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$ P  V O O P U D Z B

Macon County Alabama

Dedicated in memory of:

Jimmy Johnson Jimmy Johnson was born March 4, 1949, in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, in the Greenwood Community of Booker T. Washington. His parents were James E. Johnson, Sr., a fireman for the Tuskegee Veterans Adminstration Hospital and the Tuskegee Army Air Field, and Frances Johnson, a register nurse. He also had 2 younger sisters, Gayle and Brenda. Jimmy said, “I was born into a community where the first thing I saw, was all black doctors, all black nurses, and all black patients.” Jimmy received his first education from Chambliss Children’s House, again on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, and then Tuskegee Institute High School, which orginally came from Tuskegee Institute. He was a boy scout, learning his skills and exploring at Camp Atkins, in the Greenwood Community. All his role models were college professors at the Institute, Tuskegee Airmen doctors at the Tuskegee Veterans Hospital and business men and women, in the Greenwood Community. He lived in the oasis of Greenwood, and played with friends, the likes of Lionel Richie (future music superstar), Tom Joyner (future media mogul), Robin Roberts (future television personality), Kathleen Neal (Cleaver, future activist and professor), and Myron Thompson (future Judge). At 12, Chief Charles A. Anderson, the “Father of Black Aviation”, invited Jimmy, and his friends to fly with him to Pensacola, Florida for lunch. His childhood was steeped in history. Jimmy joined the Navy, and was stationed on the USS Von Steuben SSBN632 nuclear submarine. After working in a variety of vocations, Jimmy returned to Tuskegee, and in 1994 he discovered the documents and records, collected by his Uncle Harold Webb. He began a journey into his local history and brought a wealth of information to the community and visitors to his beloved Tuskegee. He was diligent to keep the integrity and excellence, that defined Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee, at the forefront in sharing the history. He inspired the multitudes and pulled back the curtain of time, to show the stories that made us who we are. Thank you Jimmy, you paved the way!


Alabama was originally a land of many Nations. They were civilized nations with leaders, economies, high cultures, morals, families, values, diplomacy, and love for life. The main Nations were the Uchees, Chocktaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminoles. Europe brought colonization which destroyed most of these civilizations, through war, disease and genocide. The people from Europe were the Spanish, the French and the British. The state of Alabama was formed from the Mississippi territory, conquered by the French and Spanish. The land now known as Macon County was first the area of the Creek Nation. The Creek Nation began at Line Creek, which separates Macon and Montgomery Counties and extends to Millegeville, Georgia.




Thomas Simpson Woodward established Macon County, and Tuskegee as the County Seat in 1832. He laid out the Tuskegee town square and built the first house in Tuskegee, on a near by ridge. The original Macon County, Alabama, encompassed a much larger land area. It’s size was larger than the area of Montgomery County. Bullock and Lee counties were formed from the original Macon County. Citizens in Auburn, Opelika and Union Springs came to Tuskegee to pay taxes and conduct their business. This changed in 1866, when Bullock and Lee counties were formed from the land in Macon County. This took place just after the War Between the States ended. Macon County and its people have a rich and amazing story. This is Macon’s story. These are things that have taken place in this southeast central area of Alabama, known as Macon County. This work is to provide the reader with 365 days of stories that have taken place with Macon County and the people that have: been born here, lived here, attended school here, worked here, or been directly influenced by those people of Macon County, Alabama. Enjoy! (This work was compiled by Guy Trammell, Jr.)

."$0/$06/5: +BOVBSZ Jan 01

1864 - George W. Carver was born, in Diamond Grove, Newton County, near Crystal Place, Missouri. His parents were Giles and Mary. They were both slaves to Moses Carver, a German immigrant, and lived on his plantation. George had a sister and an older brother, named James. One night, in less than a week of his birth, George, his mother and some of the other Carver plantation slaves were kidnapped by some raiders from Arkansas. James was hidden away. Moses Carver hired John Bentley to find them Bentley was only able to locate the baby George, and negotiated his return with Moses Carver’s prize race horse, worth $300. After slavery ended, Moses Carver, and his wife Susan raised James and George as their own children. They both attended school, however, James traded the 10 mile walk to school for a job as painter. George continued his education and eventually worked with Booker T. Washington, at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial, to become the world’s greatest scientist. 1900 - Tuskegee Institute sent it’s first students to work in Africa. They traveled to the country of Togo to assist with cotton production. 1906 - The first African born students arrived to study at Tuskegee Institute. 1935 - The Kenney Memorial Hospital in New Jersey, became the Community Hospital of Newark, New Jersey. Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr., physician to Booker Taliafero Washington, established the Hospital as a memorial to his parents. 1954 - The Tuskegee Choral Group performed on the Eddie Fisher NBC Television Show, in New York City.

Jan 02

1805 - The Pole Cat Springs Indian Agency was established in Macon County, Alabama to work with the Creek Nation. The Creek Nation occupied an area extending from Line Creek, which separated Macon County from Montgomery County, all the way to Milledgeville, Georgia. Prominent members of the Creek Nation, in Macon County were the warrior Osceola and the Nation leader James McQueen, who lived to be 128 years old.

Jan 03

1946 - The Tuskegee Veterans Hospital Medicine and Surgery Department was established. It immediately created alliances with medical schools. This improved patient care, medical education and research. 1966 - United States Navy Veteran Samuel Leamon Younge Jr. was killed this night, by Marvin Segrest, an attendant at the Amoco Service Station next door to the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station, located on U.S. Highway 80. Younge, a civil rights worker and Tuskegee Institute student, who lost a kidney in the Navy, asked to use the “white only” bathroom and Segrest told him to use the one around back, of the service station, that was designated for “colored people”. After an argument, Segrest chased Younge and killed him by shooting him in the back of the head, as Younge was running to get in his car, which was parked next door at the bus station. As a result of Younge being the first black college student killed during the Black Liberation Movement, the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) made the first statement, by a civil rights group, criticizing the war in Vietnam. Also, students from the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) registered black residents of Macon County, Alabama, and help to elect Sheriff Lucius Amerson, to be the first black sheriff since Reconstruction.

Jan 04

1960 - Tuskegee’s Dr. Charles Goode Gomillion and Mrs. Beulah Johnson worked to help establish the Alabama Democratic Conference.

Jan 05

1943 - The world’s greatest scientist, Dr. George Washington Carver, passed away, in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. He was found in his room, located upstairs, in the Dorothy Hall guest house, when he did not respond to knocks on the door. He died from complications, he experienced, by a fall he had on the outside stairs leading up to his apartment. He was 78 years of age. Dr. Carver studied and conducted research in more areas of science than any other scientist. These included: botany, zoology, physics, mineralogy, astronomy, microbiology, meteorology, agriculture, chemistry, food science, pathology, disease science, bacteriology, and even developed the new study of creating products from agricultural commodities. He made hundreds of inventions and authored a very large volume of publications. He was honored with his image on both a U.S. postage stamp and coin. Also, a United States battle ship and a submarine were named after him. 1946 - Dr. George Washington Carver Day was declared in the United States of America, to honor Carver’s incredible scientific contributions to humanity.

Jan 06

1894 - The Tuskegee Cooperative Building and Loan Association was established in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. It was housed in a Tuskegee Institute classroom, and later became the Tuskegee Savings and Loan. 1966 - SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee), under the direction of H. Rapp Brown, issued a statement, in protest, against the Vietnam War. This took place as a result of the murder of U.S. Navy Veteran and Tuskegee Institute student, Samuel Leamon Younge Jr., at the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station.

Jan 07

1869 - The property of the old Tuskegee Railroad was sold at a sheriff’s sale to William G. Swanson and others. This group would later, in February 1871, enter into an agreement with E.T. Varner and Company, to reconstruct the railroad between Chehaw and Tuskegee, and equip it for operations by January 1872. Once completed, the property was transferred to Varner, to be operated as a partnership by E.T. Varner and Company, with the name “Tuskegee Railroad Company”. This new rail line was a 36-inch gauge railroad laid on the right-of-way of the old Tuskegee Rail Road Company of 1860. The gauge was broadened to meet the new standard in August 1898. 1891 - Zora Neale Hurston was born in Notasulga, to her father John Cornelius Hurston II (born 1861, died 1918), who was a carpenter and Baptist minister born in slavery, and her mother Lucy (Lula) Potts from Notasulga, Alabama. Zora was the fifth of eight Hurston children. Zora’s first and middle names come from Lucy Hurston’s friend, Mrs. Neale. John Hurston traveled to Eatonville, Florida in 1892 and became pastor of the Zion Hope Baptist Church, in Sanford, Florida. He later moved the family to Eatonville, Florida, where Zora was raised. In 1897, John Hurston was elected Mayor of Eatonville. Zora and her siblings attended Hungerford School, which was founded by Russell and Mary Calhoun, Tuskegee Institute graduates, who used Booker T. Washington’s principles of education in the school’s coursework. Zora would become a major author of the Harlem Renaissance, in New York City.

Jan 08

1927 - Dr. Robert Russa Moton moved Tuskegee Institute from a High School curriculum to become a full college. 1950 - Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. passed away from a stroke in Newark, New Jersey. Dr. Kenney was the former Tuskegee Institute Medical Director, and personal physician to Dr. Booker Taliafero Washington and his family.

Jan 09

1956 - Tuskegee Institute Alumnae Nell Jackson became the first Black female to coach a United States Olympic team. She was a former track star at the annual Tuskegee Carnivals.

Jan 10

1932 - Zora Neale Hurston’s musical, “The Great Day”, which she both authored and choreographed, premiered on Broadway, in New York City. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama. 1942 - Tuskegee Institute’s Peters Sisters (Margaret and Matilda Roumania Peters) were featured in the Afro-American newspaper for winning their fourth consecutive American Tennis Association (ATA) National Doubles Championship. 1966 - Tuskegee Institute became one of the first Nursing School Construction grant recipients, for the 1964 Nursing Training Act.

Jan 11

1944 - Tuskegee Army Air Field’s Weather Officer Wallace Patillo Reed was promoted to Captain. When the 99th Pursuit Squadron was activated at Chanute Field, Illinois, and consisted of black Army troops, as well as other enlistees, it also included five black weather observers. One of them was Wallace Reed. The following year saw the formation of the Tuskegee Weather Detachment and Reed was the first “colored” weather cadet to be selected for the unit. 1946 - The Thomas Monroe Campbell bust was unveiled, to honor him for forty (40) years of service in Agriculture Extension. Campbell was recommended, to become the first U.S. Cooperative Extension agent, by both Booker Taliafero Washington and Dr. George Washington Carver.

Jan 12

1937 - The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school became Tuskegee Institute. This name change took place as the school curriculum moved from industrial training to specific vocations. Some of the vocations included: tailoring, shoe making, carpentry, masonry, electrical wiring, architecture, nursing, culinary arts and husbandry.

Jan 13

1977 - Dr. Myra Adele Logan, the first woman surgeon to perform open heart surgery, passed away, from lung cancer. She was born and raised in Tuskegee, Alabama. She was the daughter to Adella Hunt Logan, a suffrage advocate and teacher at Tuskegee Institute, and Warren Logan, a teacher and the treasurer of Tuskegee Institute, under Booker Taliafero Washington.

Jan 14

1958 - Tuskegee Institute Alumnae Betty Dean Sanders married Malcolm X, to become Mrs. Betty Shabazz. Betty was a nursing student at Tuskegee Institute, and the Dean of Nursing, Lillian Harvey recommended a program for her in New York. Betty went to New York and began studying, when an older Nurses Aide invited her to a dinner party, with the Nation of Islam. She was encouraged to meet the minister, who was not there that night, and she accepted a second invitation, because she said the food was so delicious. At the second visit she was this tall, slim man waking to the podium, as if he was going someplace beyond the stage. They met and talked about the race problems she saw in Alabama, and continued to meet and talk after Nation of Islam’s gatherings. She attended all of Malcolm’s speeches. She also went with him in the groups he toured in New York’s libraries and museums. Then one day he called and asked her to marry him. This was something she had anticipated. They were married in Lansing, Michigan. It was also on this day that Betty became a licensed nurse. 2012 - The Tuskegee University community celebrated the opening of the “Redtails” movie. Screenings of the movie were shown, in the Kellogg Center, along with the documentary, “Double Victory” on the Tuskegee Airmen

and their battles for Civil Rights in the United States. Also, a flight simulator was brought on campus for both youth and adults to experience “G force”. Members of the Redtails movie cast joined Tom Joyner and Lionel Richie, in the Tuskegee Chapel, to discuss the Tuskegee Airmen history and take questions from the audience. Jan 15

1808 - Matthew Parham Sturdivant was the first minister sent from the Methodist Church, to the Alabama territory. He began his journey, through Alabama, at La Place (Shorter, AL). “The 22nd South Carolina Conference convened at Charleston on December 28, 1807. During the Conference Bishop Francis Asbury called for a volunteer to go to the Tombigbee region of southwest Alabama and establish a circuit there. Matthew Parham Sturdivant of Virginia answered the call and became the first Methodist preacher assigned to serve the settlers in Alabama. Sturdivant started laying out the Tombigbee Circuit about fifty miles north of Mobile. He traveled in a northern direction on both sides of the river for about a hundred miles preaching anywhere he could find an audience. Sometimes he traveled for days without finding a cabin but he was able to lay out a circuit with preaching stations where future worship services could be held. He met with such success that an assistant was appointed to the circuit the next year. For his dedicated service, Sturdivant has sometimes been called “a modern St. Paul.”” by Dr. Kenneth R. Johnson, University of North Alabama. Sturdivant reported, “I crossed floods, swum rivers and creeks, slept on the ground, endured hunger and thirst, and heard the howl of the wolf, the growl of the bear, and the scream of the panther.” After two years of having some success in teaching and spreading the Gospel, he left Alabama. 1941 - The Tuskegee Infantile Paralysis Center opened, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. This was the first medical treatment facility of its kind.

Jan 16

1941 - The U.S. War Department authorized the establishment of the 99th Pursuit Squadron. They were designated to be trained at Tuskegee, Alabama. 2004 - Ernest Hendon, the last surviving U.S. Health Department Syphilis Study participant passed away.

Jan 17

2016 - The Tuskegee chapter of NAMI (National Alliance for Mental Illness) was established, by United Methodist Reverend, Elder Patsy Gibson. NAMI provides free education, support and advocacy for families of those with mental illness. Elder Gibson was also the first African American pastor, and first female pastor to lead serve in the Tuskegee First Methodist church. Pastor Gibson held the first ever Memorial service honoring civil rights freedom fighter, Samuel “Sammy” Leamon Younge, Jr., the first college student killed in the Black Liberation Movement. Gibson was a U.S. Air Force veteran.

