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TEXTILE www.textilevaluechain.com

ISSN No.: 2278-8972|RNI No.: MAHENG / 2012 / 43707 October - December 2012 | Volume 1|Issue 3 | Pages 60

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VALUE CHAIN

New Age Fibres & Yarns

Interview: Kusumgar Corporates

Print Forecast Spring / Summer 2013

State of Indian Textile Machinery Industry


Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited About Us BRFL is a vertically integrated textile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide range of fabrics and garments from state of the art production facilities. Apart from being the largest Shirt manufacturer in India, we have successfully evolved into a multi-fiber manufacturing company producing fabrics such as Cotton, Polyester, Tencel, Modal, Lycra, Wool and various blends. Our yarn dyed fabric, printing techniques, finishing, processing, weaving, stitching are a mark of excellence making every piece of fabric perfect. With fabric manufacturing facilities of 100 million meters per annum, garment manufacturing facilities of 60 million pieces per annum, being expanded to 90 million pieces per annum and a strong employee base of around 38,000; BRFL is today one of the most sought after brands in the Indian as well as International fashion markets. Clothing is one of the strongest human desires. A desire to be different. A desire to look beautiful. A desire to be comfortable. A desire to make a statement. A desire that is fulfilled by that perfect piece of fabric called 'BRFL'. Woven with passion, our fabrics speak a story of novelty. BRFL has grown phenomenally and the reason has been our customers. Inspired towards betterment, we now possess the entire knowhow and technology for yarn dyeing, fabric weaving, processing and garment manufacturing. BRFL is one of India's most dynamic and professionally managed textile groups.No wonder, we are well renowned in the fashion export industry worldwide.

Products

RETAIL

FABRIC

YARN

Guru, a renowned apparel brand in Italy has been a subsidiary of BRFL since 2008. Guru has stores in 18 countries around the World, including Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg, Greece, England, Portugal, the Middle East, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, Switzerland, the Canary Islands, Scandinavia, China and India.

Every thread woven at Bombay Rayon Fashions Limitedis a part of an incredible range of fabrics that BRFL has to offer. Each fabric has one inherent quality Comfort. Our promise to manufacture the finest fabrics inspires us to put in that extra effort to create magic. We showcase an enormous range of fabrics and size offerings available in various colours to suit every occasion and every budget.

APPAREL Comfortable, durable and stylish are the inherent qualities of the range of apparels available. Admiration is guaranteed with BRFL apparels.

In 2010 Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. completed its vertical integration in the textile industry with the acquisition of a yarn manufacturing company of great repute, STI India Ltd, thus making BRFL one of the privileged few to have the capability of producing everything from yarn to garment.

TRIMS With an initial goal to maintain quality and consistency in button manufacturing, BRFL has set up an in -house state of the art button manufacturing unit, the Trims Division is today the largest and most sophisticated Button Industry in India.

(The Company was originally incorporated as Mudra Fabrics Private Limited on May 21, 1992. Name of the Company was changed to Mudra Fabrics Limited w.e.f. October 13, 1992. Name of the Company

Registered Office: D-1st Floor, Oberoi Garden Estates, Chandivali Farms Road, Chandivali, Andheri (East), Mumbai - 400 072 Tel: +91-22-39858800 Fax: +91-22-28476992 Email: chandresh.dedhia@bombayrayon.com

Web: www.bombayrayon.com

ADVT.

was further changed to Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited w.e.f. September 30, 2004)


Editorial So far things have been good - we have grown as a team, our readers have been generally happy and we are learning plenty. We are working hard to make our magazine bigger and better with bigger reach. That's the reason we felt that we need to be more inimitable and identifiable. We changed our look for a fresher and more contemporary look. Our logo is a wonderful and ingenious monogram which incorporates the initials of our magazine name TVC. From this issue, we are introducing 3 new sections for our readers'; textile news, both local and global, trend forecast for the upcoming seasons and a column for future trends. The Cover Story this quarter covers the New Age Fibres and Yarns. In recent years there have been tremendous innovations and applications in the fibres and yarns field. With increasing consumer needs, improvisation at fabric level is passĂŠ. Changes are now being done at the fibre level itself to give a better final product. As new production techniques become available, the opportunities for engineering fibres and yarns stretch from large-scale to the nano, invisible to the naked eye. Increasingly they are playing a vital role in health, protection and final consumer products. This story covers research and application of fibres and yarns from all over the globe. With the extension of TUFS (Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme) and introduction of FDI in Retail, from trade and labour deficiency in China, the next few years are going to have a telling effect on the Indian Textile Industry. This is a golden chance for us to rein in our horses and go for the kill. We can improve our machinery, make our base stronger, conduct researches for growth and improvisation, educate and train our youth in textiles and engineering and train them for eventual replacement for the retirees and improvise our current state of affairs. We need to think BIGGER AND LARGER for SUSTAINABILITY, to become thorough professionals and be true global leaders in manufacturing and supply of raw materials. Hope you find this issue engrossing. Enjoy your read!!!

Ms. Rajul J. Shah Editor in Chief All rights reserved Worldwide; Reproduction of any of the content from this issue is prohibited without explicit written permission of the publisher. Every effort has been made to ensure and present factual and accurate information. The views expressed in the articles published in this magazine are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the publisher. Textile Value chain is not responsible for any unlikely errors that might occur or any steps taken based in the information provided herewith.

Registered Office : Innovative Media and Information Co. 189/5263, Sanmati, Pantnagar, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai - 400075. Maharashtra, INDIA. Tel/Fax: +91-22-21026386 Cell: +91-9769442239 Email: info@textilevaluechain.com Web: www.textilevaluechain.com

Owner, Publisher, Printer & Editor Ms. Jigna Shah Printed & processed by her at, Impression Graphics, Gala no.13, Shivai Industrial Estate, behind McDonald, Andheri Kurla Road, Sakinaka, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400 072, Maharashtra, India.


In this Issue... Cover story : New Age Fibres and Yarns 08 Recent developments and applications in fibre and yarn fields : Kusumgar Corporates 27 TechnicalAnTextile interview with Mr. Yogesh Kusumgar State of Indian Textile Machinery Industry 33 Strengths, Weaknesses and Measures for Modernization : 2013 Print Spring / Summer Forecast 40 Forecast 12 Print Trends for the upcoming Spring/Summer season Career : How to Bridge Gap 48 between Textile Education Institutions and Textile Industry : Waste Management of Textile 58 Recycling Supply Chain for Second-hand clothes in Mumbai

Editor & Publisher Ms. Jigna Shah

Editorial Advisory Board INDUSTRY

Editor in Chief Ms. Rajul J. Shah Advertising & Marketing Md. Tanweer Creative Head Ms. Rajul Shah

Mr. Devchand Chheda - City Editor - Vyapar ( Janmabhumi Group) Mr. Manohar Samuel - Joint President, Birla Cellulose Mr. Abhishek Biyani - Damodar Group Dr. M. K. Talukdar - VP, Kusumgar Corporates Mr. Ajay Sharma - GM- RSWM ( LNJ bhilwara group)

Graphic Designer Mr. Vaibhav Gosar Ms. Disha Haria


Textile Value Chain Current News

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Yarn : Value Added Fancy Yarn Ratan Glitters 14

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Fabric : Processing 16 Study of Bhilwara Synthetic Fabrics 19 Garment: Colour in Branding 22 Environmental Label 24

Book review : Textiles and the Environment

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Technical Textile : Evironmental Protection by Geo Bags

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32 Textile Machinery : Dynamic Autolooms Pvt. Ltd. 35 Exporter corner : Apparel Global Value Chain 37 Future Trends : Artificial Neural Network Part 2 43 Skill Gap Analysis : In Fabric manufacturing sector 45 Career : Production Management 47

Handloom Sector : Indian Handloom Industry

College Focus : List of Colleges for Textile Engineering DKTE college 50 Government Policy

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Associations in Mumbai

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Trade Shows Classifieds

Industrial Updates

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Editorial Advisory Board CONSULTANT / ASSOCIATION

EDUCATION / RESEARCH

Mr. Avinash Mayekar - MD, Suvin Advisor Pvt. Ltd.

Mr. B.V. Doctor - HOD knitting , SASMIRA

Mr. Shivram Krishnan - Senior Textile Advisor

Dr. Ela Dedhia - Associate Professor, Nirmal Niketan College

Mr. G. Bennergy - Management & Industrial Consultant

Dr. Mangesh D. Teli - Professor, Ex.HOD & Dean ICT (former UDCT)

Mr. Uttam Jain, Director - PDEXCIL

Dr. S.K. Chattopadhyay - Princi pal Scientist & Head MPD, CIRCOT

Mr. Jaykrishna Pathak - President, Bombay Yarn Merchants Association & Exchange Ltd.

Dr. Rajan Nachane - Princi pal Scientist & Head QEID, CIRCOT

Editorial Pg: Top left - Advanced Textiles for health and Well-Being –Mari O’Mahony, Bottom left - www.englishwithjo.com, Right - www.patternbank.com Content Pg: Left Pg - www.patternbank.com, Right Pg - Advanced Textiles for health and Well-Being – Mari O’Mahony


NEWS

National News Indian policy on 51% FDI in multi-brand retail simplified Courtesy: www.fibre2fashion.com The government of India recently permitted 51% foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail. However, when spoke to a few leaders in the apparel and garment retail sector earlier, they admitted that the policy was not clear to them. Attempts to make the policy on 51% FDI in multi-brand retail simplified for our global readers from around 190 countries. Excerpts have been taken from a paper released by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) India. The contours of the new policy are set out below: Multi brand retail trading: Minimum US $100 million investment by foreign investor. At least 50% of total FDI to be invested in 'back-end infrastructure' within three years of first tranche. At least 30% of the value of procurement of manufactured and processed products to be sourced from Indian 'small industries' (those that have a total investment in plant and machinery not exceeding USD 1 million). For convenience of initial roll-outs, the sourcing compliance requirement for first 5years has been averaged. After this period, it will be annual compliance. Stores will be set up only in cities with a population of more than one million as per the last census. Stores can be set up only in those states that are notified by the government as having agreed or agreeing in future to allow FDI in multi-brand retail trading. States that have been currently notified include Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Mani pur, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (union territories). Given this, Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Jai pur are some of the cities where retail stores will currently be permissible. Companies with FDI cannot undertake multi-brand retail trading through ecommerce. A high-level group, under the Minister of Consumer Affairs, may be constituted to examine the issues concerning internal trade. This group is expected to make recommendations for reforms accordingly. Pakistan to give full MFN status to India by Dec 2012 Courtesy: www.newsbbc.com The 7th round of India-Pakistan talks on Commercial and Economic Co-operation was held during 20-21 September 2012 at Islamabad between the Commerce Secretaries of India and Pakistan. The Indian delegation was led by Mr. S R Rao, Commerce Secretary and Pakistan's was led by Mr. Munir Qureshi, Secretary, Commerce. The Pakistan side expressed appreciation of the steps taken by India to reduce its South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) sensitive list by 30% from 878

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tariff lines to 614 tariff lines as agreed earlier during the 6th Round of Talks. The Indian side explained that out of 264 tariff lines which have been removed from India's SAFTA sensitive list, 155 tariff lines pertain to agricultural commodities and 106 tariff lines relate to textile items. To further deepen the preferential arrangements under SAFTA and to provide level playing field to Pakistani exporters in comparison to concessions allowed by India under SAFTA to rest of the countries in the SAARC region, both sides developed a long term plan. It was noted that Pakistan now has a total of 936 tariff lines at 6 digit under its SAFTA Sensitive List, as against 614 tariff lines at 6 digit of India. It was agreed that after Pakistan has notified its removal of all restrictions on trade by Wagah-Attari land route, the Indian side would bring down its SAFTA sensitive list by 30% before December, 2012 keeping in view Pakistan's export interests. Pakistan would transition fully to Most Favorable Nation (MFN) status for India by December 2012 as agreed earlier. India would thereafter bring down its SAFTA Sensitive List to 100 tariff lines at 6 digit level by April, 2013. As India notifies the reduced Sensitive List, Pakistan, after seeking approval of the Cabinet, will also simultaneously notify its dates of transition to bring down its SAFTA sensitive list to a maximum of 100 tariff lines at 6 digit level within next 5 years. The reductions shall be notified by Pakistan in equal measure for each year so as to complete reduction to 100 lines before end of 2017. Thus, before the end of 2017, both India and Pakistan would have no more than 100 (6 digit) tariff lines in their respective SAFTA sensitive lists. Before the end of year 2020, except for this small number of tariff lines under respective SAFTA sensitive lists, the peak tariff rate for all other tariff lines would not be more than 5%.

India - Cotton Ginners Call For Tax Reduction In Punjab Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com Cotton ginning factories in Punjab are languishing due to higher and multi ple taxation. Talking to media in Chandigarh on Monday, members of the Punjab Cotton Factories and Ginners Association said that the rate of taxes in neighbouring states of Rajasthan and Haryana was lower than Punjab's, which encouraged farmers to sell their produce in these states. As a result, Punjab's ginning factories were running below capacity. According to Bahgwan Bansal, the association's president, said that factories were lying idle in Punjab. He also said that the number of ginning mills had also decreased in Punjab from 411 to 327 in the past few years as ginners had relocated themselves ton Sirsa, Dabwali, Tatia in Haryana and Ganga Nagar, Sangria and Motilu in Rajasthan. The ginners contended that the Centre has reduced the central sales tax (CST) to 2 per cent but in Punjab, the state government did not refund the CST charged over and above 2 per cent. "This results in a loss of Rs 150 to Rs 200 per quintal", Bansal added. He said that due to tax advantages in other sates, about 6 lakh bales of cotton (one bale = 170 kilogram) is sold out of Punjab every year. The association also wants a dry port to be created at Bhatinda to facilitate the export of cotton yarn. "In order to create an interface between the industry and farmers, the state government should arrange events in the Bhatinda belt," he added. The ginning industry contributes about Rs 100 crore per annum in the form of market fee to the state exchequer. A pro-active approach by the state government would not only raise the revenue but create better employment opportunities for the youth of the state, the association added.

Courtesy: wikkipedia

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


NEWS

Global News Italy, Pakistan to boost bilateral textile trade Courtesy: www.fibre2fashion.com The Italian Trade Commissioner Dr. Antonio Avallone met Pakistan's Federal Advisor on Textile, Dr. Mirza Ikhtiar Baig to discuss proposals to boost trade and investment between the two nations, especially in the textile sector. Appreciating the support extended by Italy to Pakistan for gaining zero-duty market access to the EU, Dr. Baig updated the Italian trade commissioner about the salient features of Pakistan Textile City project at Bin Qasim near Karachi. Dr. Antonio articulated his interest in the project and agreed to attend a presentation on the project at Karachi on September 8, 2012. Dr. Antonio also discussed the prospects of promoting Italian textile machineries in Pakistan, while Dr. Baig informed him about his recent meeting with Pakistan's President on formation of the committee on revival of the textile industry. During the meeting, Dr. Baig also discussed progress on market access with a special focus on Generalized System of Preference (GSP) Plus allowing Pakistan to duty-free shi p its goods to the EU, effective from January 1, 2014. Also, he informed Dr. Antonio about the upcoming new Trade Frame Work 2012-2015, setting forth a target of achieving a US$ 100 billion in exports over the next three years. Interface unveils Fotosfera, its first product made from bio-based nylon Latest innovation moves company closer to zero virgin raw materials Global carpet tile manufacturer Interface is striding ahead in its Mission Zero quest – to eliminate its impact on the environment by 2020 – with the unveiling of its first ever truly commercial carpet tile made from plant (or bio) based nylon. Fotosfera consists of yarn exclusive to Interface that is made from castor plant oil produced in rural communities. The product supports Interface's strategy to reduce its reliance on virgin petro-chemical raw materials and delivers strong environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Castor oil, the main ingredient of Fotosfera, is produced from the seeds of the castor bean plants, that are fastgrowing, rapidly renewable, and grow in hot, dry climates, in sandy loam soil. Hardier than many other crops, they can thrive in land prone to erosion, and only require water once in up to 25 days. Around 70% of the world's castor bean plants are grown in India, where production also provides socio-economic benefits to local farmers. Castor bean plants grow on marginal land where other crops often struggle, providing farmers with additional income. What's more, unlike many other crops for bio-based materials, castor bean plants don't compete with food crops, as they can thrive on land unsuitable for other uses. Nigel Stansfield, Chief Innovations Officer for Interface comments, “Fotosfera is a breakthrough product innovation for Interface. It has the good looks and high performance customers expect from our

carpet tiles. But with 63% bio-based yarn content, Fotosfera accelerates our Mission Zero aim to eradicate our use of virgin petro- chemical raw materials in our products by 2020; it also provides sustainable business opportunities for rural farmers. This is early days but it's a compelling proof of us pushing the boundaries of what is possible – continually innovating in order to meet our customers' demands for ever more sustainable products. Interface and Zero virgin materials One of the pledges of Interface Founder Ray Anderson in 1994 was to 'cut the reliance on oil'. Fotosfera is the latest in a series of Interface initiatives aimed at eliminating the company's use of virgin petrol chemical raw materials and 'closing the loop'. It follows the successful uptake of Biosfera 1 – the industry's first carpet collection made from 100% recycled yarn – and comes hot on the heels of the launch of an innovative pilot in Danajon Bank, the Phili ppines. The pilot aims to build a community-based supply chain for recycled fishing nets, providing alternative raw materials for Interface products while cleaning beaches and delivering socioeconomic benefits to the local community. RITE Group event to tackle key sustainability issues Courtesy: www.ecotextile.com High-level industry specialists from across the clothing and textile industries are gearing up for this year's RITE Group (Reducing the Impact of Textiles on the Environment) conference, which takes place in October at Central Hall, Westminster, London. The event will feature Green Carpet Challenge (GCC) founder Livia Firth, who will team up with British TV presenter, Observer journalist and author Lucy Siegle to host a special session looking at 'raising the bar' and profile of sustainable fashion and consumption. Delegates will also hear from Lord Peter Melchett, Policy Director at the Soil Association, who will be providing details of the Soil Association's forthcoming 'Have you Cottoned on Yet?' campaign. The campaign, which launches in October, will gather evidence which shows that organic cotton is the long-term goal for brands wanting to offer sustainable textiles by setting out five unique benefits of organic.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

With breakout sessions exploring Closed Loop Recycling, Harmful Chemicals and Textile Pollution, and Sustainable Cotton Futures, other confirmed speakers for the conference, which takes place on Wednesday 10 October, include Baroness Lola Young OBE, Mike Barry, Head of Sustainable Business, Marks & Spencer, Pavel Misiga, Sustainable Consumption, European Commission, Mark Held, Secretary General, European Outdoor Group, Mike Shragger, Swedish Fashion Academy, Cyndi Rhodes, CEO Worn Again; and Giusy Bettoni, from the ecofashion hub C.L.A.S.S. “As global population rises and the pressure to source more raw materials to make clothes intensifies,” noted John Mowbray from RITE, “then the need for more sustainable sourcing by retailers and a more intelligent way of shopping by consumers becomes much more important. For further details, visit www.ecotextile.com/uploads/2012RITEC onf.pdf US: Polartec partner creates first 100% recycled garment Courtesy: www.topix.com Polartec partner brand Norrøna has launched its first sports garment (men's and women's) made exclusively from returned and recycled bottles. The 100% recycled garment is built from Polartec Wind Pro fleece made entirely of Repreve 100 yarn from Unifi which is made from recycled bottles. Polartec uses REPREVE 100 yarn from Unifi for over 50 percent of its domestic production, and for the 29 warm4 up-cycled Jacket. The REPREVE yarn was made from recycled bottles collected in Norrøna's home country, Norway. About 40 plastic bottles were used to make each /29 warm4 up-cycled Jacket and Norrøna estimates that the production of each REPREVE based jacket uses 20-percent less energy than a virgin fleece, without sacrificing performance. The particular recycled Polartec® Wind Pro® fabric features a high loft interior, providing increased warmth without weight. Polartec® Wind Pro® is four times more wind resistant than traditional fleece, highly breathable, durable, and water repellent, making the /29 up-cycled warm4 Jacket a very versatile product for the whole year. "The goal is to recycle up the value chain, so that bottles can be turned into advanced sportswear," explains Norrøna owner and chief executive Jorgen Jorgensen. For more information, visit polartec.com. REPREVE is a registered trademark of Unifi, Inc.

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NEWS

Joint Ventures Bansware Syntex & Treves SA, France. Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com Banswara Syntex Ltd. has entered into a joint venture agreement with Treves S.A. of France with 50:50 equity shareholding to be known as Treves Banswara Pvt. Ltd. This new JV company will produce laminated knitted and woven textiles for internal furnishing of trains, buses and other automobiles. Treves S.A., based in Paris, designs, manufactures and supplies automotive parts. Its products include acoustic, thermal and aerodynamic shields for engine compartments and substructures; interior trims, acoustics and door panels; seats and seat components; and automotive textiles and covering materials. Faurecia SA announced that the Company signed a new 50/50 joint-venture agreement with Howa Textile Industry Co., Ltd. The new joint-venture - Faurecia Howa Interiors (FHI) - will be based in Atsugi (Japan) and will be dedicated to the development of vehicle interior systems such as door panels, in-vehicle insulation, soft trim and roof trim. Atlas Material Testing Technology and SGS Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com Atlas Material Testing Technology, a global leader in accelerated weathering instruments and weathering testing services has entered into an alliance with SGS, the world's leading inspection, verification, testing and certification company, allowing for the expansion of the Atlas 25+ PV module durability test program. Atlas-SGS collaboration, the standard Atlas 25+ exposure and testing protocol will be enhanced beginning July 2012 with the availability of two new versions of the program - a six-month streamlined "basic" program for those needing faster results, and an expanded 12-month "premium" offering that includes additional climate factors and performance measurements. SGS will offer Atlas 25+ as both a standalone program and as an optional part of its larger "SGS - PV Performance Tested" scheme, which includes options for corrosive gas (eg, NH3), salt mist, fire, and potential-induced-degradation (PID) resistance among others. SGS is accredited as a National Certification Body (NCB) and is one of five German CB testing laboratories (CBTL) within the IECEE certification scheme for photovoltaics SGS. Mr Rick Weiler, Division Vice-President and Business Unit Manager of Atlas Material Testing Technology stated, "Atlas is extremely pleased to partner with a global leader in inspection, verification, testing and certification like SGS. This alliance helps our customers obtain from a single source both our recognised Atlas 25+ PV durability testing and certification of the test results from SGS. This combination provides manufacturers with information critical to product development while supporting their warranty and competitive sales positions. The entire PV industry can benefit from our

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partnershi p and we look forward to offering additional joint solutions with SGS." Meanwhile, Atlas Material Testing Technology, the global leader in weathering technology and services, has launched a re-design of its corporate website www.atlas-mts.com with an improved user interface and a new look and feel. The simple and clean site design is part of the company's mission to continuously meet the needs of customers by providing improved navigation and better organization of content for greater ease.

HUNTSMAN TEXTILE EFFECT AND PT LUCKY PRINT ABADI (LPA), Indonesia Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com Huntsman Textile Effects has announced a strategic partnershi p with PT Lucky Print Abadi (LPA) that will see the global textile leader being awarded the coveted Preferred Supplier Status for LPAs dyes and chemical requirements. This partnershi p will see Huntsman Textile Effects actively supporting LPA in differentiating itself in the market through the supply of high quality textile dyes, chemicals and world-class technical service support. Commented Mr Kent Kvaal, vicepresident of Global Sales and Technical Services at Huntsman Textile Effects, "We are very pleased to be conferred the Preferred Supplier Status by LPA. This sends a strong signal that we are on the right track and that our unwavering focus on sustainability and innovation has indeed supported our business partners in enabling their products to be highly differentiated yet environmentally-friendly in this competitive market. As LPA's Preferred Supplier, we are confident that Huntsman Textile Effects will continue to deliver the same exacting, world-class technical service solutions and high quality dyes and chemicals that will give LPA the added competitive edge." Added Ms Lily Tamin, managing director of LPA, "We are happy to partner with Huntsman who is known for their innovative and excellent technical service. This partnershi p will bring new standards and productivity levels for both organisations, which are critical in today's business environment. This will help us to bring differentiation to the market and to cater to the needs of end customers." In association with Cotton Incorporated, LPA has also developed "Natural Stretch", a 100% Cotton Stretch Fabric and "Wicking Windows" Moisture Management technology that makes wearing cotton even more comfortable to the discerning customer. This partnershi p marks another new milestone for both companies who have already been working actively in the printing and dyeing solutions business for the past 2years.

