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Irina Wong

MA Social Design 2017 Maryland Institute College of Art

How Might We Make "corporate social responsibility"

A Corporate Social Responsibility?


"I walk into too many rooms named for people and companies that don’t mean well for the world, and in those rooms we talk and talk about making the world better." Anand Giridharadas


This book is dedicated to you, the reader. Whether you're simply curious about corporate social responsibility or are an active leader in this field, I hope this inspires you to keep being curious or to keep leading others. And to Gensler, thank you. The last six months have been everything I wanted, needed and more. Thank you for welcoming my work, for letting me ask bold questions, and for being so responsive to me. I hope you take this whole book to heart. It matters. This is what your offices are asking for. This is what your staff are passionate about. You have been outstanding leaders in social responsibility thus far, and I know you'll continue to create positive community impact worldwide.


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

FOREWORD

3

THE PHENOMENON

CHAPTER ONE: DESK RESEARCH 8

FACTS

12 FIVE WHYS 14 CASE STUDIES

21 22 24 28 30 32

CHAPTER TWO: DESIGN RESEARCH AREA OF INTEREST PARTNERSHIP USER RESEARCH RESEARCH SYNTHESIS HOW MIGHT WE...? PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: BALTIMORE

36 PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: SAN FRANCISCO 41 MAY 8, 2017

43 ONWARD

APPENDIX 48 USER RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS 50 SOURCES 53 IMAGE SOURCES


HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


FOREWORD

Whenever someone asks me, "What is Social Design and why are you studying it in a graduate degree?" my answer is both short and long. Social Design is a field which takes design concepts and design thinking together and applies them to the challenges the world has today. But why am I on this path in Social Design? I had lost my way - overwhelmingly, catastrophically lost my way over the course of my career in architecture. Designing and making beautiful places no longer brought me a sense of joy; I became acutely aware of the profession's ability to destroy both our natural environment and our social well-being. I've seen projects excavate greenfields to build an "environmental awareness center." I've seen designers ignore the dangerous conditions of those who build their projects, insisting that "it's out of our control." I'm passionate about working to address that often-­unspoken side of the industry. I'm passionate about working against that indifference. The more I thought about it, the more I became unsettled because this phenomenon exists in most other industries as well, not just design. It exists in the garment industry, the technology industry, the transportation industry. The work we do in our own little bubbles every day sets off a domino chain of effects around the globe. I honestly cannot explain the compulsion to help address this, but my instincts are telling me this is something I am called to do. I still recognize there is a lot I don't know I don't know about Social Design. I hope to keep finding inspiration, resources, and guidance so I can discover where I can contribute, where I fit, and how I can craft a career. And if it doesn't exist, well, maybe I'll invent it myself.

Irina Wong May 2017

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THE PHENOMENON Since 2010, more than 1,600 garment factory workers worldwide have died on the job.


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THIS IS NOT OK. WHY IS THIS HAPPENING?

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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


CHAPTER ONE: DESK RESEARCH

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FACTS HISTORY Until the 1990s, many American clothing brands were manufactured within the United States. In fact, as late as 1996, there were 624,000 textile employees stateside.1 However, deregulation of garment imports in the 1990s opened the doors for American brands to pursue less-expensive labor internationally. Today, the number of American textile employees has dropped by 80% from 1996.2 China is currently the largest manufacturer of ready-made garments in the world. However, as fair labor advocates made progress enacting wage increases and safe working environments within China, corporations are looking for less expensive labor in countries where regulations are weaker. A 2011 report by McKinsey & Company note that 80 percent of American and European clothing companies considered Bangladesh as the “next China.” Today, America receives 47% of all the woven garments exported from Bangladesh.3

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CASUALTIES IN INDIA

321

CASUALTIES IN PAKISTAN

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CASUALTIES IN CAMBODIA

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CASUALTIES IN CHINA

1,336

CASUALTIES IN BANGLADESH

GARMENT FACTORY CASUALTIES SINCE 2010 (BY COUNTRY)

1 Monet, Dolores. "Ready-to-Wear: A Short History of the Garment Industry." Bellatory. HubPages, 03 Mar. 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. 2 Ibid. 3 "Textile Industry in Bangladesh." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Nov. 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


CAUSES Building collapses, fires, and explosions account for all the casualties my work has uncovered so far. Nearly all building collapses result from excessive live and dead loads catastrophically stressing the building's structural elements beyond their design capacity. Over 75% of fire casualties occur when stairwells and/or when building exits are blocked and/or locked.

BUILDING COLLAPSE

68%

FIRE

32% EXPLOSION

<1%

"[T]ragedies have laid bare the fundamental shortcomings of the 'social audits' many retailers use to monitor conditions at the factories that produce their goods. At the least, retailers who rely on these audits need to do more to ensure that they are rigorous, transparent and truly independent. Too often, none of those things are true." â ´

4 Pearshouse, Richard. "Bangladesh's Other Workplace Catastrophes." Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch, 20 May 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

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CORPORATIONS Dozens of western garment brands source their labor from overseas factories involved in the incidents detailed previously. The logos here represent just a fraction of those brands. Some corporations publicly admitted they had prior knowledge their clothing was manufactured in those factories. Other corporations claimed ignorance, but were discovered when labor organizations and watchdogs traced the supply chain back to their brands. Still others were only able to be identified as buyers when their clothing labels were found amidst the factory rubble.

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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


NAMES OF VICTIMS On this page are the names of thirty-two of the victims of the garment factory incidents listed previously. Even after scouring media coverage, publications from fair-labor organizations, and incident reports for days, I only could discover thirty-two names. This, also, is not ok. Where are the remainder of the names of the casualties? I may never know. Because my research relies on the reporting of garment factory incidents, the facts are only as accurate and complete as my sources. The terrible truth is that if nobody writes about it, I can't know about it.

