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ABPL30048 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR

PROGRESS JOURNAL 389978 Thuy Tran


To tutors, PAUL & FINN, whom I thank you for your constant support when things were looking down and for always being their to offer your assistance. To lecturer, STANISLAV for pushing me to exceed beyond my wildest limits.


CONTENTS

PART I: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

CASE FOR INNOVATION 03 LIGHT AS AN ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE 04 COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE 08 PARAMETRIC MODELLING 10

RESEARCH PROJECT 13 SCOPE OF POSSIBILITIES GRASSHOPPER DEFINITIONS 14 CASE STUDY: ARTICULATED CLOUD 16

PART II: PROJECT PROPOSAL

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 19 EXPRESSION OF INTEREST 20 STRUCTURAL RATIONALISATION 22 INTERACTIVE MATERIALITY 24 DIRECTIVE LIGHT & SHADOWS 26 KINETICS 28 MID-SEMESTER REFLECTION 30 REFINEMENT FINAL PROCESS 32 FORM 34 INPUT OF SPINNERS 38 MATERIALS 40 RESEARCH: PREDICTION OF VELOCITY AND TURBULENCE 42 SITE LOCATION 44 MODELS 1:2 SPINNERS 46 1:50 SPINNERS WITHIN FRAME 47 1:200 FORM 48 1:500 SITE MODEL 49

PART III: LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

REFLECTION: THE FINAL PRODUCT 52

REFERENCES 53

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PART I: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

CASE FOR INNOVATION

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The intricate details of the surfaces and the mixture of different geometrical structure is what forms this piece. Its surface is covered by the Penrose tiling system. It pursues the illusion pattern, however when it is shifted, it is not the same.

Federation Square, Melbourne, Victoria 2002

CASE FOR INNOVATION:

Architecture as a Discourse

“Works of architecture frame our lives; we inhabitat them; they define our movementthrough cities; they moralise and discipline.”

Richard Williams

Melbourne’s Federation Square is a personal architectural interest. It has given Melbourne an identity, just like the Eiffel Tower did for Paris, and the Taj Mahal for India. Having grown up in Melbourne, the exposure to exciting architecture is infinite with the city’s mixture of historical, modern, high-rise and low-rise buildings. What separates Federation Square from the rest is the urban experience that is captured when walking through this space. Known as Melbourne’s meeting place, it highlights the social culture of the city in its ability to interact with commuters through restaurants, bars, and media.

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It is able to transcend into a different urban

experience as the sun goes down. With the addition of bright lights integrated with the ignites the feeling of cultural and transparent Penrose-tiled surfaces, it captures the essence of Melbourne’s nightlife. Having experienced the aura that is exerted by Federation Square personally, the architecture incorporated with the urban planning social stimulation. It encapsulates Melbourne’s modern and innovative architecture, but the space also acts as a communal area, where interests are shared and events are celebrated. There were many conflicting opinions about the Federation Square since its inception. It was labeled one of the world’s most ugliest buildings in 2009 as it was considered to be “frenzied and overly complicated, the chaotic feel of the complex is made worse by a web of unsightly wires from which overhead lights dangle.” (Crawford, 2009) However, since then it has gone on to win numerous awards, including five awards in 2003 at the Victorian Architecture Awards.


LIGHT AS AN ARCHITECTURAL DISCOURSE

When an architectural piece is built, it is on display 24/7 in its visual environment. Its’ presence can sometimes be enhanced to fit the time of day with the engagement of shadows during the day, and the bright lights during the night. These external elements enhances the perceptions of an architectural piece by maximizing its’ appearance through space and its surroundings. The relationship between light and architecture is sometimes achieved to pursue functional purposes, other times; it is an aesthetic addition to enhance the building’s visual appeal.

Yas Marina Hotel, Abu Dhabi, United States Emirates The Yas Marina Hotel is an example of innovate and futuristic architecture. It was designed by Hani Rashid and Lise Anne Couture of Asymptote Architecture, who are based in New York. It consists of two hotel buildings which are linked together by a shell that covers the span of the Formula 1 circuit. The shell, which is its most prominent feature, is made from monocroque steel and glass and its form is reflective of the nature of speed and aerodynamics. The structure is highlighted throughout different times of the day through its interactive response to its environment. The skin of the building is reflective of the sky during daytime and when night falls, the shell is lit up with LED coloured lights that incorporate live video feeds. The diamond-shaped glass panels that make up the shell are reflective of the sun,

which was purposefully chosen because of its high response to natural light. The monocroque steel outlines the shadows and this allows for intriguing shadows to be reflected onto the surface. It’s the transparency in the glass panels that allow the steel framing to be highlighted through the shadows, and also let natural light shine into the building.

asymptotic lines and the shell is a tan curve. These lines run parallel to eachother and will never meet, just like the curve will never touch the lines. All properties of a tan graph are reflective of the Yas Marina hotel, because although they are all separated elements, the hotels are linked together through an asymptotic exterior shell.

Although Asymptote Architecture is just the name of the design company, it poses as an indication of the direction they were for in this architectural structure. In general math terms, an asymptote is “a line that continually approaches a given curve but does not meet at any finite distance.” By looking at this structure, the exterior shell looks to be a separated from the two hotels. This could be an analogy for the tan graph, in that the two hotels are two

By extending the knowledge on this piece, the most interesting factor would be that the diamond glass panels that fill the monocroque steel frame is not static. It pivots through the use of a rod and moves through the force of natural factors, such as wind or turbulence. To have an element which is constantly moving and changing creates a dynamic in which may be considered for the Wyndham Gateway proposal.

