 is "before men" and not "before God." James 2:14 - James asks, "Can faith save him?" Salvation comes from God. This proves the justification James is referring to is before God, not men. James 2:19 - even demons believe and tremble. This refers to our relationship with God, not with men. James 2:21 - James also appeals to the example of Abraham. Abraham's justification refers to his position before God, not men. This proves justification is before God, not men. Acts 10:35 – Peter teaches that anyone who fears the Lord and does what is right is acceptable to Him Rom. 2:7, 10 - by patience and good works will be granted glory and honor and peace Rom. 2:13 – for it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. Paul is referring to the “law of Christ” in Gal.6:2, not “works of the law” in Rom. 3:20, 28; Gal. 2:16; 3:2, 5, 10; Eph. 2:8-9. The “law of Christ” is faith in Christ and works based on grace (God owes us nothing) “works of the law” mean no faith in Christ, legal works based on debt (God owes us something). Rom. 4:5-6 – to him who does not work but believes, his faith is accounted to him as righteousness, like David, who was righteous apart from works. Here, Paul is emphasizing that works must be done in faith, not outside of faith. If they are done outside of faith, we are in a system of debt (God owes us). If they are done in faith (as James requires), we are in a system of grace (God rewards us). Hence, Paul accepts the works performed under God’s forbearance (grace) in Rom. 2:7, 10, 13 (see also Rom. 14:10-12; 1 Cor. 3:12-17; and 2 Corinthians 5:10) which lead to justification and eternal life. These verses have nothing to do with “faith alone.” Paul uses the word “alone” three times in Rom. 4:12, 16, 23, but never uses it with “faith.” Certainly, if he wanted to teach “faith alone,” he would have done so. Rom. 6:16 - obedience leads to righteousness. Obedience is a good "work," an act of the will 2 Cor. 9:8 - God will bless us so that we may provide in abundance for "every good work." Eph. 6:8 - whatever good anyone does will receive the same again from the Lord. Phil. 4:17 – Paul says “I seek the fruit which increases to your credit.” Fruits (good works) increase our justification. Paul says these works increase our “credit,” which is also called “merit.” Titus 3:8 - good deeds are excellent and profitable to men. This verse should be contrasted with Titus 3:5, where we are not saved by works of righteousness “we have done.” “We have done” refers to a work of law or obligation for which we seek payment. But verse 5 also says the “washing of regeneration” in reference to baptism saves, which is a work of grace, for which we are rewarded by God in Christ. There is a distinction between “works of law or obligation” and “works of grace.” 1 Peter 2:7-8; John 3:36 - shows that belief in Jesus means obeying Jesus.

Works of Law versus Good Works Rom. 3:20,28; Gal. 2:16,21; 3:2,5,10; Eph. 2:8-9 - Paul’s teaching that we are not justified by “works of the law” refer to the law of Moses or to any legal system that makes God our debtor. They do not refer to good works done in grace with faith in Christ. This makes sense when we remember that Paul's mission was to teach that salvation was also for the Gentiles who were not subject to the "works of the law." James 2:24 – compare the verse “a man is justified by works and not by faith alone” to Gal. 2:16 – “a man is not justified by works of the law,” and Rom. 3:20, 28 – “no human being will be justified in His sight by works of the law.” James 2:24 appears to be inconsistent with Gal. 2:16 and Rom. 3:20, 28 until one realizes that the Word of God cannot contradict itself. This means that the “works” in James 2:24 are different from the “works of the law in Gal. 2:16 and Rom. 3:20, 28. James is referring to “good works” (e.g., clothing the naked; giving food to the poor) and Paul is referring to the “Mosaic law” (which included both the legal, moral and ceremonial law) or any works which oblige God to give us payment. Here is more proof: Rom. 3:20,28; Gal. 2:16 - Paul's phrase for "works of the law" in the Greek is "ergon nomou" which means the Mosaic law or Torah and refers to the teachings (legal, moral) and works (ceremonial) that gave the Jews the knowledge of sin, but not an escape from sin. We have further proof of this from the Dead Sea Scrolls which provide the Hebrew equivalent ("hrvt ysm") meaning "deeds of the law," or Mosaic law. James in James 2 does not use "ergon nomou." He uses "ergois agathois." Therefore, Paul’s "works of the law" and James' "works" are entirely different types of works. Rom. 3:29 - confirms works of the law refer to Mosaic Law by rhetorically asking "Or is God the God of the Jews only?" It does not mean "good works." Rom. 4:9-17 - Paul provides further discussion that righteousness God seeks in us does not come