Tyler Kielb MUS 134 05/03/2011
Chopin's Ballade Op. 23 Within a Narrative Context
The exact inspiration for Chopin's four Ballades has historically been a subject of much
speculation. This is due to a number of factors, significantly the evocative yet vague title of "Ballade", and perhaps more importantly, the qualities of the music found in each composition. Each Ballade has a distinctively narrative character to it: long, lyrical phrases impart each work with operatic qualities that, through the use of fermatas, smorzando (same as morendo, more often smorz. in Chopin) and rubato, create an overwhelming sense of the subjective narration characteristic of literary ballads that predate Chopin's work. Structurally, this relates to how all the Ballades loosely make use of Sonata form; harmonically, the use of contrasting modalities compete for dominance and create conflict, "conflict" being the driving force behind any narrative. While it is impossible to prove with any definitive certainty that the Ballade No.1 was explicitly based on a single selection from literary sources, a careful comparison between excerpts from each helps to demonstrate the fundamentally narrative quality of the Chopin composition. Through a comparison of the form of Chopinâ€™s Ballade to the form and structure of a traditional ballad, as well as an examination of the inspirations and influences that shaped the philosophy of Chopinâ€™s composition, his Ballade emerges as a conscious product of musical as well as literary and artistic movements that ultimately champion the subjective narrative.
The idiosyncrasies of Chopinâ€™s work become immediately apparent when examining the harmonic
structure and form of the piece. While the key signature indicates G minor, the piece opens outlining an Ab
major triad, or a Neapolitan 6th in the prevailing key signature. After this brief and ambiguous introduction, the first theme is stated in G minor, and indeed the first and final themes clearly establish G minor as tonic. With the presence of a G minor tonic, one would also expect to hear modulation to the mediant, Bb; the appropriate half cadence on F major in mm. 65 certainly suggests such a harmonic gesture.
The second main theme that emerges in mm. 68 is harmonically unstable and never clearly
establishes Bb though, eventually settling in Eb major instead, or the sub-mediant. This in itself is not entirely unusual or original, as Eb serves as VI in G minor and share virtually the same key signature save Eb major’s Ab, a pitch who’s significance was in a way foreshadowed by the opening Neapolitan sixth chord. The next truly “unusual” harmonic gesture occurs immediately following that in mm. 93: from Eb Chopin modulates up a half-step to an E dominant 7th chord, and cadencing on A minor in a restatement of the first theme in that key. This modulation up a whole step to ii from the tonic of G minor is extremely unusual; the two keys share but three pitches and are considered “distantly related” keys. This bizarre modulation, along with a subsequent restatement of the tonally unstable second theme in that same key creates a great deal of harmonic tension that comes to fruition in a precarious waltz, now back in Eb major, that emerges in mm. 139. After these approximately 150 measures of harmonic instability the narrating theme returns, once again in the tonic key of G minor before erupting into a furious coda.
The oddities of the harmonic content of Chopin’s Ballade have caused a great deal of interest with
regard to an investigation of the work’s form. The most common assertion among these investigations is the use of sonata form as a paradigm in constructing not just Chopin’s first Ballade, but all four of his Ballades, and thus the entire precedent of the instrumental ballade. According to William Rothstein, “all of the Ballades make some reference to the conventions of nineteenth century sonata form.” 1 Particular to the first Ballade, Jim Samson too considers that “the elements of Sonata are already an obvious
William Rothstein, “Ambiguity in the Themes of Chopin’s First, Second and Fourth Ballades.” Intégral, Vol. 8 (1994), p. 2.
background to the presentation of main thematic groups,” drawing heavily on Heinrich Schenker’s 1935 analysis in which he broke the harmonic structure of the first Ballade into three distinct sections. 2 Such interpretations rely heavily on acknowledgement of many elements that “deviate from classical practice,” 3 and thus such arguments for a sonata basis in Chopin’s Ballades are quite effective at undermining themselves. While the influence of the sonata on all music can hardly be discarded, to suggest it as the primary source of inspiration for the Ballade’s structure misses the character of the piece altogether. Alternative analyses of the form more easily associate Chopin’s Ballade with a combination of Lied, rondo, variation, and sonata forms, as in Heinrich Leichtentritt’s analysis,4 or with a quasi-ritornello/ episode form, as in an analysis by Karol Berger.5 While such alternative approaches come closer to capturing the intent of the piece, they still fail to acknowledge the most important conscious aspect of this work: the title, Ballade. Thus, it seems crucial that any investigation of the form of this piece focus on the structural model and conventions associated with such a title, both in a historical and contemporary context.