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BEIJING NATIONAL AQUATICS CENTRE LOCATION: Abu Dhabi, United States Emirates

The Beijing National Aquatics Centre was erected just in time for the 2008 Olympic Games. It was designed by PTW Architects who are based in Australia, and progressed along with the assistance of engineering specialists, Arup and CSCEC. More famously known as the Water Cube, it became a distinct architectural structure through its literal depiction of water throughout its surface. Based of the Voronoi diagram, the tessellated pattern on the structure’s exterior immediately connect with bubbles and how they behave when they join together. The structure is outlined by a steel frame with ETFE cladding. The ETFE pillows depict bubbles in the way it in slightly inflated to give the surface another dimension. The thicknesses of these pillows are only 0.2mm thick, therefore allowing more light and heat penetration through the walls. Symbolism is a very strong aspect in this design. Besides the obvious fact that it is representative of water and its functional purpose of the centre, the Water Cube also connects with Chinese culture. The majority of China’s population follow the Buddhist religion, whom are strong believers in the afterlife. The Bird’s Nest stadium, located in China, was a circular shape, in which some took to believe that it represented heaven, while a cube shape portrayed Earth. These two contradicting shapes compliment eachother because they both reference a symbol of Chinese architecture, and highlights their culture.

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In relating this to the Wyndham Gateway proposal, it might be a good idea to research attributes of the city and find ideas that might inspire a concept. The gateway should be an indication of the city and what it represents. Researching cultural and social attributes will be beneficial in understanding the lifestyle in which Wyndham wants to portray. By incorporating it into the gateway design, to give it a stronger sense of justification and hopefully, successfully satisfy the client’s desires.

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COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE “It is possible to claim that a designer’s creativity is limited by the very programs that are supposed to free their imagination.” Kostas Terzidis

Science philosopher Jacob Bronowski noted that, “design is the epitome of intelligent behaviour”. With contemporary architecture testing the limits new technology, the irrational are becoming possible. Intuition and creativity are seamlessly intertwined when it comes to successful designing. With design, comes engineering. Computers are known to be technological engines, which solve problems within a logical range. They are able to analyse complicated situations and put it into a comprehendible language for humans. The communication and relationship between humans and computers is based on the sharing of knowledge. Computers comprehend textural, numerical, graphical and auditory messages. We as humans, possess the ability to come up with new ideas. An example of this relationship would be the use of computer-aided design. An architect designing a new house will need plans and elevation drawings. He/she will then input the necessary information into CAD with its dimensions and specifications making the process efficient and neat. The end result will allow for the legible drawings to be used by different specialised consultants, as computeraided design is understand on a universal scale by the professional industry. However, the argument within computer-aided design is that by using it, does it limit our ideas? In the act of translating an idea into a digital file, elements will be lost as computers are not free as our minds. In a way, the constraints set digitally are reflective of reality. Sometimes an idea is too imaginative to ever be produced in real life. By having computeraided design, it restricts some elements which fall into the category of being impossible. Wild ideas are great, but what good is it if it cannot be built?

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TRANSLATING INTELLIGENCE INTO ARCHITECTURE Roger Penrose was a mathematical physicist whom enjoyed the complexities of mathematics on a recreational level. His most famous contribution to the mathematical field began in the 1970s when he investigated ‘non-periodic tiling’. Non-periodic lacks symmetry and do not form a repeating pattern. He set an analytical formula to the conjoining shapes, basing it on mathematical degrees and size. His work in this field has lead to the erection of some of Melbourne’s most recognisable structures.

Federation Square, Melbourne, Victoria 2002 At first glance, Federation Square seems like a large geometric structure with randomly patterned, tessellated surfaces. The surface however, is based on Penrose’s tiling system. A series of triangles adds to the intricacy of Federation Square’s facade. Its’ sandstone texture adds a natural element to the entirety of the artificial site. The Penrose tiling system is repeated through size, as there are triangular tiling within a larger triangle, and then system is repeated for the larger triangles. As stated earlier, one of the capabilities of human intelligence is to be able to translate it into an analytical computing system. With the expansion of technology and fabrication in this innovative environment, architecture is able to create intricate and detailed forms due to the computing systems that we have at our aid. Technology was able to process Penrose’s complicated tiling system and process that into a computing system. The formula produced then allowed for a mass production of the tiling system to be applied to Federation Square’s facade. From the initial process of mathematic analysis, the design process followed, and then construction. All these processes were possible through the relationship between human knowledge and computing it into a technological system. This goes to show that communication between humans and computers is vital in its ability to process information.

Storey Hall, Melbourne, Victoria 1996 Storey Hall is RMIT’s Public Gallery, located in the heart of Melbourne. The building was refurbished 1995 by Ashton Raggat McDougall. He employed the Penrose tiling system, which formed a series of pentagons. This system created a dynamic and radical design with the use of the bright green to complement the arrangement. Being so closely located to Federation Square, these designs are a reflection of the city of Melbourne. By putting an iconic structure into a city, it immediately gives recognition to the place. For example, when a person mentions the Eiffel Tower, the immediate reaction would be to link it to Paris. Federation Square does the same for Melbourne, and to have Storey Hall compliment its design by employing the same tiling system brings forth a sudden architectural theme around that area.