from Mosaic Law, but through faith. But notice that Paul also never says “faith alone.” Rom. 9:31-32 - righteousness is pursued through faith, not works of the law. Does not mean "good works." Rom. 11:6, 11 - justification is no longer based on "works" of the law, but on the grace of Christ. Why? Because salvation is also for the Gentiles. Rom. 15:9-12 - Christ also saves the Gentiles. Therefore, "works of law" are no longer required. Acts 13:39 - Luke also confirms this by providing that we have been “freed from the law of Moses.” This is the “works of the law” from which we have been freed. Rom. 3:20, 28 - in addition to the Mosaic law, as stated above, "works of the law" can also refer to anything that makes God a debtor to us. This is because law requires payment, but grace is a free gift from God. Therefore, faith must be behind every good work in order for it to be a work of grace. If not, it is a work of debt, and we cannot obligate God to do anything for us. Rom. 4:3-4 - Paul refers to works apart from God's grace. We do not obligate God to give us grace like an employee obligates his employer to pay wages. Faith in Christ must be behind our good works in order for it to be considered a work of grace; otherwise, it is a work of law or obligation. Rom. 6:23 – this is why Paul says the "wages" of sin is death. Eternal life is a free gift from God. We cannot obligate God to pay us for our works; otherwise, we are in a system of law, not a system of grace. Rom. 11:6 –if justification is now based on grace, it is no longer of works; else, grace would not be grace. Rom. 11:35 - it is impossible to obligate God for payment, and sinful to think we can. We cannot do "works of the law" to obligate God. We are not in a debtor/creditor relationship with God. He owes us nothing. Instead, we are in a Father/child covenant relationship with Him, and He will reward us for being faithful. Gal. 6:8-9 - the earnings referred to here are from God's grace. It is a free gift, not an obligation. Rom. 8:14-17; Heb. 12:5-11 - emphasize our father/son relationship with God. Familial, not legal. Rom. 7:6 - discharged from the "law," that is "works of the law." We now serve God in faith working in love. Rom. 10:4 - Christ is the end of the "law." We are now justified by faith in Christ, not faith in the law. Rom. 13:8, 10 - loving one another is new law of Christ. Internal & personal, not external & impersonal Gal. 2:16 - not justified by "works of the law." Referring to Mosaic Law Gal. 2:19, 21 - justification "through the law" means justification through the Mosaic Law or a legal system Gal. 3:10 – "works of the law" refers to "book of the law" which was the strict and impersonal Mosaic law Gal. 3:17 - "law" came 430 years after Abraham. "Works of law" refer to Mosaic Law, not "good works." Gal. 3:13; 4:4-5 - "works of the law" (not good works in God's grace) is a curse from which Christ freed us. Gal. 3:19 - these "works of law" only good for showing us our sinfulness, but not teaching us how to live. Gal. 5:4, 14; 6:2 - the "law" is of no use. The new law is law of Christ, which is faith working through love. Eph. 2:8-9 - refers to "works" of Mosaic Law, where we view God as debtor to us, and not as heavenly Father. This is why Paul refers to “works of ourselves” so we can’t “boast.” Says same thing about “works” Rom. 4:2, 4 – if Abraham was justified by “works,” he would have something to “boast” about. Eph. 2:10 - created in Christ for "good works" - a clear distinction between "works of law" (Mosaic law/legal payment) and "good works" (law of Christ/reward of grace). Eph. 2:11-16 - explains Paul's reference to "works" which relates to following the Jewish legal ordinances. Eph. 3:17 - Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, but we also must be rooted and grounded in love. 23

The Order of Mass Introductory Rites Priest: In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (1 Jn 4:13-14 …because he has given us of his own Spirit. … the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world.) People: Amen (Neh 5:13 And all the assembly said "Amen") Priest: Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and love of God and fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. People: And also with you (2 Cor 13:14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.) Penitential Rite All: I confess to Almighty God, and to you my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned through my own fault (James 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed.) in my thoughts (Mk 7:15 there is nothing outside a man which by going into him can defile him; but the things which come out of a man are what defile him.) and in my words, (James 3:6 The tongue is an unrighteous world among our members, staining the whole body, setting on fire the cycle of nature, and set on fire by hell) in