English in the Nexus Curriculum Introduction Throughout both Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4, learning in English falls into three distinct areas: Writing, Reading and Speaking and Listening. The aims are to build confident and articulate English users, who can equally analyse another’s work, as well as create their own. The Nexus Key Concepts, which cover The Learner, The Learner’s World and the Wider World, are also built into the curriculum. Key Concepts The pyramid below gives an indication of how the curriculum in English has been developed, with a bottom up structure. Underpinning everything are the Key Competencies which centre around The Learner, The Learner’s World and The Wider World. Lessons Assessment Focuses (AFs) found on attached individual rubrics Speaking and Listening, Reading, Writing
Creativity, Critical Understanding, Cultural Understanding, Competence
The Key Competencies of Nexus International School
There are a number of key concepts that specifically underpin the study of English. Pupils need to understand these concepts in order to deepen and broaden their knowledge, skills and understanding. These essential concepts promote pupils’ progress in speaking and listening, reading and writing. Competence a. Being clear, coherent and accurate in spoken and written communication. b. Reading and understanding a range of texts, and responding appropriately. c. Demonstrating a secure understanding of the conventions of written language including grammar, spelling and punctuation. d. Being adaptable in a widening range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts within the classroom and beyond. e. Making informed choices about effective ways to communicate formally and informally. Creativity a. Making fresh connections between ideas, experiences, texts and words, drawing on a rich experience of language and literature. b. Using inventive approaches to making meaning, taking risks, playing with language and using it to create new effects. c. Using imagination to convey themes, ideas and arguments, solve problems, and create settings, moods and characters. d. Using creative approaches to answering questions, solving problems and developing ideas. Cultural understanding a. Gaining a sense of the English literary heritage and engaging with important texts in it. b. Exploring how ideas, experiences and values are portrayed differently in texts from a range of cultures and traditions. c. Understanding how English varies locally and globally, and how these variations relate to identity and cultural diversity. Critical understanding a. Engaging with ideas and texts, understanding and responding to the main issues. b. Assessing the validity and significance of information and ideas from different sources. c. Exploring others’ ideas and developing their own.
Essential skills and processes Teaching and learning within the English classroom involves a range of individual, paired and group activities. Learners are continually encouraged to discuss ideas, develop opinions, share work and to make learning a collaborative process. At times, there is a sense of shared discovery and learning, such as with the whole class reading of a novel or play. At other times, learners use their own interests from which to choose their own texts and base their studies. Lessons are intended to be flexible so that each individual learner’s needs are catered for. Often lessons will begin with a grammar or discussion focused activity, depending on the learners’ requirements. During Year 7, the focus is often on creative thinking skills, however by Year 9 this shifts to more of an emphasis on critical thinking. Once a week, all Key Stage 3 learners spend a session in the library developing their own individual reading.
Range and Content During each academic year, a diverse range of literature will be studied, including poetry, prose and drama. The literature selected is based upon developing an appreciation and enjoyment of English, learners’ maturity and interests, creating an understanding of literary heritage and covering a range of different cultures. Learners will also develop their own writing style, examine aspects of the media, consolidate their knowledge of grammar and use speaking and listening as a tool from which to bolster and improve learning. As English is a skills based subject, rather than one which relies on content knowledge, the learning from year to year follows the same basis and the same objectives, albeit with varying depth and expectations. Curriculum opportunities Speaking and listening The range of speaking and listening activities will include: a. prepared, formal presentations and debates b. informal group or pair discussions c. individual and group improvisation and performance d. devising, scripting and performing plays. The range of purposes for speaking and listening should include: a. describing, instructing, narrating, explaining, justifying, persuading, entertaining, hypothesizing b. exploring, shaping and expressing ideas, feelings and opinions. Reading The texts chosen will be: a. of high quality, among the best of their type, that will encourage pupils to appreciate their characteristics and how, in some cases, they have influenced culture and thinking b. interesting and engaging, allowing pupils to explore their present situation or move beyond it to experience different times, cultures, viewpoints and situations c. challenging, using language imaginatively to create new meanings and effects, and encouraging pupils to try such writing for themselves. The range of literature studied will include: a. stories, poetry and drama drawn from different historical times, including contemporary writers b. texts that enable pupils to understand the appeal and importance over time of texts from the English literary heritage. This should include works selected from the following pre-‐twentieth-‐century writers: Jane Austen, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, William Blake, Charlotte Brontë, Robert Burns, Geoffrey
Chaucer, Kate Chopin, John Clare, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle, George Eliot, Thomas Gray, Thomas Hardy, John Keats, John Masefield, Christina Rossetti, William Shakespeare (sonnets), Mary Shelley, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jonathan Swift, Alfred Lord Tennyson, HG Wells, Oscar Wilde, Dorothy Wordsworth and William Wordsworth c. texts that enable pupils to appreciate the qualities and distinctiveness of texts from different cultures and traditions d. at least one play by Shakespeare. The range of non-‐fiction and non-‐literary texts studied will include: a. forms such as journalism, travel writing, essays, reportage, literary non-‐ fiction and multimodal texts including film b. purposes such as to instruct, inform, explain, describe, analyse, review, discuss and persuade. Writing In their writing pupils will: a. develop ideas, themes, imagery, settings and/or characters when writing to imagine, explore and entertain b. analyse and evaluate subject matter, supporting views and opinions with evidence c. present ideas and views logically and persuasively d. explain or describe information and ideas relevantly and clearly. The forms for such writing will be drawn from different kinds of: a. stories, poems, play scripts, autobiographies, screenplays, diaries, minutes, information leaflets, plans, summaries, brochures, advertisements, editorials, articles and letters conveying opinions, campaign literature, polemics, reviews, commentaries, articles, essays and reports. Language structure and variation The study of English will include, across speaking and listening, reading and writing: a. the principles of sentence grammar and whole-‐text cohesion, and the use of this knowledge in pupils’ writing b. variations in written standard English and how it differs from standard and non-‐standard spoken language c. the significance of standard English as the main language of public communication nationally and globally d. influences on spoken and written language, including the impact of technology.