The first printed ballads arose in the 15th century. These works were essentially "minstrel songs"
and characterized by their narrative quality and strophic construction.6 From there, the tradition of the ballad varies greatly, ranging over several thematic types. As a generalization though, the Cambridge Guide to Literature in English states that "in all traditions most ballads are narrative in nature, with a self contained story, often concise and relying on imagery, rather than description, which can be tragic, historical, romantic or comic."7 Thus, to break this definition into its components, there are two primary
Jim Samson, Chopin: The Four Ballades (Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 45-48.
Ibid, p. 46.
Heinrich Leichtentritt, Analyse der Chopin'schen Klavierwerke, Vol. 2 (Berlin: Max Hesses Verlag, 1922).
Karol Berger, “The Form of Chopin’s ‘Ballade’ Op. 23. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 20, No. 1 (1996), pp. 49
John Houseman. British Popular Ballads (Books for Libraries Press, 1969), p. 15.
Ian Ousby. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 66.
features of a ballad: it narrates a complete and independent story, and relies almost exclusively on imagery to accomplish this. It is the "imagery" that makes the ballad such an appealing form to Chopin, "imagery" being defined as "visually descriptive or figurative language." The vagueness of this definition is itself a characterization of the nature of "imagery"â€”highly subjective, and lacking a clear, definite interpretation. Chopin's work, therefore, takes full advantage of the genre's reliance on something as subjective as "imagery" over the literal use of words to convey a narrative. In much the same tradition as Mendelssohn's Lieder ohn Worte, Chopin's first Ballade was first published in some instances under the longer title Ballade ohn Worte, 8 which is understandable given the form's prior dependance on text for visually descriptive language. The Ballade Op.23 is, in essence, a statement that within this form, such imagery can be effectively accomplished through musical sound alone. This idea in itself represents one of the major challenges a pianist faces when performing Chopinâ€™s Ballade; although the technical demands of the piece are certainly formidable, the lack of a voice or text to convey ideas places the narrative burden entirely on the pianistâ€™s ability to speak through the instrument and represents a substantial challenge to a performer.
While the use of subjective imagery is certainly an important element of a ballad, it is not
something that in and of itself would readily identify a piece of music as a ballad. In such a broad sense, a myriad of musical compositions can be seen to employ "imagery," especially during the Romantic era onwards. Thus, one of the reasons that Chopin saw the ballad as a viable instrumental form is not, in fact the quality that makes his work revolutionary; it simply makes it in vogue. Therefore, it is not only the title, but more importantly the way in which the music itself is structured that makes the Ballade ohn Worte original. The formal construction of a typical ballad consists of four-line stanzas of alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter. This rhythmic construction is so closely associated with the ballad that it is known as "ballad meter."9 8
James Parakilas. Ballads Without Words: Chopin and the Tradiiton of the Instrumental Ballade (Amadeus Press 1992), p.16.
Ousby. p. 66.
10 A Traditional
Thus, this rhythmic character is an important defining element of a ballad. Chopin would have
undoubtedly known this convention when conceiving of his own Ballade; with a title that so overtly references a well-established form of a different discipline, of important concern are the techniques through which Chopin translated this form from literature to music. As the above example demonstrates, of the most direct ways in which Chopin could have accomplished this is through evoking the same rhythmic structure and phrasing that typically defines a ballad. Such a gesture would need to be made almost immediately to properly establish the context for the piece. The Ballade begins with a brief introduction, consisting mainly of an arpeggio spanning most of the keyboard. The first theme is then introduced:11
This first theme presents a number of important features that establish it as a ballad. First of note is the time signature of 6/4. This time signature in itself is problematic, as one would perhaps expect to see the signature 3/4 or 6/8 to correspond with the traditional literary ballad’s structure being based on groups of four and three sets of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Frederic Chopin. Oeuvres complètes de Frédéric Chopin - Band 1 (Bote & Bock, 1880), p.1 mm.8-10.