Jan 18

1965 - SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) began the Alabama Organizing Campaign, with the primary goal of registering Blacks to vote. SNCC field coordinators were sent to Tuskegee Institute to work. 1982 - Captain Joseph “Pete” Peterson was killed in the Diamond Crash, which was the worst operational accident to befall the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds Air Demonstration Team, in their 28 year history, involving public show aircraft. During an operational training, four Northrop T-38 Talon jets were practicing at Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, Nevada (now Creech Air Force Base) for a performance at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona. Four T-38As, Numbers 1–4, comprising the basic diamond formation, hit the desert floor almost simultaneously on Range 65, now referred to as “The Gathering of Eagles Range”. The pilots were practicing the four-plane line abreast loop, in which the aircraft climb in side-by-side formation several thousand feet, pull over in a slow, inside loop, and descend at more than 400 mph. The planes were meant to level off at about 100 feet, however,

the formation struck the ground at high speed, killing all four pilots instantly. They included: Major Norm Lowry, III, leader, 37, of Radford, Virginia; Captain Willie Mays, left wing, 31, of Ripley, Tennessee; Captain Joseph “Pete” Peterson, right wing, 32, of Tuskegee, Alabama; and Captain Mark E. Melancon, slot, 31, of Dallas, Texas. The jets crashed almost simultaneously with what nearby Indian Springs residents described as an earthquakelike explosion that looked like a napalm bomb. Wreckage stretched across a square mile of the desert, some sixty miles north of Las Vegas. Initial speculation on the cause was pilot error, that the leader might have misjudged his altitude or speed and the other three pilots repeated the error. However, the Air Force concluded the crash was due to a jammed stabilizer on the lead jet. The other pilots, in accordance with their training, did not break formation. Captain Joseph N. Peterson was born in 1950 in Tuskegee, Alabama to Joseph and Jessie Peterson of Hampton Virginia. He graduated from the newly integrated Tuskegee High School and earned a B.S. Degree in marketing from Auburn University in 1971. He was commissioned as a second Lieutenant after completing the Air Force ROTC Program and earned his wings at William’s Airforce Base where he later served as an instructor pilot and became chief of Training. Captain “Pete” Peterson was a distinguished graduate of the Squadrons Officer Training School. He was later transferred to the Republic of Korea where he was an f-4E flight Commander, as an air to air instructor pilot with over 3300 hours in Jet Aircraft. Peterson was in his second year with the Thunderbirds when his accident occurred. Captain Peterson held several awards, including the Meritorious Service medal. He was survived by his wife Cecilia, and two children. Jan 19

1967 - Queen Mother Amelia Boykin Robinson, graduate of Tuskegee Institute, and Extension agent in Dallas County, Alabama, met with William M. Seabron, the United States Department of Agriculture Secretary, to create the National School Lunch program.

Jan 20

2012 - Movie mogul George Lucas financed and released the “Redtails” movie, about the legendary Tuskegee Airmen, to movie theaters around the world.

Jan 21

2008 - Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boykin Robinson, Tuskegee Institute graduate, supported, Senator Barak H. Obama to run for the office of U.S. President, in Birmingham, Alabama.

Jan 22

1907 - Thomas Monroe Campbell established the headquarters for the Alabama Negro Extension work. He set the location at Tuskegee Institute. The program developed quickly into 40 different sets of activities including: boys and girls clubs, mothers clubs, extension fairs, conferences, and a large variety of agriculture demonstration projects. By 1910, Booker T. Washington organized a full Extension Department for the school, and placed Campbell in charge. Thomas Campbell coordinated this outreach throughout Alabama and into neighboring states.

Jan 23

1957 - Tuskegee Institute’s first Chapel burned down, from a lightening strike. It was designed by Robert R. Taylor and constructed by Tuskegee students. Taylor called it one of his greatest achievements. It hosted concerts by John Philip Sousa, Duke Ellington and W.C. Handy. It held speeches by Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., Mary McLeod Bethune, and U.S. Presidents William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft and Franklin Roosevelt. It was the first electric building in Macon County. 1966 - “Repentance and Prayer Day” was called for by the Session, a group of Tuskegee church ministers. This was a result of the murder of Samuel Leamon Younge, Jr., at the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station. Their intent was to bring community healing and reconciliation.

1998 - The Tuskegee Institute Post Office was dedicated to the memory of Dr. George W. Carver. It was originally located in the Institute’s Administration building and served Tuskegee’s Greenwood community, with the zip code: 36088. It always had a black administrator. Jan 24

1892 - Miss Mary E. Berry, of New York, gave Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school a plantation of four hundred acres. Miss Berry, who was formerly from Tuskegee, deeded the land, located 10 miles from the campus, and had several buildings, including a brick building, with nine rooms. With some improvements, the estate was valued at $10,000.00.

Jan 25

1908 - Monroe Nathan Work established the Tuskegee Institute Department of Records and Research. Mr. Work used the department, with its detailed investigations and reputation for accuracy to promote and give credibility to the anti-lynching movement. The accuracy of the Work’s Tuskegee lynching reports prompted the Associated Press to use Tuskegee’s data over other sources from around the country, to produce their news stories. 1947 - Lillie Purifoy, a member of the Tuskegee Institute Tigerettes track team, was reported in the San Antonio Express newspaper, to have set a new world’s indoor record for the broad jump. She jumped 15 feet and 2 inches. Purifoy was a three time AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) National indoor and outdoor 80 meter hurdles champion.

Jan 26

1887 - President Grover Cleveland’s Hatch Act established Tuskegee’s Agriculture Experiment Station and Research, as the first U.S. all-black administered and operated agriculture experiment station. This was to provide the research, that the farmers needed to improve their crop production, without the farmers risking failure and loss of product. Originally, these funds were distributed in

the south to white institutions only. Eventually, Tuskegee was able to receive an annual allotment of $1,500, which was minimal, compared to Auburn University receiving $15,000 per year. However, with the support of the Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson and his Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, Alfred C. True, Tuskegee’s station director, George W. Carver, was able to receive extra supplies and equipment. This program also focused the research to operate on a limited budget, using more resources readily available in nature, which accommodated the needs of the small black farmers, in Alabama’s Black Belt region. These farmers had few resources and using natural resources from the creeks, woods, and ponds saved them money. Jan 27

1963 - The Tuskegee Railroad received approval to end operations, from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Railroad had used steam locomotives, and brought passengers and material shipments between Tuskegee and Chehaw, since 1860. The building of the Interstate 85 highway and the widening of highway 81 offered new modes of transportation and signaled the end of the rail line. Once abandoned, salvage crews deconstructed the line and left only piles of rubble and scattered debris along the railway bed. The owners, the W.M. Blount family sold some of the property, including a parcel of land, to local buyers, which was adjacent to the Tuskegee depot, located at the corner of North Main Street and Old Montgomery Road. The wooden station was disassembled and a new warehouse was built, to facilitate trucks versus trains. 2009 - The last U.S. Health Department Syphilis Study widow passed away.

Jan 28

1960 - Zora Neale Hurston passed away, in Fort Pierce, Florida from hypertension, at the St. Lucie County Welfare Home. She was penniless and living alone. Hurston, born in Notasulga, Alabama, was a major celebrated author during the Harlem Renaissance.

1985 - “We Are the World” was recorded, after the Grammy Awards Ceremony. The song was written by Michael Jackson and Tuskegee’s Lionel Richie. Michael Jackson’s mother, Katherine Esther, was born and raised in Hurtsboro, Alabama, which at one time was located within the boundaries of Macon County, Alabama. Katherine’s mother was cared for at the Salem Nursing Home, located on Gautier Street, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Jan 29

1950 - Dr. John A. Kenney Sr. passed away in Glen Ridge, New Jersey. Kenney was physician to both Booker T. Washington and George W. Carver.. He founded the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, the first full service U.S. hospital for blacks, with Booker T. Washington. He was the one that insisted the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Medical Center would have all black administration, and that both the physicians and the nursing staff would be black. 1967 - Julian Bond spoke in Logan Hall on Tuskegee Institute’s campus. Bond, the national chairman, of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, spoke to the group gathered on the priority of the black vote and the injustice of the Vietnam War.

Jan 30

1838 - Seminole warrior Billy “Osceola” Powell passed away, in Fort Moultrie, South Carolina from malaria, while being unjustly jailed. He was born in Macon County, and was a member of the Creek Nation. 1944 - The Tuskegee Airmen’s 332nd Fighter Group was deployed to Italy. There were 3 squadrons. They left the U.S. from Hampton Roads, Virginia, on 3 of a large group of merchant ships. Crossing the Atlantic, they entered the Mediterranean sea, then sailed to Taranto and Naples, Italy. Out of Naples and Montecorvino aerodromes, the Airmen flew Bell P-39 Airacobra fighter planes, along with the 12th U. S. Army Air Force. They conducted combat patrols over the Tyrennean Sea and made strafing attacks at Cassino and Anzio, against German troops, well into the Spring.

Jan 31

1832 - Macon County born, Osceola, and other Seminoles revolted against the Treaty of Paynes Landing. The Treaty was an agreement to leave Florida, and live on a reservation in Oklahoma. It also required that Seminoles who were part Black to be sold as slaves. Osceola had two (2) wives, one from the Creek Nation and the other was Black. When he learned that the Treaty would send his wife into slavery, he stabbed the paper with his knife and said he would never sign it. This action gave rise to the Seminole Wars. 1985 - The Commodores released the song “Nightshift”. This was written as a tribute to singers Marvin Gaye and Jackie Wilson. The song won a Grammy Award in 1985 for the Best Vocal R&B Performance by a Duo or Group. It features Walter Orange and J.D. Nicholas singing lead vocals. The Commodores released another version of the song in 2010, to commemorate Michael Jackson.


1921 - Wynton “Red” Blount was born in Union Springs, which was once located within Macon County, Alabama. He served as U.S. Postmaster General from January 22, 1969 till January 1, 1972. He was known as the father of postal reform, for reorganizing the U.S. postal service. He was a major philanthropist in Alabama. He and his younger brother, Houston, formed a construction company that built the New Orleans Superdome, and the Florida Cape Canaveral launch complex. In 1963, when Gov. George C. Wallace opposed the integration of the University of Alabama, Blount, who was a college trustee, contacted U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy to form a compromise. They let Wallace stand at the door to make a statement, then move aside to allow the students to enter the college. He also built Blount Park in Montgomery to house the Alabama Shakespeare Festival and the Fine Arts Museum.

1941 - Mildred L. Hemmons Carter became the first licensed Alabama black female pilot. She had come from Benson, Alabama to attend Tuskegee Institute, where she earned her business degree at 19 years of age. She tried to get in the Civilian Pilot Training Program, but was denied because she was too young. The next year she entered the program and became their first woman graduate. She was taught to fly by the famous, Chief Charles Alfred Anderson, the Father of Black Aviation. Mildred Carter got the job of clerk at the newly installed Tuskegee Army Airfield, making her the first civilian to be hired as clerk at the facility. Her husband was Colonel Herbert Eugene Carter, one of the original Tuskegee Airmen. Mildred Carter remembered watching a “News Reel” about World War 2 at the movie theater, and seeing her husband with the other Tuskegee Airmen. 1958 - Dr. Prince P. Barker is named Director of the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Dr. Barker, who was Chief of Neuropsychiatric Services, had been given an exceptional promotion in 1951. He was promoted to Doctor, Chief Grade, of the Department of Medicine and Surgery, which is a Senior Grade status. This was outstanding because it normally takes 7 years to work up to this status, however, his 7 years were waived because of his exceptional work in Neuropsychiatry. Only a few other doctors achieved this status, even in the seven years. Chief Grade is the highest rank achievable in the Veterans Administration. 1961 - The Tuskegee Merchant Boycott ended. It began as a protest of the gerrymander or the re-drawing of the city limits of Tuskegee, that excluded all but 12 eligible black voters, out of 3,000, and kept all 1,000 eligible white voters. Over 100 white businesses closed, from the protest, the Macon Theater being first. Blacks supported many newly established black owned businesses in Tuskegee and Tuskegee Institute’s Greenwood community. They also supported white businesses that were supporting blacks and favored desegregation. One white owned grocery, in Notasulga, thrived and grew its customer base. That store was Carmack grocery, which treated all people fairly, rejecting racial segregation.

Feb 02

1839 - The town of Auburn was incorporated, as a part of Macon County, Alabama. 1854 - The Tuskegee Female College was chartered, in Tuskegee, Alabama. The charter was signed by then Alabama Governor John Winston. The school was located off South Main Street. It would later become Huntingdon College, after moving to Montgomery, Alabama. 1882 - John Cornelius Hurston II married Lucy (Lula) Potts, in the Beulah Baptist Church, Notasulga, Alabama. Lucy was the daughter of Richard and Sarah Potts (Sarah died in 1926). They would later become the parents of Zora Neale Hurston. 1923 - The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Medical Center opened. This was the only U.S. Veterans Administration hospital administered and staffed by blacks, to serve black war veterans. The land for the hospital campus was furnished by Tuskegee Institute, under President Robert Russa Moton. 1966 - Tuskegee Institute’s campus became a National Historic Landmark. Tuskegee was the first college campus to receive this designation.

Feb 03

1965 - The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League was formed by Tuskegee Institute students to fight for justice and equality for all people. They were the first Alabama student group to lodge a protest against the “Bloody Sunday” attack in Selma, Alabama. They held a sit-in protest at the State Capital, demanding justice to be done concerning the treatment of Selma’s protesters and for protection to be provided for the Selma to Montgomery March. 1967 - The Conference on Alabama Justice was held by the Ad hoc Committee for Justice, at Tuskegee Institute, to discuss the possible formation of a Macon County Black Panther Party. This was organized by the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League, along with SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee). This

was the first Black Power Conference held in the United States of America. The location was Tuskegee Institute’s black Boy Scout facility, Camp Atkins. Feb 04

1913 - Rosa Louise McCauley was born in John A. Andrew Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, in Alabama. Her parents were James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards McCauley, a school teacher. Her brother Sylvester McCauley was born August 20, 1915. Later in 1915, her parents separated. Rosa, her mother and brother moved to Pine Level, Alabama, to live with her grandparents. When Rosa was 11 years old, they moved to Montgomery, Alabama. She would later marry Raymond Parks, a barber and civil rights worker, and become the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”.

Feb 05

1964 - The Macon County, Alabama Public Schools were integrated. This was the result of the court case: “Lee versus the Macon County Board of Education”. There were 13 black students that integrated the Tuskegee High School in 1963. However, Governor George Cornelius Wallace ordered Tuskegee High School to be closed. His order proved the state responsible for segregation. This led to all the schools in Macon County to be integrated and all 99 Alabama school systems to be integrated.

Feb 06

1959 - The Macon County Voter Discrimination suit was filed by the U.S. Justice Department. 2017 - Former U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Dr. Louis Sullivan spoke at the Tuskegee University’s Health Culture for the Deep South Conference, in the Kellogg Conference Center.

Feb 07

1883 - Notasulga, Alabama was incorporated as a town. 1883 - Farming instruction was introduced at Tuskegee Institute, beginning with a teaching farm of nineteen (19) acres. This was on the former Bowen plantation that

Booker Taliafero Washington purchased. 1960 - Upon Zora Neale Hurston’s death, in Fort Pierce, Florida, she was penniless and living alone. Zora’s neighbors got together and took up a collection to pay for her funeral. The funeral was held on this date. They buried her in an unmarked grave, at the Garden of Heavenly Rest cemetery. Zora Neale Hurston died from hypertension, at the St. Lucie County Welfare Home. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama, and was a major celebrated author during the Harlem Renaissance. Feb 08

1956 - Thomas Monroe Campbell passed away, in Montgomery, Alabama. Campbell was the first U.S. Cooperative Extension agent, and he was recommended for the position by both Booker T. Washington and Dr. George W. Carver. 2009 - Dr Bennie D. Mayberry, Tuskegee Institute’s Agriculture Dean passed away. Mayberry was the long standing Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tuskegee. He coordinated programs both on campus and overseas.