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PARAMETRIC MODELLING

“Scripting, as an approach to computational design, offers access to whole new ways of exploring design but design always remains at the core.” Mark Burry

Airspace Tokyo Tokyo, Japan Scripting has become a cultural identity within digital modeling. Its ability to “”adapt, customize or completely reconfigure” the individual’s mode of working has improved efficiency and enhanced digital capabilities. In using such programs as Rhino, its scripting component called Grasshopper allows the user to experiment with different components to build a form or surface. It is primarily an aesthetic production enabling the intricate capabilities of ornate architectural decoration. By looking at parametric forms that are present in today’s architectural society, it can be seen that there’s a clear distinction between parametric design to the ‘average’ architectural building design. Parametric buildings convey a conceptual and imaginative idea, adapting to the changing environment. Its engagement with complexity, yet being able to capture logic through computing exercises the idea that illusions is not short of reality.

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The facade of the Airspace Tokyo building pursues the use of computational architecture. Designed by Thom Faulder in collaboration with digital technologist Sean Ahlquist of proces2, the façade articulates the illusion of cells and their organic nature. The design philosophy behind the idea was the abundant green nature that had previously occupied the site. Made from lasercut aluminium and plastic composite, the framework is enhanced through the lighting shining through the layered organic patterns. The design is an indication of Voronoi Morphologies, in which is generated through parametric computer aided software. They are “used as a took to facilitate the translation and materialization of data from particle-simulations and other point-based data into volumetric form.” In doing so, algorithms and parameters would have needed to be set during this inception of this process in order for it to be furthered. The use of scripting allows it to be transferred into something more definitive.


The Aqua Tower is an example of parametric modeling. Located in downtown Chicago, this 86-storey was designed by Studio Gang Architects and constructed in 2007. The building is a large geometric skyscraper sheathed in undulating layers. These concrete slabs create a sculptural illusion on the building’s façade. The form can be considered “blobitecture”, as it creates the illusion of movement through its organic and bulging form. The concrete fins are the fabricated result of parametric modeling. Through the generation of algorithms, complex shapes were formed. Each concrete slab follows certain contours set by a script and their parameters. This creation was justified by the connection with the topographic feature of the Great Lakes, which are located nearby. Their design philosophy correlates with the site context. Their design characteristics support the design concept because it explains their reason behind their parametric element. Although it is illusionistic, it exerts the comprehension of undulation with the topography. In looking at this design, it might be a good idea to look into the site’s topography for the city of Wyndham. It may pose as an interesting aspect to incorporate it into the gateway, and contours may be an concept in which can be explored further.

Aqua Tower Chicago, USA.

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PART I: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

RESEARCH PROJECT

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SCOPE OF POSSIBILITIES BOOLEAN PATTERNS

SURFACE GRIDS

SURFACE NORMS

MATH FUNCTION

EXPLICIT GRIDS

ROTATION EXTRUSION

OUTPUT

IMAGE SAMPLER

MULTIPLE MATH FUNCTION

ASSOCIATION

INPUT

Figure 1. Matrix

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Kalay referred to design as a “purposeful activity, aimed at achieving some well-defined goals.� In experimenting with inputs, associations and output in Grasshopper, this activity was an engaging experience in working towards a design solution. Certain inputs engage with certain surface patterns. From using Explicit Grids, Boolean Patterns, Surface Grids and Surface Norms, we found that these could potentially assist in the progress of working towards a design concept. In connecting these inputs with certain associations, the understanding of Grasshopper was furthered because the changes in the original could be seen. One of the most capturing associations was image sampler. By inserting a certain image into the script, the perforations on the surface would ap pear accordingly to the chosen image.

This tool could be furthered explored using different images that could be the connecting component between design and a conceptual idea. This component will definitely be explored further to see the type of perforations in can perform and on different inputs. Rotation and Extrude were the two outputs chosen for this matrix. Rotation changes the arrangement of the pattern through a rotating mechanism. As it can be seen from the matrix, it changes the density of the pattern, which could be useful in trying to convey information about a theme. For example, a design that represents the growth of a city could use this tool to extract the information onto a patterned surface, showing the variation in numbers as it rises or falls.

GRASSHOPPER DEFINITIONS:

Further Exploration

In looking at a few more definitions, the shapes that form these patterns are circular, rectangular or hexagonal. it might be relevant to explore more, such as triangles and diamonds which may be useful for a structural resolution.

Figure 2. Cut definitions explored in Grasshopper

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CASE STUDY:

Articulated Cloud

The Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh, also known as the ‘Articulated Cloud’, located in the aforementioned city is a compelling and dynamic structure designed by Ned Kahn. Its exterior is made up of tens of thousands of translucent acrylic panels that flicker through the force of the wind. Its effect is to create the illusion of clouds and this is achieved through the fluttering panels creating ripples in the surface. The panels are connected through a steel rod that is hanging from a steel form. These rods appear as though they are floating, in which encapsulates the idea of fluidity in the rippling motion. The building is made from steel and has a glass facade. The skin operates as the protective later of the building by reducing the exposure to heat into the museum. The design is highly responsive to the environment, showing variations when in contact with light, weather, and nighttime. In looking at Articulated Cloud as a design precedent, its interactivity and response to the environment is something that would be ideal for a gateway. The site for the project is located along a busy freeway, therefore the structure would gather turbulence from all moving vehicles, as well as the environmental forces. This will emphasize the gateways experiential interactivity making it more of an impact than it being a static, visual piece.

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Figure 3. This is a detailed section of the panel and its connection to the frame. Its steel rod is pierced through the top of the panel, creating loose friction to allow for the panels to move freely.


REVERSE ENGINEERING

With the correct paramters set in place, the panels were reengineered into the following Grasshopper definition. The movement of the panels are dictated by an attractor point. This point will direct which way the panels will face, and by moving it along the axis in Rhinoceros, this is the result.