Datalog Technologies Pvt. Ltd and Pinter FA, NI Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com Datalog Technologies Pvt Ltd and Pinter FA.NI have signed for a joint venture.The integration of FA.NI activities into Pinter Group allows both companies to get the benefit of the other company from their individual experiences on textile automation business. DATALOG provide a total solution to the IT requirements of the textile mills. Datalog manufactures on line monitoring system for spinning, weaving, knitting mills & process house and develops custom hardware and software. The products of the company are well accepted by the market and has carved a niche name for itself among the customers for its products due to its innovation and reliability. The company has installations in all leading mills in India. Indonesia, Rwanda, Australia, Mauritius, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Chile have the installations abroad. The installations cover more than 13,000 machines in around 250 mills worldwide. The Company has two Directors " Mr S Gopalakrishnan and Mr C B Krishnan who hold a degree in electronics and have a vast experience in hardware and software, especially on textile electronics and software. Having experience of more than 2 decades in textile electronics and software for textiles, both the Directors had been in employment in the research & development department in their previous employment. The Company has a team of hardware and software engineers who are well trained. Apart from the Directors, the company has a team of young and talented Electronics & Software professionals to carry out the operations of the company. DLF AND LODHA GROUP Courtesy:/www.indiantextilejournal.com DLF, India's biggest real estate firm, which is looking to offload its non-core assets to pare debt, has reached an understanding with the Lodha Group to jointly develop its 17-acre Mumbai Textile mill plot. The exact terms of the profitsharing agreement will be finalized in a fortnight, say sources close to the deal. The plot has a developable space of 4 million sq ft and Lodha has plans to develop a premium housing project on the lines of Lodha Bellissimo, a 48-storey tower on N M Joshi Marg at Lower Parel. Flats in the area are now quoting over Rs40,000 a sq ft.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


COVER STORY

NEW AGE FIBRES AND YARNS Ms. Rajul J. Shah Editor in chief MFA in Fashion Design, Academy of Art University, CA, USA Worked in USA as Technical Designer

For thousands of years all of the fibres used to make cloth were natural fibres. Now, almost half of the fibres produced in the world are synthetic fibres made from tress, oil and natural gas. It is basically broken down to: Cotton (45%), Synthetics made from oil and natural gas (36%), Jute and Synthetics made from tress (6%), Wool (5%) and all other natural fibres (2%).Most of this change has taken place in the last 50 yrs. Developments in fibre and yarn technologies are having an impact on both natural and synthetic materials. Fibre engineers are creating fibres that combine the benefit of both, sometimes even bringing them together literally to form hybrids. Performance is enhanced by the handle and comfort associated with natural fibres, while natural fibres are engineered to be as easy care as artificial fibres. These synthetics and hybrids are far removed from the original 'artificial silk' rayon which in reality had nothing like the handle and lustre of the natural fibre it purported to re-create. While the original synthetics were poor imitations of more expensive natural materials, the engineered fibres that we are seeing today are much more highly valued in every sense. One of the most significant changes to occur in the textile industry has been the attitude. Research and development laboratories no longer try to imitate nature; instead they look to combine the finest qualities of natural and man-made while seeking out their own aesthetics and benefits for the consumer. As new production techniques become available, the opportunities for engineering fibres and yarns stretch from largescale to the nano, invisible to the naked eye. The extent to which fibres and yarns can now be engineered is allowing for a dramatic increase in the development of fibres for wellness, health and protection. In this article we take a look at the evolving fibres and yarns from different parts of the world. Hybrid Fibre Environmental concerns are encouraging many manufactures to focus on the use of a single fibre within their yarns; developments in engineered fibres are making this more achievable. However, there are still and will remain reasons for bringing different qualities of fibres together: particularly for performance, health and safety reasons. A category of hybrid compounds is starting to emerge. Thought not a fibre in the conventional sense, they most closely resemble a yarn or fibre in that they contain a central textile component and because of the manner in which they are used. UK based Speciality Fibres and Materials Ltd., uses melt spinning process to melt thermoplastic polymer chi ps. From this they make precision yarns in medicine. They incorporate barium sulphate (crystalline solid use to provide radio contrast in Xrays) into polypropylene yarn. Micropake is an X-ray detectable yarn that can be used in woven and nonwoven products such as surgical gauze. The yarn contains 60% barium sulphate. The crystalline solid is insoluble in water and would be extremely difficult to apply to a yarn using more conventional coating or finishing processes. They also make highly absorbent and gelling calcium alginate fibres which are manufactured from sodium alginate extracted from seaweed. Calcium alginate is used worldwide in the production of wound dressings where the princi ple of a moist wound environment encourages more effective healing. A routine X-ray can easily detect the barium sulphate within the multifilament yarn which runs through the swab

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Multi-axial weave, RWTH Aachen, Germany. Two different glass fibres have been used in this weave. The material is used for industrial applications where high strength and flame retardancy are required.

Yuxin woven polyester geogrid, Shandong Shenghao Fibreglass Co. Ltd, China. The company use both polyester and glass fibre in their range of geogrids with yarn coatings that include bitumen and PVC. The fabric is used for reinforcement in roads, railways and bridges.

The Swiss-based Schoeller Spinning Group produces a number of aramid- based hybrid fibres. They use Kevlar, Panox, glass filament and viscose in various combinations and permutations. The combinations of these fibres in various percentage means that the resulting yarn has the cut and abrasion resistance and heat protection required to make clothing for fire-services, motorcyclists, backing for aluminized protective suits and cut-resistant protective clothing. Coated Fibres and Yarns While majority of coatings and treatments are applied to the finished fabric, there is an increasing trend to apply these treatments to fibres and yarns. This is generally for high performance and specialist applications, but as costs come down there is likely to be an increase in demand and availability.

Bekinox LT, Bekaert, Belgium. These slivers of stainless steel fibres can be used on their own or combined with other fibres for anti-static applications such as carpets.

Scotchlite yarns, 3M, USA. Available as tapes and fabrics for years, 3M are now manufacturing Scothlite in yarn, including coloured form. It is retroreflective due to the coating of miniature glass beads around the fibre that reflects incoming artificial light back to the source.

The Schoeller Spinning Group is responding to the demand for comfort combined with high performance in their development of a wool and stainless steel yarn for anti-static clothing. The yarn in cross-section shows 92% Merino wool randomly interspersed with 8% Inox stainless steel fibre. The yarn can be easily dyed and knitted and is capable of being finished with treatments such as Teflon without interfering with the shielding performance. The ability to combine several capabilities in a single yarn is relatively new. Less than a decade ago this would not have been possible without reducing, or even destroying, the performance of one or both functionalities.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


COVER STORY

Nanocoatings have made progress largely in fabrics, but are starting to appear on the individual fibres. Researchers at Cornell University's Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory have developed a way of coating fibres with polyelectrolytes, inorganic and metallic nanolayers, to develop specialist highperformance and smart materials. Developments include, cotton coated with silver and gold nanoparticles to produce an anti-bacterial yarn that destroys bacteria and reduces the need for washing. They have also coated nylon nanofibres with gold nanoparticles and anomalous crystal formations of NaC(R) for potential applications in the active filtration of hazardous gases and toxic chemicals as well as anti-counterfeiting devices. Researchers at Georgia Institute of technology are looking into ways to optimize the collection of solar energy. The majority of systems rely on flat panels directed at the sun either as static systems or capable of rotating to follow the direction of the sun's rays. At Georgia, they are researching how to create a Photovoltaic (PV) fibre that can be woven into the membrane. To achieve this, they are nanocoating fibre optics with a dyesensitized PV coating. The cladding of the fibre optic is removed and replaces with a conductive coating and seed layer of zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanowire is then grown on this prepared surface so that the result is a coating of fur nanowires. This is coated with a dye-sensitized PV material before being immersed in liquid electrolyte to collect current from the PV reaction. The ends of the fibre are directed at the sun: light enters the unclad fibre optic carrying it along and through the wall to the nano PV so that it covers a very large area. Researchers are confident that it will prove much more efficient than conventional systems of collection. Sweden's Swerea IVF is developing a process of coating microfibers with nanofibres. The aim is to use fibres to create scaffolding for tissue engineering based on the princi ple of collagen. Technonaturals Much of the technology of the technonaturals has been driven by the apparel market. Lessons have been learnt from development of health-giving, highly engineered fibres in the 1990's when performance was high but tactile qualities were low. In combining natural with synthetic or creating hypernaturals, these new yarns look to combine the best of both worlds, delivering performance with good tactile qualities. Banana cotton fabric, Technical Fabric Services (TFS), Australia. Banana fibres in textiles offer sustainable product that is highly absorbent. Fibres are extracted from the bark of the plant and then combined with cotton and elastane for comfort and stretch in fabrics for intimate apparel.

The Lenzing Group's key product is lyocell, a cellulose fibre made from wood pulp sold under the trade name Tencel. The wood pulp is converted into nanofibrils using nanotechnology so that the result is an exceptionally fine yarn that offers high moisture management with good tactile properties. Tencel absorbs excess liquid and then quickly releases it into the atmosphere to help to keep the body at a comfortable temperature. This function carries an additionally anti-bacterial benefit because, since excess water is moved away from the skin, bacteria have less opportunity to grow. When it is used in conjunction with aramid fibres, it provides high fire protection with comfort, especially important in firefighting workwear where clothing has to be worn for prolonged periods of time under stressful conditions. Smartfiber AG produce a lyocell fibre, SeaCell, with enhanced health properties. It uses seaweed as an active ingredient in the lyocell fibre. Seaweed has long been used in Chinese medicine and is recognized as offering protection for the skin; it also contains anti-inflammatory properties. There is what is termed an 'active exchange' between the fibre and the skin. The company describes how there is an exchange of substances between the fibre and the skin with nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and vitamin E released by the body's natural moisture when a garment using the fibre is worn. Algae are particularly good at absorbing metal. This has prompted a second version of the fibre, SeaCell active plus, which sees silver ions added for anti-bacterial benefits. Seaweed forms the basis for a new range of wound dressings that are highly absorbent, encouraging faster healing. Advanced production processes are making it possible to work with non-textile materials to convert them into yarns. This has the advantage of combining flexibility of a yarn with the performance of ceramic and metals. Smartcel Ceramic is made by Smartfiber AG and brings together cellulose and ceramic resulting in a 100% ceramic fibre. The Smartcell Ceramic can be produced in different forms including hollow and spiral structures; the choice driven by the end application. A sintered PZT ceramic fibre has the ability to stretch when exposed to alternating voltage-producing soundwaves in the process. This gives it application in ultrasound products such as sonar systems for locating obstructions and medical imaging. Andreas Lendlein (mNemoscience, Germany), 2002. Sequence of images showing the world's first 'intelligent' suture tying itself into a knot within 20 seconds when it is exposed to 41Ëš c. In 1997, while working at MIT, Lendlein developed a shape memory polymer that would respond to body temperature. Shape memory materials can memorize a permanent shape and are automatically transformed into this permanent shape when exposed to a suitable external trigger such as body heat. Lendlein sutures are designed for keyhole surgery and are made from polymeric material that encourages tissue renewal and biodegrade naturally within the body. The sutures are now being developed for commercial production. mNemoscience is currently working on light-sensitive shape memory materials.

Cocona fibre. Cocona Inc, USA, 2009. Cocona activated carbon is manufactured from coconut waste and absorbs odour and offers UV protection. It is not depleted during washing or wearing because it is embedded in the fibre. Sequence of images showing the world's first 'intelligent' suture

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Waterborn synthetic upholstery fibre

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COVER STORY

Waterborn is a new synthetic fibre upholstery fabric manufactured almost entirely without the use of organic solvents. It was developed by Kvadrat in close co-operation with a leading fibre producer in Japan. Organic solvents were avoided by using polyurethane dispersed in water to impregnate a non-woven fabric made of polyester and nylon. By heating the fabric, the polyurethane covers the fibres, creating a composite fabric. As a result, organic solvent emissions are reduced to approx 8% of conventional production emissions. The surface qualities of Waterborn were designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is at a relatively young stage of development with much of the work still at research stage. It is a field of material design where the smallest man-made devices encounter the atoms and molecules of the natural world ( for comparative purposes, a nanometre is a billionth of a metre, the diameter of an atom is about a 1/ 4 of a nanometre, the average diameter of a human hair is 10,000 nanometres). Advances are being made in many areas such as the production of highstrength carbon nanotubes, but scale and the cost of production still have to be overcome in order to make it a viable manufacturing process. Nanotubes are tube-shaped material made from carbon atoms bound together to create a stiff structure that forms the strongest existing bond. Nanotubes are good conductors for heat and electricity. They are submicroscopic carbon fibres and are light, strong and very flexible, although each one is only 10 -50 nanometres in diameter. Morphotex, Teijin Ltd, Japan. The inspiration for the fibre comes from the Morpho butterfly which uses optic effects to provide protective camouflage in the Amazon rainforest. This fibre is produced using nanotechnology

Carbon nanotubes. Developed by a research team led by Gordon Wallace from Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (CSIRO)'s Division of Textile and Fibre.

Future In the future, the fibres we use will continue to change. Some fibres will go out of fashion, while others will become popular. Scientists will improve existing fibres and create new ones. Some of these changes are already happening. Selected genes have been put into tiny mouse-ear cress plants so that they are able to grow polymers like polyester. Unlike, the polyester from petroleum, however the new plant-grown polymers are biodegradable. This means they can be easily broken down by nature. Soon scientists hope to produce such polymers from corn and potatoes.

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A mouse-ear cress plant, shown actual size

Red areas on this enlarged picture of mouse-ear cress plant show where new polymers have grown

There are also specially treated fibres that capture heat from the environment or your body. The energy from the heat is held inside the fibres in microcapsules until the temperature drops. Then the microcapsules release the heat, through the fibres and back into the environment.

Inside of a synthetic fibre enlarged 2000 times. One can see several microcapsules nestled in the fibre.

Enlarged microcapsules.

New spinning technologies are revolutionizing what can be achieved in terms of performance and comfort in fibres and yarns. Electrospinning is yielding some very encouraging results in the productions of nanofibres. Creativity, ingenuity and a passion for fibres and yarns underlie these changes. The innovations that we are seeing are driven by the consumer: by changes in consumer demographics, engagement with the environment and growing awareness of global social responsibility. This is a time of change and change is good. Ten years from now you may be wearing a shirt or pants made of polyester from a potato. Your jacket may store heat during the day and then use that heat to keep you warm at night. Possibilities are endless and they will happen in our near future... Bibliography 1. Textiles Today a global survey of trends and traditions chloe colchester 2. Advanced Textiles for health and Well-Being - Mari O'Mahony 3. Unraveling Fibers - Patricia A. Keeler and Francis X. McCall, Jr. 4. www.specialityfibres.com

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


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YARN FOCUS

PRODUCTION PROCESSES FOR VALUE ADDED FANCY YARNS Dr. S. K. Chattopadhyay, G. Krishna Prasad, G.T.V. Prabu Scientist of Central Institute for Research, Cotton Technology (ICAR), Mumbai Introduction Conventional ring spinning system has been adopted since over 100 years. Different spinning systems used for yarn manufacturing other than ring spinning are open-end spinning, hollow spindle and wrap spinning. End product applications of the yarn vary based on their structure and physical properties. The normal yarn structure should be as regular as possible with fibres twisted together to form a continuous strand of uniform thickness. Value added yarns are specially produced by spinning, twisting, doubling and wrapping. There is a huge commercial potential for these yarns due to their special aesthetic appearance and the high decorative value which they impart to the woven and knitted fabrics. This article gives an overview of the different types of value added yarns that can be produced during spinning and post-spinning stages. Fancy yarn is a common value addition in the production processes that deviate from the normal structure with decorative discontinuities in the form of colour, visual and texture effects. They are made with distinct irregular profile or different construction and differ from basic single and folded yarns. Spiral, gimp, slub, knop, loop, cover, chenille and snarl are the different fancy yarn effects that are applied in apparels and home furnishings. Ring Spinning System One of the oldest methods of yarn production system is the ring spinning. This system is used for production of yarns in

Ring spinning yarn triangle

Ring spinning yarn triangle

Multi twist yarn

Slub yarn

Multi effect yarn

Multi count yarn

Multi effect yarn

Multi count yarn

Fig.1: Various yarn structures produced from ring spinning machines with modification

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coarse to fine counts depending on the fibre properties and the requirement of the customer. It is the most versatile and widely accepted spinning technology due to high degree of fibre control during drafting and a wide range of yarn count that it can produce. Cotton and other blends of man-made fibres up to 60 mm length can be used on the system for yarn production. Improvement in ring spinning came in the form of compact spinning. In compact spinning, the spinning geometry was bettered and refined by incorporating a condensed air suction device. A modified aerodynamics at the yarn formation point, results in better integration of fibres into the yarn structure which ultimately provides higher yarn strength and reduced hairiness. In compact yarn, less twist is feasible without any loss of strength. This results in lower production costs and manufacturing of softer yarns. External attachments used in the ring spinning system for the production of slub yarn, multi-count, multi-twist, multi-effect yarns are shown in Fig.1. These yarns can be produced by acceleration of the middle and the back roller with the help of a servo control system. Slub yarns can be produced with two different formations; (i) by varying the number of slubs per metres, keeping slub length and diameter constant and (ii) varying the slub length and diameter. Multi-count yarns are produced by varying the draft and the twist. Multi-twist yarns are produced by varying the twist levels with a constant count. Multi-effect yarns are produced with the combination of slub, multi-count and multi-twist. These types of yarns are used for imparting special effects in the application areas like denim, formal wear, knitted and home textiles. Siro yarns are produced in the ring spinning system using a specially designed path and a drafting method to combine the roving strands together through twisting action. Wider strand spacing is required for better yarn properties like tenacity, abrasion resistance, hairiness and trapped strand twist. The optimum strand spacing for combed cotton is about 9 mm. Siro spun cotton yarns are less hairy and more extensible as compared to conventional two plied yarn, but inferior in evenness and imperfections. Eli Twist yarns are basically compact ring doubled yarns, in which the doubling takes place in the ring frame and the yarn is single wound. It is mostly used for high-end shirting fabric. The manufacturing system combines compact spinning and twisting of a yarn in one single operation. It produces a two-ply yarn with identical direction of twist in both the yarn legs. Doubling Process Doubling is a process for improving the yarn quality and providing better value to the yarns. It improves the handle, strength and elongation capability of the yarn without any chemical treatment. In general, ring doubling is the most popular among all the other doubling processes available. The ring doubling arrangement is similar to a ring spinning machine devoid of any drafting attachments. The yarn can be fed independently to the machine at a controlled speed to produce the doubled yarn. Micro processer controlled doubling machines are gaining a lot of attention in recent years. These machines produce fancy yarns by changing the feeding arrangement, tensioning adjustment and by using dyed yarn combination. Fancy yarns produced by using the ring frame setups are loop, spiral and bunch yarns as shown in Fig.2. Loop yarns are made in the ring spinning system by using one or two regular yarns and an effect yarn at the front top groove roller. These yarns are fed with different speed to get the loop formations. Loop yarns have round and regular shaped loops which are identical or of different sizes on the surface. Snarl yarn production is similar to that of loop yarns, except for a difference in the property of the effect yarn. For snarl yarn, a high level of twist in the effect yarn is needed with high overfeed ratio.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


YARN FOCUS

In a spiral yarn, one component binds the other straight yarn component, thus creating spirals along Snarl yarn the whole length. The spiral yarn is created as a result of the multi ple twisting of two components with slightly overfeeding one of the two Spiral yarn yarns. Similar effects are produced with the same or a slightly different linear density, and a different twist direction. Loop yarn Bunch yarns are produced by using two Fig.2: Fancy yarn produced yarns and twisting them from ring frame setups together – one yarn will be the core and the other is introduced at the twisting zone at a higher yarn tension. The effect yarn will create effect points, locally compacted at regular or irregular distances. Rotor Spinning Rotor spinning plays a vital role to produce a fancy effect yarn either in colour or as on interruption in the yarn structure. A count range from 6s to 24s is commercially viable in rotor spinning system for fancy yarns with short and medium staple fibre. Fascinate units have been introduced to produce slub effect which is deliberately created in discontinued manner. Fancy yarns are produced by changing the feed roller surface speed by using the stepped servo motor. The standard drives for the feed and take-off cylinders are replaced by special, processor-controlled drives in order to enable the fancy yarns to be produced. The yarn produced can be used for value addition to woven and knitted fabrics. Yarn effects

Fig.3: Slub and Multi count yarn produced in rotor spinning

Hollow Spindle Systems The hollow spindle technique is used to wrap the continuous filament or spun yarn around a central core of parallel staple fibres, which results in production of a fascinated yarn structure. In this system, both short and long staple fibre can be used. Fig.4 shows three effect yarns over core yarns – effect yarns are drafted similar to ring spinning. Rotation of hollow spindle wraps the effect yarn around the core yarn. Two spindle wrap system is used to wrap staple fibre with two binder yarns which results in special effect yarn and staple structures. Combination of both hollow and ring spinning system is also used for production of fancy yarns. The true twist is given to warp yarn by ring spindle which is located beneath the hollow spindle system. Appearance and behaviour of hollow spindle fancy yarn is quiet different from the ring spun yarn.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Hollow Spindle system

Two Spindle Wrap system

Gimp yarns structure

Boucle yarns structure

Fig.4: Fancy yarns from Hollow Spindle techniques

Conclusion The present article focuses on the various techniques and methods for the production of value added yarns by employing existing spinning machines. Value added yarns like slub, multi-count, multi-twist and multi-effect have enough potential in creating new market segments in the apparel and home textile industry. The fashion appeal and the aesthetical superiority of such yarns make them easily acceptable and hence provide better competitiveness in the yarn market. With little modification in the existing machines, the yarn manufacturer can reap huge benefits for the value added yarns. Bibliography: 1. Carl A. Lawrence “Fundamental of spun yarn technology” book, CRC Press, 2003. 2. R H Gong and R M Wright “Fancy yarn their manufacture and application, Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press LLC, 2002. 3. Hechtl R., Compact spinning systems - an opportunity for improving the ring spinning process. Melliand International, 1996, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 12-13. 4. Egbers G., Tekstil, 1997, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 643-644. 5. MomirNikolić et.al “Compact Spinning for Improved Quality of Ring-Spun Yarns” FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe, October / December 2003, Vol. 11, No.4 (43). 6. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad “Future belongs to compact spinning” The Indian Textile Journal, August, 2009. 7. C.A. Lawrence “Advances in yarn spinning technology”, Woodhead Publishing Ltd 2010. 8. KatarzynaEwaGrabowska et.al “The Influence of Component Yarns' Characteristics and Ring Twisting Frame Settings on the Structure and Properties of Spiral, Loop and Bunch Yarns” FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe July / September 2006, Vol. 14, No. 3 (57). 9. www.rieter.com 10. W Klein, “New Spinning System”, The Textile Institute, 1993. 11. www.fancytex.com

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YARN FOCUS

RATAN GLITTERS INDUSTRIES LIMITED Ratan Glitter Industries Limited is a 35 year old organization managed by a highly experienced team. We are the pioneer in the metallic yarn industry in India, having been one of the first companies to export metallic yarns. We have one of the world's latest Metalizing Plant that metalizes Pure Silver on Polyester Film. Our Specialized Pure Silver Metalized Yarn can be used to weave with materials such as Denim Fabric, Cotton Fabric, Pure Silk Fabric & Woolen Fabrics etc. It can be washed with Heavy Detergent Caustic Soda and other processing chemicals used for Dyeing, Finishing of linen, Cotton, Pure Silk, Denim and Woolen Fabrics. The Pure Silver Metallic Yarn can also be used for different types of Embroidery and special effects. The threads come in

different structure, thickness, colors and a combination of materials allowing Designers and Embroidery specialists to create an unique and outstanding look to the Fabric. The Pure Silver yarn effectively enhances the details and embellishes your products giving it added glamour and zing. Some of the leading Indian mills and some companies' overseas already use our products. Quality assured since we use the latest Japanese Technology thus ensuring the best quality, color and pin hole free products. The products are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and embroidery machines. It can also be used in hand embroidery.

METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produced ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and several other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weaving machines.

SPECIALIZED PURE SILVER METALLIC YARN For the first time in India, 3 different Types of Pure Silver Metallic Yarn has been Developed to be used in weaving with the following materials :

Denim with Lurex Metallic Yarn

Pure Silk with Lurex Metallic Yarn

These yarns can be industrially washed using chlorine, bleaching agents, heavy duty detergents containing chlorine or peroxide as used in industrial washing. This yarn is suitable for suitable for sewing and weaving.

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Linen and Cotton with Lurex Metallic Yarn

The Pure Silver coating, effectively enhances the details and embellishes the final products giving to glamour and zing. All of them are available in various colours and the finished material can be dyed in any color without affecting the metallic yarn.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


Rattan Glitter Industries Limited METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produce ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and several other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weaving machines.

PURE SILVER M TYPE YARN Pure Silver M Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24 micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. These are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machines. Also, it is used for making ST Yarn in Cotton, Polyester and Viscose.

PURE SILVER ST YARN Polyester Metallized Pure Silver Yarn are highly used on Schiffli embroidery machines, computerized embroidery machines and in hand embroideries. It is widely used for tapestry and made-ups.

PURE SILVER MX YARN Pure Silver MX Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24 micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. The core yarn is in Polyester or Nylon. These yarns are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machines.

PURE SILVER FABRICS

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Pure Silver fabrics made from Pure Silver Metallic Yarn are highly used in clothes and for decorative purpose in: Gift Articles, Home Furnishings & accessories such as hand bags and various other products.