Anwar Hossain

Arafat Rani

Ashraf

Bunty Jha

Faisal

Hareram

Hasina

Iftekar Ahmed

Joshna

Javed

Jesmin Akter

Kohinoor

Laizu

Mahbubur Rahman

Mohammed Monrizzman Mia

Montu Miah

Naimul Islam

Nasima

Nasima Akther

Nayeem

Raju

Rasheduzzaman

Razia

Rim Sarouen

Shahid

Sim Srey Touch

Sohel Mostafa Swapan

Taslima Akter

Satish Rao

Z.A. Morshed

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and >1,600 unnamed victims

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FIVE WHYS To help understand the root cause of this injustice, I explored this phenomenon through the Five Whys exercise, which involves asking "Why?" five times in succession, much like a toddler. By the time the explorer arrives at the fifth response, the result can be considered a possible root cause of the original question. The process is repeated for a broad range of many possible root causes.

Why have garment factory workers died from fires, explosions, and building collapses while on the job?

The garment factory environments are unsafe. Why?

Garment factory environments are being built/ installed shoddily. Why?

The buildings containing factories are being used for purposes unfit for its original design. Why?

Factory owners are cutting corners by squeezing more people/ equipment/floors into pre-existing buildings. Why?

Factory owners want to save money on parts and labor. Why?

Factory owners want to preserve profit margins

Factory owners want to maintain production efficiency. Why?

Factories' clients are demanding low-cost products in tight timelines.

Construction crews want to save money on parts and labor. Why?

Construction crews want to preserve profit margins.

Construction crews are cutting corners. Why?

Construction crews want to maintain efficiency in their construction timeline. Why?

The factory owners are expecting construction completion quickly.

There arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t enough building inspection trainers.

Building inspections are lax. Why?

Building inspections staff are undertrained. Why?

Building inspection training curriculum isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t thorough enough.

There are not enough building inspectors for the demand. Why?

Influx of new buildings overwhelms building inspection staff.

There are not enough building inspectors on staff.

The garment manufacturing work itself is susceptible to fires and explosions. Why?

Flammable/volatile materials, chemicals, and equipment (MCE) are being chosen for use in garment manufacturing. Why?

Unsafe MCEs may be the only option. Why?

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Unsafe MCEs may be more readily available than safe MCEs*. Why?

Maybe nobody has invented nonflammable, non-volatile MCEs*. Why?

There may be more distribution channels for unsafe MCEs* than there are for safe MCEs*. Why?

There may be no profit to be made in the invention of safe MCEs*.

Unsafe MCEs* could be proven to have a higher ROI than safe ones.

There may be too many scientific barriers to the invention of safe MCEs.*

The benefit of the increased efficiency and efficacy of unsafe MCEs* may outweigh their dangers.

Unsafe MCEs* may be more efficient and effective than nonflammable and nonvolatile MCEs*. Why?

Companies may have already accepted the danger presented by efficient and effective MCEs*. Why?

Unsafe MCEs may have a larger market share than safe MCEs.*

Unsafe MCEs* may use less expensive transport options.

They may be cheaper than nonflammable and nonvolatile MCEs*. Why?

Unsafe MCEs* may leverage an economy of scale. Why?

Unsafe MCEs* may use less expensive raw materials.

Unsafe MCEs* may have a less expensive supply chain. Why?

Unsafe MCEs* may use less expensive components.

Unsafe MCEs* may use less expensive labor.

HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


Factory workers are acting in unsafe ways. Why?

Factory workers don’t know about safe practices. Why?

Safety training doesn’t teach factory workers everything they need to know. Why?

Factory workers are not grasping the safety training concepts. Why?

Safety training is not taught in a way workers can absorb easily.

Factory managers aren’t teaching correct safety training. Why?

Factory managers are not always given the correct safety from the governing body.

Factory workers know about unsafe practices, but don’t engage in them. Why?

Safety training is being skipped. Why?

Factory managers don’t know they should be teaching safety training. Why?

Factory managers are “going rogue” with the safety training.

Factory workers don’t think it’s important. Why?

Factory managers are deliberately skipping safety training. Why?

Factory managers are not always given the right safety training from the governing body.

Factory managers are concerned that safe practices are expensive.

Factory workers think safe practices don’t apply to them. Why?

Factory workers think safe practices are too inconvenient. Why?

Factory managers are concerned that safe practices will slow down production.

Factory workers think they already know how to be safe.

Factory managers are deliberately pressuring workers to participate in unsafe practices. Why?

Factory managers are concerned that safe practices are expensive. Why?

Factory workers are under too much pressure to be productive.

Factory managers are concerned that safe practices will slow down production. Why?

Factory managers want to preserve profit margins.

Clients are expecting their products in tight timelines.

ROOT CAUSES KEY Business Economics

Building Inspector Shortage

Building Safety Training & Policy

Science & Technology

Almost two-thirds of the root causes from the "Five Whys" exercise are about BUSINESS ECONOMICS: delivering products and services faster and less expensively. * MCE = Materials, Chemicals, and Equipment.

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CASE STUDIES Tension arises as we think about the root causes uncovered previously. Corporations are legally required to prioritize profits and financial benefit to shareholders. What space could we make for social responsibility that doesn't breach these legal boundaries? To begin answering this question, I examined PatagoniaÂŽ and Benefit Corporations as two separate case studies that address these issues. They helped me understand more of the landscape of the phenomenon: who are the some of the players in the realm of corporate social responsibility, how they have framed the issues, their theory of change, and the interventions they made.

X

PROBLEM DEFINITION

Î&#x201D;

THEORY OF CHANGE

INTERVENTION

Despite individual corporations having interest in social responsibility, industry-wide fair labor guidelines lack standardization, rigor, and influence.

Supply chain sourcing decisions are often driven by quality and cost. The decisions may lack significant regard for harmful social and environmental impacts.

If we collaborate with agencies interested in social responsibility, we can leverage our collective knowledge and best practices to write industry-wide guidelines for fair labor.