Figure 4. Image of Articulated Cloud reverse-engineered in Grasshopper

Grasshopper Definition

Figure 5. The script used to formulate the Articulated Cloud

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PART II: PROJECT PROPOSAL

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST The Western Gateway Project is an opportunity to present an image of Wyndham City as an innovative and developing municipality. The Western Gateway will pick up where the ‘Seeds of Change’ Gateway left off by using parametric design to create an iconic and cutting edge design that demands attention be paid to Wyndham as a hub of rapid urban development. The Gateway will not only be a literal Gateway into Wyndham but also an introduction into the future urban developments occurring within the city. In particular, inspiration will be drawn from the $440 million Wyndham Marina project planned for completion in 2015. This marina project will attract boating enthusiasts, as well as those seeking an exciting waterfront lifestyle. Even though the gateway will be exposed to all those driving along the Princess Freeway, its connection to the boating harbour will attract more of attention from those engaging with the boating culture, and those interested in the residential developments. By capitalizing on this new expansion, the gateway will be an emblematic representation of this forthcoming tourist attraction. The design will serve as an icon of modernity, a sample of cutting edge design that can be expected from the state of the art marina facilities. In applying concepts relating to materiality, structural resolution, kinetic interaction and light, it will drive an innovative and experiential design solution that Wyndham desires. Our design goal is to create an architectural response that is unique in that the user can interact with it on a somewhat personal level, causing a manipulation of formal composition in different ways depending on the vehicle/users characteristics. This highly experiential design will react and display effects caused by the fluctuation in the frequency of cars, and their variation in size. The culmination of these elements will equate to a Gateway that is truly representative of Wyndham. The design will be an interactive, architectural sculpture that provides an opportunity for personal engagement. Through the use of light and kinetics, the experiential qualities of the design will be heightened, engaging the audience in a profound manner. Enabled through parametric design, this gateway for the City of Wyndham will promote the growth and development of this municipality, presenting it as a focal point for broader Melbourne to embrace.

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Structural Resolution

Materiality

Structural resolution of the design refers to purifying structure down to its core requirements in an effective and efficient manner. Through the development of form, its complexity can be optimized to a level that best suits cost and constructability considerations. In applying this to the Wyndham Gateway project, structural resolution will be implemented to purify the form to a level that sees the original design intent retained, whilst improving and simplifying form down to it necessities. This design element will also enable the integration of the Motion/Kinetic element, which requires specific conditions in order for it to work and is seen as the core connector that brings all other elements into the one amalgamated form and structure.

The gateway design has the potential to become a completely integrated part of the site through the choice of material. By choosing a material that responds to the environmental conditions of the site and to those interacting with the space, the surface of the Gateway can be altered in a way that is totally unique to its particular context. It also gives the users the ability to have a lasting effect on the architecture and change the way it will be experienced by others in the future, who in turn will have their own direct influence on the design.


The red dot indicates the diverging point between the direction of traffic. The location for the gateway would be ideal from this point on site A because it is the only proposed area that allows for engagement from both directions of traffic users.

Site Location Light

Kinetics

The element of light poses as a significant factor in the way it interacts with structural forms. The spotlight of the sun will enhance the aesthetics of the structure through the reflection of it onto the surface and the appeal in distortion and manipulation when direction becomes involved. With the addition of perforations and apertures, this will allow for maximum exposure through the layer, and therefore reflecting intriguing shadows for greater aesthetic appeal.

Kinetics refers to a particular degree of motion within the design of the building, and can be affected by changing environmental, social or time-related conditions. This idea of a dynamic, ever changing piece of art, is perfect for the Wyndham Gateway as it relates strongly to this city’s rapidly changing and evolving urban and cultural fabric. The aim of incorporating these aspects of interactivity allows for a dynamic design that can be different each time the user connects with the structure.

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STRUCTURAL RATIONALISATION:

Level of Revolve

Figure 6. The level of resolve for structural rationalisation

To capture the structure’s fluidal essence, a level of resolve must be established. In the model and diagram above, the display of resolve shows different results. The level of rigidness based on the simplicity and complexity of the surface. In order to gain a fluid form, the level should be rationalized adequately to minimise rigidness.

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BMW Welt Building Munich, Germany

The BMW Welt Building by Wolf Pree is an architectural precedent, which inspires the idea of fluidity. Due to the established concept of moving panels, the overall form will need to accommodate this idea. To allow the movement of panels, the framing will need to be symmetrical as the panels are connected through the centre. The main focus would be to transform a grid like structure into a smoothed out form without any distortion to the static frame element. This complexity may need to be manipulated so that the form does not fall into rigid surface planes. This may be resolved through the negotiation of the

The final form will follow a fluid and organic direction, as our design is heavily influenced by characteristics of boats and their movement. A sense of rationality and compromise between aesthetics and structure must be obtained in order to satisfy the concept of motion and fluidity. Themes that inspire the form are: wakes, waves and the ripple effect. The desired form would need to be generated to a level that is easily constructible for reasonable costs.

sizing may be resolved through the negotiation of the sizing of the panels. If the panels were smaller in comparison to its frame, it will have more room for it to spin and there are less chances that the rotation will be disrupted. Due to the fact that our form is dependant on the small, intricate details of the surface, our gateway will be more concentrated on the movement and its interaction with the user, rather than the overall form – even though its significance is vital in capturing the larger audience’s attention.

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INTERACTIVE MATERIALITY

Sidney Myer Asia Centre Melbourne, Victoria 24.