Feb 09

1907 - Chief C. A. Anderson was born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. He would purchase his own air plane and teach himself to fly. Anderson was chosen as the head of the Tuskegee Institute Civilian Pilot Training Program. It was this program that caused Tuskegee to be the site for the Tuskegee Army-Airfield. Anderson was then named the flight trainer for the Tuskegee Airmen. Chief Anderson became known as the “Father of Black Aviation”.

Feb 10

1881 - Representatives Hon. Arthur L. Brooks and Hon. Colonel Wilbur F. Foster, a former Confederate soldier, both democrats, sponsored House Bill No. 165 in the Alabama Legislature, which provided Tuskegee with $2,000.00 annually for a black state and normal school. It was first called Tuskegee State Normal School, and later became Tuskegee University. The bill specified the school

would have a minimum of 25 students to open, that there would be no tuition to attend, and that students must teach in Alabama schools for a minimum of two years after graduation. 1892 - Tuskegee’s First Farmers Conference was organized. This was another outreach program developed at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial to uplift the black farmers by teaching them the latest techniques in bringing in a bountiful harvest, and earning profits from their products. 1971 - Robert Edward Varner, of Tuskegee, was nominated by U.S. President Richard M. Nixon, to serve as Judge for the U.S. District Court of the Middle Alabama District. He served as U.S. District Court Judge until he passed away on May 17, 2006. He was born on June 11, 1921 in Montgomery, Alabama, and served as a U.S. Naval aviator lieutenant junior grade from 1942 til 1946. He practiced law in Tuskegee from 1949 til 1954. He was also a member of the Macon County Board of Education from 1950 til 1954, where he served as chairman in 1954. He was the Tuskegee city attorney in 1951, and was the Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of Alabama from 1954 til 1958. Feb 11

1856 - The Tuskegee Female College officially opened under the leadership of Dr. Andrew Adgate Lipscomb, the first president. In 1856, there were four (4) students in the first graduating class, but by September 1859, enrollment rose to an average of 219, with 29 women graduating that year. After three (3) name changes, the school moved to Montgomery, Alabama and became Huntingdon College. 1883 - Thomas Monroe Campbell was born in Elbert County, Georgia. He would attend Tuskegee Institute and become the first Extension Agent for the U.S. Agriculture Department, with recommendations by Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver.. 1920 - General Daniel “Chappie” James, Jr. was born in Pensacola, Florida. He would go on to become a

Tuskegee Airman and become the first black four (4) star general in the U.S. military. He would also have a career at the Pentagon and supervise U.S. military air operations in the Pacific region. Feb 12

1881 - Governor Rufus W. Cobb signed Bill No. 165 to establish the Tuskegee State Normal School. 1923 - U.S. Vice President Calvin Coolidge dedicated the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital, on land given by Tuskegee Institute.

Feb 13

1873 - Emmett Jay Scott was born in Houston, Texas. His parents were Hoarse L. and Emma Kyle Scott, and he was one of four children. He attended Wiley College, a Methodist college for blacks, and would later become Booker T. Washington’s personal secretary, and the head of what was called, “The Tuskegee Machine.” 1940 - The Dr. George Washington Carver Foundation was established on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. The purpose of the Foundation was to continue the research that Dr. Carver had begun. The original funding for the Foundation was provided by Dr. Carver himself, from his life savings of $32,000. This was the first and only Foundation created by a black scientist, for the training of other young scientists.

Feb 14

1942 - Wallace Patillo Reed became the first black Weather Officer for the United States Air Corps Weather Service (Tuskegee Weathermen). 1958 - The Macon County Abolishment Committee held their first meeting. The Committee was formed through the Alabama Legislature, because of the Alabama Constitution Amendment Number 132. The amendment states: “The Legislature may, with or without the notice prescribed by Section 106 of this Constitution, by a majority vote of each house, enact general or local laws altering or re-arranging the existing boundaries,

or reducing the area of, or abolishing, Macon County, and transferring its territory, or any part thereof, and its jurisdiction and functions, to contiguous counties. Toward this end, there shall be a committee composed of the senators and representatives who now represent the counties of Bullock, Elmore, Lee, Macon, Montgomery, and Tallapoosa in the Legislature, to study and determine the feasibility of abolishing Macon County or reducing its area, and to formulate the legislation deemed necessary for such purpose”. Feb 15

1897 - The Alabama Legislature established the Tuskegee Institute Agriculture Experiment Station. The Station location was selected by George W. Carver, to be on the Tuskegee Institute farm. 1921 - Zora Neale Hurston’s first short story, “John Redding Goes to Sea” was published in “Stylus”, the Howard College literary magazine. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama.

Feb 16

1922 - The Booker T. Washington Monument was constructed on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. The project was funded by black people across the U.S., each contributing what they could to honor Mr. Washington. The monument became the symbol for Tuskegee Institute. A replica of the design was erected at the Booker T. Washington High School in Atlanta, Georgia. Other monuments to honor Washington were constructed in: Virginia, West Virginia and Ohio. 1948 - Theodore “Ted” Bernard Washington was born in Tampa, Florida. He attended high school in Tampa and at Tuskegee Institute High School. He played football at Mississippi Valley State University. In 1972, he was a 17th round NFL draft pick, as an outside linebacker for the Kansas City Chiefs, and was traded to the Houston Oilers football team. He played with the Oilers eleven (11) seasons (1973 - 1982). After retirement, Washington gave inspirational talks to youth in Macon County public schools and at Snow Hill, also called Mt. Meigs Juvenile

facility, in Montgomery. Ted Washington passed away on May 6, 2017. Feb 17

1956 - The Alabama Association of Citizen’s Councils was organized in Montgomery, Alabama. Senator Samuel Martin Englehardt Jr., of the Alabama Legislature, a cotton farmer in Shorter, Alabama, was named the Executive Secretary, for the Association. Englehardt was an outspoken white supremacist and an unyielding segregationist, even though his county, Macon, had the highest ratio of whites to blacks in the United States. The organization’s development was a direct reaction to the integration of the University of Alabama, by Miss Authorine Lucy. 1960’s - Dr. Myra Adele Logan conducted research on breast cancer, and developed a new method of detecting the cancer by using x-rays. Myra Logan was born in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on Tuskegee Institute’s campus. She was the youngest daughter of Warren Logan, Tuskegee’s treasurer and instructor, and Adella Hunt Logan, a suffrage advocate and an Arts and Sciences instructor at Tuskegee Institute. 1961 - Tuskegee’s gerrymander was struck down. Federal Judge Frank M. Johnson ruled that Act 140 did have the effect of disenfranchising black voters and was thus unconstitutional and issued an order prohibiting officials from enforcing the act. Act 140 reset the city limits of Tuskegee, to exclude all 3,000 eligible black voters from living in the city, except for 12, but at the same time it retained all 1,000 eligible white voters within the city limits.

Feb 18

1909 - Warren Elliot Henry was born in Evergreen, Alabama. Warren became the top African American physicist of the 20th century. His father was a successful peanut farmer, and Dr. George Washington Carver conducted research on the family farm. Young Warren Henry would walk in the woods and around the farm, with his father and Dr. Carver, as they discussed Carver’s

research. He learned to read at age 4, and became a paid college lab technician, while in high school. In 1931, he graduated from Tuskegee Institute, where Carver was his mentor. His Bachelor of Science degree was in Math, English and French. In 1937, he earned his Master of Science degree, from Atlanta University in organic chemistry. In 1941, he earned his doctorate in physical chemistry, from the University of Chicago. Segregation limited his work options, so he returned to Tuskegee to teach. His students included members of the 99th Pursuit Squadron of the Tuskegee Airmen. In 1943, his University of Chicago friend, P.R. Bell, helped him join MIT’s Top-secret Radiation Laboratory. He worked there till 1946, and developed video amplifiers, which were used on warships, in portable radar systems. He became the chair for the Morehouse Physics Department. He attempted to conduct research in low temperatures at Rutgers University (where Paul Robeson was not allowed to sing in the choir). He was denied, but a friend of his in the Office of Naval Research, told him to ask the Naval Research Lab to hire him for 2 months. He was hired and at the end of 2 months, Dr. Richard Dolecek asked for him to stay. He worked there for 12 years and became the preeminent authority of low temperature research on materials in America. At the Naval Lab, he led the group that installed the high field Bitter Magnet. He worked at the University of California in Berkeley, as a guest investigator, in the Giauque Lab, under the supervision of Glenn Seaborg. From 1960 to 1969, he developed guidance systems, at Lockheed, for the detection of submarines, and designed the hover craft for use in night fighting, in Vietnam. He conducted about 7 decades of research and development in the fields of magnetism and superconductivity. On October 31, 2001, he passed away in Washington’s Sibley Memorial Hospital. 1979 - Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was honored with the Presidential Spingarn Medal. Mrs. Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama. 1969 - The Commodores recorded their first studio produced song. The location was New York and the producer was Jerry Williams, who heard them performing

the year before in Tuskegee. The song title was, “Keep on Dancin’” and it didn’t make the music charts. Feb 19

1892 - Margaret Murray Washington, Tuskegee Institute’s “Lady Principal” began having “Mother’s Meetings”. This program provided child care, training in literacy, training in hygiene and home care, for women living in central Alabama. She promoted improvements for African American women in habits and hygiene. 1903 - Funding was provided to extend the Tuskegee Railroad onto the campus of Tuskegee Institute.

Feb 20

1860 - The State of Alabama granted a charter to incorporate the Tuskegee Railroad. The Railroad owners were: David Clopton, William Foster, Cullen A. Battle, Robert F. Ligon, J.W. Echols, S.B. Baine, G.W. Campbell, A.B. Fanin, John C.H. Reid, W.G. Swanson, and A.D. Edwards. In the year 1860, 500 “Enslaved Africans” worked building the railroad under lease agreements with plantation owners, who collected pay for the slave’s labor. They built 5.73 miles of 60-inch gauge railroad from Chehaw to Tuskegee. In 1863, during the American Civil War, U.S. General Sherman sent U.S. General Lovell Rousseau on a raid of the Montgomery and West Point Railroad where he destroyed rail to the Chehaw Station of the Tuskegee Railroad, to cut off connections to the Tuskegee Railroad from all points. The Tuskegee Railroad was melted down by Confederates for armaments to use in the Civil War. 1949 - Mabelle “Mab” Massey Segrest was born, in Tuskegee, Alabama. She would go on to become an author, a college professor and an activist in the feminist and women empowerment movements. 2016 - Dr. Rodney Ellis became President of Southern Community College, in Louisiana. Dr. Ellis was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute.

Feb 21

1939 - The Tuskegee Civilian Pilot Training program was organized at Tuskegee. This was accomplished through the recommendation of Mary McCloud Bethune, the first black to be appointed over a federal program. She was appointed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1942 - Stephen Esteban Hotesse enlisted in the U.S. Army and became part of the 619 squadron of the 447 bombardment group known as the Tuskegee Airmen. He is the first Dominican soldier to serve as a Tuskegee Airman. Hotesse was born in Moca, Dominican Republic. His family moved to New York when he was 4, and that is where he grew up. In 1945, he was stationed at the airbase in Seymour, Indiana. It was there that he took part in the Freeman Field Mutiny, where Tuskegee Airmen officers were denied entry into the segregated officers’ club. 100 black officers, of the Tuskegee Airmen were arrested, when they refused to comply with the segregation policy. It wasn’t until 1995 that their records were expunged of the arrest. Hotesse served with the Tuskegee Airmen for over 3 years. He died on July 8, 1945, during a military exercise, at the age of 26. He was survived by his wife, Iristella Lind Hortesse, of Puerto Rico, and their 2 daughters: Mary Lou and Rosalie Hotesse. He also had a granddaughter, Iris Rivera. 1965 - Betty Shabazz’s husband, Malcolm X was assassinated in the Manhattan Audubon Ballroom. Betty was in the audience with her daughters. It was a meeting of the Organization of the Afro-American Unity, where 400 had gathered. Malcolm X had separated from the Nation of Islam, which caused hostility with its leadership. As Malcolm X began to speak, there was a disturbance in the crowd. When Malcolm and his bodyguards moved towards the crowd to address the disturbance, a man ran towards him and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two (2) other men also ran to the stage and shot Malcolm, with handguns. He was shot 16 times. Betty was sitting near the stage. When she heard gunfire, she grabbed the children and pushed them down to the floor, under the bench, and shielded them with her body. When the shooting stopped, Betty ran to her husband and attempted to perform

CPR. Police arrived and the police officers, along with Malcolm’s supporters carried him on a stretcher, about a block to the Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. At the hospital, he was pronounced dead. The crowd caught one of the assassins and beat him. He was arrested at the scene. Eyewitnesses identified 2 other suspects. All 3 men were members of the Nation of Islam. After the assassination of Malcolm X, Betty had difficulty sleeping for weeks. She had nightmares, reliving his murder. She also worried about how she would support her family. The book that Malcolm X published with Alex Haley, “The Autobiography of Malcolm X” provided support through royalties. She got half and Alex Haley received the other half. However, after Haley published his bestseller “Roots”, he signed over all the royalties to Betty Shabazz. Feb 22

1794 - Thomas Simpson Woodward was born in Elbert County, Georgia. Simpson was the founder of Tuskegee and Macon County, Alabama. He laid out the Tuskegee City Square and built the first home in Tuskegee, on a ridge near the City Square. Simpson was an historian and lived many years among the Creek Indian Nation, located in Macon County, Alabama. 1884 - The Southern Letter news periodical was established at Tuskegee Institute to educate rural farmers on modern agricultural techniques.

Feb 23

1806 - The Federal Road construction was begun to connect New Orleans, Louisiana and Washington, DC. It passed through Macon County, which at that time was the heart of the Creek Nation. U.S. President Thomas Jefferson was the strong advocate for it’s construction. The Creek Nation negotiated with the federal government to give safe passage for those traveling on the Federal Road, in exchange for the Creeks delivering all the mail on the Road, and also providing “Stands” or businesses to sell travelers meals, wagon supplies and repair work, places to stay or bed-down for the night, that was safe

from Indians and wildlife. These “Stands” were located about 20 miles apart, which was the distance travelers on foot or wagon would cover in a days time. Feb 24

1944 - The Tuskegee Airmen’s 332nd Fighter Group received a C-78 as a courier aircraft, to fly between Montecorvino, where the 301st and 302nd Fighter Squadrons were located with the headquarters of the group, and Capodichino, where the 100th Fighter Squadron was stationed. 1945 - Tuskegee Airmen P-51 fighter pilots of the 332d Fighter Group escorted a Mosquito aircraft on a photographic reconnaissance mission over the Munich area of southern Germany. 2015 - Lebya Simpson and C.J. Harris were the first Tuskegee natives to participate in CBS’s Amazing Race reality television program.