If our sourcing decisions consider social and environmental impacts with quality and cost factors, then we can help prevent unnecessary harm.

Patagonia co-founded the Fair Labor Association, a nonprofit global labor advocacy organization with 42 participants.2

An internal committee screens potential suppliers for alignment with Patagonia's standards on sourcing, quality, and social and environmental impacts.3 This group has full veto power against any potential supplier.

1 "Working With Factories." Corporate Responsibility: Working With Factories - Patagonia. Patagonia, Inc., 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid.

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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


Benefit Corporation

Because suppliers are often not held accountable for their labor practices, they can be more apt to sacrifice ethical behavior for production efficiency.

Despite genuine intent, suppliers often don't correct their non-compliant labor practices because they lack guidance and/or resources.

If we educate our suppliers on fair labor practices, and if we help offset the costs of this training, our suppliers will be more likely to genuinely adopt fair labor practices.

If we are transparent with our suppliers about our code of conduct (and the consequences of noncompliance), they will be held accountable for their actions.

All suppliers must comply with Patagonia's Code of Conduct. Suppliers are regularly and randomly audited by both Patagonia and a third-party agency; the audit reports are publicly available.4

If a supplier violates their code of conduct, Patagonia works with them closely to identify challenges and implement solutions. Patagonia will help pay the costs of remediation.5

Corporations can be limited in the public benefit they can offer because they are legally required to prioritize the maximization of financial value for its shareholders in all decisions.

If there is a legal structure where corporations are not lawfully required to prioritize only financial value for its shareholders, then corporations will be more apt to work for public benefit.

Benefit Corporations let US corporations add public benefit goals into their legal articles of incorporation; shareholders will judge the corporation's social, environmental, and financial performance equally importantly. 6

4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 "Benefit Corporation." What Is a Benefit Corporation? | Benefit Corporation. B Lab, 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016.

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Almost two-thirds of my possible causes were about business economics. In addition, my case studies illustrate the strides made in optimizing business practices to mitigate harmful effects. Together, they prove to me there is definitely something important to explore in the role businesses play in this global phenomenon. A BIG SHIFT IN MY WORK HAPPENED HERE.

My exploration moved away from factory deaths in the garment industry and towards the responsibility corporations have for their broad and deep global impacts. I realized preventable factory deaths is just one symptom of a much larger, urgent worldwide need for more responsible business practices to ensure positive outcomes for all affected by a corporation's work. In short, I shifted my focus because the concepts of global impacts and CSR aren't unique to one industry, but relevant across all business organizations at large.


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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


CHAPTER TWO: DESIGN RESEARCH

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AREA OF INTEREST Since its emergence in the American lexicon in the mid-twentieth century, the definition of “corporate social responsibility” (CSR) has been fluid, subjective, disputed, and ever-evolving. Some believe CSR can be achieved with purely profit-driven decisions that bolster the economy. Nobody can argue against the value of a strong and robust economy. While laudable, I argue this is only corporate responsibility. Others believe philanthropy and volunteerism define CSR. By donating a portion of their profits and spare time to worthy causes, some believe they fulfill their responsibility to help social projects. Nobody can argue against the value of new schools and clean streets. While laudable, I argue this is only corporate social generosity. Instead, I subscribe to the belief that CSR should be defined by the responsibility that corporations take for the social consequences of their actions and decisions. It is an honest recognition of the broad and deep global impacts created by the decisions made by corporations. It includes the steps they take to ensure positive outcomes for all those affected by their work, whether directly or indirectly so.

Corporate social responsibility should be defined by the responsibility that corporations take for the social consequences of their actions and decisions.

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Meaningful corporate social responsibility is not lip service, or a window dressing, nor does it maintain the status quo of conventional business workflows. The practices encompassed within this definition of CSR can be classified into three different theaters, each larger than the last: First is the internal theater. These are the practices germane to corporate employees. This includes worker happiness, pay equity, benefits, ethical leadership, and freedom of association. The next-largest theater focuses on the products and services offered by the corporation. Examples include: the product’s environmental footprint, social impact, investor alignment, and the quality of feedback channels available to customers. Finally, the largest theater concerns the community and even the world at large. These practices include: job creation, global supply chain impact, community well-being, local control and sourcing, and responsible investing and opportunities for them. Corporations, in all of their complexity of operations, often have broad, deep, and labyrinthine global influences. However, I believe CSR includes an understanding of the implications of their own impacts, especially if they are matters of life or death. In the event a corporation’s practices inadvertently rob someone of their survival - which is the very foundation of Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs - corporate social responsibility is the call for them to take steps to prevent that outcome and to build a new ecosystem where that outcome is unthinkable.

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PARTNERSHIP To begin the work, I needed a partner to explore these topics of social responsibility with me. I deliberately sought a collaboration with a corporation interested in social purpose. Enter Gensler, the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest architecture firm. They have opened forty-five offices in fourteen countries, employing over five thousand people. Their yearly revenue of over $1.1 billion is almost twice that of the second highest-earning architecture firm in the world. Gensler's work spans the globe, affecting over two hundred million people every day. In short, they are the very definition of a corporation with broad and deep global impacts. I also became interested in partnering with Gensler because I admire their commitment to positive community impact through the power of design. Lastly, I was especially excited to partner with them to make local interventions by working

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with their Baltimore staff. At a headcount of just under fifty, this local office is considered small by Gensler's standards. In December 2016, I joined Gensler as an intern. I worked exclusively with their Firmwide Community Impact Steering Committee. This team, composed of a dozen leaders from around the country, focuses on social responsibility and community engagement. Over the next four months, I played a contributor role in their projects. Highlights of my research, storytelling, and graphic design work are shown here. Most importantly for my practice, the internship gave me the time to build a relationship with the Genslerites who would eventually become my closest thesis partners.

HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


THE VALUE PROPOSITION OF SOCIAL

Here are the top three compelling financial research studies which prove corporate social responsibility adds value.