what I have done and what I have failed to do (James 4:17 Whoever knows what is right to do and fails to do it, for him it is sin.) and I ask Blessed Mary Ever-Virgin, all the angels and saints, and you, my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord Our God. (2 Thess 3:1 brethren, pray for us.) Priest: May Almighty God have mercy on us, forgive us our sins, and bring us to everlasting life. (1 Jn 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just, will forgive our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness.) All: Lord have mercy, (Mt 20:31 "Lord have mercy on us, Son of David!") Christ have mercy (Jude 21 wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.) Gloria All: Glory to God in the highest, and peace to his people on earth (Lk 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men …!"), Lord God, Heavenly King, Almighty God and Father (Rom 15:6 that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.) we worship you (Rev 19:10 Worship God..) we give you thanks (Eph 5:20 always and for everything giving thanks ….) we praise you for your glory (Phil 1:11 filled with the fruits of righteousness which come through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God.) Lord Jesus Christ, only Son of the Father (1 Jn 4:9 In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world...), Lord God, Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us (Jn 1:29 Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world), you are seated at the right hand of the Father, receive our prayer, (Rom 8:34 It is Christ who also is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us.), for you alone are the Holy One, (Mk 1:24 I know who you are the Holy One of God.") you alone are the Lord (Rev 15:4 Who shall not fear and glorify thy name, O Lord? For thou alone art holy..) , you alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ (Lk 1:32 He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High, ), with the Holy Spirit, in the glory of God the Father. (1 Cor 6:19 your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you…) Liturgy of the Word Old Testament reading, Responsorial Psalm taken from the Book of Psalms, on holy days and Sundays, a second reading from the Epistles, Gospel reading. Profession of Faith (Nicene Creed) Liturgy of the Eucharist Priest: Blessed are you Lord God of all creation. Through your goodness we have this bread to offer, which earth has given and human hands have made (Gen 3:16 you shall eat bread till you return to the ground.). It will become for us the bread of life. (Jn 6:35, "I am the bread of life) People: Blessed be God forever (Psalm 66:20 Blessed be God, because he has not rejected my prayer…) Priest: Pray, brethren, that our sacrifice may be acceptable to God, the Almighty Father. (Heb 9:24 For Christ has entered, not into a sanctuary …now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf.) People: May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of His name, for our good, and the good of all his Church. (Heb 12:28 Therefore let us be grateful for receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, and thus let us offer to God acceptable worship, with reverence and awe) Eucharistic Prayer Priest: Lift up your hearts. People: We lift them up to the Lord (Lam 3:41 Let us reach out our hearts toward God in heaven!) Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord our God (Psalm 75:1 We give thanks to thee, O God) People: It is right to give Him thanks and praise (Col 1:3 We always give thanks to God, the Father…) Preface Acclamation All: Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and might, heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the highest. (Is 6:3 "Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts!" they cried one to the other. "All the earth is filled with his glory!") Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. (Mt 21:9 Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!")

Eucharistic Prayer II (Of the four Eucharistic prayers, this is both the oldest and the shortest.) Priest: Lord, you are holy indeed, the fountain of all holiness. (Jn 4:11 whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst; … ) Let your Spirit come upon these gifts to make them holy, so that they may become for us the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Lk 1:35 The Holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the Most High will overshadow you…) Before He was given up to death (Phil 2:8 he humbled himself and became obedient unto death), a death He freely accepted (Jn 10:17-18 For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life …), He took bread and gave you thanks. He broke the bread, and gave it to his disciples and said: Take this all of you and eat of it: this is my Body, which will be given up for you. When supper was ended, He took the