GALA WOODWORK COMPOUND, OPP. B.D.D. CHAWL NO. 114, WORLI, MUMBAI-400013, INDIA. TEL: (+91-22) 24966002/4/6; FAX: (+91-22) 24962002; email: ratanglitter@gmail.com website: www.ratanglitter.com contact person: Mr. Mahendra Yadav : +91 9004661657


FABRIC FOCUS

NATURAL DYEING OF NATURAL FIBRES some of them sometimes act as health care products [14]. Dr. M.D Teli, Javed Sheikh, Rupa Trivedi, Kushalkumar Mahalle, Vijendra Labade Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, I.C.T division -The Pure Natural Textile

Abstract From ancient times natural dyes are known, but they are again gaining increasing importance due to increase in awareness about sustainable environment protection and problems associated with synthetic dyes. Even though the natural dyeing has been advantageous in many ways over synthetic dyes, their limited availability of shades is hailed as one of the main limitations over synthetic dyes. Mixing of dyes to get desired shades is a common practice in case of synthetic dyes, which is however still not practiced as far as natural dyes are concerned. In continuation of our research on mixed shades of natural dyes using various mordants, in order to overcome limited availability of shades in natural dyes, in the current study, the natural dyeing of cotton and silk was attempted using individual and mixed shades of catechu and Sappanwood using harda as a natural mordant. The various shades obtained were described in terms of colour values. The wide range of shades thus can be claimed in dyeing the compound shades of natural dyes and the issue of limited availability of shades can be overcome following this approach. 1.Introduction Textile material (natural and synthetic) is coloured for value addition, look and desire of the customers. In the past, this purpose of colouring textile was initiated using colours of natural source until synthetic colours/dyes were invented and commercialized. Due to ready availability of pure synthetic dyes of different types and its cost advantages, most of textile dyers/ manufacturers shifted towards use of synthetic colourants. Almost all the synthetic colourants being synthesized from petrochemical sources through hazardous chemical processes pose concerns regarding their eco-friendliness. Hence, worldwide, growing consciousness about organic value of ecofriendly products is being generated and a renewed interest of consumers towards use of textiles (preferably natural fibre product) dyed with eco-friendly natural dyes is on the rise. Vedas mentioned red, yellow, blue, black and white as main dyeing colours and expressed that, the ancient craftsman dyed blue form indigo, yellow from turmeric and saffron, brown from cutch and red from lac, safflower and madder. Thus, natural dyes have been an integral part of human life since time immemorial [1-8]. Natural dyes are derived from naturally occurring sources such as plants (e.g., indigo and saffron); insects (e.g., cochineal beetles and lac scale insects); animals (e.g., some species of molluscs or shellfish); and minerals (e.g., ferrous sulphate, ochre, and clay) without any chemical treatment. A spectrum of beautiful natural colours ranging from yellow to black exists in the above sources [9-11]. The development of synthetic dyes at the beginning of the twentieth century led to a more complete level of quality and more reproducible techniques of application. As a result, a distinct lowering in the dyestuff costs per kg of dyed goods was achieved [12]. But, during the last few decades, the use of synthetic dyes is gradually receding due to an increased environmental awareness and harmful effects because of either toxic degraded products or their non-biodegradable nature. In addition to above, some serious health hazards like allergenicity and, carcinogenicity are associated with some of the synthetic dyes. As a result, a ban has been imposed all over the world including European Economic Community (EEC), Germany, USA and India on the use of some synthetic dyes (e.g. azodyes) containing banned amines [13]. Due to increasing awareness of environmental issues and pollution controls, natural dyes are gaining importance as they are obtained from renewable resources and they present no health hazards and

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Natural dyes with few exceptions are non-substantive and hence must be used in conjunction with mordants such as tannins, metallic salts and oils [15]. In the dyeing of textiles with natural dyes, tannins are used as natural mordants which are high molecular weight compounds (in-between 500 to 3000) containing phenolic hydroxyl groups and they enable effective cross-links between proteins and other macromolecules. The stability of the tannin treated fibre depends upon the pH, ionic strength and metal chelators. Tannins may be further classified into two groups on the basis of their chemical structure as hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins [16]. Caesalpinia sappan is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae, that is native to Southeast Asia and the Malay archi pelago. Common names include Sappanwood, Sappanwood,'Patanga Chekke Sappanga (Kannada Name)' and Suou (Japanese). Sappanwood belongs to the same genus as Brazilwood (C. echinata), and was originally called "brezel wood" in Europe. This plant has many uses. It possesses medicinal abilities as an anti-bacterial and for its anticoagulant properties. It also produces a valued type of reddish dye called brazilin, used for dyeing fabric as well as making red paints and inks [17]. Catechu is a brown dye named as cutch and used for tanning and dyeing and for preserving fishing nets and sails. Cutch dyes wool, silk and cotton in a yellowish-brown colour. Cutch gives gray-browns with an iron mordant and olivebrowns with a copper mordant. Even though natural dyeing is considered to be ecofriendly, the use of metallic mordants which are considered to be toxic, lowers natural dye's eco-friendly advantage. A lot of research has been carried out on natural dyeing of textile fibres using variety of natural dyes and mordants. However, the area of mixing of natural dyes to get different shades is still remained unexplored. The self and mixed shades of catechu and henna using different mordants were reported earlier from our laboratory [18-20]. In continuation of the work, in the currentstudy the natural dyeing of cotton and silk has been attempted using harda as a mordant both in self and compound shades of catechu and Sappanwood and the wide range of shades explored have been presented. 2. Material and Methods 2.1. Materials: Cotton and silk fabrics were supplied by Adivthe Pure Natural. The cotton fabric was washed using shikakai (Acacia Concinna) and reetha (Soap-nut) at 600C and then used for dyeing. Catechu and Sappanwood were purchased from the market. All other chemicals used were of laboratory grade. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Extraction of mordant: The 1% stock solution was made by boiling 2.5 gm of mordant (Harda) powder in 250 ml water for 30 min. The extract was filtered and made to 250ml and used for mordanting. 2.2.2. Extraction of dye: The 1% stock solution of the dye was prepared by boiling 2.5 g of dye in 250 ml water for 30 min. The extract was filtered and made to 250ml and used for dyeing. 2.2.3. Mordanting and dyeing of cotton and silk: The mordanting was carried out in rota dyer (Rota Dyer machine, Rossari速 Labtech, Mumbai) keeping the liquor to material ratio of 30:1.The fabrics were introduced into the mordant extract solution at room temperature and slowly the temperature was raised to 95oC. The mordanting was continued at this temperature for 60 min. After mordanting the fabric was squeezed and dyed using natural dyes (catechu and Sappanwood). The mordanted fabrics were introduced in dyebath and dyeing was continued at 900C for 60 min. After dyeing, the fabrics were squeezed and washed with cold water. 2.2.4. Compound shades on cotton and silk: In case of compound shades, the fabrics were mordanted using harda as

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


FABRIC FOCUS

a mordant as per the procedure mentioned in 2.2.3. The mordanted samples were then dyed using combination of two dyes catechu and Sappanwood taken in proportion 30:70, 50:50, and 70:30 of the total dye extract required for the targeted % shade. The dyeing procedure was same as described in 2.2.3. 2.2.5. Effect of pH on dyeing of Catechu and Sappanwood: In the case of pH sensitivity study of the natural dye, the fabric samples were mordanted using harda as a mordant in the same way as mentioned in 2.2.3. The dyeing was then carried out using same procedure as mentioned in 2.2.3.and using catechu and Sappanwood at different pH (4, 7, and 9 adjusted using acetic acid and soda ash). 2.2.6. Colour value by reflectance method: The dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of colour by reflectance method using 10˚ observer. The absorbance of the dyed samples was measured on Rayscan Spectrascan 5100+ equi pped with reflectance accessories. The K/S values were determined using expression; (1-R) 2 K/S = 2R where, R is the reflectance at complete opacity; K is the Absorption coefficient & S is the Scattering coefficient Dyed fabrics were simultaneously evaluated in terms of CIELAB colour space (L*, a* and b*) values using the Rayscan Spectrascan 5100+. In general, the higher the K/S value, the higher the depth of the colour on the fabric. L* corresponding to the brightness (100= white, 0= black), a* to the red–green coordinate (+ve= red, -ve =green) and b* to the yellow–blue coordinate (+ve =yellow, -ve =blue). As a whole, a combination of all these parameters enables one to understand the tonal variations. 2.2.7. Washing fastness: Evaluation of colour fastness to washing was carried out using ISO II methods [21]. A solution containing 5 g/L soap solution was used as the washing liquor. The samples were treated for 45 min at 500C using liquor to material ratio of 50:1 in rota machine. After rinsing and drying, the change in colour of the sample and staining on the un-dyed samples were evaluated on the respective standard scales (rating 1:5; where 1: poor; 2: fair; 3: good; 4: very good and 5: excellent).

Table 3.1: Effect of mordant (Harda) and dye (Sappanwood) concentration on colour strength of silk Mordant

Colour value

Sappanwood

K/S

5%

5%

1.3647

5%

10%

1.902

5%

15%

2.0661

5%

20%

2.7639

76.191

L*

3.Results and Discussion In continuation of the work on mixed shades of natural dyes on natural fibres and use of non-metallic eco-friendly mordant harda, as a natural tannin source, was utilized as a mordant for dyeing of cotton and silk with natural dyes like catechu and Sappanwood and the results are presented in Tables 3.1 to 3.7. The initial attempt was to find the optimum concentration of mordant and dye to further study further the effect of mixing of dyes and pH sensitivity of the dye. The results of optimization of mordant and dye concentration are summarized in Tables 3.13.4. The results in Table 3.1 indicate the increase in K/S values with the increasing concentration of mordant till 15% and then it is levelled off. At the constant mordant concentration, the K/S was also found to be improving with increase in dye concentration from 5% to 20%. The various shades from light to deep can be obtained using the varying concentration of mordant and natural dye both catechu and Sappanwood. The colour value in the case of natural dyes is a combined contribution of the effect of mordant and the dye. Hence the K/S was improved with mordant and dye concentration initially till the optimum was reached. The increasing concentration of either mordant or dye beyond optimum concentration did not contribute much in the improvement in K/S values. In the case of silk fabrics, the K/S values were higher than those in cotton. This might be because of higher mordant and dye absorption by the silk fabric than cotton, which is in turn was due to presence of –NH2 groups in the silk which have more affinity for such mordant dyes. Since the different results were obtained in case of catechu and Sappanwood, the optimum concentration of harda and dyes were taken as 20% and 20% respectively in case of mixing of dyes.

Table 3.2: Effect of mordant (Harda) and dye (catechu) concentration on colour strength of silk Mordant

CIE colour co-ordinates

Dye

Harda

2.2.8. Light fastness: Dyed fabric was tested for colourfastness to light according to ISO 105/B02 [22]. The light fastness was determined using artificial illumination with Xenon arc light source, Q-Sun Xenon Testing Chamber with black standard temperature of 65 0C with relative humidity of the air in the testing chamber as 40% and daylight filter, wavelength, k= 420 nm. The samples were compared with the standard scale of blue wool reading (ratings, 1:8; where 1: poor; 2: fair; 3: moderate; 4: good; 5: better; 6: very good; 7: best and 8: excellent).The colour fastness to light was measured using test method.

a*

b*

Harda

Dye

Colour value

Catechu

K/S 1.0675

CIE colour co-ordinates L*

a*

b*

4.52

16.564

73.929

4.232

19.227

74.732

4.132

19.83

4.052

20.567

5.148

26.277

5%

5%

73.034

7.59

29.786

5%

10%

1.8807

73.223

7.661

32.004

5%

15%

2.3413

7.685

37.433

5%

20%

3.4147

75.664

72.353

71.307

10%

5%

1.6343

73.98

2.662

22.355

10%

5%

1.5076

72.697

4.878

18.98

10%

10%

2.3992

75.735

4.28

22.355

10%

10%

2.04

74.508

3.644

19.049

10%

15%

2.6697

75.221

5.453

28.578

10%

15%

3.0036

75.267

4.566

21.243

10%

20%

2.9437

74.926

5.984

29.236

10%

20%

2.9972

75.349

4.253

20.781

15%

5%

1.6369

75.224

1.655

22.822

15%

5%

1.1214

72.16

4.106

17.226

15%

10%

2.0676

76.002

2.79

25.965

15%

10%

1.8854

74.369

3.395

18.465

15%

15%

2.788

76.277

4.413

28.094

15%

15%

2.7664

72.643

4.713

21.248

15%

20%

3.0917

75.724

6.193

32.912

15%

20%

3.3764

72.992

5.033

21.923 19.338

20%

5%

2.2211

76.368

1.845

25.242

20%

5%

1.7442

69.957

6.501

20%

10%

3.0078

76.767

3.704

29.722

20%

10%

1.7514

71.427

4.242

19.584

20%

15%

2.8655

76.284

4.218

29.882

20%

15%

3.3173

72.806

4.637

21.285

20%

20%

3.0393

75.534

5.105

31.121

20%

20%

3.4709

73.494

4.468

21.659

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

17


FABRIC FOCUS

Table 3.3: Effect of mordant (Harda) and dye (Sappanwood) concentration on colour strength of cotton Mordant

CIE colour co-ordinates

Dye

Colour value

Harda

Sappanwood

K/S

5%

5%

1.8329

5%

10%

1.5275

5%

15%

1.822

5%

20%

2.0756

64.796

Table 3 4: Effect of mordant (Harda) and dye (catechu) concentration on colour strength of cotton Mordant

Dye

Colour value

Catechu

K/S

CIE colour co-ordinates

a*

b*

Harda

5.859

18.144

5%

5%

65.316

5.947

22.248

5%

10%

1.8147

65.41

7.23

24.349

5%

15%

2.9036

7.944

23.899

5%

20%

1.717

59.453

L* 64.297

2.6033

L*

a*

b*

10.728

18.667

57.689

9.021

17.811

57.858

12.878

20.164

6.941

18.941

57.283

10%

5%

2.3037

64.512

4.837

16.27

10%

5%

2.1413

59.497

8.89

20.234

10%

10%

1.7771

65.858

5.865

23.485

10%

10%

2.3735

58.121

9.253

18.979

10%

15%

2.474

64.508

6.754

19.694

10%

15%

3.4222

58.258

11.145

20.212

10%

20%

2.1039

65.323

6.876

24.003

10%

20%

1.7684

59.304

6.413

18.165

15%

5%

1.58

65.426

3.409

19.306

15%

5%

2.3438

59.482

8.35

20.082

15%

10%

1.7732

65.568

5.025

21.712

15%

10%

1.7252

59.291

6.893

18.623

15%

15%

2.1203

65.556

6.14

23.726

15%

15%

2.654

59.363

9.501

19.803

15%

20%

2.3941

65.82

6.837

25.339

15%

20%

1.9641

60.196

6.739

19.125

20%

5%

1.6197

65.449

3.354

19.171

20%

5%

2.6168

59.669

7.967

19.521

20%

10%

2.0402

65.395

4.832

20.744

20%

10%

2.3949

58.876

8.218

18.778

20%

15%

2.2284

65.401

6.338

23.47

20%

15%

2.9446

58.935

8.899

19.399

20%

20%

2.3086

65.168

6.832

22.316

20%

20%

1.7252

59.611

6.854

18.579

The compound shades on cotton and silk using combinations of catechu and Sappanwood with harda as a mordant are summarized in Table 3.5. Table 3.5: Effect of combination of two dyes (w/w) on colour strength of silk and Cotton Fabric

Sappanwood(%) 30%

Silk Cotton

Catechu(%) 70%

K/S 4.1034

L* 57.195

a* 10.892

b* 30.945

50%

50%

4.4978

58.078

11.663

29.722

70%

30%

4.6921

59.523

11.329

33.804

30%

70%

5.9757

56.209

16.453

12.437

50%

50%

6.4521

56.367

18.002

13.603

70%

30%

7.0826

57.703

19.481

15.911

The results clearly indicate increase in K/S value as concentration of sappanwood was increased at the cost of catechu. However, the different tones in the shades were obtained ranging from typical red of sappanwood to brown of catechu. The fastness properties of the representative samples were estimated and are presented in Table 3.6. Fabric

Sappan- Catechu(%) Washing wood(%)

0 Silk

Cotton

100

4

Rubbing fastness Dry

Wet

Light fastness

4

2-3

6

30

70

4

4

3

6

50

50

4

4

3

6

70

30

4

4.5

3-4

6

100

0

4

4.5

3-4

5

0

100

4

4

3-4

6

30

70

4

4

3-4

6

50

50

4

4

3-4

6

70

30

4

4.5

3-4

6

100

0

4

4.5

4

5

The wash fastness was of the grade very good”to excellent”(4-5). The rubbing fastness was in the range of “good” to excellent”(3-5). The fastness properties were found to be comparable in the case of both the dyes and their mixtures. The fastness properties were improved with increasing mordant concentrations. The improvements in fastness properties with mordant concentration clearly indicate the positive role of mordant played in case of dyeing with natural dyes. The washing fastnesses obtained varied in the range of

18

good to excellent grade. Light fastness was found to be improving with higher K/S values, which in turn was dependant on higher mordant and/or dye concentration 4.Conclusion Compound shades are obtained using combinations of dyes such as Sappanwood and catechu using harda as a natural mordant. The results are encouraging as wide range of shade gamut was obtained. The fastness properties seemed to have remained unchanged even with the use of combination of dyes. Reference 1. Samanta, A. K. and Konar, A., Dyeing of Textiles with Natural Dyes, Dept of Jute and Fibre Tech., Institute of Jute Tech., Univ. of Calcutta, India. 2. Kadolph, S., The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 75 (1), 14-17, 2008. 3. Chengaiah, B., Rao, K.M., Kumar, K.M., Alagusundaram, M., Chetty, C.M., International Journal of PharmTech Research, 2(1), 144-154, 2010. 4. Saravanan, P. and Chandramohan ,G., Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 1(3), 268-273, 2008. 5. Kumaresan, M., Palanisamy, P. N. and Kumar, P. E., International Journal of Chemistry Research, 2(1), 11-14, 2011. 6. Gulrajani, M. L. and Gupta, D., Introduction to Natural Dyes (Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi), 1992. 7. Anderson, B., Creative Spinning, Weaving and Plant Dyeing, Angus and Robinson publications, 24‐ 28, 1971. 8. Gupta, S.S., Clothsline, 6(12), 97, 1993. 9. Sasson, A, Australasian Biotechnology, 3(4), 200–204, 1993. 10. Vankar, P., Chemistry of Natural Dyes (IIT, Kanpur), 2000. 11. Ladda, K S., A Text Book of Pharmacogonosy, 3rd Ed., Vrinda publications, 213, 2003. 12. Bechtold, T., Turcanu, A., Ganglberger, E., Geissler, S., Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 499–509, 2003. 13. Kumary, J. K. and Sinha, A.K., Natural Product Letters, 18(1), 59–84, 2004. 14. Prabhu, K.H., Teli, M.D. and Waghmare, N., Fibers and Polymers, 12(6), 753-759, 2011. 15. Vankar, P.S., Resonance, 5 (10), 73-80, 2000. 16. Khanbabaee, K. and Van Ree, T., Natural Product Reports, 18, 641–649, 2001. 17. http://en.wiki pedia.org/wiki/Caesalpinia_sappan 18. Teli, M. D., Sheikh, J., Mahale, K., Labade, V. and Trivedi, R., Asian Dyer, Accept paper. 19. Teli, M. D., Sheikh, J., Mahale, K., Labade, V. and Trivedi, R., Journal of Textile Association, Accepted paper. 20.Teli, M. D., Sheikh, J., Mahale, K., Labade, V. and Trivedi, R., Journal of Textile Association, Accepted paper. 21. Trotmann, E.R., Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres, England: Charles Griffin and Company ltd., 1984. 22.ISO technical manual, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


FABRIC FOCUS

GROWTH OF SYNTHETIC FABRICS IN BHILWARA SCOPE OF FUNCTIONAL & TECHNICAL FABRICS

Mr. Ajay Sharma GM (New Product Development), RSWM Limited, Bhilwara, India.

Growth Opportunities in Bhilwara and Current Scenario The growth of textile industry in Bhilwara is contributed by several factors which attract manufacturers, buyers and traders to set up their business in this land of desert. Cheap and availability of labour and conducive working conditions are just a few of them. With the industry flourishing and investors eyeing the market, the government is planning to come up with two integrated textile parks giving substantial weightage for garment manufacturing. Bhilwara region produces suiting and catering demands from low income segment to upper class and uniform fabrics etc. Along with the suiting, the market is also in Bed Sheets, Curtains, Carpets and more. Currently, the Bhilwara market is growing at a steady pace of 8-10% with over 400 units in the area, the market currently manufacturers suiting mostly from synthetic spun and filament yarns. The consumption of spun yarn is at its peak with approximately 13,000 tons being consumed per month and the consumption of polyester textured yarn being approx. 4,000 tonnes.

Bhilwara in Rajasthan

Introduction Bhilwara (The Textile City) Bhilwara, a small town buzzing with industrialization is one part of the momentous state of Rajasthan. It is located 165km away from Udai pur and has a historic significance. With the industry growing, it has started tasting the flavour of modernization. It is a gold mine for entrepreneurs rearing to make a mark for themselves. This city has a population of over 2 lakhs and has tugged away itself from just being a historic place, to a land of entrepreneurs who have built their businesses and continue to do so. This land is called “Suiting hub of India�, with 60% of suiting materials being manufactured from Bhilwara. History The inventive spirit of people of Bhilwara got a kick start with the installation of non-automatic looms way back in 40s after the setting up of Mewar Textiles in 1935. Rajasthan Spinning and Weaving mills was set up as the first synthetic spinning unit in 1961. It gave a boost to yarn and fabric production and since then Rajasthan in general and Bhilwara in particular has never looked back. The flourishing journey of this town, took a steep turn post to closer of mills in Mumbai in the year 1982-83. Mumbai mill owners and workers started migrating to various parts of the country and Bhilwara was one of the destinations. Today the picture is entirely different from what it was at the initial stage. At present there are approximately 14,000 looms out of which some 4000 are conventional and 10,000 are shuttleless. Right from manufacturing of yarn to processing of suiting, everything takes place in Bhilwara itself. The lead for the industry boom was taken by Shri L. N. Jhunjhunwala in 1961, who is considered as the founder of textile industry in Rajasthan. He led the foundation of Rajasthan Spinning and Weaving mills Limited and this led to the growth of the industry. PV (polyviscose) yarn was introduced in the year 1966 and the first processing house was set up in 1973. It is said that 1st truck of polyester from ICI came to Rajasthan Spinning and Weaving Mills, Bhilwara and journey of manufacturing of PV suiting started from here.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

RAJASTHAN

SPINNING AND WEAVING MILLS

Possible Growth of Man-made Synthetic Textiles Particularly in Bhilwara Indian consumption of yarns and fabrics reflects growing Indian consumer preferences for man-made textile and blended items. Practically all man-made cellulose and synthetic fibres have shown tremendous growth in recent years. It is obvious that man-made fibre is expected to play an important role in the textile sector to balance the enhanced needs in apparel, household, technical and functional textiles in future. Man-made fibres are engineered to provide solutions to all human needs; be it protection, comfort, aesthetic and feel aspects related to apparel or for any application in textile such as home textiles, industrial textiles, functional textiles and technical textiles. Polymer science has capability to modify surface properties of synthetic fibres to impart functional properties to make them performance fibres for all these requirements. India is second after China in production of man-made fibres globally. Taking note of wide range of applications of manmade fibres it is becoming amply clear that polyester and viscose offer the best growth opportunities for future and thereby changing the direction of Bhilwara Synthetic textiles.

19


FABRIC FOCUS

Why Synthetic Textiles has a better growth opportunity over cotton textiles India is the third-largest cotton producer in the world. Area of cotton cultivation is significantly larger than any other country in the world accounting for about 25% of global cotton area, but average yields are the lowest among the Top 10 global cotton producers. Although area and yield gains have boosted cotton production by 2.4% annually in past years, but progress in raising yields toward levels achieved by other major producers has been slow. In addition to low yields, the quality of Indian cotton is often poor because of an array of technical, economic, and institutional factors. About 65% of cotton area is not irrigated and is dependent on erratic monsoon rainfall, a share that has remained relatively constant since many years. Poor and uncontrolled seed quality is another pervasive problem in cotton cultivation. Large gaps between average on farm yields and the potential of existing varieties also stem from poor management practices, including use of inappropriate varieties, seed rates, seed spacing, and fertilizer dosages. Taking all these factors into account, the synthetic or man-made fabric is the ultimate answer to address all these limitations. Challenges before Synthetics Textiles in Bhilwara There are certain challenges that every market faces and Bhilwara is not an exception. The growth in industrialization is always associated with the increase in environmental pollution particularly that which is related to inland water, air, noise and soil. The “Textile City" Bhilwara has a dark side. The industry's poor effluent management system has poisoned the area's groundwater and nearby rivers affecting agriculture and people's health. Various scientific studies have been done in Bhilwara. Amongst many, groundwater quality of Bhilwara district was studied for changes in the past three years. Fifteen water samples from various locations in Bhilwara were collected quarterly every year and examined. From the study it is clear the overall groundwater quality in the district has been constantly deteriorating. TDS, total hardness and chloride concentration in all sources were increased while the concentration of fluoride and nitrate were fluctuating. The chloride concentration increased in higher proportion than that of nitrate. Environmental impacts can occur at every stage of the textile lifecycle (raw materials, production, use and disposal). In order to combat pollution, new possibilities are arising. Some of these are discussed here: Textile processing consumes a large amount of water in dyeing and finishing operations. It is assumed that approximately 2000 litres of water is consumed to manufacture a single trouser. In order to reduce excessive water consumption a new dyeing process should be thought off for synthetic fibres and fabrics. The use of super critical fluids, especially supercritical carbon dioxide, as dyeing media completely avoids water pollution and dyeing takes place without using water at zero discharge. Laboratory results are reported that fixing of dyeing on polyester and other synthetic materials was excellent and wastage dyestuff was minimum. Co2 can be converted to a supercritical fluid by increasing its temperature and vapour pressure with a constant rate to the extent where there is no distinguishing between gaseous and liquid stage. CO2 is non toxic, it is used in the food and beverage industry and it is non-inflammable. It is supplied in large amounts either from combustion process or volcanic sources without the need of producing new gas, and it can be recycled in a closed system. The low viscosity of supercritical fluids and the rather high diffusion properties of the dissolved molecule are especially promising aspect for dyeing process. A supercritical dyeing fluid can easily dissolve solid dyestuffs and it can penetrate even the smallest pores without the need of vigorous convection procedures. Conventional finishing techniques are not environment friendly and require large amounts of water. A shift towards highly functional and value added textile is now recognized as being essential for sustainable growth of textile and clothing

20

industry in developed countries i.e. surface modification of textiles by plasma techniques. Plasma is a gas of neutral molecules such as helium, argon, air, oxygen and nitrogen which are energized by high electric field to the level where gas turn in to a mixture of electron, ionized atoms, photons and residual neutral particles. Plasma treatment causes changes up to a limited depth of the textile surface without altering bulk properties. It can alter the surface chemistry and topography of textile can impart functional properties such as water repellence, long term hydrophilicity, improved softness, antistatic, antibacterial properties etc. In order to minimize effluent problems, use of performance fibres having inherent functional properties such as antimicrobial, antistatic, thermoregulatory, flame retardant, moisture absorbing etc. is recommended to achieve permanent properties. Worldwide research is continued to provide easy solutions by application of nanotechnology in textiles for enhancing functional properties of the fabric. Conventional methods used to impart different properties to fabric do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after laundering and washing. Application of inorganic metal nano particles can provide high durability to the fabric. Another challenge is the cut throat competition among manufacturers and low profit margins with increased cost of production. Bhilwara PV suiting business has now reached saturation as manufacturers are stuck on making the same fabric, leading to stagnation and competition thus squeezing margins. It is high time that the manufacturers either diversify into vertical integration in the supply chain up to garment or start thinking for technical, functional and protective solutions in textiles. The future of textiles lies in product innovation and thereby providing tailor-made solutions for different end uses specially protective and functional work wear applications. Conclusion Above are few viewpoints which need to be pondered upon. Govt and industry should want to see the changes that are taking place based on various research and developments and the work done by the scientists, worldwide. This will change the direction of synthetic textiles for the protection of environment and address the increased needs of society at large. Government initiatives to implement innovations and new processing techniques in textile clusters like Bhilwara is essential to encourage entrepreneurs for development of eco-friendly, cost effective, performance and functional textiles. Reference 1) Paper presented in a seminar organized by fibre to fashion at IIM Ahmedabad on 18th Nov 2011. 2)www.ebhilwara.com

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


Optimizing Output of our Products Synthetic Filaments Yarn

3000 MT / Year

Batch Dyed Yarn

3000 MT / Year

Fancy Yarn

600 MT / Year

Speciality Yarn

1200 MT / Year

Fabrics

5 million metres / Year

Products Range Spinfinishes Antistat / Lubricants For Spinning Conning Oil Sizing Chemical Antistat / Lubricants Desizing Mercerisation Bleaching Scouring agent Levelling Printing Auxillaries

Address: 69/100 New Mavji Compound, Narpoli, Bhiwandi - 421302 Dist.: Thane. Maharashtra, India. Tel: 00-91-2522-230202 / 00-91-2522-230201 / 00-91-2522-233905 Fax: 00-91-2522-236595 Email: dodhia@dodhiagroup.com

Address: 69/100 New Mavji Compound, Narpoli, Bhiwandi - 421302 Dist.: Thane. Maharashtra, India. Tel: 00-91-9823260200 Email: info@dodhiagroup.com

www.dodhiagroup.com

ADVT.