RESPONSIBILITY

A synthesis of qualitative data of social responsibility undertaken by Gensler's peers and competitors.

STORIES

Here are seven compelling stories about community involvement from around our AEC industry:

FROM GENSLERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S

BNIM Cannon Design Eskew+Dumez+Ripple Jacobs NBBJ Perkins+Will WorleyParsons

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

A synthesis of quantitative data of financial research studies which conclude social responsibility initiatives return positive financial gains to an organization.

Data collection, analysis, and visualization of Gensler's firmwide philanthropic activities during Holiday 2016.

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USER RESEARCH This strong relationship I built with Gensler during my internship gave me the freedom to begin asking bolder questions about what innovative CSR could mean at the firm. Without this preestablished trust of their staff, I don't believe I could have received such a receptive response to my inquiries. Even so, I know my inquisitiveness sometimes nudged at the borders of comfort for some Genslerites. Over four months, I conducted over two hundred hours of user research with the ultimate goal to understand their challenges and aspirations for CSR at Gensler. The research methodology included direct observation, in-person interviews, phone conversations, live workshops, virtual workshops, and online survey. I spoke with a broad range of staff, from recent hires to managing directors to the co-CEOs. In total, over one hundred Genslerites from thirteen countries and six independent interviewees participated in my research. Highlights of the work are to the right; see page 48 for a complete roster. Throughout this research, I heard again and again about aspirations for greater equity, transparency, and corporate support for social responsibility.

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200+

HOURS

25

CITIES

37

TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS

35

ONLINE SURVEY RESPONSES

10

LIVE WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS

HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


GUIDING QUESTIONS • What does corporate social responsibility ("CSR") mean to you? • Which organizations have CSR initiatives that inspire you and why? • What kinds of CSR does Gensler already do well? • What are the most impactful steps Gensler could take with its CSR? • How can CSR be further incorporated into Gensler?

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

LEADERSHIP

Volunteer hours are asked of employees, without pay, but Gensler gets the publicity, so it feels that this goodwill is made off the backs of employees. That doesn't seem fair.

[Gensler needs] more consistent support across LEADERSHIP. - ELAINE, BALTIMORE

- HEATHER, LONDON

We argued we've been saving a lot of money by not charging overtime to [community impact activities] ... so we asked for our next project to be paid. - MARIELLA, SAN JOSÉ

What if leaders were recognized for their contributions to peers and nurturing staff in their development? - ANONYMOUS, LOS ANGELES

We could seek to be a partner or take on more of an advocate role within the community; shifting from the "sponsorship" role we typically inhabit. - ANONYMOUS, LOS ANGELES

EQUALITY Support gender equality in the workplace. - ANONYMOUS, AUSTIN

I see [request for proposals] asking us to state our social equity policy. It also comes up quite from the younger generation. The more people pursue it, the better.

TRANSPARENCY Our office surrounded by tech companies who seem to be fairly transparent, so we’re paying attention to what our clients are doing... Our generation expects more transparency. - AMANDA, SAN FRANCISCO

- DAVID, NEW YORK

I’m very interested in the intersection of sustainability and social justice.

It's absolutely about transparency.

- CATHY, SAN FRANCISCO

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-ANONYMOUS, BALTIMORE

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HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


RESEARCH SYNTHESIS Again and again, I heard about a desire for greater equity, transparency, and corporate support for social responsibility.

Two specific insights grew from these themes in my user research, each which include needs, barriers, and opportunities.

Hardly anybody responded about a need for more philanthropy or more volunteerism. Instead, I noticed a theme that my users were interested in internal corporate practices and Gensler's support for its staff. In other words, they were very passionate about CSR which was transformational, rather than transactional.

The first is that the junior staff are the most vocal and active in social responsibility, but they lack the immediate power to affect change. They are deeply inspired by stories about positive social purpose from the news, social media, events, and their friends. They are hyper-aware of other organizations who engage in social responsibility. They were also the most active participants in both Gensler’s volunteerism efforts and my workshops. The power of their groundswell could be incredibly strong. However, they know individually they are not in positions of immediate influence.

As I began to organize my observations and interview responses into themes, I noticed three distinct categories: • NEEDS: What were Gensler staff missing? • BARRIERS: What infrastructure, concerns, and rules were preventing Genslerites from further engaging in CSR? (Mostly, they were time, financial and legal concerns.) • OPPORTUNITIES: What can we leverage to make optimized CSR a reality at Gensler?

How might we channel the passions of junior staff to inspire even greater positive corporate social responsibility at Gensler Baltimore? My second insight grew from my interviews with Gensler San Francisco’s staff. All my interviewees there enthused over their ideas for social responsibility. They attributed this passion to the city’s unique socially-progressive culture and the forward-looking nature of their clients. From them, I learned previous efforts towards an innovative social responsibility measure made good progress in San Francisco. However, this progress, though inspiring, was short-lived.

How might we realize the San Francisco office’s vision for social responsibility while remaining sensitive to the corporate concerns? I was excited to move forward with these two specific areas of inquiry because they offered unique opportunities in two very different avenues for change on opposite coasts of the country.

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HOW MIGHT WE...? After conducting user research and synthesizing those findings, I turned my focus to crafting a “How Might We…?” statement of transformational (rather than transactional) corporate social responsibility. The "How Might We..." question needed to: • Capture the complexity of authentic corporate social responsibility as "the responsibility corporations take for their broad and deep global impacts," • Embody the tension in the coexistence of authentic CSR with the fundamental corporate responsibility to meet profit goals, • Allude to the challenge of implementing socialpurpose initiatives beyond the corporate social generosity of volunteerism and philanthropy, and • Capture my two current explorations in Baltimore and San Francisco. In other words...