Feb 25

1904 - Voorhees College was incorporated by an act of the South Carolina State Legislature. Voorhees was founded by Elizabeth Wright, a Tuskegee Institute graduate, who was mentored by Booker T. Washington’s second wife, Olivia Davidson Washington. 1978 - General Daniel “Chappie” James, Jr. passed away in Colorado Springs, Colorado. General James had become the first ever 4 star general in the United States military.

Feb 26

1895 - Margaret Murray Washington became the first President of the National Association of Colored Women. Margaret Washington was the third wife of Booker T. Washington. 1942 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the 9th Annual Southern Conference Intercollegiate (SIAC) Basketball Tournament in Logan Hall (February 26-28, 1942).

Feb 27

1836 - Osceola attempted to recruit Seminoles in North Florida for the native American resistance. However, he was stopped when bluecoats attacked his group, and chased he and his fellow Seminole warriors, to Southern Florida, where they could hide in the swamps.

Feb 28

1938 - The Hollywood film, “The Life of George Washington Carver” was released to theaters in the United States.

Feb 29

1984 - Shorter, Alabama was incorporated. It was formerly known as La Place. This was also the location of the large Atassi village of the Creek Nation, and Fort Bainbridge.

.BSDI Mar 01

1898 - Monroe Nathan Work transferred from the Chicago Theological Seminary to the University of Chicago Sociology Department and begins working with W.E.B. DuBois, who assisted him with his essay, entitled, “The Study of the Negro Problem”. Work would later come to Tuskegee and establish the Records and Archive Department. 1942 - The Tuskegee Airmen Commander, Captain Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. was promoted to the rank of Lt. Colonel. 1990 - Tuskegee University’s researcher Dr. Phil Loratan, published the study of NASA Sweet Potatoes in Space. Dr. Walter Hill, Dean of the College of Agriculture Environmental and Natural Sciences, conducted the research for the project. Sweet potatoes were grown in a spacecraft, while in space, utilizing hydroponics,

or growing plants without soil. This created the first ever NASA experiment in outer space, conducted by an Historically Black College or University. Mar 02

1877 - Ernest Ten Eyck Attwell was born in New York, New York. When he was 14 years old, he had begun working in the office of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. While there, he learned the skills of management and business procedures. He married Drusilla Nixon, a community activist and music instructor. In 1900, he became the head of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial’s business department, and Tuskegee’s third head football coach. He coached for 11 seasons, (1902 to 1912) with 31 wins, 17 loses, and 4 ties. During his time at Tuskegee, Attwell became a faculty member and joined Tuskegee’s executive committee. He worked with the Alabama State Business League, and became president. Attwell was an assistant to the Alabama food administrator during World War 1, which caught the eye of Herbert Hoover, who at that time was head of the U.S. Food Administration. Hoover had a reputation of making very careful selection of staff members, and he brought Attwell to Washington, D.C. to lead the national campaign for wartime conservation of food among the black population. In March of 1919, Attwell was invited to join the Playground and Recreation Association of America (PRAA). It would later become the National Recreation Association. By the next year Attwell became the leader of the Association’s Bureau of Colored Work, which he held for 29 years. His job was to expand recreation facilities and opportunities available for black citizens. He created permanent recreation centers in 27 cities, from the temporary War Camp Community Service Centers. Many of these new centers included: a health center, library, nursery, trade school, welfare center and employment agency. In 9 years he created centers in 75 more cities, and increased black recreation leaders from 35 to 400. He also developed training programs for the recreation leaders and promoted bi-racial Citizens Advisory Boards. In October of 1989, Attwell was inducted into the Robert W. Crawford Recreation and Park Hall of Fame with

the statement, Ernest Attwell was “a pioneer in the field of providing a more abundant life, and inspiration to workers in the recreation profession, and a man who left an indelible imprint upon hundreds of communities across the country.” 1940 - The Tuskegee Golf Club Tournament was held, on the Tuskegee Golf Course, with the following winners: E.M. Miller 1st place, Lt. B.O. Davis 2nd place, L.A. Rabb 3rd place, and Mrs. C.L. Abbott women’s 1st place, Mrs. Wm O. Shields 2nd place. The Golf Course was located off of Franklin Road, near the Tuskegee Institute Farm. 1982 - Alabama Macon County Amendment, also known as Amendment 17, a legislatively referred constitutional amendment was approved on a state-wide vote. The measure proposed to repeal Alabama Constitution Amendment 132, which allowed the state legislature to abolish Macon County. This bill was introduced by Macon County Representative, the Honorable Thomas Reed, Sr. The voting results were: 113,399 (63.61%) Yes, and 64,883 (36.39%) No. 2008 - The Tuskegee National Bioethics Center was completed, on the campus of Tuskegee University. It was located on the previous site of the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. Its existence was a direct result of U.S. President William Jefferson Clinton’s apology for the U.S. Health Department’s Syphilis Study, conducted at Tuskegee and in Macon County. Mar 03

1892 - The Tuskegee Normal & Industrial Institute Museum, located in the Agriculture Department, became the first Tuskegee museum. 1964 - Dr. Raymond R. (Railroad) Adams, large animal instructor in the Tuskegee Institute School of Veterinary Medicine, performed the worlds first heart transplant surgery. Dr. Christian Barnard conducted, the better known heart transplant in 1967, on a human being, in South Africa. However, Dr. Raymond Adams conducted his surgery at Tuskegee’s Moton Field research lab. Dr.

Adams’ patient was a horse. Mar 04

1913 - John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital opened as the first full service hospital for colored patients in the United States. It offered treatment, prevention, rehab, medical research, and new medical developments. The Hospital was located on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, and Dr. John A. Kenney Sr. was the first hospital director.

Mar 05

1803 - This year Ussa Yoholo (Black Drink), Osceola “Billy Powell”, or Little Owl, was born in Macon County, Alabama. According to Tuskegee founder, Thomas Simpson Woodward, Billy Powell was the great grandson of James McQueen, the grandson of Peter McQueen, and the son of Powell, a little Englishman. His mother was Polly Copinger. The rail road from Montgomery to West Point runs within five (5) feet of where the cabin stood, in which Billy Powell was born. It was in an old field, between the Eufaupee Creek and a little creek that the Indians called Catsa Bogah. Osceola would become a great warrior with the Seminoles in Florida.

Mar 06

1942 - Nurse Della Hayden Rainey became the first black Chief Nurse in the U.S. Army Nurses Corps and the first black nurse to be in charge of an army hospital. First Lieutenant Rainey was the first nurse assigned to the Tuskegee Army Air Field, with four (4) other black nurses. She had been the first black to join the U.S. Nurses Corps, when she was assigned to Fort Bragg. Nurse Rainey retired, in 1978, and had earned the highest rank of any black nurse serving in World War 2, the rank of Major. 1947 - Tuskegee Weather Cadet Wallace Reed became the first Black in the U.S. Weather Bureau, that was assigned to work in the Philippines.

Mar 07

1941 - The Tuskegee Institute Senior ROTC Unit became authorized by the U.S. Department of War.

1942 - The first Tuskegee Army Airfield class graduated, to earn their wings and become pilots. The new pilots were: Captain Benjamin O. Davis Jr., 2nd Lt. Lemuel R. Curtis, 2nd Lt. George S. Roberts, 2nd Lt. Charles H. DeBow and 2nd Lt. Mac Ross. All were college graduates and had to pass stringent testing, to be accepted in the training program. 1965 - Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boynton, or A.P. Boynton, was beaten unconscious at the Bloody Sunday March, on the Edmond Pettus Bridge, in Selma, Alabama. This was the beginning of the Selma to Montgomery March. Boynton was a Tuskegee Institute graduate. 2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson and U.S. President Barack H. Obama crossed the Edmond Pettus Bridge, hand in hand, for the Selma Bridge Crossing Jubilee. Mar 08

1934 - Tuskegee Institute’s Warren Logan Hall gymnasium hosted the first Men’s SIAC Basketball Tournament (March 8-10, 1934). Tuskegee won the tournament, in the championship game, by defeating Clark College 44 to 28. 1965 - Atty. Fred D. Gray, Sr., with the Legal Defense Fund attorneys, filed the Selma, Alabama “Bloody Sunday” case.

Mar 09

1893 - Phelps Hall was dedicated on the new campus of the Normal School for Colored Teachers, at Tuskegee. Olivia Egleston Phelps Stokes saw the need that Negro preachers had for formal Bible training. She trusted the direction Booker T. Washington was carrying Tuskegee, therefore she funded the construction of Phelps Hall and the development of a Bible training program. The building had 3 floors and the outside had a surrounding veranda. It was a wooden building with: a chapel, assembly room, and office on the first floor. The second and third floors had dormitory rooms. Miss Stokes also paid for all the furnishings, including: a library, recitation

room, a reading room, and forty bedrooms. The building and Bible training school were open for use in November 1892. The dedication ceremony included many of the friends Booker T. Washington had made for the school. They included: Hampton’s Samuel C. Armstrong, the philanthropists Caroline Stokes and Olivia Egleston Stokes, and Dr. and Mrs. Lyman Abbot Speeches were made on the hope that religious education for Negroes would be accomplished, and the Bible School was officially opened. In 1901, Booker T. Washington wrote on the accomplishments of the Phelps Hall Bible Training School: “. . . This is an undenominational school -- not theological at all -- which aims to train men and women to do religious work among the colored people. As is the case in other departments of the school, the students are trained to teach the need and dignity of labor by practice as well as by precept. Many of the students in this department expect to fit themselves only to do missionary or Sunday school work, but among the men who have been graduated as preachers a large proportion combine with the profession of preaching. Several of them are farmers, one is a painter, one a tailor, and still another a brick mason.” 1890 - Juliet Opie Hopkins, passed away in Washington, D.C. Hopkins organized and managed the hospitals to treat Alabama confederate soldiers during the Civil War. These included locations in both Virginia and Alabama. Her home base was Tuskegee, where she directly oversaw the hospital operations at Camp Watts, in Notasulga. She was the only woman featured on the confederate money. 1865 - Margaret James Murray was born in Mississippi. Her father was an Irish sharecropper, and her mother was African American. She was one of ten children. She attended Fisk University for 8 years and graduated in 1889. In 1890, she met Booker T. Washington and became the “Lady Principal” of Tuskegee Institute. In 1892, she became the third wife of Booker Taliafero Washington. Murray wrote speeches for her husband, and worked to expand the school. She served on the Tuskegee executive board and became dean of women.

Mar 10

1965 - The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) staged a protest march at the Alabama State Capitol, in Montgomery, to demand justice in the brutal beatings that took place at the Bloody Sunday March, in Selma, Alabama. This was the first protest waged in opposition to “Bloody Sunday”. The Tuskegee students worked with the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to plan and implement the march. The Reverend Dr. Martin L. King Jr. told them to call it off, because of a court ruling to prevent the march to the capitol. However, George Ware, the Macon County Field Coordinator for SNCC, read the ruling and saw that the order only dealt with marching from Selma to Montgomery, and not from Tuskegee to Montgomery. And because they marched despite being told not to do so, it was known as “The March that Didn’t Turn Around”. Originally, they were going to walk from Tuskegee to Montgomery, but some of the students said, “That’s a long way to walk. Let’s drive!”. They rented buses and others came in their cars, some making several trips down highway 80. They would begin walking, while others would drive a group a few miles towards Montgomery, drop them off to march, then go back and pick-up the other marchers and take them a few miles beyond the second group. So they actually did march from Tuskegee to Montgomery, but just not together in one group.

Mar 11

1928 - The Tuskegee Rail Road Company working in partnership with the East Alabama Lumber Company, built a standard gauge railroad that covered 25 miles, from Chehaw to Society Hill. At Society Hill, the Lumber Company constructed a large sawmill, to harvest the thick pine forests, in Macon County. The wood came from several lumber sources in the county, and used the Chehaw connection as an interchange to coordinate the movement of the shipments. 1968 - The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Field Secretary, Stokely Carmichael spoke at Tuskegee Institute’s Logan Hall.

Mar 12

1967 - Isaac Scott Hathaway (sculptor) passed away in Montgomery, Alabama. Hathaway established the Pottery Department at Tuskegee Institute and created some of the most famous sculptures of Black Americans. He was the first Black to be commissioned to create a U.S. coin. The coin he created was to honor Booker T. Washington, the first Black to appear on a U.S. coin.

Mar 13

1893 - Tuskegee Normal was changed to the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial. This took place because of Booker T. Washington’s industrial education program. The program encompassed a variety of industries including: farming and crop production, egg and poultry production, dairy and beef production, bee keeping, brick making, carpentry and masonry, building construction, furniture making, sewing and tailoring, tinsmithing and black-smithing, harness making, and husbandry.

Mar 14

1901 - John A. Kenney, Sr. graduated from Leonard Medical School and entered Shaw University, where he studied to become a medical doctor. He would later become Booker T. Washington’s physician at Tuskegee Institute. 1909 - The George W. Broome Exhibition Company of Boston, Massachusetts produced the film, “A Trip To Tuskegee”.

Mar 15

1950 - Notasulga’s Zora Neale Hurston had a short story published in the Saturday Evening Post, at a time when her career had slowed down and she took employment as a maid. Her employer learned that Hurston was a writer and leaked it to the Miami Herald, that she was working as a maid, and the publicity caused her to get enough writing assignments to leave the job.

Mar 16

1899 - Margaret Murray Washington led local women in the state, to create the Alabama Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs. This became an organization to promote and support orphanages and libraries. Later it became a strong voice against lynching.

Mar 17

1917 - Lula Hymes was born in Atlanta, Georgia. She attended Tuskegee Institute, where she would join the Tigerettes track team, under Coach Cleve Abbott. She became, in the late 1940’s, what the Atlanta Constitution labeled her: “America’s greatest girl track and field athlete.” She was considered one of the fastest female athletes in the world. Her fellow teammate, Alice Coachman, said of her: “She would come off those blocks like lightning. By the time I’d be ready to start, she’d already be five feet ahead of me.” Hymes won 3 gold medals at the 1937 National Track Meet, and in 1939, she tied the world record time in the 100 meter dash, with 11.5 seconds. She was also a member of the Tuskegee Institute women’s basketball team. She graduated from Tuskegee Institute in 1939, and taught Home Economics and Physical Education at Bessemer’s Carver Jr. High School and Lincoln Jr. High School in Kansas. She then worked at the Tuskegee Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, until she retired. Hymes married Miles Glenn and attended Washington Chapel A.M.E. church in Tuskegee’s Greenwood Community. 1944 - The Tuskegee Weather Detachment, of the Tuskegee Army Air Field, was placed directly under the 4th Region in Atlanta, Georgia. 1947 - Tuskegee Institute students decided to bring fraternities and sororities on campus. The student body vote count was 321 in favor to 17 opposed. 1959 - The Federal Ruling on Macon County’s Voter Discrimination Suit was given.

Mar 18

1967 - The second Tuskegee Institute Chapel held it’s ground breaking ceremonies. This new Chapel was designed with no right angles. It cost $2,000,000 and contained 850,000 bricks. The new Chapel also had one carry over from the original Chapel. The “Singing Windows” were replicated from Robert R. Taylor’s drawings and plans. The first Chapel service was held on June 1, 1969.

Mar 19

1906 - U.S. President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt visited Tuskegee Institute. 1968 - Central State University’s Unity for Unity rally took place in the Tuskegee Institute Student Union.