cup. Again He gave you thanks and praise, gave the cup to His disciples and said: Take this all of you and drink from it: this is the cup of my Blood, the blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all men so that sins may be forgiven. Do this in memory of me. (Mt 26:26-28 "Take, eat; this is my body." "Drink of it, all of you; for this is my blood) Let us proclaim the mystery of faith. (Eph 1:9-10 made known to us in all wisdom and insight the mystery...) All: Dying you destroyed our death, rising you restored our life, Lord Jesus come in glory. (Heb 2:14-15 …, that through death he might destroy him who has the power of death, that is, the devil) Priest: In memory of His death and resurrection, we offer you, Father, this life-giving bread, this saving cup (Jn 6:51,54 I am the living bread which came down from heaven…) We thank you for counting us worthy to stand in your Presence and serve you. May all of us who share the Body and Blood of Christ be brought together in unity by the Holy Spirit. (1 Cor 10:17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread..). Lord, remember your Church throughout the world; make us grow in love, together with N. our Pope, N., our bishop, and all the clergy. (Heb 13:17 Obey your leaders and submit to them; for they are keeping watch over your souls, as men who will have to give account. Let them do this joyfully...) Remember our brothers and sisters who have gone to their rest in the hope of rising again. Bring them and all the departed into the light of your presence. (2 Mac 12:45 But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.) Have mercy on us all; make us worthy to share eternal life, together with Mary, the virgin mother of God, with the apostles, and with all the saints, who have done your will throughout the ages. May we praise you in union with them and give you glory through your Son, Jesus Christ. (2 Thess 1:4-5 Therefore we ourselves boast of you in churches of God for your steadfastness and faith in all your persecutions and in afflictions which you are enduring. evidence of righteous judgment of God, you may be made worthy of kingdom of God, for which you are suffering.) Doxology Priest: Through Him, with Him, in Him, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, all glory and honor is yours Almighty Father, forever and ever. People: Amen. (Rom 11:36 from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory for ever) Communion Rite Lord's Prayer (Mt 6:9-13 Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name..) Priest: Deliver us Lord from every evil, and grant us peace in our day. In your mercy keep us free from sin and protect us from all anxiety, as we wait in joyful hope for the coming of our Saviour, Jesus Christ. (Jn 17:15 … thou shouldest keep them from the evil one.) People: For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours, now and forever (Didache - teaching of the Apostles, first century and 1 Chron 29:11 Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty;) Priest: Lord Jesus Christ, you said to your disciples: I leave you peace, my peace I give you. Look not on our sins, but on the faith of your Church, and grant us the peace and unity of your kingdom, where you live forever and ever. (Jn 14:27 Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you) Priest: The peace of the Lord be with you always. (Jn 20:19 Jesus said to them, "Peace be with you.") Breaking of the Bread People: Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world: have mercy on us. Lamb of God, you take away the sins of the world: have mercy on us. Lamb of God you take away the sins of the world: grant us peace. (Jn 1:29 "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!") Communion Priest: This is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world. Happy are those who are called to His Supper. (Rev 19:9 "Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb." All: Lord, I am not worthy to receive you, but only say the word and I shall be healed. ( Lk 7:6-7 " ...But say the word, and let my servant be healed). Dismissal Priest: Go in peace, to love and serve the Lord (2 Chron 35:3 Now serve the LORD your God and his people) People: Thanks be to God. (2 Cor 9:15 Thanks be to God for his inexpressible gift!)