Progressive and Localised Impacts In order to heighten the level of interactivity, the material used would need to be respondent to atmospheric conditions. By finding a material that does so, the appearance of the gateway would be ever changing, depending on how well it reacts to weathering. Corten or weathering steel has characteristics in which highlight the interactivity needed for this gateway. It has an oxidized coating that is highly respondent to wind, sun & rain. If the structure were to be completely constructed out of this material, fumes and wind forces from cars will also become a factor in the natural interactivity of the gateway. However, there are concerns that lay within the structural stability of the material. The weathering could cause intense deterioration on the skin in which could lead the gateway being sensitive to loads. Incorporating form and material will be vital due to this issue.

The application of Corten can be seen on the Sidney Myer Asia Centre at Melbourne University. The weathering patterns are dependant on the angle of exposure. The ornaments on the building’s surface show that there has been a reduced amount of weathering on some parts of the surface due to its slight overhang. In relating this back to the gateway, weathering and deterioration of the material will mostly occur from higher points due to more wind and rain exposure. These localized points will create the dynamic skin that will garner more attention from users.

Figure 7. Use of corten used outside the Sidney myer Asia Centre at Melbourne University

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DIRECTIVE LIGHT & SHADOWS The Yas Marina Hotel, designed by Asymptote Architecture was an architectural precedent that provided conceptual ideas for the gateway design. The monocroque steel frames the pivoting diamondshaped glass panels to create the overhanging LED shell. The intriguing light and shadows captured by the Yas Marina Hotel during different times of the day was an element that attempted to be incorporated into the gateway design. Apertures of the proposed panels for the structure will be the source of light exposure through the gateway. The shadows captured will be dependant on the direction of sunlight and the movement of the panels. When these panels are on a rotated angle of 90 degrees, this is when the most light will be able to shine through. The framing will act as the static component and the reflection onto the surface will continually be manipulated by the direction of the sun throughout certain times of the day.

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Figure 8. Preliminary model to show the exposure of light through apertures


Perforations were explored in this gateway design. In researching for inspiration for this gateway, Wyndham’s $400 million dollar marina bay was what caught our eye. In trying to further this idea, we looked into the movement of boats in the water. The image of a boat wake is something that intriguing because of its fluid movement in the water. With the use of the grasshopper association, Image Sampler, it was implemented in a definition to generate a perforated surface according to the specific image. This model displays the perforations once it is incorporated into the framing.

Figure 9. Exposure of light through a perforated surface.

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KINETICS

Our form will follow a structural frame that is filled with panels that pivot. In looking at ways to enable the movement of panels, a model was needed to prove its legitimacy. Experimental models were made to test size and movement. When researching for way to increase mobility with the panels, anemometer and savoniuses were valuable in helping understand the capturing of wind. These weather-measuring tools helped define the shape of the panels. A combination of techniques adapted by the anenometer and savonius was applied to the gateway panels, but was modified into a more rigid and geometric form to create consistency in shape. A diamond forms the overall shape with triangular ends which form the cup. The physical model consisted of four panels, one of which was flat and the other three experimented with different depths of cupping. With pins through the centre of each piece, the mobility of each panel was smooth and fluid, which was our desired effect.

Articulated Cloud Pittsburgh, USA

Figure 10. Savonius

Figure 11. Anemometer

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The use of kinetics will be the enabler of interactivity for this gateway design. Kinetics is the relationship between motion and its causes. In looking at Ned Kahn’s ‘Articulated Cloud’, this large kinetic structure inspired similar concepts for the gateway.

The kinetic panels will be the feature of this gateway project. As cars are driving past at a high speed of 100km per hour, the panels will spin creating a visual and interactive moment with the user. This will hopefully bring forth attention to the city of Wyndham, through subtle motifs implemented in the design. Through a perforated wake pattern, localized materiality, and a form that will follow a concept derived from boating, this gateway design will be the icon of Wyndham’s boating culture.


Figure 12. Model showing the progressive motion of the spinners

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MID-SEMESTER REFLECTION I am fairly pleased with the progress that my group has undertaken leading up the mid-semester presentation. After the critique in week 8, I feel there is a lot more room for improvement and will definitely take on board what the guest judges had to say about our design. So far, the overall structure or form for the gateway is yet to be established. We have pinpointed the intricate details of our design, which we felt were the most important components. Our kinetic panels are the strong point of design, so up until week 8, our focus has been to build experiential models that prove it’s mobility and testing different aspects of kinetic technology. Working with grasshopper to implement a design solution has proven to be a struggle. The cut definitions matrix in week 4 definitely helped in grasping a better idea on the capabilities of grasshopper, however ideas have been restricted due to the lack of experience in scripting, and therefore our design lacks a sense of originality because my knowledge is based on preset definitions in which every single student had to learn. The journal has been a worthwhile task because it has given me the opportunity to observe published works and try and implement similar styles in my own. This is the first publish journal that we’ve had to complete since starting this course, and I feel as though it will be great practice in the future when we have to document our progress on real projects. Its extremely riveting to look through other people’s journals on the Wiki and to see the progress that they have made weekly, and it inspires me to work harder. Communicating ideas and arguing persuasively has always been a problem for me. I struggle in articulating and expressing my ideas to the level in which my peers do. Presenting is highly daunting but throughout this course, I have managed to grow a little more confident each time I need to present. Having the mid semester presentation was a great experience in gaining criticism from guest judges as it allows for improvement on our overall presentation and design ideas. On a personal level, Architecture Design Studio Air has allowed me to push boundaries and challenge myself intensely in the field of design. There were areas where I lacked motivation leading up to this gateway assignment because I felt it was too out of my league. Having close to no experience with Rhino and Grasshopper, I felt that the assessment tasks were extremely ambitious as I found myself struggling immensely. The Grasshopper tutorials were helpful in understanding different components, however the overall basis of scripting is confusing when we were unleashed to start scripting on our own. However, being in a group for this gateway project has helped me understand the program a lot better due to the help of my peers.