Finishing Agents & Softners


GARMENT FOCUS

COLOUR IN BRANDING

considered a colour to increase POS (Point of Sale). Dr. Ela Manoj Dedhia Associate Professor, Textiles & Fashion Technology, Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science

The first contact between a Customer and a Brand is Colour. The easiest way to make a Brand Distinctive is through selective use of Colour. Colour is at the heart of the Marketing Mix. There are 1,71,476 words to choose a Brand name but there are only a few colours to choose. Colours depict a variety of moods, feelings, personality, etc. Below are the few perceptions of various colours: Blue Cool blue is perceived as trustworthy, dependable, fiscally responsible and secure. It is strongly associated with the sky and sea; it is serene and universally well-liked. Blue is an especially popular colour with financial institutions, as its message of stability inspires trust. Blue is focused behind the retina and appears to move away from you and is considered to increase feelings of peacefulness, confidence and tranquillity. Red Red activates one's pituitary gland, increasing the heart rate and causing one to breathe more rapidly. This visceral response makes red aggressive, energetic, provocative and attention-grabbing. One can count on red to evoke a passionate response, but not always a favourable one. For example, red can represent danger or indebtedness too. Red is focused in front of the retina and appears to move towards you. Red is equated with energy and excitement. 45% of the flags have red in them. Green In general, green connotes health, freshness and serenity. However, green's meaning varies with its many shades. Deeper greens are associated with wealth or prestige, while light greens are calming. Green indicates health and well-being. 20% of the flags have green in them which is considered more like Blue Corporate Colour. Yellow In every society, yellow is associated with the sun. Thus, it communicates optimism, positivism, light and warmth. Certain shades seem to motivate and stimulate creative thought and energy. The eye sees bright yellow before any other colour, making it great for point-of-purchase displays. Yellow indicates brightness for caution. Purple Purple is a colour favoured by the creative types. With its blend of passionate red and tranquil blue, it evokes mystery, sophistication, spirituality and royalty. Lavender evokes nostalgia and sentimentality. Pink Pink's message varies by intensity. Hot pinks convey energy, youthfulness, fun and excitement and are recommended for less expensive or trendy products for women or girls. Dusty pinks appear sentimental. Lighter pinks are more romantic. Orange Cheerful orange evokes exuberance, fun and vitality. With the drama of red plus the cheer of yellow, orange is viewed as gregarious and often childlike. Research indicates its lighter shades appeal to an upscale market. Peach tones work well with health care, restaurants and beauty salons. In retail, it is

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Brown This earthy colour conveys simplicity, durability and stability. It can also elicit a negative response from consumers who relate to it as dirty. Certain shades of brown, like terracotta, can convey an upscale look. From a functional perspective, brown tends to hide dirt, making it a logical choice for some trucking and industrial companies. Black Black is serious, bold, powerful, sensual and classic. It creates drama and connotes sophistication. Black stands for luxury. Black works well for expensive products, but can also make a product look heavy. White White connotes simplicity, cleanliness and purity. The human eye views white as a brilliant colour, so it immediately catches the eye in signage. White is often used with infant and health-related products. People naturally respond to colour in three dimensions: Hue: Pure spectrum colours, such as red, blue or yellow. Saturation: The intensity of a hue (richness). Value: Lightness and darkness. Colour is extremely complex and can also have many influences. Beige can be a warm colour or a slight grey cool colour depending on lighting conditions. Most colours can be categorized into two basic categories: warm and cool. In general, warm colours, like red and yellow, send an outgoing, energetic message; while cool colours, like blue, are calmer and more reserved. However, brightening a cool colour increases its vibrancy and reduces its reserve. Studies have shown that bright warm colours (red, orange and yellow) are known to stimulate excitement and generate activity. This is why kids' toys and clothes are often packaged in these colours. In order to imply speed and efficiency, most fast-food branding consists of these bright colours as well. Warm colours can also cause a different response based on the value. Restaurants that want to convey comfort will choose deep warm colours, such as burgundy or burnt orange to increase longevity – which in turn increases the chance of ordering additional treats. Coffee, dessert... On to the cooler side of things, ever wonder why performers wait in a designated area called The Green Room? Light cool colours (green, blue) are known to have a calming effect. We associate green to grass and the outdoors. Blues are representative of the sky and ocean. With these built-in instincts to understanding colour, it's no surprise that many health and beauty products apply these colours to their branding efforts. These same cool colours displayed in a deeper value represent another meaning as well. Subdued blues, for instance, are considered to be professional and trustworthy. Financial institutions often use blue for this reason. Many uniforms are also in a dark blue, such as those used by the police. Deeper greens are associated to wealth and quality; hence the colour of money. Given these implications, it's important to understand that colour plays a critical role in memory recall, which makes colour consistency in branding a critical necessity. The examples only touch on the fundamentals of colour and psychology. Every good designer should understand these basics and apply the best colours needed for their products and target markets.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


GARMENT FOCUS

General “Colour in Business” Theory Group

Associations

Colour Blue

Cool (calming)

Nature of associations

secure and trustworthy

sky (therefore universally liked) business related websites (e.g. banks)

wealth (deep green)

trees, spring

calming (light green)

money (the colour of success) entertainment and leisure related websites

Green

Red

Yellow

Recommended for

finance related websites (e.g. Forex related)

grabs attention & makes power (e.g. red carpet) you energetic(by activating your pituitary gland)

eye-catching logos, calls to action

optimism

attention grabbing (esp. using it in contrast with other colour)

sun

Warm (exciting) products for young women

energy (hot pink) Pink

feminine colour products for girls

romantic (lighter pink) Orange

cheerful

citrus fruit

kids'

Black

powerful

“absence of colour”

expensive products

White

simplicity and purity (catches the eye)

numerous (from brides to hospitals)

health related products

Neutral

Colours in Branding Leaders have the first choice in colour selection. New competitors should choose the opposite colour to differentiate. By standardizing on a single colour and using it consistently over the years, one can build a powerful visual presence in a clutterfilled world. This colour becomes symbolic of the category. Law of colour = Law of difference = Law of ONE. Leaders / First movers have the first choice. Brand extensions which use many colours destroy core colour identity of brand. It is better to stick to one of the basic 5 colours rather than the intermediates or mixers. If one copies the colour of the leader then competition signifies that you are only a copy/me-too. Leaders/First movers must use GREEN, Next: Powerful RED, Next: No maintenance BLUE. If you are the first mover, choose what you like or the most obvious colour. One should 'Be Opposite to be Distinctive'. Colour is a crucial element of a brand identity. One immediately associates the product or service with a particular colour. Colour schemes can make one want to leave immediately or to stay a little longer if it is appealing. Colours evoke associations, negative, positive or mixed, and thus form an initial opinion of the brand. The choice of one's brand colour can thus stand for: New visitors' enrolment and partici pation (by attracting their attention); Brand awareness (by bonding with the memory); Brand positive or negative associations (by boosting memories of what people like/dislike). Colour is a powerful promotional tool Colours should be trendy and catchy Personal Approach to a Brand Colour Colour perception is very individual. The favourite colour for most is blue. Whenever we see blue things, we end up liking it. It becomes an integral part of our personality. Modern Approach to Brand Colour

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Recently, everything has got much brighter. There are no monotonous and dreary fixed colour limitations. Pink is used for women's magazines or online marketing blogs. Colourful logos have become a new fashion trend. Colour for corporate brand identity Choice of colour can be very important in corporate identity branding. The mind has so many associations with different colours. Blue is the shortest wavelength, which is highly absorbed by human eye and therefore it is not acceptable by mind. It immediately seeks for the next longest wavelength (Green, Yellow, Orange and Red). Red has the highest wavelength; it is easily accepted by human eye, so it is more attractive and easily understandable by the brain. It is how we mani pulate the wavelengths to generate brand colour management!! Bottom-Line The most important thing is to be consistent and original in colourizing your brand. People will remember your product at first glance if you put a little thought and effort in designing it. There are few things people should consider while choosing their brand colour: Colour should create interest in your product Colour should make people remember your product Brand colour can be a niche marketing tool, the way a movie poster finds its audience. So one should choose it intelligently. Bibliography 1. Collectif, 2009 Branding by colour, Pie Books. 2. Marty Neumeier,2006,Zag: The#1 Strategy of HighPerformance Brands, Peachpit Press. 3. Martin Lindstrom, Brand Sense: Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, and Sound, 2005, Free Press. 4. www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2006/11/brand_identity_.html 5. www.entrepreneur.com/article/175428 - 74k

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GARMENT FOCUS

ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS C.N.Sivaramakrishnan Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC (Chartered Colourist) Senior Textile Advisor Textile is one of the oldest industries in the world and it is as old as human civilization. Textile products are a basic human requirement next to food. Textile production comprises of fibre, yarn and fabric processing (Grey-dyed-printed), home textiles, towels, hosiery, knitwear and readymade garments. The relocation of production due to globalization has created additional level of complexity for sustainable textile production, as different nations have different environmental laws or even none at all. To secure a "clean" production by manufacturers, trade and brands around the world refer to the Restricted Substance List (RSL). Increasing prices of raw materials due to scarce availability of resources and active environmental protection are the challenges faced by a futuredriven textile industry. Chemical usage in the fibre to fashion chain Natural Fibres

Spinning, Weaving, knitting

Pre-treatment

Regenerated Fibres

Chemical Processing

Garmenting

Synthetic Fibres

Effluent Treatment

Usage-Washing

Textile producers can remain competitive by responding to recent technological developments and advancements. In recent years, the increasingly stringent environmental regulations have begun to impact international textile trade. As a highly polluting sector, pollution problems during the textile production (in particular in the processes of dyeing, printing and rectifying) and harmful residues in the finished products have aroused great public concerns. To deal with these problems, some countries have established various environmental standards and requirements for textile products. Due to environmental concerns, chemicals either restricted or banned are as follows: 1: Pesticides 2: Allergenic disperse dyes and Banned amines 3: Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates like Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylate 4: Heavy Metals such as Cadmium, Mercury, Lead, Cr 6+ 5: Phthalates like Di butyl Phthalate – Di ethyl Hexyl Phthalate 6: Organo tin compounds like Di butyl tin 7: Flame retardants like Poly brominated di phenyl ether 8: Chlorinated hydrocarbons 9: Chlorinated Phenols like Pentachlorophenol 10: Short chain chlorinated paraffins 11: PFOS/PFOA like Perflorinated compounds The number of demanding and critical consumers requesting transparent value chains and high-quality, harmless and environmentally safe products is constantly growing. This is a challenge that future-driven businesses have to accept before authorities force them into a new way of thinking. Worldwide there is concern at the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. These chemical substances are transported across international boundaries far from their sources and they persist in the environment, bio accumulates through the food web, and poses risk to human health and the environment. The textile industry is a major manufacturing industry and will continue to be so in the foreseeable future. It is no longer adequate to have a finished

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product to be safe only to human beings, but the product has to be environmentally safe during its entire life cycle and even beyond. Environmental or green or clean technology is the application of the environmental science and green chemistry to conserve the natural environment and resources and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. International concern over environmental issue such as global warming and expanding population has led to international targets to limit pollution and the use of resources. Certain sections of the textile industry, wet processing in particular, engage in practices that may have significant environmental impact. Consequently the industry will be affected by legislations intended to reduce environmental degradation by the imposition of discharge limits or by the use of financial instruments such as the polluter pays princi ple that is environmental taxation. Currently there is concern over the release of endocrine disrupting substances as well as colour in to the environment. With increasing international trade competition and globalization of environmental issues, the issue of environment has become one of high concerns for the international community. The WTO Committee on Trade and Environment was established in 1995. It was mandated to address issues to coordinate the relationshi p between environment related trade measures and vice versa, to enhance sustainable development and study the impacts of environmental measures on market access, in particular on the developing countries. Although there was no special agreement on environmental issues, they were covered in the basic WTO/GATT princi ples and other related agreements. The new WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) is: Recognize that no country should be prevented from taking necessary steps to ensure quality of its exports or for the protection of deceptive practices. Recognize that the contribution which international standardization can make to the transfer of technology from developed to developing countries. Identify that the developing countries may encounter difficulties in the formulation and application of technical regulations, standards and procedures. Also, conduct assessment of conformity and assist them in their endeavours in this regard. The Non-Tariff Trade Barriers recognize the following three important parameters: 1.Product and process standards: Refers to the quality and specification of products and processes. 2.Social accountability: Pertains to the responsibility of textile producers so that they provide social protection to workers including hygiene at the workplace, proper working environment, etc. 3.Environment: Probably the broadest area imposing restrictions on processes and certain intermediate processing products which are detrimental to the overall environment. In addition to the mandatory laws and regulations, there are several eco-labelling standards concerning textile and clothing products in many European countries. Although voluntary in nature, eco- labelling has potential impacts on international trade, particularly in the textile sector. Since the enactment of the German Act and its implementation on 1 April, 1996, it has aroused great attention in many countries, particularly in some European countries and many developing countries. The most well known are Milieukeur and Oeko-Tex Standard 100. The German Act of 1994 forbidding azo dyes and some eco labelling standards for textiles such as Oeko-Tex Standards 100 are the ones that have the most trade implications. They have had both positive and negative impacts on the world textile trade, imposing a great challenge for textile exports from developing countries.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


GARMENT FOCUS

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has established and presides over thousands of standards affecting thousands of industries. The textile industry is one such industry. There are hundreds of individual ISO textile standards which govern the handling and production of textiles internationally. Some major certifications: ISO 9001/2000 ISO 14001, ISO 17799/BS 7799/BS 15000, OHSAS 18001, SA 8000, WRAP, ECO-Labelling, OekoTex 100, EU Eco-Label for Textiles WHAT IS AN ECO-LABEL? An eco-label provides brief information on environment related product qualities. It enables consumers to identify those products that are environmentally safe; that has been manufactured using eco-friendly materials and do not contain chemicals that are harmful to the user. The different kinds of labels are: Organic labels, Eco labels, Fair trade labels, Healthrelated labels. Resource materials that are endorsed with a label that is used specifically to communicate the special characteristics related to environment are called Environment labels. International organizations have developed many such labels to communicate the various quality aspects of textiles. With consumers becoming more concerned with the adverse impacts of industrial pollution on the environment and their health there is mounting pressure on the industry to adopt more ecofriendly chemicals and manufacturing processes. Eco-labels that certify the Eco-friendliness of the textile product are now increasingly demanded by consumers. While this will certify that their products do not contain chemicals that might be harmful to the consumer, the requirement for an eco-label is not uniform around the world. With the removal of tariff barriers under the WTO Agreement on Tariff and Trade, exporters may increasingly face more stringent environmental standards in the international marketplace. Manufacturers wishing to protect their existing markets and expand into new ones may well be required to obtain an eco-label that is acceptable to customer. BENEFITS OF LABELLING can be summarized as: Enhanced export market opportunities: Manufacturers and

retailers of textile goods come under pressure to comply with the international Eco-labels.

Improved product quality through removal of substances in the fabric that are harmful to the customer. Financial savings through process optimization and improvements that result in saving of water, chemicals and energy. Frequently, the processing time is reduced and the RFT (Right First Time) is improved. These benefits generally offset the incremental costs of using eco-friendly chemicals or of adopting a modified process. Improved environmental performance through phasing out of toxic and hazardous substances and conservation in water, energy and raw material usage. This leads to a reduction in the quantities and pollution potential of various emissions. Elimination of hazardous chemicals from the textile manufacturing process is also beneficial for the environment. Eg. Complete phasing out of sodium hypochlorite and the anti chlor agent - sodium bi sulphite - results in the elimination of halogenated organic compounds {AOX}and a reduction of total dissolved solids {TDS} in the effluent. The removal of these hazardous chemicals result in safer and better working conditions in the workplace. Limitations of Labels: The review of the criteria of the different eco-labelling schemes shows that it is possible to use the eco-label criteria to set environmental baseline requirements for textile products, but the criteria can be on stand-alone basis. Even though the dissemination of the labelling schemes can be used as some indication of how strict the criteria of the different labels are, it is still necessary to be in possession of some knowledge about which criteria's are difficult to comply. Together, it will prove to be a useful cocktail in the process of setting environmental baseline criteria for textiles. Textiles which are produced, processed and disposed of with the technology and the process which have less harmful effects on ecology and its environment can be classified as EcoFriendly Textiles. The way to a healthy textile future can only be via safe technology, sustainable handling of resources and effective consumer protection. This will not be a dream path, but rather a way which one must take and adhere to with determined conviction. Reference: Colourage August 2012

Book Review: Textiles and the Environment Mr. C.N. Sivaramakrishnan (CNS as he is fondly called) is a textile consultant who brings with him a great deal of first-hand experience in the processing Industry. A BSC (tech) from UDCT, he has over 30 years of experience with various processing houses. He is a Fellow of The Society of Dyers & Colourists (Chartered Colourist) and a Bronze Medallist. He is also a Business Development Service Provider to the Textile Committee (Ministry of Textiles) and a visiting faculty at the UICT (Formerly UDCT), for final year B.Tech and M.tech students After his 1st book, Textiles and the Environment, he came out with his 2nd book 'Textiles and the Environment' on September 14, 2012. With the world getting more ecoconscious, the focus on the environment and related aspects has assumed a greater significance than ever before in our industry. With this book, CNS finds a new outlet to reach out to the industry which is a wonderful compendium that connects the Textile industry - the wet processing stream of it with the environmental issues that are associated with it. As quoted by Dr. Vijay G. Habbu', Chief – R&D and Product Stewardshi p (Polyester) at Reliance India Ltd., who has written the foreword in his book: 'This nicely structured book begins with an overview of the Chemical Industry and then leading to the basic information on the Textile industry. Here, he has covered the various fibres and their blends that the Textile wet processing industry deals in. His emphasis has been on the chemical processing technology and not on the textile/yarn making technology, as the former is more a cause of the harm to the environment. Thus, you will find topics on the chemical preparatory processes, dyeing, printing,

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

chemical finishing covered in full details. CNS then discusses at length the various natural resources that can be affected by the extant textile processes, water being the obvious and most important. In the section that follows, he has covered the various pollution mitigation procedures, mechanisms and technologies. His personal experience in pollution control technologies has helped him cover these issues with a formidable breadth and clear insights. In the final section of this book, CNS has given information on the various laws and regulations that are in force in various countries, either through their governments, or through other pressure sources. This is a very dynamic space, as the list of chemicals and their approved limits for release will keep on changing with the evolving knowledge about their effects and also with evolving sense of practicality. In summary, this book will sensitize the reader to the various perspectives on the pollution that the Textile industry generates. But being a good technologist that he is, CNS has provided extensive information on redressing the hurtful effects of these processes. The book is written in neither a textbook form, nor for research purposes, hence it makes easy reading. Clearly, it is a very good primer on this topic'. This book should help textile industry to practice ecofriendly methods and become aware of global technologies for a better and greener industry and future!!!

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students from college campuses, train them and after training them for about 50%, we take them as confirmed employees. No organisation should ever grow old in the customers mind... so by hiring fresh talent and fresh ideas we explore our vision in new direction with a mixture of young blood with the experienced. What are the core beliefs and the vision of the company?

Mr. Yogesh Kusumgar President, CEO of Kusumgar Corporates

Mr. Siddharth Kusumgar (Son of Yogesh Kusumgar)

Mr. Yogesh Kusumgar is a VJTI graduate in B. Tech. He is an unassuming and a sharp business man, gifted with a keen sense for details. He worked in Sasmira in the 1960's, where he worked on many Technical Textile projects which gave him exposure and a platform to explore international market. In 1970, Mr. Yogesh Kusumgar realized the potential of manufacturing Technical Textiles and started a business to meet the ever-changing needs of a burgeoning industry. His biggest challenge for his venture was “to understand what users wanted and transfer that into Textiles.” Over time Kusumgar Corporates grew to include various segments in Technical Textiles, becoming a proven international force in the process. Kusumgar Corporates has been recognized by its many accolades including the National Award for Indigenization of Defence Products, given by the Ministry of Defence, and is one of India's foremost corporations involved in the development and supply of textile materials. Technical expertise and versatility have been hallmarks of Kusumgar Corporates. This has resulted in the ability to create customized fabrics that meet the specific requirements of almost any industry.

TECHNICAL TEXTILE

INTERVIEW WITH MR. KUSUMGAR

Our business philosophy for development is GROW AND STABILISE.

Below is an insightful look at Kusumgar Corporates and the Indian Technical Textiles Market... Kusumgar Corporates is a gigantic name in the technical textiles market today. What is the history behind it and how has the journey been so far?

Our belief is, there is a huge scope for technical textileswithin the country as people's standard of living and mentality are changing giving us tremendous scope to grow. Our business philosophy for development is Grow and Stabilise which we strive to do continuously year after year. Kusumgar Corporates vision is to enrich mankind through development of textile technologies and be a global leader in the same Do you have any brand? If yes, elaborate on same... If not, do technical textiles have concepts of brand? Technical textile is not a consumer product which has brands. Brand is what you give as services to consumer. In this sector, company name in itself is a Brand which is valued by Performance. There are 3 segments of categories in terms of Application and Functionality in technical textile: Commodity, Customised Commodity and Niche. We deal only in the Customised Commodity and Niche segments and not in the Commodity segment due to our rich experience and USP of Technical understanding. Do you have in-house production at Kusumgar's? How much is the monthly production and turnover? We have 3 manufacturing units: Umbergaon (Weaving unit), Vapi (Weaving, Processing and Printing units) and Pardi (Coating Unit). We only use the most advanced conventional shuttle looms, Dornier Rigid Looms, as well as Sulzer Flexible Rapier Looms and Sulzer Projectile Weaving Machines. We have full facilities along with a processing and finishing plant, redefining our role from a weaver and coater to a total textile solution provider. Our monthly production is 7 lakh Kilo Picks / Month with an annual turn over of Rs. 60 Crores.

Kusumgar is not gigantic but a leader in our own segment of technical textiles in India, not only in business but also in the textile community by way of seminars and presenting papers to Government bodies for improvement. We are active member representatives of ECTT (Expert Committee of Technical Textiles) which was formed in 1992. Only recently, Government has started supporting technical textile manufacturers by giving 10% capital subsidy. However, since over 2 decades we have been silent contributors for the improvement of the Indian technical textiles industry. Today Kusumgar Corporates has more than 200 technically high-skilled experienced employees... Please highlight on the core team who started the entire Kusumgar Corporates and brought it to a place this far?

So what kinds of fabrics are made at Kusumgar's?

Any business cannot run alone... Our Professional core team has been with us since more than 3 decades and we are proud to have them: Mr. Siddharth Kusumgar (my son), Dr.M K Talukdar, Mr. Kiran Shah, Mr. P Chatterjee, Mr. Anil Waskar and Mr. Jayant Gosalia. We have a unique employment recruitment policy, where every year we directly pick up

It all begins with a wide variety of materials including: synthetic filament yarns ranging from conventional polyamide and polyester yarns to specialty rayon, polyamide and polyester filament yarns to poly-aramid yarns. We weave fine denier from 30D to as coarse as 3000D yarns. We can also weave widths up to 5 metres and supply fabric rolls of 2000

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Could you describe the entire value chain of Kusumgar Corporates? We start from Yarn - only yarn twisting, weaving, processing, printing, rolling fabrics. So technically, we come only in the fabric segment. Ours is a very tiny integrated chain.

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TECHNICAL TEXTILE

metres without joints We also supply fabrics in slitted form with heat sealed selvedges in desired widths to meet specific client needs. We have extensive experience in manufacturing more than 500 types of woven fabrics from a wide range of yarns including but not limited to spun multifilament and monofilament made of the following: Polyamide 6, Polyamide 6.6, Polyester, Polypropylene, Viscose rayon, Aramid, Vectran, Cordura. These custom-made fabrics meet highly demanding requirements of certain industries, including aerospace, medical, and agriculture, amongst others.

the field we all share, Kusumgar provides consulting services to encourage new ventures, matured tie-ups and joint foreign collaborations. Our past consultation projects include: First geogrid manufacturing plant in India Setting up a Sulzer weaving unit of 5.00 metre width for the production of woven geotextiles Setting up a non-woven plant of 5.4 metre width Setting up of a coating plant of 3.4 metre width Do you have any future plans for investments and expansions?

We also make filter fabrics, fabrics for rubber industries, base fabric for coating, coated fabrics, uniforms and work wear, military material like parachute fabrics, personnel equi pments, ballistic fabrics, protective clothing and uniform , woven geotextiles, performance fabrics for parachutes for extreme adventure sports, equestrian products, camping gear and inflatables. We advocated geosynthetics technology in India way back in 1984. Today we are India's most recognized manufacturer, supplier and cost-effective solution provider of geosynthetics.

Our new initiative is going to be tie - ups with multinational companies from different countries in the specialised fields of Safety and Protection fabric (Base Material). We are concentrating in this Niche Segment. Our new initiative will roll on very soon, for which there is an expansion plan but we are not exploring it at this stage. Why are technical fabrics being used everywhere in recent times?Industries are preferring textiles rather than metal... It is so because Ratio of Strength to Weight is better in technical textiles than any other material used Textile fabrics are very flexible Knowledge of Material Science is very important to get the best out of a product. Functionality can be engineered, transferred, etc.90% of technical fabrics are made of 100% man - made fibre. Only 10% technical fabrics are made up of natural fibre and the natural is in combination with man-made fibres. Could you explain the Technical fabric garments in detail specifying topics like export, domestic etc‌? We are not into garments, as garments require different capability and expertise. “Need is mother of inventionâ€?, as we grow, need for technical fabrics in everyday use will increase. Every day, there is new usage for technical fabrics and so there is huge scope in this sector. Till now only developed countries had advantage but now we also can reap huge benefits.