Looking further to the actual theme however, the way in which the theme is fit into the meter gives
it an unmistakably “iambic” character. In iambic hexameter the stresses fall on the second, fourth and sixth syllables. Chopin accomplishes a similar effect by beginning the motive on the fourth half beat, causing the natural rhythmic accent to fall on the second, fourth and sixth notes in the set:
Furthermore, this motive consists of six notes; while that interlude passage that follows does not fit
into this same “pseudo-iambic” character, it is nonetheless a series of eight consecutive notes or chords. In fact, the first fifteen measures in the first section (mm.8-67) follow this same pattern of alternating groups of six and eight notes, an uncanny parallel to the alteration between trimeter and tetrameter in a ballad. It seems clear that in this opening section Chopin was influenced by the formal rhythmic structure of a traditional narrative ballad. Therefore, given the way in which the rhythmic structure of this passage seems to mimic the character of speech, it can appropriately be thought of as the “narrating theme.” This first section literally introduces the scenes of colorful, expressive imagery that are to follow. The narrating theme then appears two additional times, in each case prefacing a new thematic section in the piece. Using this theme to divide sections of the piece solidifies its role as a narrating voice, and furthermore, demonstrates an extremely subtle yet effective technique through which Chopin translates the Ballad from the literary to the instrumental genre.
The ballad was taken up again with great enthusiasm by poets and authors in the 19th century.
Several Romantic authors championed the ballad for the way in which its individualistic character seemed the perfect outlet for their highly subjective, emotionally charged writings.12 By the 1830s Romanticism had taken Europe and beyond by storm, and Chopin was certainly no exception. What originally began as 12
David Duff. Romanticism and the Uses of Genre (Oxford University Press, 2009), p.60.
a literary and philosophical movement was having a widespread impact as artists from varying disciplines interacted, both indirectly, through their publications, and directly, through close personal relationships. Chopin demonstrates this perhaps more completely than any other composer; for ten years Chopin was engaged in a close romantic relationship with the French Romanic author Georges Sand. 13 While this romantic liaison began after Chopin first published his Ballade in 1836, it is interesting to note that Sand and Chopin first met at a soirée sometime that same year; clearly at this point Chopin was already very much a part of the atmosphere of the mixing and mingling of the arts that characterize the Romantic era. Chopin was not merely aware of contemporary developments in literature, however; in addition to his renown as a composer, he gained a reputation as an active personality in certain literary circles. Chopin and Sand became noted as fixtures of the literary scene, and In 1833 Chopin applied for and was admitted to the Polish Literary Society.14 As Bourrily documents in his chronicle of the Romantic author Adam Mickiewickz’ time in France, “Among the French personalities who attended Mickiewicz’s courses there could often be seen his colleagues Michelet and Quinet, but even more often George Sand accompanied by Chopin...” 15 For Chopin, this interest in the work of Mickiewicz is also part of another theme running through his life: his Polish heritage. The differences in the two men’s temperaments prevented them from ever being close friends, at times their relationship verging on animosity. Yet Chopin continued to thoroughly support Mickiewickz and his work for one of, if not the most important reason to him: Mickiewickz was Polish. One of Chopin’s first published works, Op. 3, is Introduction and Polonaise. Chopin would go on to publish for solo piano forty-three Mazurkas and seven Polonaises in his lifetime, as well as the orchestral works Fantaisie brilliante on Polish Airs, Rondo à la Krakowiak, and Andante spianato et grande
James Huneker. Chopin: The Man and His Music (Dover Publications, 1966) pp 32.
14 Arthur 15
Hedley. Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin (DaCapo Press, 1963), p.115-16.
Jean Bourrily and J. Robert Loy (trans.), Lednicki, Waclaw (ed.). “Mickiewickz and France.” Adam Mickiewickz in World Literature (University of California Press, 1956), p.263.
polonaise brilliante. Additionally, there are a handful of other works, namely the final or “Revolutionary” étude of the Op. 10 set, that have long been associated with the struggles of Poland and its people. Clearly from a very young age until his death, Chopin’s Polish heritage served as a sense not only of pride, but also inspiration in his approach towards life, and especially his music. This is in part how Chopin answered the Romantic atmosphere’s demand for the “original,” by turning to his own cultural roots. Given Chopin’s established involvement in the broader landscape of art and literature, why is one to think that Chopin looked for inspiration elsewhere when he conceived of his novel Ballade ohn Worte? In fact, there is evidence that suggests just that. Friend and contemporary of Chopin, Robert Schumann writes in his Neue Zeitschrift für Musik of a conversation in which Chopin admitted to being inspired to write his Ballades by “some poems of Mickiewickz.” 16
What is not clear is exactly what “poems” Chopin was referring to, or if there was any specific
selection at all. The uncertainty concerning the source of inspiration for the Ballades causes John Rink to conclude in his essay on the extra-musical content of Chopin’s Ballades that “there is still plenty of scope left for analysts attempting to define the 'essence' or 'true content' of the Ballades.” 17 Huneker was one of the first to assert a general association that had been floating around for sometime about a connection between the Ballade and Mickiewicz’s Konrad Wallenrod in his biography of the composer, although there is no source for this claim. Despite this, as Dorota Zakrzewska points out in her own paper comparing the work of the the two artists, “it is the fact that for the past hundred and fifty years these works have been linked together that matters. This connection, passed down from Schumann to modern day listeners and performers, forms one distinctive level of meaning in the Ballades.” 18 Part of what makes Wallenrod such a compelling literary source for comparison is the famous “Alpuhara Ballad”
Robert Schumann. Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 15 (1841), p.142.