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PART II: PROJECT PROPOSAL

REFINEMENT

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FINAL PROCESS Following the week 8 presentations, the requirements and expectations for this proposal were heightened. There are still possibilities for this design proposal to be further extended, in that the some concepts were lacking justification. With the endeavour to produce a design proposal that stimulated one’s visual experience, evidence was needed in proving that the kinetics of this design actually works. In order to do so, researching into the turbulent force wakes of cars and anemometers was needed. Also, a crucial element of the design proposal was that the form still needed to be developed and determined. The form will be the most significant aspect in that its presence will be the first thing that is noted once it is built and place on site. The gateway design will then need to be explored in how it interacts on site with shadows and lighting, as well as the users themselves. In persevering with the design ideas at hand, the final product will follow a similar direction to the proposal explored in the Expression of Interest. It is just the matter of exerting the determination and hard work in order to reach the final stage.

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“If we are facing in the right direction, all we have to do is keep on walking.� (Buddhist Proverb)

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FORM In looking back at the initial inspiration of Wyndham’s Marina Project, it continued to play a pertinent role in instigating the process of defining the overall form. The assessment of boats within its environment is similar to the motion created when a car is in movement. When a boat is in use, a wake is created as the direct result of the interaction that the user has with its craft. When a car is in motion, it creates a similar affect with the turbulent force that follows a moving object, as seen in the diagrams below. These series of diagrams were then reduced into a simpler shape to be applied to the process of developing the form (Figure

Figure 13. (Right) Diagram of the wake of a boat as it moves through the water

Figure 14. (Right) Turbulent force created by a car as it moves along a surface.

Figure 15. (Right) Simplied version of the conbination of the wake of a boat and car, to be placed along the outline of the freeway to derive the overall form.

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15.). These wake curves are minimalistic, which rationalises the structure to a certain degree where it will be more structurally stable, than say, a “squiggly line”. The incorporation of wakes is representation of movement in the form, as it encapsulates the fundamental concept of the overall design. In applying this to the site, a series of wakes (Figure 15) were placed along the freeway at regular intervals. Simplification and manipulation occurred to produce a diagram in which could transform into a three-dimensional shape. The progression towards developing the form can be seen on page 35.

DIRECTION OF BOAT

DIRECTION OF CAR


PROCESS OF DERIVING THE FORM Figure 16. (Right) Outline of site in which the wakes will be placed along the lines. Red dots give an impression of the intervals between wakes.

STEP 1: A series of wakes were drawn along the outline of site B.

STEP 5: All planes were flipped onto a vertical axis to create a form with height.

STEP 2: The wakes in which did not link up in the middle were eliminated to create a consistent pattern

STEP 6: The planes are then rotated onto a certain angle to create lines in which could be connected to create a threedimensional form.

STEP 3: Continued to eliminate lines that did not meet neatly at certain end points. Was left with two-dimensional planes on the surface.

STEP 4: Subtracted the planes that overlapped eachother to cause less congestion with the shapes.

STEP 7: Placed vertical and horizontal grids between the existing curves through Grasshopper.

STEP 8: Extended the number of grids to create a more stable framework for the form.

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MODEL OF FORM 1:200 The increasing height of the form from one end to the other is an indication of the growing city that is Wyndham. The representation of the development is translates back to the initial inspiration of Wyndham’s Marina Project, in that that particular project is also an endeavour to promote the city to a larger audience. This gateway is tailored to demonstrate the movement of cars travelling along the freeway, and this is represented through the inspiration of wakes in a large, overbearing form in which will be hard to miss, even at a quick glance. The overall form is measured at 160 metres in length, and 28 metres at his highest point. With its large size and scale in comparison to the user, it will create a strong impact through its domineering presence, warping the visual experience of the drivers as it fluctuates in height and form.

Figure 17. Model shows the hovering form over the traffic of those headed in the direction of Wyndham.

Figure 18. Model shows the fluctuation in height, symbolising Wyndham’s population growth.

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INPUT OF SPINNERS The form derived on pages 35-37 are a frame structure that will allow space for the input of ‘spinners’. These spinners are a ‘blocky’ representation of anemometers, as explored on 28. The mobility of these spinners will depend on how they are implemented and its attachment to the frame.

Figure 19. The Noughts and Crosses panels that are found in playgrounds in which pivot/rotate for the enjoyment of the game.

In exploring different ways to make the spinners operable, research into existing pivoting objects were needed. One that came to mind is the Noughts and Crosses activity panels that are seen in playgrounds. The blocks are the pivoting objects in which are attached to a static rod that is built into the frame.

Figure 20. (Below) Steel rods will be slotted through the spinner, and then placed symmetrically in the centre of the diamond frame.

In applying a similar method, the spinners will need to be pierced through the centre to make room for the rod. The intended material used for the spinners is Perspex due to its flexibility, therefore it could be manufactured into a certain prefabricated form. In the centre of the spinner, there will be a cylindrical casing running vertically through the object, and this is where the rod will be pieced through. The cylindrical

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component must be loosely fitted around the rod in order to minimise compression, allowing for maximum movement. These spinners must be symmetrical in order for it to freely spin 360 degrees. The diamond frames are offset by a few centimetres; therefore if the balance is slightly off, the spinners will collide with the frame. The movement of these spinners will be

dependant on the turbulent force created by the user driving a vehicle along the freeway. The motion of these spinners are a display of the amount of traffic passing by; the more prolific number of users there are, the more movement these spinners are going to make. This integrates are strong sense of interactivity with the user, highlighting the experiential feeling vehicles pass by on a busy freeway.