AIMS for Key Stage 3 To personalise learning and create an environment where all learners can succeed. Reading 1. To develop strong comprehension skills in all learners. 2. To promote the enjoyment of reading. 3. To develop critical analysis skills. 4. To expose learners to a wide range of fiction and non-‐fiction, including literary heritage works and other cultures. Writing 1. To enable learners to write fluently with accurate Standard English and a high level of vocabulary. 2. To ensure that learners can write for a specific audience and purpose. 3. To develop the creativity of all learners across a range of forms and genres. 4. To inspire enthusiasm in all learners for writing. Speaking and Listening 1. To use speaking and listening as a tool to support all learning in English. 2. To encourage learners to develop their own confidence at speaking in front of an audience, both formally and informally. 3. To promote the use of clear Standard English that is used appropriately for the context. Skills 1. To explicitly teach the Key Competencies alongside the English Learning Intentions. 2. To embed ICT throughout the English curriculum. 3. To empower learners and encourage independence at all times. 4. To use reflection as a tool for learning. Assessment 1. To use ongoing in class assessment as a tool for progression in learning. 2. To embed AfL techniques throughout all lessons. 3. To track learning on a regular basis using the Reading and Writing AFs and adjust teaching and learning appropriately. 4. To develop learner portfolios that include examples of learning from each unit.
Programme of Study The table shows the RAFs (Reading Assessment Focuses) and the WAFs (Writing Assessment Focuses) and how they link to the GCSE programme. For the purposes of KS3 at Nexus, each RAF and WAF is explicitly taught at different stages throughout the year. KS 3 ASSESSMENT FOCUSES-‐ READING AF2 – Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotations and reference to text. AF3-‐ Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts. AF4-‐ Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level. AF3 – Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts. AF2 – Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text. AF5 – Explain and comment on writer’s use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. AF6 – Identify and comment on writers’ purposes and viewpoints, and overall effect of the text on the reader.
GCSE ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES-‐ READING AO2i – Read with insight and engagement, making appropriate references to texts and developing and sustaining interpretations of them. AO2ii – Distinguish between fact and opinion and evaluate how information is presented.
AO2iii – Follow an argument, identifying implications and recognising inconsistencies. AO2iv – select material appropriate to their purpose, collate material from different sources and make cross references. AO2v –understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic, structural and presentational devices to achieve their effects, and comment on ways language varies and changes.
KS3 ASSESSMENT FOCUSES -‐ WRITING AF1 – Write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts. AF2 – Produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purposes. AF3 -‐ Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events. AF4 – construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between paragraphs. AF6 – Write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, clauses and sentences. AF7 – Select appropriate and effective vocabulary. AF8 – Use correct spelling
GCSE ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES -‐ WRITING AO3i – Communicate clearly and imaginatively, using and adapting forms for different readers and purposes. AO3ii – Organise ideas into sentences, paragraphs and whole texts.
AO3iii – Use a range of sentence structures effectively with accurate punctuation and spelling.
