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My question for this experiment is ​how will different leavening agents affect our bread? My hypothesis for this experiment is ​Yeast will be fluffy, Sourdough will taste well, sour and baking soda will be the most dense. I think this because of the sourdough breads that I have tasted in the past, and I do not think that the baking soda will create as many bubbles as we are used to. Recipes and procedures

YEAST (Control- since this is the leavening agent that we usually use) Yeast recipe:3 cups of lukewarm water 6.5 cups of all-purpose flour 1 tablespoon of salt 1.5 tablespoons of yeast Yeast Procedure: -Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds. -Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap. -Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days. -When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit. -Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log. -Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. -Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer. -If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf rests. -When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 2018.YeastBread.SN


or 3 times, making a cut about 1/2" deep. -Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on the rack beneath. -Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes. -Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2) ​ omemade Sourdough starter recipe H

6.5 cups of white flour. 2.5 cups of water. A tablespoon of salt. Carbon dioxide.

Homemade Procedure

● First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of water. ● When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more flour, salt, and water. ● Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl. ● Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl. ● Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl. ● Mix well. ● Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes. ● Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt. ● Knead well for 10-15 minutes. ● Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test. ● Make the dough into a loaf. ● Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour. ● Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees. ● Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked. BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Baking Soda Recipe 3.5 cups of all purpose flour 1 teaspoon of sugar 1 teaspoon baking soda


1 teaspoon of salt 1.5 cups of buttermilk Baking Soda Procedure:

1. Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit. 2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together. 3. Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky. 4. When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet. 5. Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees.

COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3, My Groups’ Bread) Recipe: ⅓ cup sourdough starter 1 cup of water 3 ⅓ cup white flour

Commercial Sourdough Procedure 1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough. 2. Knead the dough until it passes the “windowpane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through. 3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours. 4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade. 5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing.


DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4) Recipe: 1 tablespoon active sourdough ¼ cup all purpose flour ⅓ cup of water 1 tablespoon of salt 2.5 cups of water

Dennis’ Sourdough Procedure: Make sure your sourdough culture is active Make the leaven (overnight) Test that the leaven is ready Dissolve the salt Mix the leaven and water Add the flour Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours) Mix in the salt Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours) Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes) Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls Shape the loaves Transfer to the proofing baskets Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge) Heat the oven to 500°F Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens Score the top of the loaf Bake the loaves for 20 minutes Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes Bake another 15 to 25 minutes Cool the loaves completely


Variable

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Flour type

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

Dough rise time

60+ minutes

none

15-60 minutes

4-24 hours

30-60 minutes

Oven temp. (all in degrees F)

450

450-400

400

400

500-450

Bake time

25-35 minutes

15 minutes, then 20-30 (35-45 minutes total)

1-3 hours

30-60 minutes

50-70 minutes

Dough amount

⅓ of the original dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

Other

Uses yeast in Uses tablespoons, buttermilk. not sure how that works.

Uses lots of flour (10 cups).

(no difference, this is my bread)

Uses more water than the others.

Observation

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

3.5”

3”

1”

3.5”

Floury, kind of sour, not very good.

Tastes similar to bread, but it

Tough crust, hard to get through.

Height

2.5”

Taste

Tastes the Brittle crust, most like with the bread itself


bread out of all of them, a little like Panera Bread bread.

being kinda crunchy, which wasn’t really good.

too floury and a bit too dry, in my opinion.

Bread tastes kinda sour. Not a good type of sour, either.

Appearance (holes, airiness)

Airy, but in a good way.

Dry, and crumbly.

Like a badly-made croissant.

No real holes, not very airy.

Texture

Like, well, bread. Nice and soft. Crust was a bit hard though.

Dry texture, Grainy not a whole texture, a bit lot of taste to dry. it.

Squishy texture, chewy.

A bit mushy, soft.

Other

2018.YeastBread.SN

Baking soda 2018


GR (2018)​ homemade bread

TN (2018) Commercial Sourdough BD (2018) Dennis’s Sourdough


Nutrition Calculations: Calories: Flour = 100 cal per ¼ of a cup, so it’s 900 calories (2.5 cups) Salt = o calories Starter = 19 cal per 5.4 grams, so it’s 152 calories (2 cups) TOTAL = around 952 calories total. Carbohydrates: Flour = 22 g per ¼ cup, so 198 grams (22 times 9) Salt = 0g Starter = 4g, so 8 grams TOTAL = 206 grams. Fat: Flour = 0g Salt = 0g Starter = 0g TOTAL = Either 0 or less than 1 gram(s) of fat. Protein: Flour = 3g per ¼ cup, so it’s 7.5 grams (3 grams x 2.5 cups) Salt = 0g Starter = 0g TOTAL = Around 7.5 grams of protein.


Graph:

This experiment found mixed results in my opinion. None of the breads were extremely tasty but I chalk that up to not being professional bakers. Finally I would recommend a yeast leavening agent because it tasted the best and was the most “normal”. I suppose that the yeast has the best reaction. When you mix yeast with water it produces carbon dioxide which when you mix with dough the bubbles cause the bread to rise and also creates the nice airy texture that a lot of people enjoy. Since yeast is a product of nature that makes it a biological leavening agent on the other hand we have baking soda which is a chemical leavening agent it and since it has a pH of 9 that makes it a base and when you mix a base with an acid (in our case buttermilk which has a pH of about 4.4) it creates the same chemical reaction producing carbon dioxide. My hypothesis was incorrect, I thought that the baking soda wouldn’t produce enough carbon dioxide making the bread dense however, it actually seemed to produce too much which made the bread brittle and crunchy.

Bready or Not  
Bready or Not  
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