How is the distribution network for Kusumgar's? We do not appoint any distributors or agents. We personally visit customers and partici pate in National and International Exhibitions. What are your future plans to promote your consulting business? As discussed, consulting is not our core business and we do not want to concentrate on the same as we don't have a dedicated expert team. What is the driving force behind Kusumgar's success, in both the manufacturing of technical textiles and Consulting? As a matter of fact, we are not professional consultants. Consulting is just a part of business and not our main business. Our main business is manufacturing. Kusumgar's manufacturing philosophy is to translate consumer needs to reality. With nearly four decades of experience in the diversified fields of technical textiles, we have gained expertise in various segments of the industry. Realizing the need to contribute toward the growth of

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What is the scope of technical textiles or speciality fabrics in Indian Market? Related to technical textiles, Indian market is still in its nascent stage. It will take time for it to mature. A lot of research, activities and incentives need to be done for this segment to grow. Many Indian companies use imported technical fabric due to non-technicality of the resources like human, knowledge, raw material etc. There is reasonable export scope due to developed nations still dominating the market in this segment due to cost limitation. As you said, this segment requires technical and research workforce. Does India have knowledgeable technical people? New research is done only in developed nations and not in developing countries like ours. We only have Product Development Scope in India. We, as in India had started very late in this segment i.e. 2.5 decades late. Global technical textile industry was picked up by 1970 and Indian technical textile picked up by 1995... We are still in the baby years and we will take few more years to reach at a decent and competitive level to even be at par with international standards.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


TECHNICAL TEXTILE

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY GEOBAGS

Chaudhary S. and Raisinghani D, Textile Manufactures Department, VJTI, Mumbai, Maharashtra. Abstract Geotextiles in flexible forms have been used for infilling of various materials for number of applications. Some of the applications include i) sand filled geotextile bags for beach protection and erosion control, ii) Dredged silts and clays for dewatering harbor and river sediments and iii) separating polluted materials from harbours, river and industrial processes for the purposes of both dewatering and decontamination. Such Geotextile forms have been referred by various names such as Geotextile containers, Geobags, and so on. The present study is focused on the use of geobag for dredged sediments formed due to immersion of idols using Plaster of Paris (PoP) during festivals. The earlier tradition of clay idols has been replaced with idols being made using PoP and painted and decorated with variety of colours to enhance its beauty. This has led to the problem of water pollution with the paints and colours affecting the marine life and gradually entering into our food chain. The disintegrated PoP particles also result in problem of sedimentation thereby reducing the depth of water bodies and reduction of dissolved oxygen in water. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of Geobag for dewatering of dredged sediments from water bodies. Introduction Rapid industrialization has lead to enormous quantities of waste. This waste can be either in solid or liquid form, both of which have severe disposal problem. Generally, this waste is dumped either in land or water bodies which results in water pollution directly affecting the aquatic life and food chain. This paper is focused on the problem of sedimentation in water bodies, for this geobag can be proposed as a possible solution. India is a religious country, where in every year; thousands of idols of lord Ganesha and deity Durga are immersed in water bodies like lakes, reservoir, ponds, rivers and canals. Mostly these idols are made up of Plaster of Paris (PoP), clay and cloth supported by small iron rods, and is colored with different types of paints such as varnish, oil paintsetc. Idols traditionally made of 'shadu' (a specific type of soil) are becoming costlier and PoP is quickly replacing 'shadu'. PoP is calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4,H2O) and is derived from gypsum, a calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4, 2 H2O). It is made by firing this mineral at relatively low temperature and then reducing it to powder. PoP solidifies and hardens after forming a paste and is also easily mouldable. Hence it is widely used for preparation of idols, which adversely creates many environmental problems. When PoP idols are immersed in water it takes several months to dissolve and in the process it poisons the water bodies because of the chemicals, paints and the accessories use to decorate them. The colors contain carbon, mercury, cadmium, varnish, lead, etc and this increases the acidity and heavy metal content in water. Ideally, these paints should be made from natural colors and pigments found in vegetables, fruits, minerals, etc. However, most paints currently used on idols are industrially produced through chemical processes which have synthetic binders and additives. These chemicals negatively impact the ecology of water bodies causing water pollution and affecting the aquatic life and gradually entering the food chain. Another huge problem likely to be occurring in the near future is an increase in amount of clay, PoP and sand which leads to sedimentation. Sediments are the sinks for elemental cycles in aquatic systems and are recognized as one of the largest sources of in-place pollutants. PoP idols take several months to dissolve and disintegrate in water which results in decrease of dissolved oxygen and increase in suspended solids. Water

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

becomes turbid and occurs in massive fish mortality due to clogging by gypsum particles and lead. Sedimentation reduces the depth of the water bodies and also clogs the natural water springs. These practices make the water bodies unsuitable for usage, thus converting them into large septic tanks wherein the water bodies become shallower day by day. To overcome all of the above and more, the geobag method is proposed as one of the containment systems for pollutant sediments which are present in water bodies. 1) Geobags Geobags are constructed of high strength tubular containers made up of permeable geotextiles. They are resistant to UV light and the stresses associated with filling and placement including: abrasion, tearing, puncturing and flattening. This factor ensures long-term dewatering performance which is the primary duty expected from a successful geotextile tube. It is designed to contain and dewater dredge soils, industrial and munici pal sludge and other slurry products. When it is filled with high water content materials by hydraulic pumping, then it is left to dewater. For successful dewatering, first requirement tube should not be clogged during the process and the second requirement is successful retention performance. Geobag pore size of the fabric plays a major role. Like when these tubes are used in dewatering slurries, a filter cake forms on the interface of the fabric of tube. The formation of the filter cake, which leads to the retention of the soil particles, can be controlled by the pore openings of the geotextile, the particle size, the water content of slurry, and the pumping pressure. 2) Schematic diagram Inlet

Outlet

Seam Wedge Block

a) Front view

Inlet

Outlet

b) Top view

Figure 1: Geobag Figure 1. shows the schematic view of geobags. A simplest geobag is two sheets of geotextile sewn along the edges, with inlets and outlets sewn, depending on the sedimentation and angle of repose of dredged material. Length of the geobag is limited only by the weight of the geotextile material that can be handled in the field. From inlet, water content is fed into it and from outlet, excess water is removed.These two geotextile sheets can either be sewed or fused as per specification; seam strength is normally the weakest link in the design. While filling the general shape of the geobag change i.e. as the hydraulic filling continues, shape of geobag also increases and as drainage occurs the height of geobag decreases. A wedge block is provided to support the geobag for the dewatering process. 3.Test methods There are two performance tests available for the selection of fabrics for successful geobag applications: Hanging Bag test and Pillow test. 3a.Hanging bag test The hanging bag test (Fig. 2) was originated by Jack

29


TECHNICAL TEXTILE

Fowler of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the mid-1990s (Fowler 1995). It was eventually formalized as a standard in 2004 (GRI-GT14 2004). There have been several papers written about the test that are generally favourable so far as the fabric selection is concerned, e.g., Zofchak (2001), Beuijen et al. (2007), Koerner and Koerner (2006), and Liao and Bhatia (2006). In this test, fabric is Slurry sewn into a cylindrical Bucket form and further sewn at the bottom. The top of the bag is left open from where high water content Geotextile material is poured into the bag top of such a bag, water flowing out of the fabric at Wooden the bottom. In the bag frame after it was cut open, it was found that filter cake builds up on the inside of the fabric which was Pan restricting the foreign particles to get out of it and allowing the free flow of water. 3b. Pillow test Funnel The pillow test Calibrated (Fig. 3) was Standpipe originated by Tom Stephens of Ten Cate in around 2005 ( T e n C a t e Slurry Geosynthetics, Inc. Wooden Frame 2007) and was formalized as a Geotextile standard in 2009 (GRI-GT15 2009). In Pan this test, fabric is prefabricated into Figure 3: Pillow Test the shape of a pillow from which a flanged connector and a calibrated vertical pi pe is connected. In this test, enclosure of a fabric is quite small and the amount of slurry needed for the testing is much less than the hanging bag tests. Water content is poured into pi pe with the help of funnel and this content is passed through fabric of pillow shape and after passing it is collected into a pan. Applications a) Liquid from Liquid It has been used in water and waste water treatment applications including lagoon, tank and digester cleanouts. b) Solid from Liquid Mine tailings, coal sludge, and other materials can be managed and handled cost-effectively with dewatering technology. c) Shoreline Protection It is exceptionally valuable for protecting shorelines from erosion, particularly during hurricanes and tropical storms. In the process, a large bag made of a specially engineered textile is filled with sand and buried under the beach. When rough water threatens, the tube holds the sand and soil in place, preventing erosion and property damage. Figure 4: Applications of Geobag Liquid from liquid Dewatering Solid from liquid Geobag Erosion control

30

Shoreline protection

Case histories a) Geobag for protection of shore line and restoration of eroded beach at Dahanu, Maharashtra Dahanu is located on the western coast of India, facing Arabian Sea on the border of Maharashtra and Gujrat. The 1500m long beach is continuously eroding due to abrasive action of the sea waves. The increasing erosion of the beach has also endangered the adjoining structures and habitation near this location. Conventional methods for restoration of the beach and erosion control have been ineffective. Geobags made of engineered high strength woven fabrics, have been thought of as an effective solution to the problem due to their capability of controlling the shore erosion caused by strong wave action on one hand and facilitating the natural deposition of sand layers, in the long term. b)The placement of municipal sewage into geobags to evaluate the dewatering and consolidation capabilities of large geotextile tubes and effluent water quality Munici pal sewage of the Kansas City Sewage treatment plant was placed in large geobags to dewater and consolidate, to improve effluent water quality and to pass the paint filter test for landfill disposal. One of the primary purposes of this exercise was to reduce the weight of the sludge, therefore, reducing the cost at the landfill. The test results of the sediments indicated significant consolidation and reduction in the water content and volume of the sludge in the geobags. There was also a significant reduction in the bacterial count in the effluent water. The quality of pore water or effluent passing through the geotextile container systems proved to be environmentally acceptable for subsequent discharge and or return to the sewage treatment plant. Conclusion Geobags can be successfully used for containment and dewatering. Geobags can also be a solution to the problem of sedimentation arising with the immersion of idols made from PoP. So an attempt should be made to use Geobag for dewatering of PoP slurry. Laboratory test methods as shown in the article will help us to evaluate the dewatering performance of a geobag which is filled with slurry of PoP. Bibliography 1) Dhote, S. and Dixit, S. (2011). Hydro chemical changes in two eutrophic lakes of Central India after immersion of Durga and Ganesh idol. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1 No. 1, 3845Fowler, J., Duke, M., Schmidt, M. L., Crabtree, B., Bagby, 2) R. M. & Trainer, E. (2002). Dewatering sewage sludge and hazardous sludge with geotextile tubes. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Delmas, Gourc and Girard, Editors, Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, pp. 1007–1012 3) Huang, C. C. & Luo, S. Y. (2007). Dewatering of reservoir sediment slurry using woven geotextiles. Part I: Experimental results. Geosynthetics International, 14, No. 5, 253–263 4) Loerner, G. R. & Koerner, R. M. (2006). Geotextile tube assessment using a hanging bag test. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 24, No. 2, 129–137 5) Koerner, G. R. & Koerner, R. M. (1996). Geotextiles used as flexible forms. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 14, 301–311 6) Koerner, G. R. & Koerner, R. M. (1996). Performance Test for the selections of fabrics and additives when used as Geotextile Bags, Containers and Tubes. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 33, No. 3, 1–7 7) Kutay, M. E. & Aydilek, A. H. (2004). Retention performance of geotextile containers confining geomaterials. Geosynthetics International, 11, No. 2, 100–113 8) Kutay, M. E. Aydilek, A.H. and Hussein, S.(2005). GRI-18 Geosynthetics Research and Development in Progress 9) Vyas, A. and Bajpai, A. (2007), Water quality survey & monitoring study of Idol Immersion in context of Lower Lake, Bhopal, India, Proceedings of Taal : The 12th World Lake Conference: 1818-1821 10) Vyas, A. Bajpai, A. Verma, N. and Dixit, S. (2007), Heavy metal contamination cause of idol immersion activities in urban lake Bhopal, India Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental management, 11 , No.4, 37-39

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


CONTRIBUTION OF DAMODAR THREADS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY

ADVT.

Damodar Threads has made tremendous contribution to the yarn, fabric and apparel industry by bringing in new fashions. Damodar is essentially a non commodity producer which has to its credit a lot of new innovations. Fashion flows from the expensive fibers such as silk, linen and wool. Damodar uses economical fibers such as polyester, cotton and viscose and gives them the look of linen, silk and wool. Demand creation and consumption enhancement can only lead to growth of business. Our business is to bring new innovations very fast so that fashion evolves and customer is forced to buy new fabric. Linen and silk look in all segment of textiles has been brought so powerfully by us that it has brought a new life to the entire decentralized weaving industry which were being crushed in the competitiveness of the commodity industry. New colours, new applications, new designs are an everyday thrust at Damodar. We have the widest basket of fancy yarns catering to apparel and home furnishing segment.


HANDLOOM FOCUS

CURRENT STATUS OF HANDLOOM INDUSTRY IN INDIA Mrs.Neera Barooah Assistant Professor, Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing S.V.T. College of Home Science (Autonomous), S.N.D.T. Women's University, Mumbai

.

Mr.Dilip Barooah Founder, Team Fabric Plus Pvt. Ltd, Guwahati, Assam

Introduction The third handloom census (2010) clearly indicates that the handloom industry of India is not in a very healthy state. The key indicators are alarmingly challenging for sustainability of the handloom sector. Inevitability of the challenges with changing life styles is a big question mark! Revival back to its originality is in the critical stage, with the changing value system and perception in the modern society. With the obvious change of mind-set from traditional to modernity; it is becoming evident that the handloom is likely to become a museum piece of craft in the near future. Decline rate of 7% per year in number of weavers, during the past years is a clear indication of the sun-setting trend in the handloom sector. On the positive side, the third census shows a rise in the number of handloom households, from 25 lakhs in the second census to 27.8 lakhs; an increase of about 11%. Of the total handloom households, 87 % are rural and 13 % are urban. However, in totality there is a huge gap and this gap will create more demand and attract more selective and passionate weavers to enjoy the genuine fruit of the looms. This situation will bring the change by itself and revolutionize the handloom sector. This article aims to introspect on some critical aspects of the handloom sector from the point of its sustainability in relation to the current status and 5 M's (Man, Machine, Material, Market and Money). 1) Manpower perspective Current profile of the weaversIndia's weaving fraternity has over four million weavers including its allied production workers. It is the second largest employer next to the agricultural sector. Out of 89% of the adult weavers, 49% are of the age group of 18-35 years, 21% are of 36- 45 years, 15% are of 46- 60 years and 4% are of 60 years and above. This phenomenon is likely to be a big challenge unless the handloom sector attracts more young generation in to this trade. Out of all adult weavers, male and female weavers are 22% and 78% respectively. As regards to the educational level of the weavers, there are 83% weavers who are under HSLC level and only 17% are HSLC and above. In a study done on women handloom weavers of Assam, it was found that, only 13% of the weavers had higher education and 87% were under HSLC level (Barooah and Dedhia:2012). This clearly indicates that literacy level of weavers is going to decrease drastically. By nature of employment, there are 61% independent weavers, 34% under master weavers / private owners and only 5% under institutional employment. Average earning of the weavers is Rs. 3400 per month as against all India average of Rs. 4500 per month and far below the wages as per minimum wage act for an un-skilled worker. The quality of life of a handloom weaver is far below, compared to an un-skilled, semi-skilled or skilled worker of an Institution. 2) Machinery perspective Due to the limited research and inherent scope, there is not much technology induction in the handloom sector. The traditional techniques are still most popular; resulting in the existing constraints remaining unresolved. This applies to preloom, on loom as well as the post-loom stages. As a result, hand weaving remains labour-intensive, low productive etc. as ever.

32

3) Material perspective Raw materials used in the handloom sector vary subject to quality, product, availability, origin, market demand, price, tradition, proximity to yarn market, etc. Most expensive as well as the cheapest yarns are being used including critical hand-spun as well as mill-spun yarns and at times yarns are used irrespective of being compatible or feasible. Many a times it is found that the materials used in handlooms does not have sustainability consideration. 4) Market perspective Handloom enjoys a special market segment for the inherent beauty in its products. Sheer love for hand-woven products, the philosophy, the economic arguments, the social impact, tradition, sentiments, exclusivity, minimum order quantity etc. are some of the attractive elements that will make handloom sustainable, without much doubt. Direct market linkage with the developed communication media will boost the market potential further. The biggest threats in the market place are the power loom products and the cheap imports, which are inevitable in the open market policy across the world. 5) Money perspective As mentioned in the weaver's profile, weavers are generally not cash rich, as in any business, money is equally important for a weaver. Agents, master weavers, mediators do not always allow the weavers to get the value for money for their effort. This jeopardizes the money in terms of earning against the real effort. Earning an average of Rs. 3400.00 per month is not encouraging for any profession in today's scenario. Minimum earning of a weaver has to match at least the minimum wage of a skilled or semi-skilled worker if not more. Views for sustainability of the Handloom sector Use of high-valued raw materials to match the input value of materials and high cost of production in handloom. Produce only-value added products. Diversification of handloom products and product development to maximize the value addition. Adaptation of Fair-trade practices. Sensitize handloom weaving as a modern profession like fine arts, photography, music etc. Motivate youngsters towards handloom sector. Incentive schemes towards handloom research. Conclusion India is considered to be the world's best handloom hub and this will continue to be so in the future. Handloom sector has high potential to grow further with focused approach while matching with the modern aspects of living. Weavers are gifted with craftsmanshi p, they are God sent, they deserve higher place in the society like any good painter or artist. Hand woven products are vibrant; it is made with the threads potent with tenacity, strength, passion and dignity. Fabrics so produced carry special values and hence should not be deprived of its value for money. With such belief handloom sector will remain sustainable as ever. Reference 1) Third National Handloom Census of Weavers and Allied Workers 2010. Handloom Census of India 2009-2010. Retrieved from www.ncaer.org/downloads/Reports/HandloomCensus Report on 10.9.2012 2) Unpublished material Barooah, N. and Dedhia, E. (2012), 'Study on Socio-economic Status of Women engaged in Handloom Weaving in Assam' unpublished thesis of Advanced Social Research methodology Certificate course.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


TEXTILE MACHINERY

THE TEXTILE MACHINERY INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Mr. G. Banerjee, F.I.E., Management & Industrial Consultants, Founder of G. Banerjee Associate

manufacturing the entire range of machineries for the textile industry, not only spinning weaving and processing but also knitting, embroidery and plants for the non-woven industry. Strength and Weakness of the Indian Machinery Industry

The textile machinery manufacturing section is one of the largest segments of the machinery manufacturing industry in India. This industry is nearly sixty years old and has about 1000 machinery and component manufacturing units. Nearly 300 units produce complete machinery and the remaining produces various textile machinery components. The total investment in this industry is around 2000 Crores. However, not all the units work to full capacity or even the optimum capacity level. Except for the units in the spinning sector where the machineries are of international standards; in the other sectors, machinery manufacturing for weaving, knitting and wet-processing lack standard of quality and performance (in most of the cases) to compete with the European manufacturers. In the weaving sector, shuttleless weaving machinery (rapier or jet) and in the knitting sector (circular knitting and flat knitting) machineries hardly have any presence in the industry. The major problem in the textile machinery manufacturing industry is the lack of investment in Research and Development, except for the manufacturing units who have technical collaboration with reputed foreign companies; no progress has been made in the quality of the machinery produced. This dependence on borrowed technology and want of research has kept most of the sectors except spinning machinery sector far behind in the standard and performance of the machinery produced. This has resulted in the import of second hand machinery especially in the area of weaving thus discouraging the advancement of technology in the manufacturing of similar machinery in India. Lack of systematic fiscal support to the industry by the Government has also added to the problems. Machinery Production Status World production of textile machinery annually is over US $ 20 Billion. The major manufacturers of textile machinery are Italy, Germany, Switzerland, France and now China. The current annual demand of textile machinery in India is to the tune of Rs. 4500 Crores and the annual growth rate is 12 to 15%. With the growing demand in the export market of textile products, India can avail of this opportunity by upgrading its textile industry especially in the area of modernization of it's weaving and processing sectors. China is leading in the field of textile exports today because they installed a large set-up of spindles, rotor and shuttle less weaving machines. Today, China is

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Strengths 1) India has a large production base. Her spinning machineries are fairly updated in quality and technology. The spares and accessories manufacturing set-up are fairly adequate in capacity and quality. 2) India has well-trained technically qualified engineering personnel and skilled labour in this area. Weaknesses 1) The industry is dependent on borrowed technology. There is very little investment in R & D. 2) India hardly has any presence in the field of manufacturing of good quality weaving and knitting machines. 3) The wet processing machinery manufactured needs sufficient upgrading in technology. 4) Indiscriminate import of second hand machinery especially in the area of weaving machinery has discouraged the industry from investing in the area of shuttle less weaving machines manufacturing. 5) Import duty for spares required for the manufacturing of complete textile machines is currently very high and it should not exceed 5% of the value of the import. 6) It is estimated about 10 -12 million spindles need to be modernized. The technology is currently adequate in this area and therefore the spinning machinery industry is expected to perform well in the coming years. 7) Majority of the weaving machines in the power loom sector need to be scrapped and replaced by shuttleless weaving machines. At least another 50,000 shuttle weaving machines need to be installed to replace some of the old machines in the next five years. 8) In the processing sector 6 0% of the units belong to the SSI sector. Upgrading of technology and modernization is urgently required in this area. 9) Fiscal support required from the Government to this industry is deficient. 10) Lack of future planning

Current Scenario India has to seriously take up the matter of manufacturing textile machinery of high standard in all areas. To achieve this goal; concentrated efforts need to be put by the manufacturers and the Government. In a very short span, China has been manufacturing machines in all the fields and are therefore able to boost their textile production in all the areas, right from spinning, weaving , wet processing to knitting, synthetic fibres and filament yarn and even non wovens. Quite a few reputed manufacturers from Europe have switched over to China for producing machineries at competitive prices for the world market. India has enough basic raw materials for the production of quality textile machinery i.e. competitive labour strength and highly capable qualified engineers for developing good machinery at competitive prices. However, there is very little work done towards research for developing sophisticated machinery for the industry. It is high time that sufficient funds are allotted in the area by the Government. Reputed foreign manufacturers should be approached for getting the latest know- how and even setting manufacturing units in our country like in case of the automobile industry.

33


TEXTILE Textile MACHINERY machinery

In the period of 2008-2009 the installed capacity of the textile engineering industry was Rs. 800 crores. During 20102011 the textile machinery and spares actual production was Rs. 6150 crores against Rs. 4200 crores in the previous year. Thus, the capacity utilization increased to 76 percent in 20102011 against 53 percent in 2009-2010. Import of textile machinery has also increased to Rs. 5000 crores in 2010-2011 against Rs. 4500 Crores during 20092010. Export of textile machinery and spares was also worth Rs. 650 crores in 2010-2011against Rs. 580 crores in 20092010. This figure can go up substantially with proper fiscal assistance from the Government and systematic upgrading of technology with extensive research and design development. Import of Shuttleless Looms During 2007-2008 to 2010-2011 Machinery

2009-2010

2008-2009

2007-2008

2010-2011

No.

Value Rs. Cr.

No.

Value Rs. Cr.

No.

Value Rs. Cr.

No.

Value Rs. Cr.

New Airjet Looms

1113

240.91

507

127.46

692

225.12

1765

404.15

New Rapier Looms

719

134.61

1138

110.97

1607

164.36

154

11.9

New Loom Total Import

1832

375.52

1645

238.43

2299

389.48

1919

416.05

Second Hand Airjet looms

339

30.47

153

12.08

900

324

1062

57.92

Second Hand Rapier looms

1801

170.92

548

38.63

2644

164.44

3719

249.07

Second Hand Rapier looms

734

48.66

407

32.71

2060

307.06

2161

15.65

Second Hand Rapier looms

536

16.63

246

6.63

14.74

96.37

1497

49.38

Second Hand Looms Total

3410

266.68

1354

90.05

5618.74

891.87

8439

372.02

Overall Total

5242

642.2

2999

328.48

7917.74

1281.35

10358

788.07

Second Hand Loom Import %

65%

Measures for Modernization In the country the import of second hand machinery has to be restricted 1. In case of spinning where the country is manufacturing machinery of international standard the import of second hand machinery has to be stopped. 2. In the case of weaving machinery, the import of second hand weaving machinery running at speed lower than 700 Meters per Minute - Pick insertion rate should be discouraged. Also concession in the import duty for second hand weaving machines restricted. Immediate efforts are necessary to manufacture high speed weaving machines with collaboration with the best European groups in this field. 3. Immediate efforts are necessary to manufacture high speed weaving machines with collaboration with the best European groups in this field. 4. In case of the processing industry, the machineries manufactured in the country need to be upgraded to reduce power consumption and fuel consumption and

34

45%

81%

5.

6.

71%

also make electronic control more effective. Warping and sizing machines produced in the country are of fairly adequate standard, but efforts need to be put to manufacture good quality high speed circular knitting, flat knitting and embroidery machines by having tie-ups with Japanese and Taiwan / Korea manufacturers of these machines. Substantial amount of involvement is necessary in R & D to upgrade the Indian machinery industry in a big way. With proper concern for upgrading, research, development and a rational approach by the Government in the import duties area, India can become a leader in the field of textile machinery manufacturing in the world. A more dynamic approach jointly by the Government, the textile machinery industry and the textile machinery users can definitely achieve the goal.