Just War Theory The act of self-defense can have a double effect: the preservation of one’s own life; and the killing of the aggressor…The one is intended, the other is not (CCC 2263). However, the Fifth Commandment forbids doing anything with the intention of indirectly bringing about a person’s death without grave reason (see CCC 2269). Legitimate defense cannot only be a right but a grave duty for someone responsible for another’s life (CCC 2265). Preserving common good of society requires rendering aggressor unable to inflict harm (CCC. 2266). Strict conditions for legitimate defense by military force: 1. Damage inflicted by aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave and certain; 2. All other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; 3. There must be serious prospects of success; and, 4. The use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. The power of modern means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition. Many Christians refer to the following verses which show God’s opposition to war: Matt. 5:9 – Jesus says “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.” Matt. 5:39 – Jesus says “...if anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.” Matt. 5:44 – Jesus says “Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” Matt. 26:52 – Jesus says that whoever takes the sword will perish by the sword. Rom. 12:17,21 – Paul says “repay no one evil for evil, but take thought for what is noble in the sight of all. Job 5:20 – the Lord redeems those in war, from the power of the sword. Isaiah 2:4 – “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not life up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.” Psalm 27:3 – war is unnatural, and we must put our confidence in the Lord. Psalm 33:17 – the war horse is a vain hope for victory. Psalm 46:9 – the Lord makes wars cease to the ends of the earth, breaking the bow, shattering the spear, Psalm 55:21 – those who have war in their hearts are deceptive and evil. Psalm 68:30 – the Lord tramples people underfoot, those who delight in war. Psalm 140:2: the Lord condemns those who plan evil and stir up wars. 1 Chron. 22:8; 28:1; 2 Chron. 14:6;Mic. 2:8; 4:3; Judt. 9:7; 16:3; Hos. 1:7; 2:18; Jer. 42:14 – more examples of God’s opposition to war. Nothing in Scripture says that legitimately defending oneself or one’s country which results in the killing of another is an intrinsically evil act. Following are some of many Scriptures which support this view (and there are many other passages in Scripture where God sanctions, and even orders war): Gen. 15:14-21 – God blesses Abram through the priest-king Melchizedek after Abram’s war victory Ex. 15:3 – “The Lord is a man of war, the Lord is his name.” Deut. 1:41; 20:1,12,19-20; 21:10; Jos. 6:3; Joel 3:9 – Lord commands war when the reasons are justified. Prov. 20:18 – “Plans are established by counsel; by wise guidance wage war.” Num. 1:3-45; 21:14; 26:2; 31:3-53; 32:6-27; Jos. 4:13; 10:5,7,24; 11:7,18,23; 14:11,15; 17:1; 22:12,33; Judges 3:1-2,10; 18:11,16-17; 20:17; 1 Sam. 8:12; 16:18; 17:20; 18:5; 19:8; 23:8; 2 Sam. 11:7; 22:35; 2 Kings 18:20; 24:16; 25:4,9; 1 Chron. 7:2-40; 8:40; 12:1-38; 2 Chron. 26:13; Prov. Job 38:23; Psalm 18:34; Cant. 3:8; Jer. 39:18; 45:5; Judt. 5:1; Dan. 11:10; Wis. 8:15; Sir. 46:3; Bar. 3:26 – more Old Testament examples where God approves of war. Matt. 8:5-13 – Jesus praises a Roman centurion warrior for his faith and cures the centurion’s servant. Luke 14:31 – Jesus acknowledges the legitimacy of war in this parable. Luke 19:27 – Jesus says “But as for these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them before me.” Jesus teaches that not all killing is intrinsically evil. Luke 22:36 – Jesus says “let him who has no sword sell his mantle and buy one.” Jesus encourages the legitimate defense against an aggressor. Acts 10:2 – God responds favorably to another centurion’s prayer (Cornelius of the Italian Cohort), even though he was a soldier. The soldier’s “prayers and alms ascended as a memorial before God.” Heb. 11:32-34 – Paul praises Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephtha, David and Samuel who conquered kingdoms, enforced justice, became mighty in war and put foreign armies to flight. Rom. 13:3-4 – Paul commends us to those in authority, and exalts a man who “does not bear the sword in vain.” Paul calls such a man “the servant of God to execute his wrath on the wrongdoer.” 2 Cor. 10:3-4; 1 Tim. 1:18; Heb. 11:34; James 4:1; 1 Peter 2:11; Apoc. 2:16; 11:7; 12:7; 17:14; 19:11,19 – these New Testament passages reveal that the real war to be won is the spiritual war Eccl. 3:3– the inspired writer says that there is “a time to kill.”,

Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus Christ General Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Jesus Gen. 49:10; Mic. 5:2 - a kingdom and ruler of Israel shall come from Judah - Mattt. 