Mar 20

1896 - The first Tuskegee Institute Chapel had its ground breaking on this day. The building was designed by Robert R. Taylor, and he viewed the building as one of his greatest achievements, in architecture. The Chapel was completed and dedicated in 1898. The stained glass “Singing Windows” were installed in 1932. The windows pictured Negro Spirituals as the sunlight shined through. This original Chapel was destroyed by fire on January 23, 1957. 1943 - Dr. Lucenia Williams Dunn was born, in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. She would go on to become the first female Mayor of Tuskegee, Alabama, and founder / CEO of the Tuskegee Macon County Community Foundation. This became the first Community Foundation ever established in Macon County, Alabama. As mayor, she developed Tuskegee as an “Enterprise Zone”, to gain additional funding from the federal government. She was also responsible for having the pavilion constructed on the Tuskegee City Square and she had the Macon County Farmers Market built on North Main Street.

Mar 21

1942 - The Tuskegee Weather Detachment was formed at the Tuskegee Army Air Field.

Mar 22

1925 - Notasulga’s Zora Neale Hurston submitted her short story “Spunk” and the play “Color Struck” to a literary contest sponsored by the magazine “Opportunity” and won second place for both. Also that year, she received a scholarship to the Barnard College and transferred, to study anthropology with the scholar Franz Boas.

Mar 23

1946 - The 447th Bomber/Fighter Composite Group transferred from the Tuskegee Army Air Field to Lockbourne Air Force Base, in Columbus, Ohio.

Mar 24

1832 - The land was taken, by the federal government, from the Creek Nation that later became the present Macon County, Alabama. 1908 - The National Medical Association Journal was established by Dr. John A. Kenney Sr., at Tuskegee Institute.

Mar 25

1883 - Booker T. Washington, with assistance from his brother John Washington, begins brickmaking at Tuskegee Institute. The industry was to provide building materials for the campus, and also to sell, providing needed funds for the rapidly developing school. 1965 - Tuskegee Airman, Dabney Montgomery, walked with Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., in the Selma to Montgomery March, as King’s bodyguard. Airman Montgomery was inducted into the military in 1943, and became a ground crewman with the Tuskegee Airmen in Italy, during World War II. Upon being discharged, he moved to New York, however, when he saw the scenes from “Bloody Sunday” on the news, he left to return to his home in Selma, Alabama. That’s when he became Rev. King’s bodyguard in the Selma to Montgomery march. He later returned to New York and worked with the public housing community, and spoke to youth groups of his experiences. He passed away on September

3, 2016, at the age of 93. Mar 26

1927 - The Macon County Training School was dedicated, by Mrs. Nellie C. Birmingham Reid, the school founder and principal fundraiser. The school was the first public high school in Macon County, and was located in Roba, Alabama. It was built as a Rosenwald School and Julius Rosenwald was the speaker for the dedication. Mrs. Reid was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute and used the principles developed and taught by Booker T. Washington in the school’s operation. The school later was renamed, South Macon High School. 1949 - Evelyn Lawler, of the Tuskegee Institute Tigerettes track team, placed in the high jump, the standing long jump and the 4 x 1 relay, at the AAU (Amateur Athletics Union) Women’s Nationals. Lawler was from Gadsden, Alabama, and would win outdoor titles every year from 1949 through 1952. In 1951, she participated in the first Pan American Games, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In masters’ competitions, she won a total of 9 gold medals. In 1952, she was on the Olympic team, however, because of an injury, she did not compete. At Tuskegee, she met another track athlete, William Lewis, whom she later married. They would together coach track teams in the Willingboro High School, of New Jersey. Two of their track team members were their children Carl and Carol Lewis. 1958 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir’s musical album, was reported by the New York Times to be included among the “best selling long playing records of the decade.” The album had been released in 1954, by the Westminister Recording Company.

Mar 27

1941 - U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt made her second visit to the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital. 1942 - Wallace Patillo Reed, a black soldier at the Tuskegee Army Air Field, became a Tuskegee base Weather Officer, by achieving the rank of 2nd Lieutenant.

Mar 28

1948 - This year the Alabama Legislature appropriated $25,000 to start the Tuskegee Institute School of Engineering. 2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson received the ONYX Magazine Award, presented by Martin Luther King III, in Orlando, Florida. Dr. Robinson was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute.

Mar 29

1913 - The Anderson-Watkins Film Company produced the film, “A Day at Tuskegee” for Booker Taliafero Washington. 1941 - Tuskegee Institute’s Civilian Pilot Training Instructor, Chief Charles A. Anderson (the Father of Black Aviation) flew U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt over Tuskegee, in his plane. She then allowed the press to take pictures of her in his plane, to put pressure on the U.S. government to allow U.S. Military Black Pilots to use their flying skills in World War II. The First Lady was extremely interested in the work at Tuskegee, specifically with the flight school. She was in Tuskegee for the Julius Rosenwald Fund’s annual meeting, that was being held on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. The school had leased and improved a small private unpaved airfield, called Kennedy Field. It was located about 5 miles south of the campus. The school bought planes and hired instructors for the flight program, including Chief Anderson. This was the location of the flight. Mrs. Roosevelt requested to be flown by one of the Tuskegee pilots, and Chief Anderson agreed to take her up. This made her Secret Service staff nervous, but she flew regardless and stayed up over an hour. The press that resulted from her flight demonstrated how proficient the Tuskegee trained pilots were and popularized the program with the public. Mrs. Roosevelt was quite impressed with Tuskegee’s aviation program and continued communications and visits with the program and Tuskegee Institute. Because of the publicity from the flight, the Rosenwald Fund loaned money to the school to build it’s own airfield. That new airfield became the Robert Russa Moton airfield.

1977 - Edward L. Pryce, an instructor in the Tuskegee Institute Architecture Department, became the first black Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Mar 30

1939 - U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt visited Tuskegee Institute. The original plans were for Roosevelt to arrive on campus by train, in his private railcar. However, the Tuskegee Railroad Company rejected the request, because of concern that the weight of his car would be to much for the standard gauge rail line. Roosevelt was a great supporter of the Institute and made a point of greeting Dr. George W. Carver on his campus visit.

Mar 31

1814 - Osceola and his mother, Polly Copinger left Alabama, to live in Florida, after the massacre, of the Creek Nation, at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. In Florida, they joined the Seminoles. 1924 - The John A. Andrew Hospital Clinic was held during Negro Health Week, under the direction of Dr. John A. Kenney Sr. The Clinic included doctors seeing 450 patients and performing 60 surgeries. This continued through April 5, 1924.

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1896 - Booker Taliafero Washington wrote George W. Carver, an agriculture chemist, who just finished his Master of Arts degree, at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, to offer him the position of being Head of the Tuskegee Institute Agriculture Department, with a salary of $1,500. 1900 - Dr. Charles Goode Gomillion was born in Edgefield, South Carolina. He would later become a

professor and Dean at Tuskegee Institute, and leader of the Tuskegee Civic Association. 1906 - The Daughters of the Confederacy dedicated the Confederate Statue, in the town square of Tuskegee, Alabama. This was conducted in each town throughout the southern United States, that did not surrender to the Union army at the end of the Civil War. All the Confederate Statues face north in defiance of the Union telling them how to treat their slaves. 1943 - The Robert Russa Moton Field dedication took place, in Tuskegee, AL. The Field was an airport and a Civilian Pilot training facility. Later, Tuskegee Institute’s School of Veterinary Medicine established a research station at Moton Field. This is where Tuskegee staff invented the hydraulic table to lift horses and cows in place for surgery. This new form of operating table was later used by the circus industry to operate on elephants. Apr 02

1911 - Booker T. Washington announced that he had bought property in Fort Salonga. This was located on Long Island, New York, and the two and a half acres were purchased from the J. Cornell Brown estate. Washington said he would be spending his summers in the home, on Cousins Street. Between 1911 and 1915, he spent the hottest time of the year in his two story summer home, located on a bluff, overlooking Long Island Sound, by the north shore in the town of Huntington. Washington and his family worshipped at the Bethel A.M.E. Church, where he taught Sunday School. He also gave several speeches in the Huntington area. 1965 - Tuskegee Institute students protested the downtown white merchant hiring policies, in the City of Tuskegee, Alabama. These policies excluded blacks from white collar jobs, and in some businesses employment was exclusively white. 1966 - The Tuskegee Institute campus was declared a U.S. National Historic Landmark. Tuskegee was the first black school to receive this designation.

Apr 03

1872 - Elizabeth Evelyn Wright was born in Talbotton, Georgia. She would attend Tuskegee Institute and later establish Voorhees College, in Denmark, South Carolina. 1902 - The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school colors, Crimson and Gold, were adopted. This action took place at a meeting of the Tuskegee Executive Council. 1947 - The Tuskegee Army Air Field Weather Cadet Paul Wise died in an air accident, while stationed at Lockbourne Field, Columbus, Ohio.

Apr 04

1872 - Isaac Scott Hathaway (sculptor) was born in Lexington, Kentucky. He would become one of the most outstanding black sculptors of all time. He also was commissioned by the federal government to design the coins minted to commemorate both Booker T. Washington and George W. Carver. These were the first coins to commemorate black Americans. 1906 - U.S. President William Taft visited Tuskegee Institute. 1943 - Lt. Thomas was among the first of three (3) Tuskegee Army “Negro nurses to carry medical services to foreign soil. They carried them to Liberia” (from the Hawk’s Cry, August 7, 1943) 1964 - Tuskegee Institute held its first Parents Day. The activities were coordinated by Mrs. Zelda Belton. 1994 - Sheriff Lucius Amerson was found dead, in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Apr 05

1856 - Booker Taliafero Washington was born on the James Burroughs plantation, near Hale’s Ford in Franklin County, Virginia. He was the son of an unknown white father and Jane, a slave cook owned by Burroughs. His mother gave him his first and middle names,

Booker Taliafero; he took his last name in 1870 from his stepfather, Washington Ferguson, a slave whom his mother had married. 1956 - The house where Booker Taliafero Washington was born in Franklin County, Virginia, was designated as the Booker T. Washington National Monument. This was the 100th anniversary of Washington’s birthday. Apr 06

1952 - The Tuskegee Choral Group performed on the Ed Sullivan Television Show. 1961 - Ella Baker visited with local community leaders in Tuskegee. Baker had worked with the Southern Christian Leadership Foundation (SCLC), under Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., and assisted college student leaders to form SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee). She spent a busy day in town by, having breakfast with Tuskegee Institute student leaders, having lunch with the secretary of the Tuskegee Civic Association, and additional meetings with Tuskegee Institute’s President Foster’s wife, Vera Foster, and the staff of the local YMCA and YWCA. Ella Baker also had a two hour meeting with students from both Tuskegee and Auburn University. She was delighted with that meeting, when she learned that the students were willing to celebrate small accomplishments, as they worked in the civil rights movement.

Apr 07

1940 - The Booker Taliafero Washington U.S. postage stamp was commissioned by the U.S. Postal Service. Washington was the first black to be featured on a U.S. postage stamp. Major Robert Richard Wright, Sr., among others, had aggressively lobbied for a stamp honoring Booker T. Washington since Roosevelt took office in 1933. When Wright read the Postal Service decision to feature Washington on the 10¢ stamp, announced in 1939, he reflected with gratification, [the stamp] “comes pretty nearly within the limit of seventy-five years of Negro Emancipation.” He objected, however, to its high denomination, preferring to see it as one of the lower-

priced, more affordable denominations used by the public daily. He worried that the cost of the 10¢ stamp “will not induce a large first day sale . . . among colored people.” Echoing Wright’s concerns, The Washington Tribune recommended that its readers buy the stamp for special delivery and parcel post mailings. “Let’s overlook no chance to use these new stamps which honor our eminent educator,” urged the newspaper’s editor in a special issue released on March 23, 1940. A great many institutions, all important in the lives of African-Americans, requested to host the stamp’s first day of issue ceremony. The Postal Service selected Tuskegee Institute, for this history making event. Guests gathered in the Institute Chapel. Postmaster General James A. Farley attended the ceremony and afterwards, joined by the Tuskegee Club of Montgomery, Alabama, placed a wreath on Washington’s tomb. 1952 - The Tuskegee Choral Group appeared on the Kate Smith Television Show, in New York City, New York. The Group also appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show. Apr 08

1882 - Booker Taliafero Washington completed the repayment a $200 loan, he took out for the purchase of the 100 acre William B. Bowen plantation, in Tuskegee. The loan was from the Hampton College Treasurer J.F.B. Marshall. 1979 - U.S. Vice President Mondale visited Tuskegee Institute.

Apr 09

1891 - Halle Dillon wrote Booker Taliafero Washington, with interest in accepting the Medical Director position, for Tuskegee Institute. 1941 - Bess Bolden Walcott, established the American Red Cross chapter, at Tuskegee Institute, and became its first Black female Acting Field Director.

Apr 10

1945 - Freeman Field Mutiny: Some of the Tuskegee Airmen military officers, of the all black 477th Bombardment Group, attempted to enter the segregated officer’s club, on base. They were led by 2nd Lt. Roger C. Terry and Lt. Marsden Thompson. The 477th had been moved from Godman Field, Kentucky to Freeman Field, Indiana. This resulted in the Freeman Field Mutiny, that started the integration of the U.S. Military. This would later become the basis for “Brown versus Board of Education” to integrate U.S. schools.

Apr 11

1936 - Zora Neal Hurston conducted research in Jamaica to study “obeah”, the practice of sorcery in West Indies. Hurston had been awarded a Guggenheim fellowship. She was born in Notasulga, Alabama. 1972 - Edward Pryce became the first licensed Alabama Landscape Architect. He was a student assistant to the famous George W. Carver, at Tuskegee. He later became an architecture instructor, at Tuskegee Institute, and also the head of the Physical Plant campus maintenance department.

Apr 12

1981 - U.S. Vice President George Bush Sr. visited Tuskegee Institute, and attended a reception in the Dr. George Washington Carver Museum, located in the old laundry building. He was greeted and hosted by Tuskegee University President, Dr. Benjamin F. Payton.

Apr 13

1941 - The Tuskegee Civic Association was founded. The organization grew out of two earlier groups: the Men’s Meeting of the 1920’s and the Tuskegee Men’s Club of the 1930’s. In 1938, the Men’s Meeting was formally organized into the Tuskegee Men’s Club. It elected Charles G. Gomillion as President. Under Gomillion’s leadership, it focused on the conditions of citizens of Tuskegee and Macon County. It set definite goals and worked on programs to reach those goals. On January 7, 1941, the Men’s Club opened membership to other Tuskegee citizens. On April 13, 1941, it amended its

constitution and changed the name to The Tuskegee Civic Association to be more effective and reach out to all elements of the population. The general objective was to promote the civic well-being of Tuskegee and Macon County, Alabama. Programs to achieve this included: civic education, voter registration, political education and action, community welfare and economic education. Jennie E Gomillion was the first woman to become a member. She and Lucille Henry were founding members of the organization. 1978 - U.S. President Gerald Ford visited Tuskegee Institute, and was hosted by President Luther H. Foster. 1996 - Chief C. A. Anderson passed away in Tuskegee Institute, AL. He lived on Bibb Street and was known as the Father of Black Aviation. He taught the famous Tuskegee Airmen how to fly planes. Apr 14

1865 - Federal Union troops pursued Confederate troops, from Mt Meigs to Tuskegee, Alabama. This took place during one of the Civil War conflicts. 1897 - Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, a Tuskegee alumnus, opened the Denmark Industrial School, on the second floor of a general store. Later the school was to be called Voorhees College, in Denmark, South Carolina.