AMANDA

DANA

TYLER

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ANAT

MIGENA

ELAINE

HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: BALTIMORE

HOW MIGHT WE CHANNEL THE PASSIONS OF JUNIOR STAFF TO SUPPORT EVEN GREATER POSITIVE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AT GENSLER BALTIMORE? To address this question, I'm collaborating with five of Gensler Baltimoreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s junior staff (Amanda, Anat, Dana, Migena, and Tyler) and one Senior Associate (Elaine) as I proceed with the design process. They are six of the most genuinely passionate, engaged, kind, and generous people I have met at Gensler; I cannot tell you how excited I was that they expressed interest in continuing to develop this work.

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I revisited my user research to reread the gamut of answers to my question about Gensler's aspirations for CSR. One question remained for me. With so many great ideas, why isn't anyone doing this already? So, I asked my core group, "What is the single biggest challenge to positive social responsibility efforts at Gensler?" I needed to understand the challenges they encounter when they undertake these initiatives. Without hesitation, they responded "insufficient time" (80% of responses) and "support from leadership" (20% of responses).

How might we manufacture time? This question sparked a redirection of my research. We began brainstorming some

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intervention ideas which could be implemented as grassroots efforts. As a team of intrapreneurs (as in, "internal entrepreneurs"), we decided to focus on ideas in which the junior staff could support each other and seek resources for social purpose at Gensler. In particular, we are exploring ways in which we can re-frame existing Gensler programs (see left) to benefit social responsibility. These mechanisms will validate social purpose as a priority for the office and provide avenues for new or interested staff to pursue it as well. My theory of change is that if we support the passion of junior staff now and foster their growth as Gensler's rising leaders, they will be able to directly influence the firm's future social responsibility policy in the future.

HOW MIGHT WE MAKE "CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY" A CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?


GENSLER RISING PROFESSIONALS (GRP) The GRP was originally founded as a professional development platform for junior staff. However, to the chagrin of my core group, it has devolved into a "party planning committee" for social events. Our interventions include reshaping the GRP's tactics so they align more closely with the group's original mission.

GENSLER RESEARCH AND INNOVATION AWARDS (GRIA) FIRMWIDE RESEARCH GRANTS THE GRIT FUND The Gensler Research and Innovation Awards (GRIA), Firmwide Research Grants, and the Grit Fund are meant to fund design innovation initiatives. Past grantees include research on wall design, daylight modeling, and workplace strategy. The Firmwide Research Grant is awarded yearly to any Gensler employee. The previous year's grantees are then eligible for GRIA, as are any new proposals for innovations from all Gensler employees. The Grit Fund is available specifically to Baltimore employees. Interventions include recommendations for social-purpose-minded Genslerites to frame their proposals so they align with the spirit of these monetary awards.

LEARNING HOURS The Learning Hours are for employees to receive billable hours for the time they commit to developing professional skills. Our current intervention includes recommendations for social-purposeminded Genslerites to frame their proposals so they align with the directive of the Learning Hours.

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PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: SAN FRANCISCO

HOW MIGHT WE REALIZE THE SAN FRANCISCO OFFICEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S VISION FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WHILE REMAINING SENSITIVE TO CORPORATE CONCERNS? In addition to the work with Gensler Baltimore, I am collaborating with two members of the San Francisco team (Gail and Jane) to continue pushing for an innovative CSR initiative, JUST (see page 38). Gail, a Regional Design Resilience Director, and Jane, a Consulting Analyst, were the most vocal champions of JUST before their team met internal challenges that halted their efforts. I was excited to leverage our collective passions, influence, and skills to help lead their renewed efforts for JUST.

GAIL

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JANE

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PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: SAN FRANCISCO

HOW MIGHT WE REALIZE THE SAN FRANCISCO OFFICEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S VISION FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WHILE REMAINING SENSITIVE TO CORPORATE CONCERNS? In addition to the work with Gensler Baltimore, I am collaborating with two members of the San Francisco team (Gail and Jane) to continue pushing for an innovative CSR initiative, JUST (see page 38). Gail, a Regional Design Resilience Director, and Jane, a Consulting Analyst, were the most vocal champions of JUST before their team met internal challenges that halted their efforts. I was excited to leverage our collective passions, influence, and skills to help lead their renewed efforts for JUST.

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JUST is a transparency label managed by an independent third-party foundation called The International Living Future Institute (ILFI). It is a platform for participating organizations to declare commitment to equity and to disclose their practices across the twenty-two indicators seen in the sample label to the right.

• A brief synopsis of the JUST structure and program requirements.

Four tiers of achievement earn an organization either zero, one, two, or three stars (or squares, in this case) on a JUST label. Organizations are responsible for conducting the research themselves to discover their achievement level. Findings can be kept private (hidden from both the public and the ILFI) or they can be made public. If findings are made public, the organization must submit their findings for the ILFI to verify; only then can the organization officially become JUST-labelled.

• A glimpse into the San Francisco office's potential achievements in number of "stars" in a few select indicators.

"The nature of [JUST] is about being equitable, sustainable, and very transparent. It’s about fostering workplace equity – and gender and ethnic equity. I stand in solidarity with that." 1 To me and to the San Francisco team, the most exciting characteristic of JUST is that it encompasses the range of factors we believe to be part of authentic and holistic CSR. JUST not only considers the corporate social generosity of "Community Volunteering" and "Charitable Giving," but also the transformative corporate social responsibility of "Positive Products," "Transparency," and "Responsible Investing." Our theory of change is that if Gensler San Francisco participates in JUST (either publicly or privately), it will ignite a conversation about corporate social responsibility that extends beyond philanthropy and charity. It will be a call to action to reach further into transformative CSR. As our initial intervention, Gail and I first attempted to reopen the dialogue about JUST with the San Francisco office leadership. I prepared some material which I believed would help reintroduce this social responsibility measure. This included: • A summary of financial research studies which prove that CSR yields positive returns.

• Highlights of Gensler's clients, consultants, and contacts who participate in JUST, including two past clients who specifically requested we participate in JUST.

