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Native Plants for Sustainable (and More Interesting) Landscapes Don Leopold


What Are Native Plants? What Are Native Species? Species That Existed in an Area Prior to European Settlement


They are: components of NYS natural communities and sometimes very abundant or rare


herbaceous old field


mesic mixed hardwoods


Why Plant Native Species? •  well adapted to regional climate •  well adapted to native pests and pathogens •  many are well adapted to most difficult sites (e.g., extremes in drainage, shade) •  natural heritage and aesthetic values


General Categories of Interest (beyond basic ecological functions and high aesthetic value) •  no maintenance, long lived •  for the most difficult sites (leaving the site alone) •  for wildlife (esp. birds and butterflies) •  deer proof •  for food


No Maintenance


MOST!


For The Most Difficult Sites


WET (including rainwater basins)


swamp milkweed – Asclepias incarnata


northern sea oats – Chasmanthium latifolium


turtlehead – Chelone glabra


Joe-pye weed – Eupatorium maculatum


rose mallow – Hibiscus moscheutos


blue flag – Iris versicolor


cardinal flower – Lobelia cardinalis


buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis


summersweet clethra – Clethra alnifolia


silky dogwood – Cornus amomum


red-twig dogwood – Cornus sericea


winterberry – Ilex verticillata


swamp rose – Rosa palustris


shining willow – Salix lucida


river birch – Betula nigra


Atlantic white-cedar – Chamaecyparis thyoides


swamp white oak – Quercus bicolor


DRY


alvar pavement barrens near Clayton, NY


hay-scented fern – Dennstaedtia punctilobula


marginal shield fern – Dryopteris marginalis


prairie-smoke – Geum triflorum


blue lupine – Lupinus perennis


eastern prickly-pear cactus – Opuntia humifusa


devil’s-walkingstick – Aralia spinosa


bearberry – Arctostaphylos uva-ursi


fragrant sumac – Rhus aromatica


gray birch – Betula populifolia


cockspur hawthorn – Crataegus crus-galli


pitch pine – Pinus rigida


chestnut oak – Quercus prinus

bur oak – Quercus macrocarpa


SALINE A. Eallonardo


seaside goldenrod – Solidago sempervirens


prairie cordgrass – Spartina pectinata (on Solvay wastebed)


horizontal juniper – Juniperus horizontalis


eastern redcedar – Juniperus virginiana


northern bayberry – Myrica pensylvanica


examples of inland salt marsh species for retention basin


LOW pH (i.e., acidic)


bogs


New Jersey tea – Ceanothus americanus


sweetfern – Comptonia peregrina


teaberry – Gaultheria procumbens


pinxter azalea – Rhododendron periclymenoides


HIGH pH (i.e., alkaline)


wild columbine – Aquilegia canadensis


shrubby cinquefoil – Potentilla fruticosa


chinkapin oak – Quercus muehlenbergii


northern white-cedar – Thuja occidentalis


SHADE


partial shade white trillium – Trillium grandiflorum


shade

wild ginger – Asarum canadense


maidenhair fern – Adiantum pedatum

lady fern – Athyrium filix-femina


sedge – Carex platyphylla


black snakeroot – Cimicifuga racemosa


foamflower – Tiarella cordifolia


bush-honeysuckle – Diervilla lonicera


smooth hydrangea – Hydrangea arborescens


oakleaf hydrangea – Hydrangea quercifolia


bladdernut – Staphylea trifolia


serviceberry – Amelanchier arborea


alternate-leaf dogwood – Cornus alternifolia


examples of species tolerant of very wide range of site conditions •  Just about anything


switchgrass – Panicum virgatum


eastern ninebark – Physocarpus opulifolius


red maple – Acer rubrum


For Wildlife •  Wildlife value


butterfly weed – Ascelpias tuberosa


most species in the aster family - Asteraceae


spicebush – Lindera benzoin


red buckeye – Aesculus pavia


gray dogwood – Cornus racemosa


winged sumac – Rhus copallina


deer proof


most fern species


Food


ostrich fern – Matteuccia struthiopteris


black huckleberry – Gaylussacia baccata


raspberry and blackberry species – Rubus spp.


black elderberry – Sambucus canadensis


highbush blueberry – Vaccinium corymbosum


pawpaw – Asimina triloba


shellbark hickory – Carya laciniosa


persimmon – Diospyros virginiana


Native Plants for Sustainable (and More Interesting) Landscapes  

An introduction, and pictoral guide to using Native Plants

Native Plants for Sustainable (and More Interesting) Landscapes  

An introduction, and pictoral guide to using Native Plants

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