Apr 15

1862 - The 34th Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Loachapoka (at that time the township was located in Macon County, AL). The Regiment then left to fight in Tupelo, Mississippi, for the C.S.A. (Confederate States of America). 1890 - This year the Tuskegee Institute faculty members introduced the sport of tennis to Tuskegee’s campus. Tuskegee Institute became the first Alabama college campus to have a tennis program and tennis courts. It was also the first black college to construct tennis courts.

Apr 16

1922 - The Southern Letter newspaper became the Rural Messenger. This was published by Tuskegee Institute.

Apr 17

2009 - Admiral Michelle J Howard made plans to rescue Captain R Phillips. Admiral Howard was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute.

Apr 18

1915 - Cleveland “Cleve” Abbott was hired by Booker T. Washington as coach and agriculture chemist. He would go on to produce an outstanding football record with 203 wins and 96 loses, and 6 national titles. Also, he created women track programs for colleges. And his women’s track teams produced 46 wins in a row, from 1936 to 1955, with 14 national championships, that included 8 national championships in row and 2 Olympic gold medals. (USA Track Field Hall Fame)

Apr 19

1964 - A fire destroyed the high school side of Notasulga High School. The school contained facilities for grade school and high school classes. This took place during a school desegregation action, ordered by Federal Justice Frank Johnson. Six black students were sent to the all white Notasulga High School, when the Tuskegee High School was closed, because the 12 black students that were sent to integrate it, were the only students in the entire school. All the white parents withdrew their children from Tuskegee High, and some eventually placed their children in a newly formed segregated Macon Academy. After the fire, the County’s Board of Education ordered the 6 black students to be placed in the majority black, Tuskegee Institute High School. However, the students resisted and said they preferred to remain in Notasulga. Judge Johnson agreed with the students and ordered that they could stay. To accommodate the students, the high school held classes in the school’s auditorium and elementary school section. The six black students were: Anthony Tilford Lee, Patricia Camille Jones, Shirley Jean Chambliss, Willie Wyatt Jr., Marsha Marie Sullins and Robert L. Judkins Jr.

2006 - U.S. President George W. Bush visited Tuskegee University. He was hosted by Tuskegee President Dr. Benjamin F. Payton, and local dignitaries in the Tuskegee University Kellogg Conference Center ballroom. At the Robert Russa Moton Airfield, President Bush awarded Tuskegee’s own Vester Marable, with the Outstanding Volunteer Award for the National Park Service. Apr 20

1894 - Emmett J. Scott helped to launch the “Texas Freeman,” the oldest black newspaper that has been continually published. J. S. Tibbitt was Editor, Scott was Associate Editor, and Charles N. Love was the business manager, along with Love’s wife Libby, to do layout. Later, Scott and Love took over Tibbitt’s interest in the paper, and for three years maintained its publication. Scott, using the Texas Freeman, was the first black writer to celebrate Booker T. Washington’s leadership and vision, in the news press. Scott wrote in his editorial on the famous Atlanta address: ‘Without resort to exaggeration, it is but simple justice to call the address great. Great in the absolute modesty, self-respect and dignity with which the speaker presented a platform upon which, as Clark Howell, of the “Atlanta Constitution” says, “both races, blacks and whites, can stand with full justice to each.” 1925 - Lula Ballard became the Women’s National Tennis Singles Champion. Lula Ballard was a Tuskegee Institute star athlete. She became one of the most popular athletes during that time. She was listed in popularity with the famous heavyweight boxer, Joe Louis. 2018 - The Tuskegee University’s School of Nursing and Allied Health chapter of the National Black Nurses Association was established. This took place in the Kellogg Conference Center, at the 34th Scholarly Events and Research Symposium, which included the 31st Annual Mary Starke Harper Lecture Series. Eric J. Williams, the 12th National President of the National Black Nurses Association presented the new charter and installed the first officers, along with their mentees. The National Black Nurses Association was founded by Dr. Lauranne Sams, who was the second Dean of the

Tuskegee Institute School of Nursing, from 1974 to 1984. Additionally, the University of Alabama in Birmingham’s (UAB) School of Nursing, had staff present to induct nursing students into the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Nu chapter. Small schools were not eligible to form Sigma chapters, therefore Tuskegee partnered with Concordia College, to have UAB’s Sigma chapter come and honor the students. Apr 21

1899 - Booker Taliafero Washington learned of the Sam Hose lynching, in Palmetto, Georgia. This was one of the most brutal and malicious mob violence attack on a black person to ever occur. This gave Washington a determination to create a department of Archives and Records. 1915 - JR (Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears and Roebuck) donated $5,000 to Tuskegee Institute for faculty and staff salary bonuses, which would equal $460 to $5,066 per person in 2017. This was done in honor of JR’s 25th wedding anniversary to Gussie. Dr. George W. Carver was thrilled at this “generous and gracious gift.” Carver further stated, “I do not feel, however, that I should be paid extra for doing my duty. Again, it adds a responsibility upon me that lies nearest my heart; this will enable me to get certain bits of apparatus, and also to carry out the unique task of showing to the entire South and to some other sections of the world, the wonderful riches that lie beneath their feet.”

Apr 22

1938 - Tuskegee Institute was host to the first Intercollegiate Golf Tournament, on the Tuskegee Franklin Road golf course. Tuskegee was the first HBCU school to have it’s own golf course.

Apr 23

1912 - Monroe Nathan Work produced the first Negro Year Book for Booker T. Washington, to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. Work was assisted by colleagues from Tuskegee Institute and the University of Chicago.

Apr 24

1946 - This year Tuskegee Institute’s tennis star, and one half of the famous Tuskegee Peters Sisters, Matilda “Re-Pete” Peters, became the only Black person to ever beat future tennis professional, Althea Gibson. This was accomplished in the ATA (American Tennis Association) national finals.

Apr 25

1942 - Tuskegee Institute held its Annual Intercollegiate Golf Tournament, with a newly contributed three (3) leg challenge trophy, donated by Georgia’s Atlanta Constitution newspaper. 1944 - The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) was established by Tuskegee Institute President, Dr. Frederick Douglass Patterson. This fund provided scholarships for minority students, who might otherwise not be able to afford a college education. The UNCF national slogan is: “A Mind is a Terrible Thing to Waste.”

Apr 26

1901 - Halle Tanner Dillon passed away, in Princeton, New Jersey, from complications during childbirth. She had been Booker T. Washington’s first campus physician for Tuskegee Institute. She was also the first licensed female physician in the State of Alabama. 1988 - Dr. Frederick Douglass Patterson suffered a heart attack and passed away, at his home in New Rochelle, New York. He was 86 years old. Patterson had served as the third president of Tuskegee Institute, from 1935 to 1953. He founded the United Negro College Fund in 1940. He was also instrumental on the local level in establishing the Tuskegee Airmen program.

Apr 27

1862 - The Confederate government established two (2) conscription camps, and camps of instruction in Alabama. As conscription camps, the soldiers were “conscripted” or drafted, by Confederate law, into service for the Confederacy. One camp was Camp Watts, located in Notasulga (Camp of Instruction No. 1) and the other was Camp Buckner, located in Talladega (Camp of Instruction

No. 2). Camp Watts had a supply depot, a hospital and a cemetery. Camp Watts hospital was administered by Tuskegee’s Juliet Opie Hopkins, who established and operated the hospitals for Alabama soldiers, during the War Between the States. Camp Watts was named in honor of Thomas Hill Watts, Alabama’s eighteenth governor. Watts was appointed the Attorney General for the Confederacy, by President Jefferson Davis. As Attorney General, he established the Confederate Supreme Court. 1940 - Tuskegee Institute’s Mozell Ellerbe became the first HBCU winner at the annual Penn Relays track meet. At 24 years old and 185 lbs, he won the 100 yard race. He was from Palatka, Florida, and his father was a railroad fireman. Ellerbe’s speed on the track was so outstanding that he was included in the group of HBCU track athletes to tour Germany. They were the first black college track athletes to ever represent the United States in other countries. Apr 28

1835 - Seminole Warrior, Osceola was seized by General Wiley Thompson, for not signing the Treaty of Fort Payne, and he was jailed, and put in chains.

Apr 29

1899 - Thomas Monroe Campbell arrived at Tuskegee Institute. He would work under George W. Carver and become the first U.S. Cooperative Extension agent, with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Apr 30

1905 - Lewis Adams passed away in Butler Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church, located on North Church Street, in Tuskegee, Alabama. He had a stroke while he was in Sunday School singing the hymn “Whosoever Will Let Him Come.” He and his wife, Sallie Greene Adams, had 16 children. He was a tinsmith, blacksmith and he made and repaired harnesses. He established the Tuskegee Normal School for Coloreds, that later became Tuskegee University, with a former plantation owner, George Washington Campbell. He was also a teacher at

the school. He was buried in the Ashdale Cemetery on Rosenwald Heights Road, in Tuskegee. His tombstone reads: “Faithful in all relations of life.”

.BZ May 01

1882 - Booker Taliafero Washington began his famous speaking tours, starting in Farmington, Connecticut. He traveled throughout the North, with letters of introduction from prominent southern officials, as Henry Clay Armstrong (Alabama’s State Superintendent of Education) and Governor Rufus W. Cobb. Upon completion of his first tour, at the end of May 1882, he collected over $5,000 for the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school. 1949 - Frieda Kenney passed away in Tuskegee Institute’s John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. She was the wife of John A. Kenny, Sr., Booker T. Washington’s personal physician.

May 02

1945 - Monroe Nathan Work passed away in Tuskegee, Alabama. He was the founder of the Tuskegee Archives, the Negro Yearbook, and the Negro Health Week. His reports on lynching in the U.S. were so accurate that the National Press Association would use information from them exclusively. 2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton-Robinson received the Doctor of Humane Letters from Paul Quinn College. Dr. Robinson was a Tuskegee Institute graduate and the first woman to run for U.S. Congress in Alabama.

May 03

1928 - Zora Neale Hurston’s essay “How It Feels To Be Colored Me” appeared in The World Tomorrow publication. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama.

1966 - Lucius Amerson entered the election runoff vs Sadler, in the political race for Sheriff of Macon County. Amerson was the first black to run for the office of Macon County Sheriff. May 04

1858 - Fanny Norton Smith was born. She would later become the first wife of Booker Taliafero Washington. 1884 - Fanny Norton Smith Washington passed away in Tuskegee, Alabama. She was the first wife of Booker Taliafero Washington.

May 05

1964 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton became the first Alabama woman to run for U.S. Congress. She was able to garner 10.7% of the vote. She was a Tuskegee Institute graduate. 1987 - The Tuskegee Chappie James Arena was completed. This building became the largest indoor athletic facility in Macon County, Alabama. There is a full-sized basketball / volleyball court and seating for 3,000. There is also an Olympic sized indoor pool, and the General Daniel “Chappie� James museum, with General James actual plane displayed outside the building. It housed the Tuskegee ROTC program, and the Aerospace Engineering program. 1990 - Dr. William Levi Dawson passed away in Montgomery, AL. Dr. Dawson was the director of the Tuskegee Institute Golden Voices choir. He also researched and recorded the largest collection of Negro Spirituals music, ever amassed. He would annually travel to Europe in the summer to conduct orchestras.

May 06

1870 - The Republican Central Club of Macon County was established and the Honorable James H. Alston was elected president by a majority of the County, despite his being black. Representative Alston was a member of the Alabama State Legislature following Reconstruction.

1987 - Lionel Richie performed at Wembly Stadium, which is located in the United Kingdom. Richie was born in Tuskegee Institute. May 07

1818 - Juliet Ann Opie Hopkins, of Camp Watts Hospital, was born in Virginia. Hopkins would move to Tuskegee, and become the coordinator for the hospitals to treat Alabama Confederate soldiers during the War Between the States. Her outstanding medical service to the soldiers, even during battle, was rewarded by her being the only woman pictured on Confederate money. 1891 - Halle Tanner Dillon graduated from the Women’s Medical College, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Dillon would later become the first physician for Booker T. Washington and the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school’s faculty, staff and students. 1927 - The first Tuskegee Relays and Track Meet were held. This was the first event of its kind, to host the U.S. black track and field stars in national relays. 1943 - The USS George Washington Carver was the 90th ship launched, from the Shipyard No. 1 of the Kaiser Company, Richmond, California. It was the second liberty ship to be named for an African American. 1,500 gathered for the launching ceremony, organized by the United Negro Labor Committee. Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, Dorothy Dandridge and Etta Moten were in attendance. With the traditional words “I christen thee George Washington Carver,” Lena Horne, actor, singer and sponsor of the ship broke a champagne bottle over the hull. She was on a break from filming the movie “Stormy Weather.” About 1,000 black women worked from April 12, 1943, with the more than 6,000 African American workers, in four Kaiser shipyards at Richmond, to construct the vessel. The job was completed in 42 days. The ship was 441 feet and 6 inches long. It served in the Mediterranean Sea, for a South African company. From November 1943 to July 1944, it was converted into a hospital ship, for the War Department, and was

assigned the name USAHS Dogwood by the U.S. Surgeon General. It served as a hospital ship until January 1946, and reverted back to it’s original name. It was assigned the area between Seattle and Alaska, until March 21, 1947, when it entered the National Defense Reserve Fleet, at Suisun Bay, California. On January 4, 1964, it was withdrawn by the First Steel and Ship Corporation for recycling. 2016 - Tyler Perry, the Entertainment Mogul, gave the commencement address at the Tuskegee University Graduation. The event was held in the General Daniel “Chappie” James Arena, on the campus of Tuskegee University. May 08

1942 - The 14th Annual Junior and Senior Women’s Track and Field Championship was held at Tuskegee Institute. 2014 - Tuskegee Institute Graduate Admiral Michelle J Howard, became the first woman, and first black to become the second highest rank in the U.S. Navy.

May 09

1889 - Olivia Davidson Washington passed away. She was a Hampton graduate. She was a Tuskegee teacher and the first woman principle to Tuskegee Normal School. She became Booker Taliafero Washington’s second wife. 1942 - The 16th Annual Tuskegee Relay Carnival, was held in the Tuskegee Institute Alumni Bowl. This event featured competition in: track and field, tennis, golf and basketball. 2015 - U.S. First Lady Michele Obama gave the commencement address at the Tuskegee University Graduation. The event was held in the General Daniel “Chappie” James Arena, on the campus of Tuskegee University.