However, the presentation met challenges immediately. Leadership wondered if the financial research studies conflated causation with correlation: maybe the highest social performers in the studies were engaging in CSR because they were also the most financially profitable. The leadership was also resistant to joining a thirdparty CSR measure; they wondered if Gensler would be better served by creating our own. They expressed disbelief about the relevance of some of the JUST indicators. They did not agree with some of the measurement standards required to achieve stars. Lastly, they questioned the usefulness of using stars as the metric of success. This feedback was a definite gut check for us. We realized we ignored some of the leadership's most critical concerns about JUST. I also didn't emphasize the most pertinent information when I delivered the pitch. We are taking these lessons learned to re-design our proposal for JUST. We are incorporating material into our proposal which explicitly addresses the concerns listed above. Through compelling qualitative stories and relevant quantitative data, we hope to also demonstrate JUST aligns with Gensler's values, supports our mission, AND will generate tangible returns. We are going to try to answer leaders' questions before they're asked. By leveraging the mistakes we made previously, we'll tighten our pitch when we present our proposal again. We're excited to see this take shape because this could mean positive structural change in the internal governance of Gensler. JUST is, as one Genslerite told me, "seeing if we were actually being as 'good' as we thought we were." 2 A low star quantity in any indicator is simply an opportunity to rise to the challenge to mitigate harmful impacts and promote equity.

1 Pegus-Thomas, Morgan. "Untitled." Telephone interview. 10 Mar. 2017. 2 Eder, Jared. "Untitled." Telephone interview. 10 Mar. 2017.

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MAY 8, 2017 Today is May 8, 2017. The thesis publication is due; changes won't be made to this book after today. My work, however, can live on:

BALTIMORE As of today, our team of seven intrapreneurs in Baltimore has a mission to leverage the Gensler Research and Innovation Awards, Firmwide Research Grants, the Grit Fund, the Gensler Rising Professionals program, and Learning Hours to innovate social purpose in the office. We're excited by the opportunity to direct the resources available through these avenues to positive community impact and social responsibility. Our next steps would be to brainstorm, develop, and prototype tactics to achieve this. We could also pull firmwide case studies of others who have already done something similar. We could highlight their point of view, strategic positioning, and compelling arguments for applying these programs to social responsibility. This information could exist both as an oral history from our team of seven, and also as a documented toolkit for future generations.

SAN FRANCISCO As of today, we are in the midst of the process of re-designing our proposal for JUST. Although Gail has recused herself from leading these efforts because her project demands are too high, Jane and I remain in communication with each other to continue to push this forward. Our strategy was detailed on page 38. We also recognize that one of the biggest challenges to JUST participation would be carving out the time for a Genslerite to figure out how the firm performs in each of JUST's twenty-two indicators. Another complication is the sensitive nature of some of the indicators - like "Pay Equity" and "Responsible Investing." To mitigate both, I have proposed to resign from Gensler in the future and do the JUST work for them as a pro-bono (or low-bono) consultant who has signed a Non-Disclosure Agreement.

FUTURES My work with Baltimore and San Francisco is also scalable - although I'm starting with those two offices, I can imagine the interventions spread to Gensler worldwide. The interventions can be recontextualized to fit the culture and needs of each location. Gail once told me, "It takes twenty repeats of the same message before the listener truly understands." This is absolutely true when it comes to proposing to change business practices. Who will do the work of this Social Responsibility Intervention nineteen more times? Maybe it's a collaborative effort. Seems appropriate. Find me: irina@twoandchange.org

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ONWARD What can I share with you about what I have learned so far? The most important lesson is that wanting to do the right thing takes us far, but not far enough. In order to be effective in enacting change, we must speak the language of the people who have the immediate power to affect that change. These leaders often speak in dollars and hours. I understand that now; it's absolutely their job to make sure everyone else still has a job. So while at first I felt uneasy focusing on the financial benefits of CSR - isn't that a little unseemly? - I now get that this approach aligns with leadership's priorities for the well-being of the people in their care.

Wanting to do the right thing takes us far, but not far enough. However, my struggle is I don't have a full understanding of what it's like to be in that leadership role. I can't quite grasp what it means to be responsible for the well-being of people in my care. This challenge is compounded by the difficulty of access to Gensler's leaders. Even when I was given time to pitch social responsibility to the CEOs in March, my thirty-minute window didn't afford enough time for in-depth feedback. My solution was to spend hours "power-mapping" my way to the leaders - that is, successively successfully pitching social responsibility up the org chart until I reach those who have the immediate power to affect change. The process is slow, frustrating, and full of starts and stops. My second lesson is that we don't have to continue to pit people and profits against each another. We can foster leadership and create affirming environments for positive social change.

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We can engage in authentic CSR not only because it aligns with our values, but because it also has financial benefit. People and profits are symbiotic.

We don't have to pit people and profits against each other. I fully recognize this is not the current prevailing belief in corporate America, but my financial research and the qualitative stories I've gathered prove otherwise. My ideal ultimate outcome is that corporations like Gensler can also believe this too. I entered the Master of Arts in Social Design program in the fall with ambitious aspirations for enacting change with my thesis. Maybe I would convince an entire industry to fight against the indifference to harm that is "out of our control." Maybe I would convince them to not only minimize negative impacts, but to work towards regenerative natural and social environments. Eight months later, none of that came true. But I do emerge with a newfound respect for the realities of limitations of time and resources in the corporate environment - which perhaps applies to most environments as well. They are not insurmountable barriers, but they do require (a lot of) patience and creativity. Lastly, with my partnership with Gensler over these past six months, I reignited and re-energized a conversation about social responsibility within both individual offices and firmwide leadership. This is a huge win for me and for Gensler. It's an important first step because conversation leads to interest, which leads to action, which leads to change. ONWARD.

