Types Of Rational Numbers Types Of Rational Numbers In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b of two integers, with the denominator b not equal to zero. Since b may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number. The set of all rational numbers is usually denoted by a boldface Q (or blackboard bold , Unicode ℚ), which stands for quotient. The decimal expansion of a rational number always either terminates after a finite number of digits or begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over.

Moreover, any repeating or terminating decimal represents a rational number. These statements hold true not just for base 10, but also for binary, hexadecimal, or any other integer base. A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include √2, π, and e. The decimal expansion of an irrational number continues forever without repeating. Know More About Use The Product Rule To Simplify The Expression Tutorcircle.com

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Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable, almost all real numbers are irrational. The rational numbers can be formally defined as the equivalence classes of the quotient set (Z × (Z ∖ {0})) / ~, where the cartesian product Z × (Z ∖ {0}) is the set of all ordered pairs (m,n) where m and n are integers, n is not zero (n ≠ 0), and "~" is the equivalence relation defined by (m1,n1) ~ (m2,n2) if, and only if, m1n2 − m2n1 = 0. In abstract algebra, the rational numbers together with certain operations of addition and multiplication form a field. This is the archetypical field of characteristic zero, and is the field of fractions for the ring of integers. Finite extensions of Q are called algebraic number fields, and the algebraic closure of Q is the field of algebraic numbers. In mathematical analysis, the rational numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. The real numbers can be constructed from the rational numbers by completion, using Cauchy sequences, Dedekind cuts, or infinite decimals. The set Q, together with the addition and multiplication operations shown above, forms a field, the field of fractions of the integers Z. The rationals are the smallest field with characteristic zero: every other field of characteristic zero contains a copy of Q. The rational numbers are therefore the prime field for characteristic zero. The algebraic closure of Q, i.e. the field of roots of rational polynomials, is the algebraic numbers. Read More About Number Sets Algebra 1 Worksheets

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The set of all rational numbers is countable. Since the set of all real numbers is uncountable, we say that almost all real numbers are irrational, in the sense of Lebesgue measure, i.e. the set of rational numbers is a null set. The rationals are a dense subset of the real numbers: every real number has rational numbers arbitrarily close to it. A related property is that rational numbers are the only numbers with finite expansions as regular continued fractions. By virtue of their order, the rationals carry an order topology. The rational numbers, as a subspace of the real numbers, also carry a subspace topology. The rational numbers form a metric space by using the absolute difference metric d(x,y) = |x − y|, and this yields a third topology on Q. All three topologies coincide and turn the rationals into a topological field. The rational numbers are an important example of a space which is not locally compact. The rationals are characterized topologically as the unique countable metrizable space without isolated points. The space is also totally disconnected. The rational numbers do not form a complete metric space; the real numbers are the completion of Q under the metric d(x,y) = |x − y|, above.

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Types Of Rational Numbers

Published on Apr 30, 2012

A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include √2, π, and e. The decimal expansion of an irrational num...

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