May 10

1894 - Dr. Halle Tanner Dillon reported on the Tuskegee Institute, to the Women’s Medical College,

in Pennsylvania. Dr. Dillon was the Tuskegee Institute campus physician. 1944 - The main body of the 99th Fighter Squadron moved to Pignataro, near Capua, Italy. Despite the move, the squadron was able to fly one mission, with eight P40 planes dropping 500-pound demolition bombs and 20-pound cluster bombs on a building identified as an enemy barracks. May 11

1902 - The Tuskegee Song was first performed at the Tuskegee Institute Commencement. The song lyrics were composed by Paul Lawrence Dunbar (June 27, 1872 - February 9, 1906). Booker T. Washington paid him by check for the lyrics, in the amount of $25.00. The music was composed by N. Clark Smith (July 31, 1877 - October 8, 1935), who was the Institute Band Director (1900 - 1904; 1907 - 1913). 1987 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan gave the Commencement Address at the Tuskegee University’s Spring Graduation, in the newly completed General Daniel “Chappie” James Arena.

May 12

1887 - The Tuskegee Alumni Association was formed. The first president was Mr. B.T. Harvey, Sr. The organization became a national entity in 1914. 1887 - Osceola County, became the 40th county established, from segments of Orange County and Brevard County, in the state of Florida. The county was named for Osceola, or Billy Powell, the famous Seminole warrior, who was born in the Creek Nation, in Macon County, Alabama.

May 13

1909 - Emmett J. Scott was the only black member of the American Commission to Liberia, under President William H. Taft. The group traveled across the Atlantic Ocean on the boat cruiser, the Chester. Following the trip, Scott composed a booklet entitled, “Is Liberia

Worth Saving?”. This publication was viewed as the authoritative reference for Liberia. 1963 - Mr. Samuel W. Boynton passed away in Selma, Alabama. Boynton’s untimely death resulted from a terrible beating, he endured, by white citizens from Selma, who opposed his civil rights work to liberate the black population. He taught landownership and business ownership. He began the first black owned insurance company in Dallas County, and worked to get black people registered to vote. He and his wife, Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boynton were graduates of Tuskegee Institute, and they were sent to Selma to teach home economics and agriculture. Upon his death, blacks were so intimidated by white oppression that churches refused to be the location for his funeral. The Holt Street Baptist Church finally became the site for the services and whites wrote down vehicle license numbers to record who attended the services. They did this so they could ostracize, commit violence and work to get the attendees fired from their places of employment. May 14

1944 - This year, movie actor and performer Gene Kelly, was stationed at the U.S. Navy base near Washington, D.C. He would stop in to watch the Tuskegee Institute Peters Sisters play tennis, on courts near their home.

May 15

1950 - Zora Neale Hurston, of Notasulga, assisted her friend, Sara Lee Creech in creating a better baby doll with black features. The Sara Lee Doll was made anthropologically correct.

May 16

1949 - Tuskegee Institute graduated the first Veterinary Medicine class. Four Veterinary Doctors graduated on this date. In 1945, the Veterinary School was set up as a regional instruction program, with funding from both the General Education Board and the State of Alabama. It’s first building was completed in 1948. The 1950 graduating class of 14 students represented the largest group of black men, in U.S. history to ever receive the

degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. 1997 - U.S. President William J. Clinton apologized for the United States Health Department Syphilis Study, conducted on men living in and around Tuskegee and Macon County, Alabama. 2003 - Roumania “Pete” Peters passed away from pneumonia. She was eighty-five (85) years old. She was half of the famous Tuskegee Peters Sisters, known as “Pete and Re-Pete”, because of their national dominance in the game of tennis. May 17

1873 - Tuskegee Grange No. 9 was established by Evander McIver Law. Grange explained in “From Civil War to Civil Rights, Alabama 1860 to 1960: “After the Civil War the widespread and crippling agricultural depression in the South prompted the United States Department of Agriculture to send agents into the devastated region for the purpose of gathering statistical information. One of these agents was Oliver H. Kelley, a clerk in the department, who was determined that the “people North and South must know each other as members of the same great family, and all sectionalism be abolished.” Seeing the general demoralization, Kelley conceived that plan of an organization for social and educational purposes which would benefit the farmers. As a Mason, he thought of an order with a similar ritual of secrecy and fraternity. After his tour, which included Alabama, Kelley returned to Washington and on December 4, 1867 he and six other government employees organized the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. One writer commented, “There was none to dispute the title, and they enjoyed it alone for the next 5 years.”” 1926 - During this year, Zora Neale Hurston, of Notasulga, goes to Harlem to study black life, as field research for Franz Boas. It was there that she met several other black artists, including Langston Hughes. She published several short stories, and along with Hughes, Hurston launched the short-lived influential black literary journal “Fire”.

May 18

1911 - Booker Taliafero Washington met Julius Rosenwald, at the Chicago Blackstone Hotel, for the first time. The occasion was the fifty-third anniversary of the YMCA. Washington spoke and brought the crowd to their feet in enthusiastic applause. However, Rosenwald was unimpressed. Later, Washington’s friend, who had introduced him to Rosenwald, took him by the Sears headquarters to meet the president. Washington inquired if Rosenwald would become a trustee or make a contribution to Tuskegee Institute. Rosenwald said no to both requests and gave them a tour of the facility. Rosenwald later wrote in his journal that his employees probably wondered why he was touring these two ”darkies” in Sears. Booker T. Washington then went to work. Washington had Emmitt Scott to arrange for Rosenwald to visit Tuskegee. Rosenwald came by train, after a visit to Fisk University. He stayed in Tuskegee for two days. Upon his return to Chicago, Rosenwald exclaimed, “If a white institution could be good at industrial education, Tuskegee is BETTER!” He accepted the trustee position at Tuskegee and later became the Board Chairman. He became both a staunch supporter and a great fund raiser for Tuskegee. He brought his wife and family to visit and became close friends with Booker T. Washington and his family. Washington was his advisor on the black community in America and Washington had a permanent location to stay when he visited Chicago, at the Rosenwald’s 4 floor mansion. Also, Julius Rosenwald never again said a demeaning nor degrading word about black people. 1938 - Tuskegee Institute’s Mozell Ellerbe became the first Black college runner to win a national track meet.

May 19

1947 - The Alabama State Board of Examiners commended the progress of the Tuskegee Institute School of Nursing. This commendation appeared in their annual report. The Tuskegee Institute Training School of Nurses was registered with the Alabama State Board of Nursing in 1892. By 1908, the increased demand for trained nurses produced the establishment of a regular 3 year Nursing diploma program. This program was phased out in

1953, because of the new Bachelors of Science degree in Nursing. 1996 - Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson received an honorary doctorate from the Chicago Community Law College. Robinson was a Tuskegee Institute graduate. May 20

1899 - Booker T. Washington and Margaret Murray Washington began their ship cruise to Europe, for rest and relaxation.

May 21

1892 - The Alabama Legislature act incorporated Tuskegee Institute. The act also set a Governor appointment of five (5) seats on the board of trustees, as voting members, with the Alabama Superintendent of Education, as an ex-officio voting committee member. 1935 - Margaret Peters was offered a full Tuskegee Institute Scholarship. However, with her mother’s encouragement, she waited for her sister, Roumania Peters to graduate from high school, so they could enter college together.

May 22

1934 - The first plane landed at Tuskegee Institute, on a campus farm field. 2006 - Dr. Tsegaye Habtemariam became the first African born Dean of a U.S. college or university. Dr. Habtemariam began his education in his home country of Ethiopia, and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in 1964. In 1970 he earned his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree, at Colorado State University, and later earned his doctorate from the University of California at Davis. He was an instructor in large animals and epidemiology, at the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine. In the 1980’s he formed the Biomedical Information Management System, that used technology, with an international group of specialists to address global diseases in the animal population. Dr. Habtemariam

created the “Veterinary Scholar Workstation”, that used technology for instruction and research, before there was access to the internet. He is the world authority on Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and has an extensive research record into vector borne diseases and risk analysis of agricultural species. Dr. Habtemariam became the Tuskegee University Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health. He began the focus on “One Health”, where healthy animals means a healthy human population. He conducted international conferences to address issues in agricultural animal diseases and risk analysis, with respect to research and use of technology in problem solving. His research and teaching took him to Asia, the Americas, Africa and Europe. May 23

1900 - This year Tuskegee Normal and Industrial school built four (4) tennis courts: two (2) by the Oaks and two (2) by Emery dormitories 1 and 2.

May 24

1906 - The Jesup Agriculture Wagon program was begun by Dr. George W. Carver. He used the Wagon to train farmers and their families in improving their farms and how their homes could have flower gardens, attractive plants and healthy meals.

May 25

1941 - Ernest Cornelius “Trap” Stephens was born in Detroit Michigan, at Ford’s Hospital. He was raised in Tuskegee’s Greenwood community, and attended both Chambliss Children’s House and Tuskegee Institute High School. He became a civil rights worker with SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee). He was the founder and editor of the “Black Thesis”, a black liberation movement newsletter, published in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. He graduated from the University of Michigan and returned to graduate from Tuskegee Institute as a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. He became the Director of Research for the Morehouse School of Medicine. He conducted research into carcinoma in swine. Later, he taught veterinary medicine at the

University of the Caribbean, on St. Kitts, British Isles. May 26

1964 - This year, Dr. Eugene W. Adams became the first African American, that was selected to become a Diplomate in the American College of Veterinary Pathologists. He was born January 12, 1920, and earned his Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine, from Kansas State College in 1944. He later earned his Masters degree and Doctorate from Cornell University. He then began his 38 years of teaching and service at Tuskegee Institute, where he became Department head of Pathology and Parasitology. Dr. Adams also served as Associate Dean, Vice Provost and Director for the Tuskegee International Programs. His wife Myrtle Adams also served the Tuskegee School of Veterinary Medicine, by preparing the future doctors and their spouses for the social culture, of the professional medical profession, they were about to enter. Dr. Adams was the author of book, “The Legacy - A History of the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine (1945 - 1995)�. Dr. Eugene Adams passed away on February 21, 2016. He was 96 years old. 1943 - Cadets Horace M. King and Charles E. Anderson formed the third Tuskegee Army Air Field Weather Detachment officers unit.

May 27

1835 - Osceola led the Seminoles deep into the Florida swamps to build villages and conduct raids on settlers to prevent the native Americans from being captured and taken to Oklahoma reservations. Osceola was born in Macon County, Alabama.

May 28

1885 - Tuskegee Normal School held its first graduation. The commencement speaker was Professor Joseph Charles Price (1854 - 1893), who founded Livingston College, in Salisbury, North Carolina. There were ten graduates. Booker T. Washington gave the first diploma to Virginia Adams, the daughter of Lewis Adams, who was the former slave that founded the school, along with George Washington Campbell, a former plantation owner.

1934 - Betty Dean Sanders was born in Detroit, Michigan. She would attend Tuskegee Institute to study nursing. Later, she would marry Malcolm X to become Betty Shabazz. (Pinehurst, GA) 1965 - Alabama Governor George C. Wallace spoke at the Macon Academy Graduation ceremonies. It was held in the National Guard Armory, located on the Notasulga Highway, by the Ashdale Cemetery. Macon Academy was organized as a white segregated school, in protest for the integration of Tuskegee High School. It was initially supported by funds from Governor Wallace’s office. May 29

1958 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir began performing at Radio City Music Hall, in New York City. The occasion was the 25th Anniversary Celebration of the Radio City Music Hall. Tuskegee’s Choir performed daily in the facility from May 29th through June 25th. The Choir Director was Relford Patterson.

May 30

1922 - Tuskegee Institute’s second president, Dr. Robert Russa Moton was the only black speaker at the dedication ceremonies of the Abraham Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C. 1934 - Zora Neale Hurston’s first novel “Jonah’s Gourd Vine” was published. Also, her essays and short stories began appearing frequently in literary journals. She started her study for her doctorate at Columbia University, with the help of a Rosenwald Fellowship grant. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama. 1937 - Coach Cleve Abbott recruited the Peters Sisters, to attend Tuskegee Institute, beginning in the fall semester. They were already well known for their power tennis and would go on to win national championships and acclaim.

May 31

1949 - Dr. Robert Russa Moton, Tuskegee Institute’s second president, passed away. He brought in the Tuskegee Veteran’s Administration Hospital. He gave the dedication speech for the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. and headed up the relief effort for the Great Mississippi Flood. 1965 - Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. gave the commencement address at Tuskegee Institute’s graduation ceremonies. Tuskegee’s president was Luther Hilton Foster. 1965 - TIAL (Tuskegee Institute Advancement League) members desegregated Tuskegee’s City pool. When they continued to come each day to swim, the white citizens tried to stop them in several ways. They placed an alligator in the pool, they put grounded glass on the diving board, and they put caustic acid in the pool water. Finally, they filled the pool with garbage and trash and the City officials closed the pool, with no plans to re-open. 1966 - U.S. Army Ranger and Tuskegee Institute graduate, Lucius Amerson defeated local service station owner, Sadler in the election primary for Macon County Sheriff.

+VOF Jun 01

1920 - Frank Toland was born in Helena, South Carolina, to Fred Toland and Lily Mae Sligh. In 1939, he graduated from Drayton Street High School as the class valedictorian. He spent 42 weeks in military service at the end of World War II, and went on to earn his B.A. in English, History and Political Science, from South Carolina State University. He earned his Masters degree at the University of Pennsylvania, as the only black student in the history program. Toland then earned his doctorate from the University of Minnesota. He moved to Tuskegee in 1949, and taught history at Tuskegee Institute. In 1968, he became Chairman of the History Department. Also that year, he was elected unanimously

to become the first black Mayor Pro-Tem, for the City of Tuskegee. 1921 - Tulsa’s Greenwood Community, or Black Wall Street was looted, fire bombed and completely destroyed. Of the 3,000 plus living there, over 300 black citizens were shot and killed, then hastily buried in crates. Others were rounded up and either placed in jail or into a make-shift concentration camp. Still others fled for their lives on foot. This community was created using the plan Booker T. Washington developed in his Tuskegee Greenwood prototype, located in and around the Tuskegee Institute campus. 1969 - The first worship service was held in the second Tuskegee Institute Chapel. Jun 02

1837 - Osceola led 200 Seminole Warriors on an attack of Fort Dade and rescued 700 Native American prisoners. 1943 - The Tuskegee Airmen flew their first mission, in North Africa.

Jun 03

1946 - Dr. Eugene H. Dibble became Head of John A. Andrew Hospital, located on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. 1911 - Florence Eugenia Talbert Stephens Trammell was born, in Xenia, Ohio. She would graduate from Tuskegee Institute and work with C.O.R.E. (the Congress On Racial Equality, with James Foreman), in Philadelphia. Later, she would become a teacher in the Macon County public schools. She taught English, business math, business law, and typing, at the Tuskegee Institute High School. She established the Co-ed Beauty and Barber Supply company, to provide supplies for black beauticians, with small and large businesses. In the late 1960’s, she developed the Tuskegee Institute Learning Resource Center, on the third floor of the Hollis Frissell Library. Tuskegee University later renamed the entire campus Library building, the Learning Resource Center.