John Rink. “Chopin's Ballades and the Dialectic: Analysis in Historical Perspective.” Music Analysis, Vol. 13 (Blackwell Publishing, Mar. 1994), p.113. 18
Dorota Zakrzewska. Alienation and Powerlessness: Adam Mickiewicz's Ballady and Chopin's Ballades (UMI 1998) p. 2.
contained therein. It is a poem written in the form of a traditional ballad. Especially given the established appreciation the composer showed for the author, in an attempt to merely explore the narrative character of Chopin’s work, there is perhaps no better literary model for hypothetical comparison to the Ballade. BALLAD. 19 ALPUHARA. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 19 Adam
Ruined lie the Moorish cities, Still the Moors upraise the sword; In the country still resisting, Reigns the pestilence as lord. And the towers of Alpuhara Brave Almanzor still defends: Floats below the Spaniard's banner, Siege to-morrow he intends. Roar the guns at sunrise loudly, Ramparts break, and crumble walls From the towers the cross gleams proudly, Now the Spaniard owns these halls. Sad Almanzor views his warriors Slain in battle desperate Hews his way through swords and lances, Flieth Spain's pursuing hate. Now the Spaniards in the fortress, 'Mid the stones and corpses there, Hold the feast and drain the wine-cup, And the spoils and captives share. Soon the guard without announces That a stranger knight doth wait, Craving for a swift admittance, Bringing tidings of great weight. 'Twas the vanquished Moor Almanzor. Swift his mantle off was thrown; To the Spaniards he surrenders, And he craves for life alone. "I am come, ye Christian warriors, To submit me to your power; I will serve the God of Christians, Own your prophet from this hour. “Let the blast of flame, world-filling, Say, the Arab chief o'erthrown Would be brother to his victors, Vassal of a stranger's crown.”
38 40 42 46 48 60 62 64 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
Well the Spaniard prizes valour. So the great Almanzor knowing, They embraced him, circled round him, As their true companion showing. Each one then Almanzor greeted, And their captain close embraced: Hung upon his neck, and kissed him; Such true love their friendship graced. All at once his strength grew feebler, And he fell upon the ground; But he drew the Spaniard with him, To his feet the turban 'bound. All with wonder looked upon him, And his livid visage scan'; Horrid smiles deformed his features, And with blood his eyes o'erran. "Christian dogs," he cries, "look on me, If you understand this thing; I deceived you, from Granada Come I, and the plague I bring. "For my kiss breathed venom in ye, And the plague shall lay you low; Come and look upon my torturesYe such death must undergo." Wide he cast his eyes around him, As he would eternally Chain all Spaniards to his bosom; And a horrid laugh laughed he. Laughed, and died; his eyes yet open, Open yet his lips remained : In that hellish smile for ever Those cold features still were strained. Fled the Spaniards from the city. But the plague their steps pursuing, Ere they left doomed Alpujara, Was that gallant host's undoing.
Mickiewickz. Konrad Wallenrod: An Historical Poem (Trübner & Co., 1882), p.65-68.
Observing cues in the text, the poem can roughly be divided into three separate scenes, as
indicated by the addition of dotted line breaks to the text. Each scene follows a specific progression of events, acts, or ideas that come together to form a unified plot:
I: War: Hard times for the Moors→war, death→the Hero grieves.
II: Noble Hero: The enemy in their fortress→Hero enters→celebration→Hero collapses.
III: Frenzied Flight: Deception revealed/Hero dies→townspeople flee→city is ultimately doomed.
