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Native Plants for Sustainable (and More Interesting) Landscapes Don Leopold


What Are Native Plants? What Are Native Species? Species That Existed in an Area Prior to European Settlement


They are: components of NYS natural communities and sometimes very abundant or rare


herbaceous old field


mesic mixed hardwoods


Why Plant Native Species? •  well adapted to regional climate •  well adapted to native pests and pathogens •  many are well adapted to most difficult sites (e.g., extremes in drainage, shade) •  natural heritage and aesthetic values


General Categories of Interest (beyond basic ecological functions and high aesthetic value) •  no maintenance, long lived •  for the most difficult sites (leaving the site alone) •  for wildlife (esp. birds and butterflies) •  deer proof •  for food


No Maintenance


MOST!


For The Most Difficult Sites


WET (including rainwater basins)


swamp milkweed – Asclepias incarnata


northern sea oats – Chasmanthium latifolium


turtlehead – Chelone glabra


Joe-pye weed – Eupatorium maculatum


rose mallow – Hibiscus moscheutos


blue flag – Iris versicolor


cardinal flower – Lobelia cardinalis


buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis


summersweet clethra – Clethra alnifolia


silky dogwood – Cornus amomum


red-twig dogwood – Cornus sericea


winterberry – Ilex verticillata


swamp rose – Rosa palustris


shining willow – Salix lucida


river birch – Betula nigra


Atlantic white-cedar – Chamaecyparis thyoides


swamp white oak – Quercus bicolor


DRY


alvar pavement barrens near Clayton, NY


hay-scented fern – Dennstaedtia punctilobula


marginal shield fern – Dryopteris marginalis


prairie-smoke – Geum triflorum


blue lupine – Lupinus perennis


eastern prickly-pear cactus – Opuntia humifusa


devil’s-walkingstick – Aralia spinosa


bearberry – Arctostaphylos uva-ursi


fragrant sumac – Rhus aromatica


gray birch – Betula populifolia


cockspur hawthorn – Crataegus crus-galli


pitch pine – Pinus rigida


chestnut oak – Quercus prinus

bur oak – Quercus macrocarpa


SALINE A. Eallonardo


seaside goldenrod – Solidago sempervirens


prairie cordgrass – Spartina pectinata (on Solvay wastebed)


horizontal juniper – Juniperus horizontalis


eastern redcedar – Juniperus virginiana


northern bayberry – Myrica pensylvanica


examples of inland salt marsh species for retention basin


LOW pH (i.e., acidic)


bogs


New Jersey tea – Ceanothus americanus


sweetfern – Comptonia peregrina


teaberry – Gaultheria procumbens


pinxter azalea – Rhododendron periclymenoides


HIGH pH (i.e., alkaline)


wild columbine – Aquilegia canadensis


shrubby cinquefoil – Potentilla fruticosa


chinkapin oak – Quercus muehlenbergii


northern white-cedar – Thuja occidentalis


SHADE


partial shade white trillium – Trillium grandiflorum


shade

wild ginger – Asarum canadense


maidenhair fern – Adiantum pedatum

lady fern – Athyrium filix-femina


sedge – Carex platyphylla


black snakeroot – Cimicifuga racemosa


foamflower – Tiarella cordifolia


bush-honeysuckle – Diervilla lonicera


smooth hydrangea – Hydrangea arborescens


oakleaf hydrangea – Hydrangea quercifolia


bladdernut – Staphylea trifolia


serviceberry – Amelanchier arborea


alternate-leaf dogwood – Cornus alternifolia


examples of species tolerant of very wide range of site conditions •  Just about anything


switchgrass – Panicum virgatum


eastern ninebark – Physocarpus opulifolius


red maple – Acer rubrum


For Wildlife •  Wildlife value


butterfly weed – Ascelpias tuberosa


most species in the aster family - Asteraceae


spicebush – Lindera benzoin


red buckeye – Aesculus pavia


gray dogwood – Cornus racemosa


winged sumac – Rhus copallina


deer proof


most fern species


Food


ostrich fern – Matteuccia struthiopteris


black huckleberry – Gaylussacia baccata


raspberry and blackberry species – Rubus spp.


black elderberry – Sambucus canadensis


highbush blueberry – Vaccinium corymbosum


pawpaw – Asimina triloba


shellbark hickory – Carya laciniosa


persimmon – Diospyros virginiana


Native Plants for Sustainable (and More Interesting) Landscapes  

An introduction, and pictoral guide to using Native Plants

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