1:1-2, Luke 3:23, 33 Deut. 18:18 - He will be raised up as a prophet - Matt. 21:11, Luke 7:16; John 6:14; 7:40 Psalm 2:6 - He will be a King - Matt. 21:5; John 18:36-37 - Jesus is this King. Psalm 2:7 - you are my Son, today I have begotten you - Matt. 3:17; Acts 13:33 Psalm 69:4; Isaiah 49:7 - He will be hated without a cause - John 15:25 - Jesus was hated without a cause. Psalm 69:9 - zeal for thy house has consumed me - John 2:16-17 Psalm 78:2 - He will speak in parables - Matt. 13:34-35 - Jesus spoke in parables. Psalm 110:1; Jer. 23:6 - He will be called Lord - Matt. 22:43-45; Luke 2:11; Heb. 1:10 - Jesus called Lord Psalm 118:22; Isaiah 8:14; 28:16 - He will be the stone rejected by the builders - Acts 4:10-11; Rom. 9:3233; 1 Peter 2:7-8 - Jesus is the stone rejected by the builders. Psalm 118:26; Hag.2:7-9; Mal. 3:1 - He will come to the Temple - Matt. 21:12; John 2:13-17 Psalm 132:11; Jer. 23:5 - He, the king, shall come from the House of David - Matt. 1:1; Luke 3:23, 31 Isaiah 6:9-10 - they hear but do not understand and see but do not perceive - Matt. 13:14-15; John 12:38-41 Isaiah 7:14 - He will be born of a young virgin woman - Matt. 1:18, 24-25; Luke 1:26-35 Isaiah 9:1 - His ministry will make Galilee glorious - Matt 4:12-17 - Jesus begins His ministry in Galilee. Isaiah 9:6 - a woman shall bear a son called Emmanuel ("God is with us") - Luke 1:35 Isaiah 11:2 - the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him - Matt. 3:16-17 - Spirit of God descended upon Jesus Isaiah 32:3-4; 35:5-6- His ministry will include miracles curing blind, deaf, lame and dumb - Matt. 9:32-35 Isaiah 33:22 - He will be a judge - John 5:30 - Jesus is the judge who judges justly. Isaiah 40:3; Mal. 3:1 - He will be preceded by a messenger - Mat. 3:1-3; 11:10; Luke 1:17; John 1:23 Isaiah 53:3 - He will be rejected by His people - John 1:11; 7:5 - Jesus was rejected by His own people. Isaiah 61:1-2 - Spirit of the Lord is upon Him - Luke 4:21 - Jesus says that He has fulfilled this prophecy. Zech. 9:9 - He will triumphantly enter Jerusalem on an ass - Matt. 21:5; Luke 19:35-38; John 12:14-17 Mic. 5:2 - Israel's ruler shall come from Bethlehem - Matt. 2:1, 4-8; Luke 2:4-7 Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus in His Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension Psalm 16:10; 30:3 - He will not be spared from death and yet remain incorrupt - Acts 2:31; 13:33, 35 Psalm 22:1 - My God, my God, why has thou forsaken me? - Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34 Psalm 22:7 - the people will wag their heads at Him - Matt. 27:39; Mark 15:29 Psalm 22:7 - He will be mocked - Matt. 27:31; Mark 15:20; Luke 22:63; 23:36 - Jesus was mocked. Psalm 22:16; Isa. 53:12 - He will be numbered with the transgressors - Matt. 27:38; Mark 15:27; Luke 23:32; John 19:18 - Jesus was numbered with the transgressors by being crucified between two thieves. Psalm 22:16; Zech 12:10 - hands and feet pierced and they will weep for the first-born - John 19:23, 34, 37 Psalm 22:17 - they will stare and gloat over Him - Matt. 27:36; Luke 23:35 - the people stood by and stared Psalm 22:18 - they will divide His garments among them - Matt. 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19:23 Psalm 22:18 - they will cast lots for His garments - Matt. 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19: Psalm 30:3; 41:10, 118:17; Hos 6:2 - raised to life third day - Acts 13:33, Mt 28:6; Mk 16:6; Lk 24:34, 46 Psalm 34:20 - He will not have broken bones - John 19:33, 36 - none of Jesus' bones were broken. Psalm 41:9; 55:12-14 - He will be betrayed by a friend - Matt. 10:4; 26:20-25; Mark 14:18-21; John 13:18 Psalm 68:18 - He will ascend into heaven - Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51; John 20:17; Acts 1:9. Psalm 68:20 - escape the powers of death - Acts 2:31; 13:33; Mt 28:6; Mk 16:6, Lk 24:46; John 20:9-10 Psalm 69:21 - give Him vinegar to drink - Matt. 27:34,48; Mark 15:23,36; Luke 23:36; John 19:29 Psalm 110:1 - He will sit at the right hand of God - Heb. 1:3; Acts 2:34-35 Isaiah 50:6 - He will be spat upon - Matt. 26:67; Mark 15:19 - Jesus was spat upon. Isaiah 50:6; Mic. 5:1 - the ruler of Israel's cheek will be struck - Matt. 26:67; Luke 22:63; John 18:22 Isaiah 53:5; Zech. 13:6 - He was wounded, bruised and scourged for us - Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; John 19:1 Isaiah 53:7 - He will remain silent before His accusers - Mt 27:12, 14; Mark 14:61;15:5; Lk 23:9; Jn 19:9 Isaiah 53:8-10; Dan. 9:26 - the anointed one shall be cut off and die - Luke 23:46; 24:7; John 19:30 Isaiah 53:9 - buried in a rich man's tomb - Matt. 27:57-60; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50-53; John 19:38-42 Isaiah 53:12 - He will make intercession for the transgressors - Luke 23:34, 43 Amos 8:9 - God will darken the earth at noon - Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45 Jonah 1:17 - three nights and days in belly of the whale foreshadows Jesus' death and rising on the third day. Mic. 1:8 - He will lament and wail, and will go stripped and naked - John 19:23-24 Zech. 11:12-13 - He will be betrayed for 30 pieces of silver - Matt. 26:15 Zech. 11:13 - the pieces of silver are cast into God's house - Matt. 27:5 Zech. 12:10 - His side will be pierced - John 19:34, 37 - Jesus' side was pierced. Zech. 13:7 - He will be forsaken by His disciples who will scatter - Matt. 26:31, Mark. 14:50 25