Reference Textile Engineering Industry-Strategy paper deloitte touchĂŠ Tohmatsu

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


TEXTILE MACHINERY

DYNAMIC AUTOLOOMS INDIA PVT. LTD. The Textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor. The textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. According to the Ministry of Textiles, the sector contributes about 14% to industrial production, 4% to the country's gross domestic product (GDP) and 17% to the country's export earnings. The share of textiles in total exports was 11.04% during April–July 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles. It is estimated that India would increase its textile and apparel share in the world trade to 8% from the current level of 4.5% and reach US$80 billion by 2020. During 2009-2010, Indian textiles industry was pegged at US$55 billion, 64% of which services domestic demand. Contribution of Dynamic Looms in Indian textile industy is immense in growth of industry. A 37 year old company, , as it is incorporated in the year 1975 under leadershi p of the ambitious and pragmatic Mr. Vasantbhai Patel, a successful industrialist with innovative dreams. Since the beginning the group has seen remarkable growth not only economically, but also technically.Dynamic Looms offer proven expertise in highprecision machinery. Being a pioneer in the weaving Machines manufacturing domain, the company has risen to become one among the leading domestic players by consolidating their position in the last three decades. Dynamic Autolooms India Pvt. Ltd. is one of the leading manufacturer offering the largest variety of world class Weaving Machines for manufacturing innovative fabrics, from Glass Fibers, Filament, Jute, Pure Silk, Linen and many more. Their looms are also majorly used in the manufacture of suiting, shirting, dress materials such as corduroy, light denim, fancy poplin, high twist, sports shirting, worsted and woollen fabrics, furnishing fabrics and industrial fabrics. The company has its core competencies in designing and building complete range of Shuttle and Rapier weaving Machines for the Textile Industry. Dynamic offers reed sizes of 140 cm, 170 cm, 190 cm, 230 cm, 280 cm and 330 cm width rapier looms. Dynamic Looms is proud to be the only large Rapier weaving Machinery Manufacturer who has all their products developed indigenously without any technology transfer or collaboration. The group has been able to achieve this because of its technocrat & entrepreneurial Chairman, Mr. Vasantbhai Patel. Despite the difficulties faced in manufacturing as well as marketing of shuttle-less looms in the 80's, a couple of existing manufacturers and a new breed of manufacturers started developing low cost, low speed shuttle-less rapier looms during late 90s. The Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) announced by the Government gave encouragement to the manufacturers.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Today the company has reached a point where the manufacturing stage has achieved the highest production capacity over a span of 37 successful years of constant endeavor to industrial technology. This enables Dynamic Looms to reach out to every Textile Market across the country i.e. Surat, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Salem, Coimbatore, Banaras, Hyderabad and Ichalkaranji and across Globe with existing clientele in Loughborough (England), Stranger (South Africa) Nepal, Sri Lanka, Oman, etc. “Technologically Dynamic is at par with the best, due to the vast knowledge of this industry” says Mr. Mittal Patel, Managing Director of Dynamic Auto looms India Pvt. Ltd. The company's candid commitment to continual improvement and innovation in their products has led them to a colossal expansion. Dynamic is renowned for its exceptional productivity, cost-effectiveness as well as tranquil operations. The company is determined to maintain the faith entrusted by their valued customers owing to their flawless performance and outstanding customer services. A highly dedicated team of professionals and concurrent management practices have been instrumental to this process of transition. Dynamic and other loom manufacturers in this segment have been facing tough competition from imported second hand rapier looms as well as new Chinese rapier looms. The landed cost of Chinese rapier loom, on an average, does not exceed Rs. 3 lakh. Even though qualities of Indian made shuttle-less looms are superior to the Chinese looms, there is an uneven competition due to lesser price of the Chinese rapier looms. “By continuous R & D programme that was initiated at the time of establishment, Dynamic is committed to the industry as a whole to provide the most modern and innovative weaving technology” - Mr. Mittal Patel. To face such a competition and to survive in the market, Dynamic Looms have equi pped their manufacturing unit at Ahmedabad with State of the Art High grade Castings at their in house CNC, VMC and assembly Shops. Key parts produced by advanced processing equi pment allow no error as they are strictly controlled in accordance with the design drawings. Dynamic is an ISO 9001:2000 certified company, first ever to be certified amongst the rapier manufacturers in India. The processing accuracy of DYNAMIC's products, containing strictly tested parts, is demonstrated in the operation fields. The weaving looms of Dynamic have always been chosen by the customers because of its outstanding performance and exceptional after sale services.

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ADVT.


EXPOTER CORNER

THE APPAREL GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN

Charushila Garat, Shubhangi Sawde Lecturers at Govt. Residential Woman's Polytechnic, Yavatmal

Introduction A value chain analyzes from input suppliers to final buyers and the relationshi ps among them. The factors influencing industry performance includes easy access and requirements of end markets; legal, regulatory and policy environment; coordination between firms in the industry; and the level and quality of support services. The global value chain perspective, is to examine the role of workforce development initiatives in developing countries partici pating in the global apparel industry. One of the first industries to adopt a global dimension and to incorporate developing countries, global apparel has expanded rapidly since the 1970s, drawing most developed and developing countries into the value chain. Today, it is a trillion dollar global industry and provides employment to tens of millions of workers in some of the least-developed countries in the world. Indeed, apparel production is considered a springboard for economic development, and often is the typical starter industry for countries engaged in export-oriented industrialization due to its low fixed costs and emphasis on labor-intensive manufacturing. Low-income countries now account for three quarters of the world's clothing exports. While global expansion of the apparel industry historically has been driven by trade policy, by 2005, the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) by the World Trade Organization had phased out many of the quotas that previously regulated the industry. This caused a tremendous flux in the global geography of apparel production and trade. Thus there was a restructuring of firm strategies seeking to realign their production and sourcing networks to accommodate new Lead Firm Type Retailers: Mass Merchant Retailers: Speciality Apparel

Brand Marketer

Brand Manufacturer

Type of Brand

Private Label: The retailer owns or licenses the final product, but in almost all cases, the retailer does not own manufacturing.

National Brand: The manufacturer is also the Brand owner and are distributed through multi ple retail outlets.

economic and political realities. This change brought other key factors in country competitiveness to the forefront, including labour costs, productivity, and managerial and institutional competencies. Low-cost countries such as Bangladesh, China and India are emerging as leaders in the lower value assembly segments of the value chain, while other countries, such as Sri Lanka and Turkey, are upgrading into higher-value segments, such as branding and design, which rely on higher-quality human capital to maintain their competitiveness. Global Organization of the Industry The apparel industry is the quintessential example of a buyer-driven commodity chain marked by power asymmetries between the suppliers and global buyers of final apparel products. Global buyers determine what is to be produced, where it will be produced, by whom it, and at what price. In most cases, these lead firms to outsource manufacturing to a global network of contract manufacturers in developing countries that offer the most competitive rates. Lead firms include retailers and brand owners and are typically headquartered in the leading markets - Europe, Japan, and the United States. These firms tend to perform the most valuable activities in the apparel value chain - design, branding, and marketing of products - and in most cases, they outsource the manufacturing process to a global network of suppliers. Like all global industries, the apparel value chain relies on international standards to coordinate the activities of suppliers. By the turn of the century, most lead firms had implemented private standards and codes of conduct based on cost, quality, timeliness, and corporate responsibility in terms of labour and environmental standards. Factory performance regarding delivery, quality and price are measured and tracked regularly over time. It is common for firms to be certified by multi ple buyer brands, such as Wal-Mart, Ralph Lauren, Target and The Gap. Since these lead firms in the apparel industry adopted

Description Department/Discount stores that carry private label, exclusive or licensed brands that are only available in retail stores in addition to other brands. Retailers develops proprietary label Brands that commonly include The store’s name. Firm owns the brand name but not the manufacturing, “manufacturers without factories.” Products are sold at variety of retail outlets.

Examples United Status

EU-27

Walmart, Target, Sears, Macy’s, JC Penny, Kohl’s & Dillard’s

Asda(Walmart), Tesco, C&A, and M&S

The Gap, The Limited Brands, H&M, Benetton, Mango, New American Edge and Look and Next Abercrombie & Fitch

Nike, Levis Strauss, Polo & Liz Claiborne

Firm owns brand name & manufacturing’ typically coordinate supply of intermediate VF, Hanesbrands, Fruit of the inputs (CMT) to their production Loom and Gildan networks often in countries with reci procal trade agreements

Table 1 provides examples of these lead firms and brand types with Regional Examples.

global sourcing models in the 1970s, manufacturing has become the domain of developing countries. However, the geographic pattern of this shift has been significantly influenced by a complex array of quotas and preferential trade agreements. The quota system began with the Long-Term arrangement regarding International Trade in Cotton Textiles and Substitutes under the backing of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1962 and was extended to include other materials under the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) implemented in 1974. The MFA was initiated to protect developed economies from cheap imports from the developing world and it governed textiles and apparel world trade for the next 30 years. Several developing countries and least developed countries, in particular, benefitted from this trade

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

Ben Shermen, Hugo Boss, Diesel and Gucci

Inditex (Zara)

Source: Gereffi & Frederick, 2010.

framework, which provided them with quotas for duty-free imports into leading markets and protected the growth of their nascent apparel industries from low-cost competitors such as China. This agreement was phased out between 1995 and 2005 as textile trade was brought under the purview of the WTO's Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC). Several additional unilateral trade agreements and preference schemes with specific apparel and textile clauses came into effect during this phase-out period to ease its impact on the least developed countries. These trade agreements have been fundamental to allow small countries such as Nicaragua and Lesotho to continue to compete in the global apparel industry. These agreements include the CAFTA-DR Tariff Preference Levels (TPL) agreement between the United States and Nicaragua; 1)

37


EXPOTER CORNER

The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) in which the United States provides temporary relief to sub-Saharan African producers; 2) The EU's Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) scheme “Everything but Arms,” which provides for duty free imports from certain least developed countries to the EU; 3) and amongst others. These agreements are set to phase out at different intervals before 2015 unless renewed. Their temporary nature provides short-term advantages for the beneficiaries but also highlights the uncertainty of the future of the apparel industry in these countries which lack other competitive advantages. This plethora of apparel trade agreements has created disparate growth patterns across developing countries. Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, and Vietnam have experienced steady growth as have Egypt, Nicaragua, and Pakistan. China, in particular, benefitted from the end of quotas

and increased its global market share from 26% in 2005 to 33% in 2008 (WTO, 2010); it now accounts for 76% of total global employment in the sector. Other countries have increased exports to one or more of the three major marketsEU, Japan and USA, while experiencing declines in others. For example, Indonesia increased its market share in USA and Japan, but saw a decrease in the EU-15; conversely, Sri Lanka has increased market share in the EU-15 and lost in USA. Lesotho has seen a small increase in market share in the EU-15 (since 2005) and a decreasing market share in USA. Several countries including Canada, EU-12, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Tunisia have seen a continued drop off in their market share since the early1990s.

Table 2: Top Apparal Export Countries by year, 1995-2008 (Values in billion US $)

Country/Region

1995 Value

2000 %

Value

2005 %

Value

2007 %

Value

2008 %

Value

%

China

24.0

15.2

36.1

18.2

74.2

26.8

115.2

33.3

120.0

33.2

EU-27

48.5

30.6

56.2

28.4

85.5

30.8

105.1

30.4

112.4

31.1

Turkey

6.1

3.9

6.5

3.3

11.8

4.3

13.9

4.0

13.6

3.8

5.1

2.6

6.9

2.5

8.9

2.6

10.9

3.0

6.0

3.0

8.6

3.1

9.8

2.8

10.9

3.0

4.7

1.7

7.4

2.1

9.0

2.5

-

Bangladesh India

4.1

2.6

-

Vietnam

-

Indonasia

3.4

2.1

4.7

2.4

5.0

1.8

5.9

1.7

6.3

1.7

Mexico

2.7

1.7

8.6

4.4

7.3

2.6

5.1

1.5

4.9

1.4

United States

6.7

4.2

8.6

4.4

5.0

1.8

4.3

1.2

4.4

1.2

Thailand

5.0

3.2

3.8

1.9

4.1

1.5

4.1

1.2

4.2

1.2

Pakistan

-

-

3.6

1.3

3.8

1.1

3.9

1.1

-

3.1

1.1

3.6

1.0

3.6

1.0

-

-

3.5

1.0

3.6

1.0

-

-

-

3.6

1.0

3.5

1.0

Tunisia

2.3 -

Cambodia Malaysia

2.3

Sri Lanka

-

Hong Kong

1.5

9.5

1.4 6.0

2.8

1.4

2.9

1.0

-

9.9

5.0

7.2

2.6

5.0

1.4

-

2.8

1.0

3.5

1.0

-

-

Morocco

-

Korea, Republic

5.0

3.1

5.0

2.5

-

-

-

Tai pei, Chinese

3.2

2.0

3.0

1.5

-

-

-

2.6

1.3

-

-

-

1.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Dominican Republic Phili ppines

2.4

1.5

2.5

Poland

2.3

1.5

-

World

158.4

197.7

277.1

345.8

361.9

Top 15 Total and % Share of World Exports 127.5

80.5

161.5

81.7

232.6

83.9

299.1

86.5

315.0

87.0

Table 2 provides an overview of the changing market positions of leading apparel export countries between 1995 and 2008.

The apparel value chain is organized around five main segments: (1) raw material supply, including natural and synthetic fibers; (2) provision of components, such as yarns and fabrics (3) production networks made up of garment factories, including their domestic and overseas subcontractors; (4) export channels established by trade intermediaries; and (5) marketing networks at the retail level. Over time, there have been continual shifts in the location of both, the most significant apparel exporting countries and regions, as well as their main end markets.

38

Apparel has been the classic “buyer-driven” global value chain. Unlike producer-driven chains, where profits come from scale, volume and technological advances, in the buyer-driven chain, profits come from combinations of high-value research, design, sales, marketing and financial services. This allows the retailers, designers and marketers to act as strategic brokers in linking overseas factories and traders with product niches in their main consumer markets. The companies that develop and sell brand-name products have considerable control over how,

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


EXPOTER CORNER when, and where manufacturing will take place and how much profit accrues at each stage, essentially controlling how basic value-adding activities are distributed along the value chain. To understand how this division of work occurs and how initiatives to develop the workforce may affect the role developing countries play in the global value chain, six distinct value-adding activities can be identified: (1) research and new product development (R&D), (2) design, (3) production, (4) logistics (purchasing and distribution), (5) marketing and branding, and (6) services.

Conclusion: The apparel sector is one of the most globalized industries of our time. It employs millions of workers around the world, especially in low-income countries. Developing countries have been able to enter in the value chain due to several important characteristics, such as access to cheap labor, favorable trade agreements and proximity to end markets. While the lead firms that govern this value chain continue to impose rigorous standards on their suppliers, workforce development initiatives receive limited attention. Reference: www.cgge.duke.edu/pdfs/2011-11-11-CGGC_Apparel-Global-Value-Chain.pdf Nirmala Niketan International Conference

Nirmala niketan college of home science , organizing International Conference 2013 on "Enhancing Health, Wellbeing and Sustainability - Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions" will be an International Forum for those who wish to present their projects and innovations, having also the opportunity to discuss the main aspects and the latest results in the field of Education and Research. About the Conference: An International Conference on Enhancing Health, Well-being and Sustainability – Opportunities, Challenges and Future Directions is organized by Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science in January 2013 at Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science, Mumbai. Location: Mumbai - India Venue : Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science, 49, New Marine Lines, Mumbai- 400 020 Dates: 10th -12th January 2013 The objectives of the conference are: To create a platform for professionals of multi ple disci plines to dialogue regarding current strategies and policies. To examine and share opportunities for and challenges in promoting health, well-being and sustainability in communities. To envisage future directions and plan viable measures for supporting health, well-being and sustainability in communities. The Conference on Enhancing Health, Well-being & Sustainability Opportunities, Challenges & Future Directions consists of 4 main sessions 1. Environmental Concerns and Sustainability 2. Social Justice Issues and Sustainability 3. Health and Wellbeing 4. Positivity and Wellness For more details, you can visit : www.ic2013nn.com Contact Project Co- ordinator : Dr. Ela Dedhia : 9619492951 Courtesy : Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science, Mumbai.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

39


FASHION FORECAST

Print Trends for Spring/Summer 2013

Courtesy: Première Vision + Indigo via patternbank

Brushed-Marked Expression

Circle State

Art hand paint forms - Brush dab pattern Pattern build up through abstract paint textures - Pointillist painter inspired looks Mixed scale brush work - Delicate brushed pattern

New form polka dot expression Painterly textures - Pencil and delicate line work - Large and micro scale use of dots - Abstract compositions Inverted circle formations - Shadowed and ghostly techniques - Muted colour hues

Patch Up

Ocean Distortion

Clashing Prints - Overlaid And Collaged Looks - Brush And Digital Mixes Dramatic Pattern Layouts - Overlaid Pattern Clashes - Scenic And Geometric Combinations - Photographic, Digital And Hand Painted Collage Experimentation

Ri ppled Textures - Painterly Wave Forms - Aquas, Strong Turquoises And Bottle Greens - Reflected Sunlight Through The Sea - Abstract Wave And Ri pple Statements - Unrecognisable Detail - Ocean Movement In Pattern Smooth Flowing Patterns


FASHION FORECAST

Print Trends for Spring/Summer 2013

Vivid Jungle

Digitally Enhanced

Tropical vegetation focus - Photo-real jungle scenes - Micro and large-scale tropical flower studies - Watercolour textural effects - Symmetrical prints Fern leaf overlap pattern forms Engineered tropical placements Distorted jungle prints

Pop Art inspired half-tone dots - Futuristic florals hidden amongst complex geometry - Textural and photographic overlays - painterly abstract multicolour imagery - Photoshop blurred zig-zags – Photoshop filters create complex fading in and out of colour

Garden Crop

Exotic Profusion

Fresh colour use - Garden life illustrations ~ Flowers and vegetable mixes - Botanical spring floral blooms Traditional country garden flowers White ground patterns - Stylised linear looks - Playful pattern

Colour explosion - Exotic flauna mixes Rainforest blooms - Digital and watercolour effect mixes - High contrast prints - Neon brights - Bird of paradise and orchid floral studies - Pattern overlays


FASHION FORECAST

Print Trends for Spring/Summer 2013

Summer Tribe

Geometric Signs

Abstracted Ikat Designs - Simplified Ikat - Optical Patterns - Vibrant Colour Enhanced Ethnic Compositions - Mixed Stri pes And Pattern Forms - Blurred Felt-ti p Pen Visuals - Multi-coloured Traditional Ikat Motifs

Abstracted geometric patterns - Stri pe, Dot and zigzag pattern interaction - New Geometric variations - Bold clean looksOverlapped geo pattern - New fractured pattern effects

African Graphics Ombre Digital blurs - techno tie-dye effects Strong and vivid saturated colour mixes- Soft and subtle colour blends Sunset colour banding - Fluid movement - Blurred and translucent layered effects

African graphic impact - Tribal abstracts & geometric elements - Linear build ups - clashing repeats - Border and placed pattern - Painterly effects - Outline graphic art - Two tone effects - Batik and block print textures - Bold colour usage


FUTURE TRENDS

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (PART 2): A NEW APPROACH OF PREDICTION USED IN TEXTILES Sarita Raut Lecturer, Sasmira's Institute of Man-Made Textiles, Worli, Mumbai. 1.Neural Networks versus Conventional Computers Neural networks (NN) take a different approach to problem solving than that of conventional computers. Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach i.e. the computer follows a set of instructions in order to solve a problem. Unless the specific steps that the computer needs to follow are known, the computer cannot solve the problem. That restricts the problem solving capability of conventional computers to problems that we already understand and know how to solve. But computers would be so much more useful if they could do things that we don't exactly know how to do. NN process information in a similar way the human brain does. The network is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in parallel to solve a specific problem. NN learn by example. They cannot be programmed to perform a specific task. The examples must be selected carefully otherwise useful time is wasted or even worse the network might function incorrectly. The disadvantage is that because the network finds out how to solve the problem by itself, its operation can be unpredictable. On the other hand, conventional computers use a cognitive approach to problem solving; the way the problem is to be solved must be known and stated in small unambiguous instructions. These instructions are then converted to a high level language program and then into machine code that the computer can understand. These machines are totally predictable; if anything goes wrong, it is due to a software or hardware fault. NN and conventional algorithmic computers are not in competition but complement each other. There are some tasks that are more suited to an algorithmic approach like arithmetic operations and there are some, more suited to neural networks. Even more, a large number of tasks, require systems that use a combination of the two approaches (normally a conventional computer is used to supervise the neural network) in order to perform at maximum efficiency. 1.1 Human and Artificial Neurons 1.1.1 How the Human Brain Learns? Much is still unknown about how the brain trains itself to process information, so theories abound. In the human brain, a typical neuron collects signals from others through a host of fine structures called dendrites. The neuron sends out spikes of electrical activity through a long, thin stand known as an axon, which splits into thousands of branches. At the end of each branch, a structure called a synapse, converts the activity from the axon into electrical effects. These inhibit or excite activity from the axon into electrical effects that inhibit or excite activity in the connected neurons. When a neuron receives excitatory input that is sufficiently large compared with its inhibitory input, it sends a spike of electrical activity down its axon. Learning occurs by changing the effectiveness of the synapses so that the influence of one neuron on another changes.

Fig: no.1:- Components of a Neuron

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

1.1.2 From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons: We conduct these NN by first trying to deduce the essential features of neurons and their interconnections. We then typically program a computer to simulate these features. However because our knowledge of neurons is incomplete and our computing power is limited, our models are necessarily gross idealizations of real networks of neurons. Dendrites

Cell Body

Threshold

Axon

Fig. No. 2 - The neuron model

2. Network Properties: The topology of a NN refers to its framework as well as its interconnection scheme. The framework is often specified by the number of layers and nodes per layer or network layer. Network layers: The commonest type of artificial neural network (ANN) consists of three groups or layers of units: The input layer: the nodes in it are called input units, which encode the instance presented to the network for processing. The activity of the input units represents the raw information that is fed into the network. The hidden layer: the nodes in it are called hidden units, which are not directly observable and hence hidden. They provide nonlinearities for the network. The activity of each hidden unit is determined by the activities of the input units and the weights on the connections between the input and the hidden units. The output layer: the nodes in it are called output units, which encode possible concepts to be assigned to the instance under consideration. The behaviour of the output units depends on the activity of the hidden units and the weights between the hidden and output units. 3. Architecture of Neural Networks 3.1 Feed-forward networks: Feed-forward ANNs (fig. 3) allow signals to travel one way only; from input to output. There is no feedback (loops) i.e. the output of any layer does not affect that same layer. Feed-forward ANNs tend to be straight forward networks that associate inputs with outputs. They are extensively used in pattern recognition.

Fig. No. 3 - Simple feed-forward NN with two inputs, two hidden layers and one output.

3.2 Feed-back networks: Feed-back networks can have signals travelling in both directions by introducing loops in the network. They are very dynamic, powerful and can get extremely complicated. Their 'state' changes continuously until they reach an equilibrium point. They remain there until the input changes and a new equilibrium needs to be found. 3.3 The Learning Process: - Learning Rules/ Training Algorithm: A learning rule is defined as a procedure for modifying the weights and biases of a network. It is applied to train the network to perform a particular task. All learning methods used for adaptive NN can be classified into two major categories:

43


FUTURE TRENDS

Supervised learning incorporates an external teacher, so that each output unit is told what its desired response to input signals ought to be. It is a machine learning technique for creating a function from training data. In this, the learning rule is provided with a set of examples (the training set) of proper network behaviour. As the inputs are applied to the network, the network outputs are compared to the targets. The learning rule is then used to adjust the weights and biases of the network in order to move the network outputs closer to the targets. The perceptron learning rule falls in this category. The training data consist of pairs of input objects (typically vectors), and desired outputs. The output of the function can be a continuous value (called regression), or can predict a class label of the input object (called classification). The task of the supervised learner is to predict the value of the function for any valid input object after having seen a number of training examples (i.e. pairs of input and target output). To achieve this, the learner has to generalize from the presented data to unseen situations in a "reasonable" way (see inductive bias). (Compare with unsupervised learning.) The parallel task in human and animal psychology is often referred to as concept learning . During the learning process global information may be required. Paradigms of supervised learning include errorcorrection learning, reinforcement learning and stochastic learning. Unsupervised/ Self-organizing learning uses no external teacher and is based only on local information. In this, the weights and biases are modified in response to network inputs only and there are no target outputs available. Most of these algorithms perform clustering operations. They categorize the input patterns into a finite number of classes. This is especially useful in applications such as vector quantization. - Learning Rates: The rate at which ANNs learn depends upon several controllable factors. In selecting the approach there are many trade-offs to consider. Obviously, a slower rate means a lot more time is spent in accomplishing the off-line learning to produce an adequately trained system. With the faster learning rates, however, the network may not be able to make the fine discriminations possible with a system that learns more slowly. Researchers are working on producing the best of both worlds. 3.4 Transfer Function: The behaviour of an ANN [3] depends on both the weights and the input-output transfer function that is specified for the units. This transfer function is commonly used in back- propagation networks. This typically falls into one of three categories shown below: -The hard-limit transfer function: Fig. 4, it limits the output of the neuron to either 0, if the net input argument 'n' is less than 0, or 1, if 'n' is greater than or equal to 0. This function is used in Perceptions, to create neurons that make classification decisions. a= hardlim (n) Fig. No. 4 - Hard-limit transfer function

-Linear transfer function: Fig. 5, the neurons of this type are used as linear approximates in linear filters.

a= purelin (n) Fig. No. 5 - Linear transfer function

Sigmoid transfer function: Fig 6, it takes the input, which can have any value between plus and minus infinity, and squashes the output into the range 0 to 1.

a= logsin(n)

3.5 The Back-Propagation Algorithm: Multilayer network can be trained using various algorithms, although the method called “Back-Propagation” is the most widely used. It is a powerful, flexible training algorithm, though training speed is slow. It was proposed by Rumelhart et al. in 1986 to modify connection weight in multilayered feed-forward networks. It is an iterative gradient descent algorithm that minimizes the sum of the squared error between the desired output and actual output. It was created by generalizing the Widrow-Hoff learning rule to multi ple-layer networks and non-linear differentiable transfer functions. Input vectors and the corresponding target vectors are used to train a network until it can approximate a function, associate input vectors with specific output vectors, or classify input vectors in an appropriate way as defined by you. Networks with biases, a sigmoid layer, and a linear output layer are capable of approximating any function with a finite number of discontinuities. Standard back-propagation is a gradient descent algorithm, as is the Widrow-Hoff learning rule, in which the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function. The term back-propagation refers to the manner in which the gradient is computed for nonlinear multilayer networks. There are a number of variations on the basic algorithm that are based on other standard optimization techniques, such as conjugate gradient and Newton methods. Properly trained back-propagation networks tend to give reasonable answers when presented with unseen inputs. Typically, a new input leads to an output similar to the correct output for input vectors used in training that are similar to the new input being presented. This generalization property makes it possible to train a network on a representative set of input/target pairs and get good results without training the network on all possible input/output pairs. 3.6 Applications of Neural Networks: NN have broad applicability to real world business problems. In fact, they have already been successfully applied in many industries. Since they are best at identifying patterns or trends in data, they are well suited for prediction or forecasting needs including: Sales forecasting Industrial process control Customer research Data validation Risk management Target marketing Basically, most applications of NN in textiles fall into five categories as shown below: Prediction: Refers to predicting some output from inputs using ANN, like tensile properties, etc Classification: Is used to identify an unknown pattern that exists in a data. Data association: Refers to recognizing data that contains error. It can be used both for identifying the characters that were scanned and also for identifying scanner when it is not working properly. Data conceptualization: It infers grouping relationshi ps from the input data like system modelling, Synthesis, etc. Data filtering: It is concerned with the smoothening of input data. It can also be used for taking away noise from the input data. Reference 1. Rajamanikam, R., Hansen, Jayaraman, “Analysis of modeling methodologies for predicting the strength of air jet spun yarn”, Textile Res. J. 67(1), 39-44 (1997) 2. Zaman R. and Wunsch, D.C.” Prediction of yarn strength from fibre properties from fuzzy ARTMAP, 1997. www.acil.ttu.edu/users/Raonak/papers/itc.htm. 3. Introduction to MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, Belores M. Etter. 4. Chattopadhyay, R., and Guha, A., “Artificial Neural Networks: Applications to Textile”, The Textile Institute, Manchester, Textile Progress 2004.