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APPENDIX


USER RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS LIVE WORKSHOP

VIRTUAL WORKSHOP

IN-PERSON CONVERSATIONS

Baltimore March 16, 2017 Elaine Asal Lindsey Buccola Migena Dilolli Anat Gimburg Karen Hill Arjun Hosakere Chantal Ireland Christopher Melander Jonathan Sandoval Dana Verbosh

Austin March 31, 2017 Abby Fine Gerardo Gandy Paula Garcia Adrianna Hong Thanh Ly

Baltimore Elaine Asal Lindsey Buccola Migena Dilolli Anat Gimburg Karen Hill Arjun Hosakere Chantal Ireland Christopher Melander Dana Bucy Miller1 Tyler Miller Jonathan Sandoval Geoff Stack2 Amanda Strawitch Dana Verbosh

Chicago April 21, 2017 Kelly Bogenschutz Mireye Bond Linda Chavez Kyle Davis Aaron Greene Susan Harrington Erin Huizenga Moira Kelley Lisa Nelson Mark Schwamel Jennifer von Ebers

Washington, D.C. Diane Hoskins

Detroit April 21, 2017 Imani Day La Crosse April 21, 2017 Kelly Ostrem

* All research participants are Gensler employees except where noted.

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TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS

ONLINE SURVEY

Abu Dhabi Mable So

Los Angeles 35 anonymous staff

Bangalore Naseera Razak Bangkok Benz Rungsimavisrut Beijing Jojo Zhu Brentwood Kim Shinn3 Chicago Lamar Johnson Matt Richardson Dallas Jared Eder

San Francisco Tim Annin Cathy Barrett Trishala Umesh Chandra Jane Christen Alexandra Daily-Diamond Kendra Mayfield Gail Napell Morgan Pegus-Thomas Ken Sanders Amanda Tharp San Jose Mariella Villalobos Seattle Stacy Bartoletti4 Francis Janes5 Jacob Simons Shanghai Edward Chao

Dubai Alysha Nasir

Singapore Anjali Parmar

Hong Kong Judith Ng London Heather Storry Los Angeles Anthony Brower Andy Cohen James Rock Erica Sturges

Sydney Andrew Waddle Tokyo Adam Espisoto Washington, D.C. Tito Llantada6

Mexico City Marianne Starke New York David Briefel Jill Bright

1 2 3 4 5 6

Business and Tax Attorney at DM Law Associate Director of Partnership Strategy at Business Volunteers Maryland Principal and Senior Sustainability Wizard at TLC Engineering for Architecture CEO at Degenkolb Engineers Social Justice Program Manager at International Living Future Institute Innovation & Design Strategist at Context Partners

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“Garib Fire Survivors Call for Justice and a Safe Industry.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, 11 Mar. 2010. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Giridharadas, Anand. “The Thriving World, The Wilting World, & You.” Aspen Action Forum. Aspen Meadows Resort, Aspen, CO. 31 July 2015. Address. Giridharadas, Anand. “The Thriving World, the Wilting World, and You.” Medium. Medium, 2015. Web. 28 Nov. 2016. “Home.” ISO. International Organization for Standardization, 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. “Home.” JUST Capital. JUST Capital Foundation, Inc., 2016. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. HT Correspondent. “Ludhiana Garment Unit Fire Kills Three Workers.” Hindustan Times. HT Media Limited, 07 May 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Khan, Danyal. “Herald Exclusive | Quiet Burns the Fire.” DAWN.COM. DAWN, 12 Nov. 2014. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Kowal, Julie, Bryan C. Hassel, and Emily Ayscue Hassel. Financial Incentives for Hard-To-Staff Positions. Rep. Center for American Progress, Nov. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Labowitz, Sarah, and Dorothée Baumann-Pauly. Business as Usual Is Not an Option: Supply Chains and Sourcing after Rana Plaza. Rep. Center For Business and Human Rights, New York University. NYU Center For Business and Human Rights, Apr. 2014. Web. 2 Dec. 2016. Made in Bangladesh: Behind the Factory Fire. Perf. Adrian Finighan and Anjali Kamat. Made in Bangladesh: Behind the Factory Fire. Al Jazeera Media Network, 17 Oct. 2016. Web. 6 Dec. 2016. Monet, Dolores. “Ready-to-Wear: A Short History of the Garment Industry.” Bellatory. HubPages, 03 Mar. 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Moulds, Josephine. “Child Labour in the Fashion Supply Chain.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2016. Narin, Sun, and Kate O’Keeffe. “Another Cambodian Factory Has a Collapse.” The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 20 May 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Our Joint Safety Committee. Rep. Stichting Bangladesh Accord Foundation, June 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Our Valued Buyers.” AKH GROUP. AKH Group, 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Pearshouse, Richard. “Bangladesh’s Other Workplace Catastrophes.” Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch, 20 May 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. “Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility.” Harvard Business Review Dec. 2006: 78-92. Print. Rep. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Patagonia Works Annual Benefit Corporation Report: Fiscal Year 2013. Patagonia, Inc., 2014. Web. 6 Dec. 2016. “RMG Factory Fire Kills 9.” The Daily Star. Thedailystar.net, 09 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Russell, Michelle. “India Leather Factory Fire Kills 13 Workers? | Apparel Industry News | Just-style.” Apparel Industry News | Just-style. Just-style.com, 16 Nov. 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Sanders, Eli. “How Amazon Buys Seattle’s Silence.” The Stranger. Index Newspapers LLC, 4 June 2014. Web. 4 June 2014. Shahzad, Muhammed. “Fatal Short Circuit: Three Workers Burnt Alive in Garment Factory Fire - The Express Tribune.” The Express Tribune. The Express Tribune, 10 Nov. 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Shannon, Sarah, and Mehul Srivastava. “A Bangladesh Factory Inspector’s Grueling Day in the Life.” Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg, 20 May 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Six Killed, Several Trapped in Garment Factory Fire in China.” Outlook India Indranil Roy, 21 May 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Srivastava, Mehul. “In Bangladesh, New Factory Safety Inspections Are Behind Schedule.” Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg, 31 Oct. 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. Stichting Bangladesh Accord Foundation. Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh. The Netherlands: Stichting Bangladesh Accord Foundation, 2015. Brochure About the Accord. Stichting Bangladesh Accord Foundation, Jan. 2015. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Supply Chain Management Review.” Supply Chain Management Review. Peerless Media LLC, 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. “Survivors Describe the Tragedy ─ Smart Fashion Factory Fire Update and Photos.” Www.globallabourrights.org. Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights, 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