As was already stated, Chopin’s work also contains three primary sections as delineated by the recurrence of the narrating theme a total of three times. These “scenes” also follow a clear progression of themes and musical ideas: I: mm. 8-93: Theme I (Gm)→“agitato” section→intimate statement of second theme. II: mm. 94-193: Theme I (Am)→restatement of theme II→precarious waltz→theme II returns. III: mm. 194-263: Theme I (Gm)→frantic coda→conclusion on descending chromatic scale. Thus, a connection between the two works is already suggested on a superficial level, merely as an observation of their parallel ternary structure. A conclusion based solely on such observations would be dubious however, as rational or diagrammatic analyses focus solely on the descriptive qualities of the works. As defined above, ballads rely primarily on imagery rather than description to convey a narrative or idea; therefore, visually expressive gestures that are present in such works are of significant interest in an effort to understand their narrative.
The first stanza in Wallenrod focuses solely on description of the scenario war has created. It is
not until the third verse and thereafter that the first true imagery appears, easily identified by the excess of verbs: “roar the guns”, “ramparts break”, “crumble walls”, “the cross gleams.” These images form a very loud, chaotic and destructive depiction of war. A similar progression and imagery is observed in the Ballade; the first theme has a reflective character, that, as already discussed, also imitates speech patterns. After the initial statement of the first, or “narrating” theme, the character of the music becomes increasingly chaotic as it goes from moderato to agitato in mm. 40 with strong, “roaring” octaves in the
left hand. This agitation continues into a repeated passage of three-against-four rhythm, giving it a lurching, struggling character, evoking a similar mood and imagery to the break of ramparts and crumble of walls. The tension finally culminates in a series of sparkling arpeggios that seem to “gleam” as the Spanish cross; these begin intensely and grow ever fainter, as if becoming more and more distant. This escape from turmoil creates a viable reference to Konrad’s hero frantically retreating alone from battle and bemoaning the death of his kinsmen; the newfound tranquility created by the smorzando in mm. 64 allows for a very somber, intimate statement of the second theme, which can thus fittingly be thought of as the “Hero’s” theme.
The opening of the second “scene” in line 17 of the Konrad ballad again focuses on description
versus imagery, shifting now to an enemy feast taking place within in the citadel. Being predominantly descriptive—not “imageraeic”—text, it seems fitting that one hears this paralleled in a return of the narrative theme in mm. 94 of Chopin’s Ballade, introducing the imagery of the forthcoming “scene” in much the same way. The entrance of a “stranger knight” leads to a powerful image in line 26 of the poem when “swift off his mantle was thrown,” revealing it to be the hero. It is at this corresponding moment in Chopin’s Ballade that the second theme is boldly restated, establishing this theme clearly as a heroic motive. As discussed in the formal analysis prior though, underlying this second theme is great instability and harmonic “deception,” as this “heroic” motive appears to cadence in several different keys. Of course, in Mickiewicz’ ballad the enemy is unaware of such “deceptions” from the hero, instead celebrating his alleged defection. The musical instability continues in the Ballade, verging on downright capriciousness by mm. 130, finally erupting into a precarious waltz in mm. 138. As in the poem though, this animated affair of rising and falling melodic figures winds down, with attention shifting back to a final statement of the heroic theme in line 48 that dies away, and with a descending arpeggio returns once again to the narrating theme in the tonic key.
The final scene in the poem begins at line 65. While the setting is still inside the citadel, there is a
clear division of “scenes” here due to the abrupt switch from imagery back to narration—in this case,
narration of actual dialogue spoken by the hero. Keeping this in mind, it is not so surprising that one hears the “narrating” theme appear once more in Chopin’s Ballade; with a literal recitation of dialogue, the only idea to convey on a musical level is that of speech itself, hence the narrating theme. Instead of the bold transition into the heroic theme as occurred in mm. 106 however, this final interlude gives way to an ominous scene framed by a haunting i chord in second inversion. The final image of the hero, “his eyes yet open, open yet his lips remained in that hellish smile for ever, those cold features still were strained” is very intense, morbid imagery. The dramatic descending scales that segue into the Ballade’s coda are actually double-scales in sixths on the right hand, technically a very awkward figure for a pianist to accomplish, which combined with the il più f possible indication charges the passage with similar intense, “strained” imagery to the disease-ravaged corpse of the hero.