Fig. No. 6 - Log-Sigmoid transfer function

44

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


SKILL GAP ANALYSIS

SKILL GAPS AND REQUIREMENTS IN FABRIC MANUFACTURING Weaving is an interlacement of warp (vertical) and weft yarn (horizontal). The process of weaving of cloth is carried out in three stages.

ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS), www.nsdcindia.org Continuing with our section of Skill gap analysis in the textile industry, where we started with general industry requirements and spinning sector, we carry on with fabric manufacturing.. India's weaving and knitting sector is highly fragmented, small-scale, and labour-intensive. This sector consists of about 38.9 lakh handlooms as well as 4,70,000 power looms. Figure 10: Contribution of sectors in total cloth production Mills 4% Handlooms 12%

Hostery 22%

Weft preparation The weft yarn required for shuttle loom is to be wound on pirns using a winding machine called pirn- winding machine. The pirn winding is carried out either on circular pirn winding machine (for ordinary looms) and on parallel prin winders for semi auto and auto looms. The pirn winding process is eliminated in case of shuttleless looms.

Powerlooms 62%

Source: Ministry of Textiles, IMaCS Analysis The handloom sector is labour intensive in nature and accounts for 12% of the total cloth produced in the country. This sector is highly decentralised and handloom weavers can be found in over 400 clusters in the country. Power loom sector accounts for 62 % of the total fabric production in the country. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat account for more than 80% of the number of installation of Power looms in India (As on 30.09.2006). The Indian textile sector comprises the declining vertically-integrated, large-scale composite mill segment; a fast expanding decentralised small-scale manufacturing segment, and the power loom sectors. The role of the organised sector in fabric production has diminished over the years with its contribution dropping from 70% in the 1950s to 3-4% at present. This has mainly been on account of policy restrictions relating to labour laws and the fiscal advantages enjoyed by the smallscale and power loom sectors.

Production processes involved in weaving

Warp Preparation Warping is the first process of assembling individual ends into a sheet. The yarn to be warped from cones is placed in an orderly manner on a frame called creel with tensioning and stop motion devices so as to ensure proper unwinding of yarn with uniform tension from packages placed on the creel. The yarn drawn from the creel is then passed through set of lease rods and dents of wires to ensure all the warp yarn are parallel to each other of uniform tension and do not have cross ends and then wound on to a beam. The process is called warping and the machine used is “warper�. The number of threads per beam and length of the warp beam depends on the density of ends required per inch and dimensions of the fabric to be woven. Proper preparation of warp is very important for reducing breakages on loom and to achieve higher weaving efficiency. Sizing i.e. application of starch and other sizing ingredients, is done to protect the warp against breakage

Wrap preparation

Weaving The weft and warp yarns are woven on looms. The basic operations of a loom include Shedding - Dividing the warp into two sheets Picking - Insertion of weft into the space created by the division of warp sheets Beating - Pulling the inserted wefts one after the other to form cloth. The looms are broadly divided into two groups. 1. Handlooms. 2. Power looms. 1a. Shuttle looms - Plain loom,Semi Automatic and Automatic looms 2a. Shuttleless looms - which use Projectile Weaving Machines, Rapier looms, Water-jetWeaving Machines.

Weft preparation

Weaving

Skill requirements and skill gaps in Fabric Manufacturing The diversification, impact of globalization, market forces and more recently recession has led businesses to move toward a strategy of differentiation. This requires new sets of skills and technical capabilities. Function

Skills required

Level

Skill gaps

Knowledge of various types of yarn in terms of In-depth knowledge of the various count, etc. and suitability for the desired type types of yarn and quality of fabric. parameters. Procurement

Purchase Manager

Knowledge of various types of yarn Negotiation & communication defects,like parameter etc. For e.g. even a skills. small variation in the actual count of the yarn would lead to shortage of raw material and increased costs.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

45


SKILL GAP ANALYSIS

Function

Level

Skills required

Skill gaps

Awareness of the latest trends in the market and ability to antici pate their impact on procurement. For e.g. an expected lower production of cotton production would imply higher prices of yarn as well and hence the need to stock up the raw material inventory. Negotiation & communication skills for negotiating with the yarn manufacturers. Majority of the fabric manufacturers are small units and they opt for second hand machinery. The maintenance requirement in such cases is higher compared to units with new machines.

Maintenance

Maintenance Manager

Ability to maintain various type of looms, Awareness of maintenance projectile weaving machines, rapier looms and requirements of various machines water jet weaving machines is limited. Knowledge of maintenance of shuttleless looms Ensure availability of the spare parts. is inadequate. Ability to undertake Maintenance Planning so Inadequate knowledge of as to plan and supervise maintenance of maintenance of latest machines machines to ensure minimal machine which are imported. downtime. This is crucial for units which are very technology intensive.

Maintenance operators

Knowledge of maintenance requirements of Awareness of maintenance the weaving machines. requirements of various machines is limited. Ability to ensure minimal machine downtime. Ensure that minor issues are taken care of in a Knowledge of maintenance of prompt manner and escalate major issues. shuttleless looms is missing.

Production

Production Manager/ Shift In charge /Supervisor

Operator

In-depth knowledge of production process.

Lack of man-management skills to manage shop floor people.

Awareness of quality requirements of the fabric across various stages of production. Inadequate knowledge of modern Man-management skills to manage shop floor looms - The supervisors typically workers who are mostly minimally educated. have work experience in particular type of looms as operator and do Ability to impart basic training to the operators. not have formal training/education for modern looms. Monitor cleaning and maintenance schedule of Awareness of modern shuttleless the looms. looms is limited. Operating knowledge of relevant type of Inadequate ability to multi-task looms. between different types of machines. Examine looms to determine causes of loom stoppage, such as warp filling, harness breaks, or mechanical defects. Observe woven defects.

cloth to detect weaving

Disci pline at shop floor, punctuality and regular attendance at workplace. Adherence to cleaning and machine maintenance schedule.-Understanding of support to be provided for maintenance of various textile machines. The availability of trained manpower is a key issue for the garmenting sector. The ATDC, ITIs and NIFT annually train up to 50,000 workers. A few private sector players also provide training specific to the garmenting sector. A large portion of the requirement of human resource at the operator level is met by on the job training. Hence training at the operator level is a key gap. The above skill sets and specific focus areas outlined will be the major drivers of human resource requirement in the Textile and Clothing industry. Skill building in these areas would be the key to industry competitiveness going forward.

46

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


CAREER FOCUS

TEXTILE EDUCATION & TEXTILE INDUSTRY… HOW TO BRIDGE THE GAP??? Mr. Avinash Mayekar MD & CEO of Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. Textile Graduate from VJTI

In recent years, textile industry is progressing with a positive growth and its 2nd to none other than China. Many new plants and textile hubs are investing in latest technology and state-of-the art facilities. Corporate groups are investing in textiles, knowing its competitive advantage over other countries and understanding the ever changing global scenario. Still, why is there a disconnection in the textile education system and the textile industry? Why are young minds in the textile engineering colleges questioning their career choice? They are disturbed and are unable to find the solution to this. On one hand, textile industry is deficient of textile engineers with desired skill levels and on the other textile engineering graduates are jobless. This is strange but true. Textile engineers, owing to the ignorance of the opportunities in textile industry, are shifting to different industries. This is creating a major loss of skilled and knowledgeable man power to the textile industry. In order to stop this loss, we all need to come forward and look at our basic education system from a different angle and help change the system and mindset of people who manage it. WHY IS THERE A GAP? The gap between the Textile Education Institutions & Textile Industry is due to following reasons: 1. Shift of industry from cities to D zones There is a negative trend in the minds of people who are located in city mainly because of shifting of the industry from cities to “D” zones. This is because of the high infrastructure cost in cities like Mumbai, Ahmedabad, New Delhi etc. as compared to new textile hubs like Kolhapur, Ludhiana, Tirupur, Bhopal, Falta etc. However, this leads to negative publicity due to issues like land sale, union problems, strikes etc happening in big cities and backed by strong political activities. 2. Education Institutions are away from textile industry Textile institutions are situated in these big cities where mills are shutting down or shifting to new areas. Textile entrepreneurs are creating their empire at newly formed textile hubs and they are not bothering about their surroundings. They have their own compulsions, combinations and permutations and they do their own calculations based on business requirements. They have their own in-house training centres where they take new recruiters and train them as per their requirements irrespective of their knowledge of textile technology. 3. Teachers and students are unaware of the industrial developments The biggest worry in technical institutions is the right type of teachers who have practical knowledge and understanding of textile industry. There are very few institutions which are wellconnected with the industry which have a strong hold on the education pattern which enables them to understand latest developments and requirements of the textile industry. 4. Education pattern restricting students in the campus With more theory base education pattern, students keep are bogged down and restricted to submissions of project work appearing for weekly exams. The concentration is more on age old traditional thinking of project work and securing higher marks in examinations by referring to text books and references in library than having connectivity with the industry. 5. Not much research work We are in traditional textile and clothing industry where there is

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

hardly any research work happening on functional improvements of textiles, more stress is on higher productivity and lower production cost. Even though it is a “fashion industry, there is hardly any scope for creativity through innovative research work. It is more of colour and texture. Moreover, the fashion is coming from fashion hubs such as Milano, Paris and just getting copied over here in our part of the world. 6. Students want jobs in cities whereas industry is in rural areas Students prefer to stay in major cities where they can enjoy their free time with leisure and textile hubs are away from this glittering world. 7. Students prefer white collar job whereas textile production houses are not that clean In the textile industry one has to get dirty. This industry is full of dust, fly, fluff, etc. Technologists have to work with their own hands to fix mechanical problems. New generation prefers white collar job hence they prefer to switch over to IT and call centre jobs than textile jobs. 8. Wide range of fields and areas of specialization There is a very wide range of fields in the industry and hence students are ignorant as to which area of specialization to choose. A concise list is shown below: Production: Involved in working directly on the machine Production planning: Involved in planning the ways and means of production based on sales forecasting Consulting: Involved in preparation of market research reports and techno-economic feasibility reports, assists in selecting technology, gives technical inputs for construction of textile units, etc Research and development: Involved in developing new products and machines, improvise existing products and machines for maximising output and quality Sourcing: Involved in deciding the quantity, quality and location of the raw material to be sourced from Markting: Involved in marketing of products, services and machines Maintenance: Involved in fixing any problems related to machinery Quality: Involved in testing and certification of products Merchandizing: Involved in product design, selection, packaging, pricing and display that stimulates consumers Retailing: Involved in conceptualizing and managing the stores Brand building: Involved in creating a total brand experience at each point of customer CONCLUSIONS:

With the pointers below, we can have a drastic change in the education pattern for a better textile education and industry. Scan industry specific needs - understand actual requirements by interacting with the industry. Change education pattern - alter it as required by the industry adopt more practical approach. On campus recruitments so students are aware of various options in the field. Emphasis on liking of students – this would facilitate students to work in their area of interest than entire syllabus of textile industry and have more choices. Introduce courses as per the job role of that particular industry - this would be in line with ITI course but more specific. Improve soft skills - develop few skill sets which are common to any job. This would also help them in getting higher responsibilities later in the career. No more professors - facilitators. This would be a dramatic change. There is a need of industry experts creating new generation for the industry. More importantly - Courses for facilitators. These facilitators needs to be trained properly so that they can “train the trainers“ for the future.

47


CAREER FOCUS

ROLE OF A PRODUCTION MANAGER IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY Mr. Manish Nangia, Assistant Professor-FMS, NIFT, New Delhi Research Scholar-Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan)

Over the years, the role of a manager or production manager has gained a lot of importance. He is required to be multi-faceted, multi-task and shoulders a lot of responsibility. It is rightly said that the most important employee attached to a garment industry is the production manager. It calls for a person with a passion for details and an organized mind. Production managers are considered to be the sun around which the entire labours of an export house revolve. For becoming a production manager, an individual is required to have exceptional communication and organizational skills, willingness to work long hours in stressful situations, maintain heavy travel schedules and ability to use communications devices which are critical for maintaining connection with his team members. Speaking a second language is also a valuable skill in addition to possessing a Masters Degree in Fashion management from a premier fashion institute. Production, merchandising and sewing are some of the sought after skills required for becoming a production manager. Role of a Production Manager in Garment Industry: 1. Ability to Plan He is responsible for preparing the plan for processing of materials in the factory by the functions of process planning, loading and scheduling. He also compares the actual performance with the planned performance. Optimum operation of the plant can be obtained only if the original plan has been prepared carefully to utilize the manufacturing facilities effectively. He is required to take corrective action as and when required in terms of re-planning. Re-planning to revise loads, routes and schedules is required in manufacturing units due to volatile market conditions, change in manufacturing methods or fashion. 2. Take Responsibility The manager undertakes the responsibility for overseeing matters at domestic factories where garments are sampled through the finishing process which includes design changes when necessary. Since he acts as the liaison between designer and fabric sellers, trim and notion wholesalers, he is responsible for keeping tabs on inventory items, costing and spreadsheet maintenance. He also needs to work very closely with the designer in order to maintain deadlines and bookings. 3. Responsible for Production of Garments He should be able to forecast the requirements of production in order to achieve the production target as he is responsible for day-to-day production in garment industry. He supervises and motivates the support staff on a regular basis by having a team approach and open communication. He plans, schedules, strategizes and oversees all production activities while maintaining profitability. He also needs to ensure overall customer satisfaction and quality service, as well as establish and maintain effective communication with employees and clients. He is ultimately also required for effective and efficient scheduling of personnel and equi pment to reduce bottlenecks and problems in the production process. 4. Maintain quality standards He is responsible for maintaining zero to minimum defects as well as to provide satisfaction and value to the customers. He is required to facilitate productivity and quality standards in the production process.

48

5. Be a Leader He should be able to maintain a congenial work environment by maintaining a positive attitude in his department. He needs to ensure that all employees under his supervision are aligned with the company goals that foster pride in being part of a winning team and promote organizational and personal growth. He should have a keen desire and ability to successfully lead others. 6. Coordinate Travel Production managers have inside travel information which is required for seamless tri ps, like problematic hotels, airlines or on the other end of the continuum, travel resources that have offered preferential treatment in the past. It always helps having an efficient travel agency on speed dial but not all travel arrangements are handled by the agent. 7. Deliver timely shipments The effectiveness of a production manager can be measured with timely shi pments. The major criterion is whether or not the shi pping promises are kept as well as the percentage of orders shi pped on time. 8. Maintain production records He should be able to maintain production control records and provide information to customers and management with regard to delivery dates, schedules and operating problems. Changing Role of a Production Manager in the Garment Industry Now with the onset of new trends which are coming up in fashion industry, the role of production manager is also changing very fast. He is getting into the area of handling events while working with designers in addition to production. In the fashion industry, production manager is also assuming the new role of event planner, overseeing model fittings and acting as liaison between hair stylists and makeup professionals to convey the designer's styling directions to the whole world. He may be required to handle the advance work which is required to book the space for garment expo, schedule and arrange runway shows for the design collection of designers. Designers are now showcasing their collections in places like Paris, New York, Milan and other trendy cities during the same week. The production manager is required to coordinate all of these events; particularly those scheduled during “Fashion Week,” High-end designers are employing public relation officers or have contracts with PR firms to handle publicity needs. However, it is the production manager's job to field media inquiries, gossi p and flash news stories that send reporters running to their industry contacts rather than the PR person. Production managers may be briefed when “talking points” are drafted so that he will be ready to reiterate the company's position verbatim. He may also be required to distribute press releases, backgrounders, position papers and other data to reporters and producers.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


COLLEGE LIST

TEXTILE ENGINEERING COLLEGES

COLLEGE NAME

WEBSITE

West zone: D.K.T.E. Society's Textile & Engineering Institute, Kolhapur

www.dktes.com

L.D.College of Engineering, Ahmedabad (LDC-A)

www.ldceahd.org

Manikya Lal Verma Textile & Engineering College

www.mlvti.ac.in

Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engineering and Technology

www.jdiet.ac.in

Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute

www.vjti.ac.in

Mumbai University Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (MUICT M)

www.ictmumbai.edu.in

South zone: Vignan University

www.vignanuniversity.org

Govt. S.K. S.J. Technological Institute

www.gsksjti.org

Alagappa College Of Technology, Chennai

www.annauniv.edu

Anna University, Chennai

www.annauniv.edu

Jaya Engineering College, Chennai (JEC)

www.jec.ac.in

Osmania University, Hyderabad

www.osmania.ac.in

University College of Technology, Osmania University

www.uctou.ac.in

Bapuji Institute Of Engineering

www.bietdvg.edu

P.S.G.College Of Technology

www.psgtech.edu

North zone: Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IIT-D)

www.iitd.ac.in

Giani Zail Singh College Of Engineering And Technology

www.gzscetbti.gov.in

The Technological Institute Of Textile and Sciences

www.titsbhiwani.org

East zone: Institute of Jute Technology - Kolkata

www.ijtindia.org

West Bengal University of Technology

www.wbut.net

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

49


COLLEGE FOCUS

D.K.T.E. SOCIETY'S TEXTILE AND ENGINEERING INSTITUTE, ICHALKARANJI

Dr. P. V. Kadole Principal of DKTE

HISTORY The decentralised powerloom industry in Ichalkaranji started growing at a very rapid rate around the 1980's. Industries like spinning mills, chemical processing units, warping and sizing units which support the powerloom industry also started growing in huge numbers. The developing industry required technical qualified manpower. At that time, there was only one Institute in the entire state of Maharashtra, 425 kms from Mumbai, which catered to the education programmes in Textiles. The students passing out from this institute were not willing to come to a rural and mofussil area like Ichalkaranji. Hence, nine co-operative organizations from Ichalkaranji came together under the leadershi p of Mr.K.B. Awade to form an Education Society and this Society was named after Shri Dattajirao Kadam. He was a veteran leader and an ardent cooperator, who was mainly instrumental in the development of Textile Industry in Ichalkaranji. Thus the Dattajirao Kadam Technical Education Society popularly known as DKTE came in to existence. The DKTE society appealed to the State Govt. to permit them to start the Di ploma course in Textiles and the State Govt. accorded their approval in August-1982 on the condition that the Institute will not receive any grant in aid from the Govt. and will have to work on self supporting basis. The D.K.T.E. Society accepted this challenge and started the Textile and Engineering Institute with a Di ploma course in Textiles on 26th September, 1982. This Institute is one of the first Institutes to be started on no grant basis in the State of Maharashtra. Observing the performance of this Institute, Govt. of Maharashtra resolved the policy of permitting professional colleges to be started on no grant basis in the State of Maharashtra. Textile and Engineering Institute began its activities by introducing a Di ploma Course in Textile Manufactures (DTM) in the academic year 1982-83. In the year 1983-84 two degree courses were introduced and in the course of time di ploma, degree, post-graduate and Ph.D. level programmes were added. As DKTE has been promoted by nine co-operative organizations, majority of which are industries, the culture of industry – institute interaction was established right from the inception. CURRENT STATUS DKTE Society's Textile and Engineering Institute enjoys a unique position in the field of professional education and in the Textile Industry of India. Apart from catering to the high standard of education in the field of Engineering and Textiles, the Institute is deeply involved in providing various kinds of services to the

50

Textile and other industries not only in and around Ichalkaranji but also all over the country in the form of consultancy, training, testing facilities, research and development etc. DKTE Society's Textile and Engineering Institute is taken as the best Institute in the country especially in the field of textiles. It has also has made its mark at international level. Many Universities and industries from abroad have signed MoU's for cooperation with DKTE. DKTE is working on many Government as well as Non-Government sponsored prestigious projects. Recently Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India has selected DKTE for their most prestigious project “Centre of Excellence” in Nonwovens. Many students of DKTE hold senior positions in Indian Textile Industry and also have their presence in many countries such as USA, Europe, Asian and African countries. Ichalkaranji is a renowned centre for decentralized Textile Industry. Traditionally Ichalkaranji was known for powerlooms and products like Dhoti, Malmal, Cambric, etc. During last 10 years this centre has been modernized into automatic and shuttleless looms. Over 8000 shuttleless looms have been installed in and around this town and Ichalkaranji has been recognized as the fastest growing shuttleless weaving centre of the entire country. DKTE has stimulated this growth by organizing many seminars, conferences and training programs for the loom owners and weavers. Along with the Ichalkaranji Munici pal Council, DKTE has established a Kranti Mahila Garment Training Centre where women are trained, free of cost in garment – cutting, stitching, embroidery and finishing. In last four years around 5000 women coming from poor and BPL categories have been trained at this centre. As a result, in recent past there has been an emergence of garment manufacturing industry in this region and over 6000 stitching machines have been installed in this new industry. With the advent of these changes, Ichalkaranji is now known not only as a modern weaving centre but also as a garment centre.

SALIENT FEATURES OF DKTE: Secured 14th All India ranking and 4th in Maharashtra State in survey of Engineering Colleges carried out by Competition Success Review – GHRDC in 2011. 100% placement for Textile students and 85% for engineering students. About 87 textile companies recruit students from the institute. Due to strong interaction with the industry, the institute received Textile Machinery worth Rs. 2000.00 Lakhs, free of cost from leading machinery manufacturers from Germany, Switzerland, Italy & Hong Kong, Spain and Japan. Institute received grant of Rs. 700.00 Lakhs under Textile Development Cluster Scheme for development of R&D Centre in Textiles. Collaborations with leading foreign Universities like Eastern Michigan University(USA), North Carolina State University (USA),Troy University (USA), Devry University (USA), Kenyatta University (Kenya), University of California Los Angeles (USA), Copperbelt University (Zambia), Busitema University (Uganda), The School of Technology (Indonesia).

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


COLLEGE FOCUS

Faculty has published over 600 papers in various National & International Journals of repute. Apart from academics, it offers various services to industry which includes Product development, Turnkey Consultancy, Project report preparation, Process modification, Effluent Treatment, Energy Conservation, Testing, organization of Seminars, Conferences, Workshops and Customized Training programmes. MoU's with International Machinery Manufacturers for Training, R & D. Highly experienced and dedicated faculty which includes eminent visiting faculty from industry, research organizations and academia. Low student to faculty ratio for better students' teacher interaction. 24*7 high speed internet and Wi-fi & Video Conferencing facility. And many others…. TEXTILE PROGRAMMES The Textile and Engineering Institute caters to a variety of Textile programmes listed below: Di ploma: Textile Manufactures, Textile Technology, Fashion Technology Degree: B. Text – Textile Technology/ Man-Made Textile Technology/ Textile Plant Engineering/ Textile Chemistry/ Fashion Technology Post Graduate: M. Text – Textile Technology/ Textile Chemistry/ Technical Textiles. MBA In Textile Ph.D: Textile Engineering FACILITIES D.K.T.E. Society provides ultra modern and world class infrastructural facilities in the form of specious buildings equi pped with excellent amenities and laboratories and workshops with machines and equi pments with latest technologies and state-of-the-art machineries. The facilities in the laboratories of the Textile Department are unparalleled.

LIBRARY FACILITY The institute has a spacious (Area 1200 sqm.), cosy & modern library, designed to meet the burning needs of the budding technocrats. The library is a treasure house of many importanL books in the field of Textile Technology, Fibres, ManMade Fibres Technology, Textile Chemistry, Mechanical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Computer Science and Management. Several handbooks, encyclopaedias and reference books are available in the library. The library also has more than 5,564 VHS and CD's on recent machinery and equi pments, case studies, management etc. Separate Internet facility has been provided in the library to facilitate students to have access to the information. They also receive books and journals as gifts from many well wishers and industries. COMPUTER FACILITY The Institute has more than 750 latest computers. All departments are connected with fibre optics. It has high speed 20 mbps internet facilities and campus wide structured network. Free Wi-Fi facility is available for students. It also has: Three IBM 226 x series, One NAS server with 2 TB CAP, One IBM AIX power series, One IBM P3 server. Today this institute is taken as a role model for education and interaction with the industry. It supports the industry in various areas and is involved in interaction with industries not only from India but with industries abroad also. The industrial development brings with it economic development of the region and hence the people. The per capita income in Ichalkaranji, compared to any town below the population of 5 lakhs, is the highest in the country. Due to the existence of DKTE which caters to the need of technically qualified manpower, many big Textile companies have started their textile projects near Kolhapur. Many of these projects are in collaborations with industries abroad. Kolhapur District is now being recognized as a major Textile Hub of the country. Thus DKTE has played a pivotal role and acted as a catalyst in development of textile industry in this region.