The spinners are of geometric shape to maximise the exposure of the sun. With the addition of clean edges and vertices, it will create more distinct shadows between the different surfaces. The defined shape captures the sun at certain points and some areas are blocked off from sunlight completely. This creates a strong contrast between light and shade, heightening the level of interactivity between the sun and the gateway.

SHADOWS

Figure 20 & 21. These are 3D rendered diagrams, enhanced with the exposure of light onto the spinners. The extruded points seperate the planes and define the contrast through sharper shadow depths than the projection of a curved spinner.

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MATERIALS The gateway is emblematic of the development in which is happening in Wyndham. The rapid growth of the population happening in this municipality is an indication of the rise of attraction that is occurring. The materiality is an element in which could document this information through a certain period of time. As explored on page 25, Corten is a controlled rust product that is highly responsive to weathering and its atmospheric conditions. With the use of Corten on the overall frame of the form, it will conduct a highly site specific finish. With the incorporation of user impacts and the form being exceptional in height, the level of degradation will be of high degree, however, still remain structurally stable. The utilisation of Corten on the gateway will be an indicator of historical documentation throughout time. The rust will be a representation of time; in saying that as time passes on, things get older. The development of the marina harbour will be fairly new for a few years, before the hype dies down. The Corten weathering will be reflective of the development of Wyndham, as it surges towards becoming a definitive city of its own. Users will be captivated by a differently coloured gateway as it rusts away with time each time they drive pass. The ever-changing finish will extend the interactivity of the gateway, along with the spinners. The Corten will contrast with the spinners in which are made of Perspex. The latter will remain the same over time, but its durability ease of fabrication is the reason why this material is chosen. It is lightweight and therefore, it will be able to capture the force exerted by vehicles through the spinner and rotate to its maximum capabilities.

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COLOUR CHANGE The Sidney Myer Asia Centre | Melbourne, Victoria Photos taken by Mitchell Bizon

Figure 22. A Corten facade in which still remains close to the original colour.

Figure 23. A Corten surface in which has been exposed to weathering. There is a drastic change in colour in comparison to Figure 22.

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RESEARCH:

PREDICTION OF VELOCITY & TURBULENCE FIELDS IN THE WAKE OF VEHICLES BY GENERAL MOTORS

Figure 24. Diagram from journal document in which the researchers placed anenometers along the freeway to test the turbulent force of cars. The furthest tower was 42.7m away from the centre point between two lanes. Source: Eskridge & Hunt, 1979.

This gateway is a sculptural and interactive piece of architecture in which utlitises experiential kinetics. In order to prove that this idea is plausible, research was made in order to gain further insight into forces created by cars, but to also assist in making sensible decisions with the form. General Motors had performed an experiment in 1979 to determine the turbulent force exerted by cars with the placement of anemometers at certain intervals away from the freeway. In reading the journal written by Robert Eskridge and J.C.R Hunt (1979), they document the experiment, which

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proves that within a certain distance, the wakes caused by cars can still exert enough force to affect anemometers. They experimented over a long period of time, enduring different weather conditions. As expected, some days had more wind power than others, therefore the results showed random fluctuations throughout the recorded time period. The combination of wind forces and car turbulence proves to be more active in its affect with anemometers. However, the turbulence force following the wake of cars is a sufficient amount to still have an affect.

In applying this research to the gateway, the positioning of the form is vital for it to have its full performing capabilities. In the diagram figure 24, it showed that within 42.7 metres, the tower of anemometers still managed to measure the turbulent force from cars. Therefore, the base of the gateway is set at approximately 30 metres from the freeway boundary. It is just off centre being primarily closer to the side of the traffic to those heading southwest, because the purpose is to engage and hopefully, encourage people to travel in the direction towards Wyndham.


Figure 25. Indication of where the strongest and weakest forces are as a vehicle is driving pass.

FORCE EXERTED BY CARS The turbulence of cars leaves an affect following the movement of the vehicle. Its strongest point would align with the height of the car and as well directly behind the car as it is moving. Figure 25 shows the effect of the car on the spinners at a certain point during its passing of the gateway. The aspect of the kinetic motion involves the engagement of several cars as they travel along the freeway. Due to the fact that the strongest effect will occur after a vehicle has driven pass the spinners, the cars following the former will be able to visually experience the gateway performance. It is expected that many cars will travel along this freeway at any given time because it is a common route taken by users to travel from Melbourne to outer suburbs, such as Geelong or Wyndham.

43.


SITE LOCATION

Figure 26. Relationship between the gateway and Wyndham Harbour.

The gateway is approximately 7km from Wyndham and its marina harbour. The connection of the gateway and harbour is significant as they both pose as advertising mechanisms to attract tourists to Wyndham. In implementing a conceptual idea of boating into the gateway, it singularly promotes the sense of a waterside lifestyle for the user, in which is being currently being implemented for the municipality.

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Figure 27. Diagram to show the exaggerated shadows created when the sun rises and before it is about to set.