With the Hero dead, the imagery in the last stanza of the poem functions almost as an epilogue—
or coda. At the very least, the frantic imagery of mass panic certainly seems a plausible parallel to the vigorous, driving rhythms of the Ballade’s Presto con fuoco coda. The first two lines of this stanza are concerned with the imagery of flight and pursuit—images which in an ancient historical context have connotations with the horse. A horse has two generally established running forms, distinguished by the resulting rhythm each creates: the three beat and the four beat gallop. While the latter is faster, it is rarely used in driving,20 and thus, the former is generally the maximum speed one would see—and hear—a vehicle being pulled. A unique element of the three-beat gallop is the presence of a rest between the beat groups that becomes increasingly prominent as the horse’s speed increases;21 thus, if one were to notate the resulting rhythm, it would appear:
Taking note of this rhythmic pattern, and turning now to the first few measures of the Ballade’s Coda (mm. 208-9), one is confronted with this: 20
Charlene Roth. Driving the Light Horse (Prentice Hall Press, 1984), p.5.
Susan Harris. Horse Gaits, Balance and Movement (Howell Book House, 1993), p.44.
Featuring groups of three beats separated by a rest, the rhythm of the right hand is identical to the rhythm of the three-beat gallop. As such, the imagery of the coda perhaps goes beyond a general sense of Presto con fuoco to something more evocative—the rhythm of running horses. Whether by horse or otherwise, in the literary narrative the townspeople’s flight is ultimately in vain, and they are doomed to a painful death by the plague. As with the last statement and “death” of the heroic theme less than 100 measures earlier, the Ballade concludes with a struggle between rising and falling melodic figures, finally with a dissonant chromatic scale beginning with octaves on the left and right hand forming a tritone—the diabolus in musica.22 Thus, the final tone of the work is a morbid, pained image of descent—descent, perhaps, into Hell.
As with many revolutionary masterpieces, Chopin’s Ballade is a highly ambiguous work, lending
itself to extensive investigation and analysis in an effort to determine the process and intent of the composer. From rhythmic gestures to the possibilities for generating imagery, it seems clear that Chopin approached creating this new instrumental genre simply as an extension of the preexisting tradition of literary ballads, exemplified in selections from the works of contemporary and compatriot, Adam Mickiewicz. Despite records of Schumann and assertions in early biographies like that of James Huneker that point to a definite connection between these two artistic figures, Chopin’s lack of specificity makes any conclusions about the extramusical content of this work purely speculative. However, the fact that it leaves itself so open to exploration of imagery on many levels establishes it definitively as a Ballade within a narrative context.
D.M. Randel. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music & Musicians (Harvard University Press, 1999), p.684.
Complete List of Sources Berger, Karol. “The Form of Chopin’s ‘Ballade’ Op. 23. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 20, No. 1. 1996. Bourrily, Jean and Loy, J. Robert (trans.), Lednicki, Waclaw (ed.). “Mickiewickz and France.” Adam Mickiewickz in World Literature. University of California Press. 1956. Chopin, Frederic. Oeuvres complètes de Frédéric Chopin - Band 1. Bote & Bock. 1880. Duff, David. Romanticism and the Uses of Genre. Oxford University Press. 2009. Harris, Susan. Horse Gaits, Balance and Movement. Howell Book House. 1993. Hedley, Arthur. Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin. DaCapo Press. 1963. Housman, James. British Popular Ballads. London: Ayer Publishing. 1969. Huneker, James. Chopin: The Man and His Music. Dover Publications. 1966. Leichtentritt, Heinrich. Analyse der Chopin'schen Klavierwerke, Vol. 2. Berlin: Max Hesses Verlag, 1922. Mickiewickz, Adam. Konrad Wallenrod: An Historical Poem. Trübner & Co. 1882. Ousby, Ian. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Cambridge University Press. 2006. Parakilas, James. Ballads Without Words: Chopin and the Tradiiton of the Instrumental Ballade. Amadeus Press. 1992. Perahia, Murray. Chopin: 4 Ballades. Sony Records. 1994. Randel, D.M. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music & Musicians. Harvard University Press. 1999. Rink, John. “Chopin's Ballades and the Dialectic: Analysis in Historical Perspective.” Music Analysis, Vol. 13. Blackwell Publishing. 1994. Roth, Charlene. Driving the Light Horse. Prentice Hall Press. 1984. Rothstein, William. “Ambiguity in the Themes of Chopin’s First, Second and Fourth Ballades.” Intégral, Vol. 8. 1994. Samson, Jim. Chopin: The Four Ballades. Cambridge University Press. 1992. Schumann, Robert. Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 15. 1841. Zakrzewska, Dorota. Alienation and Powerlessness: Adam Mickiewicz's Ballady and Chopin's Ballades. UMI. 1998.