Workshop / Laboratories · Spinning Workshop · Spinning Maintenance Laboratory · Weaving Workshop · Textile Physics & Testing Laboratory Man-Made Textile Laboratory · Garment Manufacturing Laboratory · Dye House · Chemical Testing Laboratory · Textile Computer Laboratory · Textile Electronics Laboratory · Technical Textiles Laboratory

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

51


GOVTERNMENT POLICY

POWERLOOM DEVELOPMENT & EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL (PDEXCIL)

Mr. Uttam V. Jain Director, PDEXCIL

The Powerloom Development & Export Promotion Council is set up by the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India in the year 1995. Have its headquarters at Mumbai & Regional Office at Erode. PDEXCIL has about 1500 manufacturing/exporting units as its members. The main objectives of the PDEXCIL is to promote, support, develop and increase Powerlooms and export of Powerloom fabrics, made-ups and Home Textiles and to carry out such promotional activities for the overall development of Powerloom sector. PDEXCIL has been actively involved in urging manufacturers to achieve quality benchmarks through up-gradation of technology and modernization of their plant. Main activities are : Organising/Partici pation in Trade Fairs, Exhibitions and Buyer Seller Meet abroad with the objectives of expansion of export market/penetrating to new market globally. Incentives/support under various schemes of Govt of India for Powerloom Sector is made available through PDEXCIL. Organisation/partici pating in Buyer-Seller Meets in India for expansion of domestic market. Exploration of overseas markets & identification of items with export potential Enthusing the powerloom units in various centres to undertake upgradation of technology and modernization of the units. Enrollment of Powerloom & allied activities worker under Group Insurance Scheme. Taking up the course of Powerloom workers to Govt of India while formulating policies. Thus PDEXCIL is facilitating overall development of Powerloom Sector and marketing Powerloom products. Product range offered for International Market. Fabrics: Grey, Yarn Dyed, Piece Dyed, Bleached, Printed State in Drill, Crapes, Satin, Twill, Sarees, Sheeting. Made-ups: Bed Linen, Bed Sheets, Blankets, Durries, Handkerchiefs, Pillow Case. Home Textiles: Floor mats, bath mats, bags, towels, napkins etc. INTEGRATED SCHEME FOR POWERLOOM SECTOR DEVELOPMENT Background: The powerloom industry has grown up from handloom sector traditionally with inherent technical know how passed on from forefather and is being continuing in many of the clusters. The 19.44 lakh looms in the decentralized Powerloom sector are spread over 4.3 lakh units with an average holding of a little over 4 looms per unit. Thus, the sector largely comprises of very tiny units with a majority of loom holdings in the range of 1 to 8. Decentralized powerloom sector is consistently meeting out the need of the fabric required for garment sector for export as well as the domestic market. The share of the decentralized sector is 62% of the total fabric production in the country. In some of the clusters, manufacturing, product diversification, merchandising and marketing have been on sound footing while in some of the areas; it is very weak till date. However the growth of the powerloom sector in India have been by and large Skewed, therefore, there is a need of

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

inclusive growth to facilitate equal opportunity for the development of the sector. To augment the domestic production and marketing as well as export by the powerloom weavers, there is a need of Integrated Scheme which can take care of such activities viz. Modernisation of Powerloom Sector, Exposure visits, Buyer seller meet, Cluster Development Activities, Periodic survey of the Powerloom sector, Development and upgradation of skills (HRD), which can directly benefit the powerloom weavers in a remunerative way as well as to put them on the trajectory of growth. Govt. of India has envisaged after deliberation with stakeholders of powerloom sector and the recommendation of working group for XI Plan to formulate an Integrated Development Scheme for the powerloom sector. Objectives: Modernisation of Powerloom Sector to achieve 12% growth per annum. To assist powerloom weavers & industry associations for marketing their products through organizing of exhibitions for the benefit of garment industry and organized sector or general public at regional and cluster level as well as while promoting awareness. To provide infrastructural support for marketing by having permanent outlets to eliminate the middlemen for direct marketing by the powerloom weavers. To empower powerloom industry and build their capacity to meet the challenges of the market and global competition in a sustainable and self reliant manner.\ Scope of the Scheme: The powerloom sector in the country is wide spread and every state is having a tiny to a very large cluster. As such, the products of different clusters are specific but they need to be diversified. Therefore, an aggressive modernization and marketing strategy is to be further adopted during XI th Plan to cater to the need of garment sector and in view of the challenges of import of cheap fabrics.There are 25 major clusters in the country and there is a scope to project their products in different markets of consumer industry. For more information you can visit : www.pdexcil.org Main Powerloom Clusters in the country: State

Cluster

Punjab

Amritsa; Ludhiana

Himachal Pradesh

Baddi

Uttar Pradesh

Mau; Kanpur; Gorakhpur; Meerut; Tanda

Bihar

Gaya; Bhagalpur

Gujarat

Ahmedabad, Surat, Umargam

Rajasthan

Kishangarh; Bhilwara

Haryana

Pani pat

West Bengal

Karnataka

Navadwi p; Ranaghat Bhiwandi; Ichalkaranji; Madhavnagar; Malegaon; Tarapur; Solapur Erode; Salem; Kumarapalayam; Trichengode; Karur; Somanur / Palladum Bangalore; Doddaballapur; Belgaum

Madhya Pradesh

Indore; Dewas; Burhanpur

Orrisa

Siminei; Hinglicut

Andhra Pradesh

Nagari; Sircilla; Hydrabad

Maharashtra TamilNadu

53


ASSOCIATION IN INDIA

Few Manufacturer / Traders Associations in Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA ASSOCIATION NAME

CATEGORY

CONTACT PERSON

CONTACT DETAILS

Shree Market Silk Merchants Association

Semi wholesalers

Mr. Pratap

22404100 / 9322219266

Sheth Moolji Jaitha Cloth Market

Traders

Mr. Mukesh Desai

22402462

Shree Mangaldas Market cloth Merchant's Association

Retail Merchant

Mr. Surendra vorani

22064103 / 9821148151

Mumbai Textile Merchant Mahajan

Traders, wholesellers

Mr. Surendra savai

2241 1686 / 2240 5750 / 9833172689

Hindustan chamber of Commerce

Manufacturers, traders

Mr. Deshbandhu kagaji

22062101 / 22083724

Swadeshi Market Textile Merchants Association

Traders

Mr. Trimbaklal shah

9920488443

Bharat Merchant Chamber

Manufacturers, traders

Mr. Yogedraji Rajpuria

22089784 / 22094596

Sindhi Cloth Merchants association

Traders

Mr. Bulchand bindumal

9321355850

Swadeshi Market board

Traders

Mr. Bhupatbhai Gandhi

9920069162

Bombay yarn merchant association & exchange limited

Traders

Mr. Jayesh Pathak

31924766 / 23422704

Federation of Textile manufacturer association

Manufacturers, traders

Mr. Ramesh Poddar

28206998

Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion council

Manufacturers, traders

Mr. Vinod Ladia

22048797 / 22048690

TEXPROCIL

Manufacturers, traders

Mr. Siddharth Rajgopal

2363 2910 /11 /12

Cotton association of India

Traders, Brokers

Mr. Amar Singh

2230063400

Clothing manufacturer association of India

Garment Manufacturer

Mr. P. Chandrasekharan

23538245

Textile association of India

Manufacturer, traders

Mr. C. Bose

2432 8044 / 2430 7702

Hindmata Cut piece Association

Traders

Mr. Jayanti Ghugre

24172050 / 24147004

AGM Review of Bombay Yarn Merchant association & Exchange Ltd. PAYMENT POSITION IN YARN MARKET DETERIORATING AS A incurring constant losses since last 4 months and some weavers with RESULT OF LOSSES INCURED BY TEXTILE WEAVERS DURING a weaker foundation may be on the verge of collapse, if the situation does not turn around. This is evident from the fact that the payment LAST FOUR MONTHS position is going from bad to worse with each passing day and the MR. JAYKRISHNA D. PATHAK, PRESIDENT OF THE BOMBAY trade is reeling under a huge payment crisis. Mr. Jaykrishna D. Pathak further conveyed to the members that YARN MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION & EXCHANGE LTD. under the present scenario, it was essential to carry out business CAUTIONS YARN MERCHANTS FOR THEIR FINANCIAL DEALS transactions very cautiously & wisely and not to get lured by higher profit margins from financially unhealthy customers and fall into trap. The business should be conducted only through registered members & brokers with proper documentation as per the Association's byelaws. During the AGM, Mr. Ramesh D. Poddar, Chairman & Managing Director of Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd. and Mr.Nand K. Khemani, Managing Director of Beekaylon Synthetics were specially honored. The eminent guests during the AGM included Mr. Aditya Udhhav Thackeray-Young Leader from Shiv Sena, Mr. Atul Shah of BJP, Mr. Akash Raj Purohit- Young Leader from BJP, Mr. Yakub MemonCorporator and Ms. Veena Jain- Corporator. The elected office bearers of The Bombay Yarn Merchants Association & Exchange Ltd. for the year 2012-13 were Mr. Jaykrishna D. Pathak - President, Mr. Chandraprakash M. Parekh –Vice President, Mr. Santosh H. Somani –Hon. Treasurer & Mr. Hemant Muchhala –Hon. Secretary. The Association has 550 yarn merchants & 275 yarn brokers 58th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of The Bombay Yarn as members. The Association conducts several charitable and trade Merchants Association & Exchange Ltd. was held on 26th activities for its members out of which “Arbitration of Disputes” has September 2012 in Mumbai. While addressing the AGM, Mr. been a very notable and noble activity conducted by the association, Jaykrishna D. Pathak, President of the Association, informed that the whereby saving immeasurable time, money and hardshi p of the yarn merchants have overcome their last years' heavy business members. The Association also runs charitable Dispensary and has losses this year. Though the current financial year was smooth & its own godown in Bhivandi. stable until May but trade scenario has once again began to look Mr. Rakesh Sharma, Managing Editor of Tecoya Trend shaky with raw material prices hitting the roof on one side and no Publication was honoured for donating Rs. 30,000 to the association appreciation in the final products on other side. Even exports have for last 4 years for charitable purpose. played a spoil sport with feeble overseas inquiries and local demand The AGM was very well anchored by Mr. Paresh N. Parekh, is even weak. Not only overheads are increasing but costs of fuel & Director of the Association. power have also gone up. As a result, the weaving community are

54

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


TRADE SHOW

TRADE SHOW DETAILS October - December 2012

India International Yarn & Fabric Show 2012 Dye+Chem India 2012 International Expo Date: 11th Oct 2012 - 13th October 2012Chennai Trade Date: 11th October, 2012 To 13th October, 2012 Venue: Centre, Chennai - India Venue: Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai - India Organizer Name: Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. Organizer Name: Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. Contact Details: www.yarnandfabric.org Contact Details: www.dyechemonline.org Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of fabrics, yarns & fiber, Accessories Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer, traders of dyestuff, pigment, auxiliaries, dye intermediate India Carpet Expo India Knit Fair Date: 12th- 15th Oct 2012 Date: 17th- 19th October, 2012 Venue: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University Ground,Varanasi Venue: IKF Complex, Tirupur Organizer Name: Carpet Export Promotion Council Organizer Name: India Knit Fair Association with AEPC Contact Details: www.indiancarpets.com Contact Details: www.indiaknitfair.com Exhibitors Profile: Carpet and Rugs Manufacturer across India Exhibitors Profile: Knitted Garments and Textile Manufacturer Taiwan Textile Fair Taiwan Textile Fair Date: 2nd- 3rd November, 2012 Venue: Oberoi hotel, Banglore Date: 5th -7th November 2012 Organizer Name: Worldex India Exhibition & Promotion Pvt. Ltd. Venue: Source Zone fair, Taiwan Pavilion, Gurgaon, Contact Details: www.ttf.worldexindia.com Haryana. Exhibitors Profile: Taiwan Textile, Garment, Accessories, Organizer Name: Worldex India Exhibition & Promotion Pvt. Ltd. Embellishments Manufacturer Contact Details: www.ttf.worldexindia.com Exhibitors Profile: Taiwan Textile, Garment, Accessories, Source Zone Fair Embellishments Manufacturer Date: 5th- 7th November, 2012 Vastra 2012 Venue: Apparel house, Gurgaon Date: 22nd - 25th November, 2012 Organizer Name: Apparel Export Promotion Council ( AEPC) Venue: Export Promotion Industrial Park, Jai pur, Contact Details: www.sourcezonefair.com Organizer Name: Rajasthan,FICCI Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of Trimming & Embellishments, Contact Details: www.vastratex.com Fabrics, CAD-CAM from India as well as Exhibitors Profile: Manufacture, Supplier, Exporter of Textile and International Garment India ITME 2012 Vibrant ITME 2013 (Pavilion on vibrant Gujarat 2013) Date: 2nd -7th Dec 2012 Date: 8th- 13th January 2013 Venue: Bombay convention and Exhibition Centre, Mumbai Venue: Nr. Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar Gujarat, India Organizer Name: India ITME Society Organizer Name: India ITME Society Contact Details: www.india-itme.com Contact Details: www.vibrantitme.india-itme.com Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of Textile Machinery, Equi pments. Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of Textile Machinery, Equi pments.

Show report of WeaveTech 12, Thane WEAVETECH12, a trade show for the weaving industry was held in Thane on 15th September 12, with its focus on Bhiwandi. The event was enthusiastically received by exhibitors and was sold out within days of launch. Due to space constraints only 46 Exhibitors could be accommodated. The business community responded with total registered visitors exceeding 370. Of course there were some who did not register since entry was free. For a one day event and for such focused display trade fair it had a huge response. The event was inaugurated by Shri Kishan Swarup Goyal (Babu Bhai) of Topman Exports Limited. The Textile commissioners were gracious enough to also partici pate and spread awareness about government's TUF and other schemes, the credit which is given to Mr. Naresh Kumar, Dy. Director and OIC RO. The exhibit categories included: Weaving, preparatory, ancillary equi pment, weaving machine, machine agents, warping, sizing, humidification, compressors, material handling, spares and consumables, software, knotting, etc. The cream of suppliers ranging from Dornier, Picanol, Toyota, ITEMA to air pi ping companies were present. Among the products on display were: ERP software, inspection machines, beam trolleys, reeds, humidification, warping, sizing, sampling machines, knotting etc. In short, everything a weaving factory requires was available in various choices. This innovative idea is very much in keeping with style of Mr Sharad Tandon of Standon Consulting who has always been breaking new grounds in spreading awareness through information and helping in the spread of new technology. The organisation also was praised for the smoothness and systematic conduct by both visitors and exhibitors. WEAVETECH12 thus became a pioneer in a first of its kind exhibition that bought the best of weaving machine and related equi pments suppliers at the doors of Bhiwandi. It was a first where an exhibition had gone 'to' the customer instead of the other way around. All the exhibitors were so happy with the response that they are asking for it to be made into a regular event. So now will WEAVETECH be a regular event? Let's wait and watch!!!

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

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RECYCLING

WASTE MANAGEMENT & SUPPLY CHAIN FOR SECOND-HAND CLOTHES IN MUMBAI Mrs. Suman Mundkur, Associate Professor of SVT college of Home science, PHD Student

Dr. Ela Manoj Dedhia, Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science Changing fashion trends and improved purchasing power has led to the consumers purchasing clothes more than needed and discarding them much earlier. This provides a greater volume of discarded clothes available for sale as second-hand clothes. Used clothing is one of the most popular items sold in the flea markets all over the world. Norris, (2010.137) in her study on recycling Indian clothing in New Delhi has described the Chor Bazaar at the Red Fort in New Delhi as the most hiddenaway markets, overflowing with used and reused clothes that were also found across the City. The main centre in Mumbai for dealing in imported Western and Indian clothing is located near Bhendi Bazaar at Mumbai Central. The well known 'Chor Bazaar' in Mumbai offers

Sourcing

Sorting

Mending

Removal of Stains

Bleaching

interesting shopping deals. It is not that the bazaar is patronised by the poor; there are college students, office goers, tourists and people from all walks of life belonging to all age groups who head to the place. According to a website, the primary source of 50% of the stuff that is sold in Chor Bazaar comes from another flea market called the Waghri Bazaar. It is situated at the grounds of Lane No 13, Kamathi pura, near Mumbai Central. This wholesale flea market opens up at 4 am every Friday and closes by 8 am. Most of the sellers are Gujarati Hindus and most buyers are Muslim dealers from Chor Bazaar. (http://mumbaiindia.in/chor- bazaar.html). An early morning visit on any day, to the seven lanes starting from Do Taki junction, one will see a flood of brightly coloured clothes in all sizes. The business is brisk here much before the shops open for business. The sale of these is visible all across the city in 'lots' on footpaths, railway bridges, and road-side and weekly bazaars. It is estimated that thousands of people earn a living out of sale of used clothes. Children's used clothing sell better and faster as compared to that of adult clothing because kids grow up faster and clothing sizes change very quickly. Here also, some fundamental selling skills are required like taking care of the quality and style, and not selling clothes that are completely outdated. (www.fibre2fashion.com/a-second-life-for-fashion-usedclothing1.asp)

Washing

Re-dyeing (optional)

Ironing

Selling Agents

Street Vendors

Processing of second-hand clothes for sale Sourcing: The clothes include both formal and casual wear for men, ladies and children; which are obtained from two sources:1) Local network of bartanwale or bhandivale and 2) Imported Bhandivale or bartanwale barter clothing from the middle-class and sell it to the poor. Bhandivale collect clothes from households in exchange for utensils or plastic articles. The utensils are purchased from stainless steel merchants and carried door to door in a basket or they are seen at strategic locations in some residential localities. The wearable clothes are sold through agents in the weekly markets (Chor Bazaar), street side or railway bridges in the City. Alternatively, they are also sent to remote villages for selling. The torn and nonwearable clothes are sold by weight to rag merchants called chindhiwale. Left over clothes are further utilized by being sold as industrial wi pes. Imported used clothing that has been manufactured across the globe and cast off from Western wardrobes is another source. According to Norris, (2010: 42) these are technically illegal imports, although container loads are consumed in India. The largest volume of clothing comes directly via Kandla Port in Gujarat and is traded through long networks of middlemen. Container loads of shirts in mutilated condition are purchased by wholesale dealers. Bales each weighing 50 Kgs., are packed in plastic bags and transported to the brokers. The brokers retail the shirts in small lots at Rs. 125 to Rs. 150 per Kg. On an average there may be four shirts per kilogram. Sorting: There is a lot of supply and demand of branded as well as unbranded and trendy clothes, which may be out of fashion and yet look stylish. Such clothes are made available at low prices or at least affordable rates. In Mumbai, most of the wholesale dealers of second-hand clothes have godowns/warehouses in areas around Mumbai Central. The assortment of clothes is not restricted to Western wear but

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

include Indian wear as well. Other than shirts, there are pyjamas, trousers, jeans and other types of garments. Cheaper and poor quality clothes are also sold, such as saris, salwar kameez, trousers, shirts, T shirts, jeans, petticoats, bermudas, kurtis and children's clothes. These are purchased by people who may not have sufficient means to shop in local stores. The clothes are purchased by the street vendors from garment finishers. An example given here is of mens' shirts. Other garments are similarly processed for resale to be sold in various areas of Mumbai City and the suburbs. Processing the Clothes for Resale: The finishers sort the shirts according to colour and design in checks or stri pes. The shirts are then checked for missing buttons, sli pped stitches, torn parts, cuts, stains and other damages which are rectified. Some of the shirts have branded labels and some do not. Tailors work for ten to twelve hours in a day mending the garments. This is because worn clothes imported to India come in a mutilated condition. On an average, Rs. 3 and a maximum of Rs. 12 may be spent on finishing. The tailors, therefore, stitch the sides, or sleeves if they are cut, sometimes converting full-sleeved shirts to half, changing the style of the collar or its width or reversing the collar if it is worn out. The shirts are then washed, bleached if necessary, rinsed and sun dried. At least 50 to 60 shirts are processed in plastic drums at a time. Each finisher on an average processes 400 to 500 shirts per day. Ironing costs Rs. 1.25 per shirt. At least 200 shirts are ironed per day. Ironing is important as the folds and crease lines are the signs of newness and neatness. Norris opined that in the second-hand market, the nature of the goods is often difficult to discern. The look of the secondhand clothing is often deceptive, even after feeling, smelling and turning them over, looking at the construction, as well as the style, colour and designs.

57


RECYCLING Bleaching Process for White Shirts

Washing and Cleaning Sale: The goods once purchased from the finishers cannot be returned. The street vendors sell their clothes mostly in the evenings and sometimes in the mornings at the weekly markets. The vendors are well aware of what type of clothes will sell in the markets at the different locations in the City. Despite the fact that they have no formal education in textiles or marketing, they are able to judge the price based on the condition of the used garment. Shirts that are not sold have to be cleared at a discounted rate and cleared. A shirt is sold at Rs. 50 to Rs. 60 each depending on the quality. White shirts are in greater demand than the coloured. Colouration in small lots is outsourced. Re-dyeing is mostly done on job work basis. The sale of coloured shirts depends on the quality and style of the shirts. According to the street vendors, there is a constant demand for these clothes from those in the lower economic background. While some clothing is handed down by employers to domestic servants, many of the lowly paid maids, rickshaw drivers and unskilled labourers in the City buy their clothes from the old clothes dealers in these markets. The vendors said that most of the clients do not bargain and pick up what they like instantly.

58

Colouration Process

Street vendor in the Mumbai Suburbs Conclusion: Along with an established garment industry in Mumbai, there is a parallel industry for retailing second-hand clothes. The network of agents in sourcing, sorting, processing and sale of used clothes help meet consumer demands. Yet, this parallel garment industry remains invisible, unorganized and low-key. Clothes sourced locally and those from imports offer a continuous supply to meet the clothing needs. There is a huge demand for second-hand imported shirts in India particularly. The entire supply chain of second-hand clothing market is thus managed by thousands who live on daily earnings from the sale of used clothes. Reference: 1. Norris, L. (2010) Recycling Indian Clothing- Global Contexts of Reuse and Value Indiana, U.S.A: Indiana University press. pp 37,147. 2. A Second Life for Fashion: Used Clothing by : Fibre2fashion.com Published On Monday, October 13, 2008 3. www.fibre2fashion.com/a-second-life-for-fashion-usedclothing1.asp 4. Textile recycling. (2007, March 22). In Wiki pedia online. Retrieved from en.wiki pedia.org/wiki/Textile_recycling.

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012


INDUSTRIAL UPDATES

Seminar on Investment Opportunities in Textiles in Vidarbh Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. (Suvin), a well reckoned name in textile industry through Vidarbha Industries Association, conducted a seminar “Advantage Vidarbha – Investment Opportunities in Textiles” where Suvin floated new thought process in the minds of textile entrepreneurs about exploring new ideas on latest business lines where the profitability is much higher, competition is very less but needs business acumen. The seminar was well attended by 50 plus industrialists on 4th October 2012 at Udyog Bhavan, Nagpur, Maharashtra. Mr. Kishore Thuteja of VIA welcomed all guests and elaborated on need to invest in Vidarbha. He also pointed out that once Nagpur was Manchester of India. However, nowadays no new investments are happening in Vidarbha. Mr. Prashant Mandke, Suvin, in his presentation, presented a variety of options on various new investment possibilities in Vidarbha ranging from INR 3 crores to INR 300 crores. He also shed light on growth drivers for Indian as well Vidarbha textile industry. Mr. Chetan Sangole & Mr. Ketan of ITP, Gurgaon deliberated on importance of "Energy cost" "Energy Security" and "Environmental concern". Mr. Chetan informed that there would be a steep increase in electricity bill of all users and it would be a great concern and hence ITP in collaboration with Suvin can help the industry to take appropriate steps to minimize the power bill of the industry. Mr. Ketan gave emphasis on customization of products offered by ITP as per the need. Mr. Prashant Mohata and other speakers on behalf of MOA said that we should put forward our needs jointly. He also addressed key issues which are

applicable for Vidarbha as a leading industrialist from the region. There is a need for increasing awareness amongst the industry to allow women workers to work in shifts and tackle other related issues of the association. Mr. Avinash Mayekar, MD & CEO of Suvin while summing up the session pointed out that globally markets would be sustainable as clothing is a basic need but there are certain application in textiles which would grow further. India has to invest substantially in textiles as China has reached to the peak and no other country can compete with India over its competitive advantages. Maharashtra state has come out with a better policy than any other states and Vidarbha has all its advantages which can easily be seen. But, local investors are not coming forward and new textile giants from the part of the country have already announced their investments in Vidarbha. He opined that Suvin has adopted collaborative approach

From Left to Right: Kishore Tutheja (VIA), Avinash Mayekar (Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd.), Manohar Kanitkar (Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd.), Prashant Kumar Mohota (Gimatex Industries Pvt. Ltd.), Akash Agrawal (VIA)

Sutlej Textiles and Industries Bags “NIRYAT SHREE” Gold Trophy Award 2009-2010 Presented by hon’ble President of India Sutlej Textiles & Industries ltd., the flag shi p textile company belonging to the illustrious “k.k. Birla Group” has been awarded the prestigious “Niryat Shree” Gold trophy by Hon’ble president of india, Sri Pranab Kumar Mukerjee on 5th October 2012 in a glittering ceremony in Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi. The award was received by Shri S.K.Khandelia, President of the company for achieving 77% growth in exports for the year 2009-10.

to understand needs of the industry and offer solutions through collaborative approach. He mentioned that Suvin has completed more than 100 assignments of various natures in just 2 years and open to help the industry at his best. The delegates come across 'nonconventional' ideas on unexplored business models and at the same time how they can make use of best utility techniques to reduce their operating costs for existing as well as new business units. In a nutshell, a high profile team from Suvin and ITP team guided the audience on various business avenues in the interactive sessions on how Suvin can assist them through their knowledge base and expertise in the field as well as assistance to the existing units for meeting various Govt. energy obligations. The seminar was of immense benefit to Vidarbha as a whole to provide directions and look for competitive advantages in coming years and fuel economic growth for the region.

Levis, CK, TMW in U.S.A., Burton, Next, M&S in U.K. In Home Textiles its produces wide range of curtains and upholstery and made ups & Supplies not only to all over India but also to 25 countries all over the globe. The company has significant presence in export in more than 60 countries as well

as domestic market with a wide variety of quality products. The company has “Trading House” status and is also holding ISO 9001 quality Certification. It also has SA8000 Certificate for social compliance. The company has been modernizing from time to time and is also continuously expanding since inception. It is planning to further expand its spinning, weaving and Home Textiles capacities in the near future.

Sutlej textiles is a stop shop for all types of yarns and is an integrated player for production from yarn to fabrics, home textiles garments and is having a large production capacity ,i.e, 260872 spindles for spinning of yarn, 6 Million meters per annum for Apparel fabric weaving, 1.6 mn trousers per annum and 3 million meters per annum for Home textiles Fabric production in its different units located in J&K, Rajasthan & Gujarat. The Company produces wide range of Poly/Viscose, Poly/Wool, 100% Wool, Linen and Stretch fabric and supplies its premium products to big retailers like Gap,

Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012

59


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