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“Swan Jeans & Swan Garments - July 2015.” Australian Bangladesh Solidarity Network. Australian Bangladesh Solidarity Network, July 2015. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Textile Industry in Bangladesh.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Nov. 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “That’s It Sportswear Fire: One Year on Workers Still Dying in Unsafe Buildings.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. The History behind the Bangladesh Fire and Safety Accord. Rep. N.p.: Clean Clothes Campaign, 2013. Print. The Sustainability Imperative: New Insights on Consumer Expectations. Rep. United States of America: Nielsen, 2016. Print. “Three Killed in Bangladesh Textile Factory Fire.” ABC News. ABC, 21 May 2016. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. “Three Tragedies Hit Bangladesh Factories in One Week, Leaving Scores Dead, Wounded.” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, 27 Feb. 2006. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. “Timeline: Deadly Factory Accidents in Bangladesh - CBCNews.ca.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 09 Oct. 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Walsh, Declan, Salman Masood, and Zia Ur-Rehman. “More Than 300 Killed in Pakistani Factory Fires.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 06 Dec. 2016. Wayss, Rob. “Request for Accord Signatory Company Supplier Factories to Commence Safety Committee and Safety Training Work of the Accord.” Letter to Accord Signatory Companies. 30 May 2016. Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh. Stichting Bangladesh Accord Foundation, 30 May 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Who Needs to Pay Up?” Clean Clothes Campaign. Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Working With Factories.” Corporate Responsibility: Working With Factories - Patagonia. Patagonia, Inc., 2016. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Worldwide Giving at ExxonMobil.” ExxonMobil. Exxon Mobil Corporation, 2016. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

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IMAGE SOURCES “104 Stores Like Cato Fashions - Find Similar Stores | ShopSleuth.” Shop Sleuth. Shop Sleuth, 2013. Web. 04 May 2017. Akhter, Taslima. “Rana Plaza Collapse: Death of A Thousand Dreams | Taslima Akhter.” Taslima Akhter. N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. Armin. “Reviewed.” Brand New: Old Logo for JCPenney. UnderConsideration, 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “ASICS US | Official Site | Running Shoes and Activewear.” ASICS. ASICS America Corporation, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Bonmarche.” Lewisham Shopping. Land Securities Group, 2017. Web. 04 May 2017. Brooks, Evan. “Loom.” Loom. Rhode Island School of Design, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Child Svg Icon Free Download.” OnlineWebFonts.COM. Font All Free, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Corporate citizenship at ExxonMobil.” ExxonMobil. Exxon Mobil Corporation, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. Designmodo. “Truck.” Truck | iconshow. IconShow.me, 2014. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Eddie Bauer.” Eddie Bauer | Brands of the World™ | Download vector logos and logotypes. Mediabistro Holdings, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “File:H&M-Logo.svg.” File:H&M-Logo.svg - Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia, 31 Jan. 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “File:Logo Benetton.svg.” File:Logo Benetton.svg - Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, 6 Sept. 2014. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “File:Logo of Mango (new).svg.” File:Logo of Mango (new).svg - Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, 29 Mar. 2012. Web. 04 May 2017. “File:Patagonia (Unternehmen) logo.svg.” File:Patagonia (Unternehmen) logo.svg - Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, n.d. Web. 04 May 2017. “Gensler Search.” Gensler Web. M. Arthur Gensler Jr. & Associates, Inc, 2017. Web. 8 May 2017. “Home - Orient Craft | Apparel Manufacture & Exporter - India.” Orient Craft | Apparel Manufacture & Exporter - India. Orient Craft Limited, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Hudson’s Bay Company.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Dec. 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Jack-born-yes-zee-logo.” Jack Born. Jack Born, 05 May 2015. Web. 04 May 2017. “Joe Fresh.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Apr. 2017. Web. 04 May 2017. Khan, Danyal. “Herald Exclusive | Quiet Burns the Fire.” DAWN.COM. DAWN, 12 Nov. 2014. Web. 12 Dec. 2016. “Kids Clothes, Baby Clothes & More.” Kids Clothes & Baby Clothes | The Children’s Place. The Children’s Place, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. Manik, Julfikar Ali, and Nida Najar. “Bangladesh Police Charge 41 With Murder Over Rana Plaza Collapse.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 June 2015. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Method.” AIGA | The Professional Association for Design. AIGA, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. The Motley Fool. “Iconix Brand Group Inc (ICON), Guess?, Inc. (GES), The Gap Inc. (GPS): A Look into the Apparel Market.” Insider Monkey. Koala Guide LLC, 2016. Web. 04 May 2017. “Nike logo | Logok.” Logok. Logok, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016 “Primark.” Primark | Brands of the World™ | Download vector logos and logotypes. Mediabistro Holdings, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “The Noun Project.” The Noun Project. Noun Project, 2016. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. “Wal-Mart Logo - Design and History of Wal-Mart Logo.” Logo Design Blog RSS. Famouslogos.us, 2012. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.

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MASD Goals

Problem Definition

Social Design Exchange

A Thesis Mapping Card Game

September 2016

April 2017

December 2016

January 2017

ONWARD.

Thesis Working Title April 2017

Thesis Publication May 2017

Profile for twoandchange

How Might We Make "Corporate Social Responsibility" A Corporate Social Responsibility?  

Irina Wong MA Social Design 2017 Maryland Institute College of Art

How Might We Make "Corporate Social Responsibility" A Corporate Social Responsibility?  

Irina Wong MA Social Design 2017 Maryland Institute College of Art

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