SUNRISE & SUNSET In placing the form en route from Melbourne to Wyndham, this gateway poses as a sculptural introduction to Wyndham to commuters travelling along the Princess Freeway. The form is placed 30 metres from the boundary to coincide with the research implemented by General Motors. (Refer to page 42.) The spinners would have to be in a position where its performance would be heightened; therefore it would realistically need to be placed at certain distances for users to be able to affect the gateway. The pavilion-like form faces primarily towards the commuters travelling away from the

city and towards Wyndham. The purpose of this gateway is to promote Wyndham, and encourage those travelling along the Princess Freeway to visit it. The form will slightly hover over the lanes on the freeway, enclosing the space slightly to create an intimate experience whilst driving pass the gateway. This will create an intense reflection of shadows onto the certain, with the exposure being dependant on the position of the sun. Freeway peak hours usually occur in the

mornings, with the main traffic directed toward those travelling into the city. As the sun rises from the east, the shadows will be reflected onto the side of the freeway moving in this particular direction. As the sun sets in the west, traffic would be densely travelling home into the outer suburbs. The shadows will be reflected onto the surface of the freeway, on the side where users will be travelling home into the outer suburbs. With the exposure of the sun towards this particular site, it maximises the interaction at different times of the day with the addition of intriguing shadows.

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1:2 SPINNERS 46.


THE WYNDHAM GATEWAY “AWAKENING”

1:50 SPINNERS WITHIN FRAME 47.


1:200 FORM 48.


THE WYNDHAM GATEWAY “AWAKENING”

1:500 SITE MODEL 49.


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PART III: LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

REFLECTION

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REFLECTION: THE FINAL PRODUCT DESIGNING WITH COMPUTERS The project has enabled us students to work on a large site, in which scale was needed in order to produce a gateway to be presented in physical form. Each scale model served different purposes. The 1:2 model of the spinners presented the intricate details of this aspect and allowed for the testing of motion against forces. The 1:50 model enabled the display of the diamond panels within the frame, showing the connection between the form and spinners. The 1:200 showed the overall form whilst the 1:500 showed the gateway on site. Photographs of these models can be seen on pages 46-49. All models, except for the 1:2, where all fabricated with the use of laser cut, in which experimented with different materials, such as box board and acrylic. The larger scale model of the spinners were hand-made and this allowed for a deeper understand of the construction process, enabling to be operational. The design path was determined since the submission of the EOI, it was just a matter of elaborating on the ideas and concepts, and justifying each process. This was demonstrated in depth on page 35 where the form was being processed.

ARGUING PERSUASIVELY The innovative characteristics of the gateway were explained persuasively through diagrams and physical models. This was essential due to the fact that this gateway is operational, therefore the audience needed to be convinced that all aspects are plausible. One of the critiques noted that this gateway proposal was one that had been well thought out, and completely justified in terms of reasoning behind every concept. These ideas were expressed through diagrams and photos, and were displayed in a hierarchical order onto two A1 panels. The use of two hero shots was to capture the eyes of the viewer, and other bits of information flowed from left-to-right. The models were built with extra care, and this can be seen in the way each intricate detail of the model has been brought together. Overall, both models and panels justified the gateway proposal to a satisfactory level.

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COMMUNICATING VISUALLY The form of the gateway is to be made of Corten, and this required research into the material. In providing samples at the class presentation, critiques were able to see the difference between two Corten samples, one being fairly new and untouched, and another having been exposed to weathering. Through stop motion videos, the movement of the spinners visually communicate with the audience on how this aspect was operational. With the added use of a hairdryer, it created a dynamic flow at a fast pace, capturing the essence that this gateway has to offer. For these spinners to be mobile, research was needed in order to prove that turbulent forces of cars do actually affect wind-capturing instruments. This was demonstrated on page 42-43.

APPLYING TECHNICAL SKILLS The rationalisation of geometry occurred when making the physical models. As it can be seen from the 1:500 and 1:200 models, they are both of the same form however the 1:500 was simplified because it would have been too difficult to project details onto such a small scale. All of these scale models were built to prove its purpose, whether it be for operational movement, construction or how it connects with the site. It would have been exciting to build a 1:200 form model with the addition of the diamond spinners, however, this would have consisted of thousands of spinners at such a small scale that it would have been irrational and perhaps, messy. Overall, there is a sense of satisfaction and pride with the final result. The subject definitely tested some personal limits, but hopefully, these skills will be useful in future design studios.


REFERENCES Accolades & Awards, FedSquare, Victoria, viewed 10th April 2012. <http://www.fedsquare.com/wp-content/uploads/ Accolades-+-Awards.pdf> Burry, M., 2011,. Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley) Crawford, C 2009, ‘Melbourne’s Federation Square among world’s ugliest buildings’, News, November 23, 2009 <http:// www.news.com.au/travel/news/melbournes-federation-square-among-worlds-ugliest-buildings/story-e6frfq801225802010512#ixzz1SKZvWMRl> Crosbie, M. 2011, ‘Ripple Effect’, Architecture Weekly, accessed April 20, 2012 < http://www.architectureweek. com/2011/0105/design_1-2.html> Eskridge & Hunt., 1979, ‘Highway Modeling, Part 1: Prediction of Velocity and Turbulence Fields in the Wake of Vehicles’, in Journal of Applied Meterology (United Kingdom: University of Cambridge) Kahn, N., 2010, ‘Turbulent Architecture’, Lecture (Texas: University of Texas School of Architecture) Kalay, Y., 2004, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press) Williams, R., 2005, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) Eskridge & Hunt., 1979, ‘Highway Modeling, Part 1: Prediction of Velocity and Turbulence Fields in the Wake of Vehicles’, in Journal of Applied Meterology (United Kingdom: University of Cambridge)

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Air Journal Final  

Submission for ADS Air

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