Year 7 Programme Key Competencies
Afs and Lis RAF5, RAF7 Exploring language variation Introduction and development, according to time, The Learner: Self Language place, culture, society and technology Management The Wider Autobiography WAF1, WAF2, WAF3, WAF4, WAF5 World: Using language, Developing viewpoint, voice and ideas; symbols and tools Oral Using the conventions of Standard Presentation English The Learner's World: RAF2, RAF3, RAF5 Developing and Belonging to and Leading adapting active reading skills and Groups strategies; understanding how writers' Prose The Wider World: use of linguistic and literary features Essay Understanding and shapes and influences meaning WAF3, demonstrating rights and WAF 5, WAF6 Varying sentences and responsibilities punctuation for clarity and effect RAF2, RAF3, RAF6 Understanding and responding to ideas, viewpoints, themes The Learner: Thinking Non-‐fiction and and purposes in texts WAF2, WAF3, The Wider World: Media WAF4 Using and adapting the Communicating and Essay conventions and forms of texts on paper interacting with ICT and on screen; Using grammar accurately and appropriately RAF6, RAF7 Reading and engaging with a wide and varied range of texts; Poetry The Learner's World: Understanding writers and layout WAF3, Own poems and Relating to others WAF4, WAF7 Improving vocabulary for comment precision and impact; structuring, organising and presenting texts RAF7 Relating texts to the social, historical and cutural contexts in which The Learner: Resilience Genre they were written WAF1, WAF2, WAF3 The Wider World: Using Creative writing Generating ideas, planning and drafting; language, symbols and tools Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques The Learner's World: Participating and contributing
RAF4, RAF5 Commenting on language Drama use ; Developing and using editing and Oral proofreading; WAF2 Write for audience Presentation and purpose
Year 8 Programme Key Competencies
Afs and Lis WAF1, WAF2 generating ideas, planning and drafting; using and The Learner's World: Belonging to Media adapting the conventions and forms of and Leading Groups texts on paper and on screen; The Wider World: Communicating Oral developing and using editing and and interacting with ICT Presentation proofreading skills on paper and on screen RAF5, RAF4 Analysing how writers' use of linguistic and literary features shapes and influences writers' use of Poetry and organisation, structure, layout and audience The Learner: Self Management The presentation WAF2 WAF3 WAF5 (relationships) Wider World: Using language, WAF6 varying sentences and symbols and tools punctuation for clarity and effect; Essay structuring, organising and presenting texts in a variety of forms on paper and on screen; using the conventions of Standard English The Learner's World: Relating to others
Prose Transformational Writing
RAF2, RAf3, RAF6 Understanding and responding to ideas, viewpoints, themes and purposes in texts WAF1, WAF2 developing viewpoint, voice and ideas
The Wider World: Understanding and demonstrating rights and responsibilities
Non-‐fiction (Current affairs) News
RAF2, RAF3, Developing and adapting active reading skills and strategies WAF2 WAF3 WAF4 WAF5 WAF6 using grammar accurately and appropriately
RAF7 Relating texts to the social and historical context in which they were written WAF8 Reviewing spelling and The Learner: Thinking The increasing knowledge of word Drama Learner's World: Participating and derivations, patterns and families RAF5 Essay Contributing RAF4 exploring language variation and development according to time, place, culture, society and technology; 3a/b* commenting on language use RAF6, RAF7 Reading and engaging with a wide and varied range of texts WAF7 Genre WAF1 WAF2 WAF3 Improving The Learner: Resilience Creative Writing vocabulary for precision and impact; developing varied linguistic and literary 3a/b* techniques * In order to maximise our use of resources, classes may study these units at different times during these terms
Year 9 Programme Key Competencies
The Learner: Thinking The Wider World: Understanding and demonstrating rights and responsibilities
The learner's world: Belonging to and leading groups
Afs and Lis RAF7, RAF2, RAF3 Relating texts to the social, historical and cultural contexts in which they were written; developing and adapting active reading skills and Poetry strategies WAF8 WAF7 Review Essay spellingand increase knowledge of word derivations, patterns and families; Improving vocabulary for precision and impact RAF2, RAF3 Developing and adapting Non-‐fiction active reading skills and strategies WAF2, Oral WAF3, WAF4, WAF5, WAF6 Using Presentation grammar apropriately; using the conventions of Standard English
RAF5, RAF6 Analysing how writers' use The learner's world: Participating and of linguistic and literary features shapes contributing Drama and influences meaning WAF1, WAF2 The Wider World: Understanding and Essay WAF3 Developing viewpoint, voice and demonstrating rights and ideas; generating ideas, planning and responsibilities drafting RAF6, RAF7 Reading and engaging with a wide and varied range of texts; Genre The Wider World: Communicating developing and using editing and Creative and interacting with ICT proofreading skills on paper and on Writing screen WAF1, WAF2, WAF3, Developing varied linguistic and literary techniques RAF7, RAF2, RAF3, RAF6 Relating texts to the social, historical and cultural The Learner: Resilience contexts in which they were written; Prose The Learner's World: Relating to understanding and responding to ideas, Essay others viewpoints, themes and purposes in texts WAF3, WAF5, WAF6 Varying sentences and punctuation for clarity and effect RAF4 Analysing writers' use of organisation, structure, layout and Media presentation WAF3, WAF4, WAF2 The Learner: Self Management The Class Structuring, organising and presenting Wider World: Using language, dependent texts in a variety of forms on paper and symbols and tools on screen; using and adapting the conventions and forms of texts on paper and on screen
Assessment Assessment at Key Stage 3 follows the English National Curriculum and is used as an ongoing process to measure learners’ actual progress, rather than their ability to perform during one particular day and in one particular text. Each learner has their own individual profiles, where their day to day, week to week and year to year progress in the 3 key areas of Writing, Reading and Speaking and Listening is assessed. The Assessment Focuses listed in the Programme of Study displays which areas are targeted. Furthermore, there are times when learners will use their past learning to produce a sustained piece of work, such as a critical essay or a formal oral presentation. It is intended that such learning will aid all learners in preparation for the demands of GCSE, IB and indeed further higher education.