Jun 04

1925 - Margaret Murray Washington passed away. She was the third wife of Booker T. Washington. She established the “Mothers Clubs” to provide training for local women around the Tuskegee campus. She was also an organizer of black women and women’s organizations in Alabama. 1985 - Dr. Tsegaye Habtemariam began the establishment of the International Center for Tropical Animal Health (ICTAH). Dr. Habtemariam, a large animal professor at the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine, coordinated a major conference at Tuskegee University, for a comprehensive needs assessment of animal farmers, located around the equator. He garnered the participation of global experts in agriculture and veterinary medicine, from a large number of countries. Dr. Habtemariam then used the data and the networking he established to create the International Center for Tropical Animal Health (ICTAH). The Center was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Office of International Cooperation and Development (OICD). The OICD Director, Joan Wallace signed an MOU with Tuskegee for the Center. Wallace stated in the MOU that Tuskegee’s Veterinary School had trained 115 Caribbean students, and 38 African students. She further stated that many of these graduates were serving in top administrative positions in their respective governments, as well as in academia. The Center went on to impact animal farming and veterinary practice, in the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, and South America. Modern technology and advanced science-based research was shared to educate and support many of the rural farmers in these regions of the world, in a practical and simply communicated platform they would understand.

Jun 05

1962 - Sammy L. Younge, Jr. joined the U.S. Navy, after graduating from Tuskegee Institute High School. Sammy was assigned to the U.S.S. Independence, that led the blockade of sea vessels in the Cuban Conflict. While in the Navy, he lost a kidney and received an honorable medical discharge. For a brief time after that, he worked at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Medical Center.

He would later join the Black Liberation Movement to desegregate public places in the southern U.S. 2017 - Dominique Cooper, of Tuskegee, became the first black cast member, from Alabama, on the CBS Television reality program, “Big Brother.” Jun 06

1906 - Tuskegee Institute launched its first Movable School and Bookmobile. 1965 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the Southern Regional Student Conference. 2004 - Colonel Herbert Eugene Carter was chosen to receive the Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. This is France’s highest civilian award. Col. Carter received it for “outstanding service rendered France during the second World War.” Col. Carter was a member of the original Tuskegee Airmen, working as a pilot and mechanic. He commanded respect as a soldier on the military bases and the locations around the world where they fought. However, back in the U.S. they faced discrimination and segregation. General Martin E. Dempsey, the 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff paid tribute to Col. Carter by presenting him with the Outstanding Leadership Award. Dempsey said, “Who will put their lives at risk? Who will work to help others? Colonel Carter did that for his generation.” Tuskegee University President, Dr. Gilbert L. Rochon said of Carter: “He fought for freedom from tyranny internationally and for freedom from discrimination at home in America. His commitment to excellence and determination to succeed will set the standard for the next generations of Tuskegee Airmen.” Col. Carter earned other prestigious military decorations, including: the Air Force Commendation Medal, the Air Medal, 4 Clusters, the Distinguished Unit Citation, 5 Bronze Stars, the European Theater Medal, the National Defense Medal, and the Air Force Longevity Award of 5 Oak Leaf Clusters. After World War 2, Col. Carter served in the Air Force for 25 years. Carter also served as professor of air science and commander of the

Air Force ROTC Detachment 15 at Tuskegee Institute, from 1950 to 1955. From 1965 to 1969, he served as Tuskegee’s professor of aerospace studies. He also served in the capacity of Assistant Dean for Student Services, and Associate Dean for Admissions and Recruiting. For many years, Col. Carter and his wife Mildred Carter, would represent the Tuskegee Airmen, as the first couple ambassadors for the Tuskegee Airmen. Jun 07

1943 - Cadet M. Milton Hopkins joined the Tuskegee Army Air Field as a Weather Detachment Officer. 1957 - The Gerrymander map was accepted for reestablishing the Tuskegee voting district. This map eliminated all but twelve (12) of the three (3,000) thousand eligible black voters, but kept all one (1,000) thousand of the eligible white voters, within the City of Tuskegee.

Jun 08

1868 - Robert Robinson Taylor was born in Wilmington, North Carolina. His father was Henry Taylor, son of Angus Taylor, a white slave owner and a black mother. He was a contractor and builder of cargo ships that traded between the Caribbean, South America and the U.S. He also put up several commercial and residential buildings in Wilmington and other areas. His mother was Emily Still, the daughter of freedmen, before the Civil War. He had four brothers and sisters. He would go on to become the first black to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) and the first black accredited architect in the U.S. Booker T. Washington would then recruit him to both teach architecture and building construction, and design the major buildings on Tuskegee Institute’s campus. 1946 - Jennifer Lawson was born in Fairfield, Alabama to parents: Willie D. Lawson, a repair shop owner and Velma Lawson, a retired school teacher. She attended Tuskegee Institute, where she joined TIAL (Tuskegee Institute Advancement League) and SNCC (the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) in the Black

Liberation Movement of the 1960’s. At that time, she worked in Lowndes County, Alabama to establish the first Black Panther Party and popularized the concept of “Black Power”, with Stokley Carmichael, Michael Wright and Willie Ricks. She later worked as art director for Drum and Spear, a bookstore and publishing company in Washington, D.C. In 1989, she became the executive vice president of programming for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. She was the first African American woman to achieve a position that high at PBS. She developed the programs: “Barney and Friends” and “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?”. She also managed the promotion and airing of the Ken Burns series, “The Civil War” and “Baseball”. In 1995, she retired from PBS and formed Magic Box Mediaworks. Her company produced the series, “Africa”, with National Geographic and WNET. 1958 - Keenan Ivory Wayans, Sr. was born in New York City, the son of Howell Stouten Wayans, a supermarket manager and Elvira Alethia Green, a homemaker and social worker. Keenan attended Tuskegee Institute on an engineering scholarship. He used comedy to entertain his friends at Tuskegee with stories he made up about New York life. With just one semester to graduation, he decided to drop out of school and pursue a career in comedy. He met and worked with Robert Townsend. They produced the movie, “Hollywood Shuffle”. He then produced the movie, “I’m Gonna Get You Sucker”. Fox Broadcasting Company offered to produce his own television program, and he created “In Living Color” with his brother, Damon Wayans, Sr. He has produced other television programs and movies, in addition to starring in a variety of movies. The movie “Scary Story” (2000), was the highest grossing movie ever produced with a black director. His work has help to launch the careers of many actors, comedians and performers, including: Jamie Foxx, Shawn Wayans, Damon Wayans Sr., Jim Carrey, Marlon Wayans, Kim Wayans and Tommy Davidson 1965 - TISEP (Tuskegee Institute Summer Education Program) began it’s program in the Black Belt counties of Alabama. It recruited 100 students from colleges

around the U.S. to work in rural areas, by providing both education programs and community assistance programs. Many of the TISEP students also became workers in the Black Liberation Movement of the late 1960’s. They conducted sit-ins, protest marches and voter registration. The program concept was developed by and managed by Dr. Bertram Phillips, the Tuskegee Institute Dean of Students. Jun 09

1941 - The Tuskegee training program for the Tuskegee Airmen’s 99th Fighter Squadron was organized at Tuskegee Institute. This unit composition included 47 officers and 429 enlisted men. There was also an entire service component to cover all aspects of operations. The basic flight training began at Kennedy Field and Moton Field, then they were moved to the Tuskegee Army Airfield (TAAF), for conversion training into specific types of operation. This produced the only Army training site, with three phases of pilot training, at one location. These were basic training, advanced training and transition training. The initial program was to accommodate 500 personnel in residence, however, by 1942 the program had multiplied to six (6) times that amount.

Jun 10

1881 - Booker T. Washington began his “Negro Extension Work” with trips throughout Macon County, Alabama. He traveled the County’s dirt roads, and ate meals with and stayed overnight with colored families to learn their conditions and lifestyles. It was from his observances that he developed the first curriculum for the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored People.

Jun 11

1854 - Olivia America Davidson Washington was born free, as the daughter of an ex-slave, Elias Davidson, and a daughter of a “free colored” woman, Eliza Webb. She was born in Mercer County, Virginia. She attended school in Ironton and Gallipolis, Ohio. By the age of 16, she was teaching school in Ohio. During her summer vacations, she taught school in Mississippi and Arkansas. Olivia

later graduated from both Hampton Institute and the State Normal School in Framingham, Massachusetts. Booker T. Washington then asked her to help him start a school in Alabama, that became Tuskegee University. She became the first Assistant Principal at Tuskegee. 1874 - John A. Kenney Sr. was born in Albermarle County, Virginia. He would become the physician for Booker T. Washington and the faculty, staff and students at Tuskegee Institute. Jun 12

1994 - The Tuskegee’s Kellogg Conference Center was constructed. This was the only Kellogg Conference Center located on a college campus. It encompassed the earlier Dorothy Hall Guest House (built in 1901) and added a large hotel facility, restaurant, lounge, an outdoor terrace dining area, ballroom, meeting rooms, offices, an indoor pool, workout room, and a 2-story parking garage. The construction was funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, U.S.D.A. and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Rabun Hatch was the design architect, with Fry & Welch Associates, the architect of Record.

Jun 13

1897 - Emmett Jay Scott began working as Booker T. Washington’s personal secretary, at Tuskegee Institute. Together with Warren Logan, William Baldwin and other Tuskegee supporters, they became known as the “Tuskegee Machine”. 1965 - SNCC’s Southern Regional Student Conference was held at the Tuskegee Institute Camp Atkins. SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) field workers collaborated with the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) members to hold the conference. Their focus was to strategize how to intensify the Southern United States voter registration movement.

Jun 14

1893 - Tuskegee Normal and Industrial began architecture training, under the Division of Mechanical Industries. Those completing the training were awarded certificates in Architecture. 1943 - Booker Felder left Tuskegee Institute to join the 92nd Infantry of Buffalo Soldiers. Felder became Tuskegee’s instructor in Clothing and Related Arts. He was a master tailor and would take his classes to the professional fashion shows in New York City. 1957 - The Honorable Sam Engelhardt, a State Senator, sponsored Act 140, in the Alabama Legislature. Engelhardt, a plantation owner in Shorter, Alabama, wanted to actively frustrate the building voter registration movement, in the Negro community. He saw this move as a direct threat to maintaining a majority white vote in elections. Act 140 changed the Tuskegee City limits from a square, to a 28 sided “seahorse” drawing. The new City limits included all 600 white voter homes, but it excluded the homes of all registered Negro voters, except for 5. Engelhardt justified his actions by saying, “The folks up there feel like I do. Civil rights legislation is going to pass the United States Senate either this year or the next and we’re going to be prepared for it. We couldn’t stand seeing a Negro in the Alabama Legislature.” Even though there was outspoken opposition to the bill from the Negro members of the City Council, the County Commission, the Alabama Legislature’s Committee on Local Legislation, and even an open letter published in the Montgomery Advertiser newspaper, on this day the Senate unanimously passed the bill. On June 21st the House passed the bill with an 80 to 0 vote. Tuskegee’s population was 5,397 Negroes to 1,310 whites, but there was local support for the bill also. A City Council member and manager of a Tuskegee paint store commented, “ It’s a matter of self-preservation; Negroes were about to out-vote us and take over control of the city.” Senator Englehardt commented, “I gerrymandered those niggers right out of town . . . If that civil rights commission comes down here and forces mass registration of unqualified Negroes, there’ll be bloodshed. Why, we’d have niggers in office. Can you imagine

being arrested by a nigger sheriff?” However, the term “unqualified” was not accurate, because the Negroes exceeded the educational level of the whites, because of Tuskegee Institute’s work and training in the County. The Chicago Tribune reported, “Any educational test for voting, no matter how rigorous, if fairly applied, would probably result in the enfranchising of more Negroes than whites in (Macon) County.” Jun 15

1970 - Dr. William O. Jones, a veterinarian, became the first black to be board certified in clinical pathology. He became the head of the Department of Pathology, in the Tuskegee University’s School of Veterinary Medicine. 2014 - Dr. Brian Johnson became the 7th President of Tuskegee University. He was a W.E.B. DuBois scholar. Dr. Johnson was married to LaTosha Johnson and they had 2 sons: Brian Jr. and Maddoc. Dr. Johnson was originally from Minnesota and earned his degrees at the University of California and California Technology Institute. Dr. Johnson was born on June 8, 1000.

Jun 16

1903 - Monroe Work received his Masters degree and accepted the position at Georgia State Industrial College, in Savannah and established the Savannah Men’s Sunday Club. This became the model for Negro Health Week, when he began working at Tuskegee Institute, under Booker T. Washington. 1965 - Sammy L. Younge, Jr., a student at Tuskegee Institute, lobbied against segregation in Washington, D.C. He was also a member of the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) a militant student organization fighting for equal rights. 1968 - Macon County registered 110 degrees F. This became its hottest day in history.

Jun 17

1890 - Florence Cole Talbert was born. She would become an accomplished vocal concert artist, teaching vocal music in many black colleges including Fisk and Tuskegee Institute. She studied music in Europe. She also collaborated with Alice Dunbar, wife of Paul Lawrence Dunbar (composer of the Tuskegee Song), in New York City, to produce an official national hymn for the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. 1957 - The Tuskegee Merchant Boycott was organized by the Tuskegee Civic Association (TCA), under the leadership of Dr. Charles G. Gomillion.

Jun 18

1833 - This year, Osceola became a Seminole AntiRemoval leader. This took place after the Treaty of Fort Gibson, which was used to create an Oklahoma homeland for Native Americans. Osceola was born in Macon County, Alabama. 1941 - George W. Carver received the honorary Doctor of Science degree. The aging Carver was awarded this degree by the President of Rochester University, who traveled to Tuskegee to present it to him. 1870 - The Honorable James H. Alston, Senator was attacked at his Tuskegee home, by local white democrat vigilantees, because of his political associations. Alston was shot in the back and the hip. His pregnant wife was shot in the foot. This took place some time between midnight and one o’clock in the morning.

Jun 19

1899 - George W. Carver established a voluntary observer’s weather station at Tuskegee. Carver was given weather reporting equipment by the Weather Bureau of the USDA, through his college mentor James Wilson, who became the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. 1965 - Sammy Younge, Jr., a student at Tuskegee Institute, supported the Jackson, Mississippi protests. Sammy was a foot soldier in the Black Liberation Movement, working with the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL)

and the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Jun 20

1942 - Dr. John A. Kenney Sr. addressed the Hampton College Alumni. Dr. Kenney was the director of Tuskegee Institute’s John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. 1949 - Lionel Richie was born in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. His parents were Lionel Brockman Richie, Sr., a retired Army captain, and Alberta Foster Richie, an elementary school teacher, and Tuskegee Institute graduate. His grandmother was a choir director and an accomplished pianist. He would be raised in Tuskegee Institute’s Greenwood community, attending school at Chambliss Children’s House. Because of the family moving briefly to Joliet, Illinois, he graduated from Joliet Central High School East. He would later attend Tuskegee Institute and join the Jays musical group. This is the group that became the Commodores. As a musical composer and performer, he would win Grammy awards and perform throughout the world.

Jun 21

1908 - Monroe Nathan Work accepted the archives and records director’s position at Tuskegee Institute. As Director, he used his position to compile extremely accurate records and statistics on lynchings in the U.S., to fight the practice. By 1922, he was sending lynching reports to the Associated Press, the World Almanac, and over 2,000 newspapers, including the Atlanta Constitution and the Chattanooga Free Press. His diligence and dedication would affect both Tuskegee, and the surrounding rural communities, and also African American communities, across the U.S. in promoting the ideals of progress, social reform and justice. His accuracy in reporting led to the creation of the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching. He also influenced the involvement in anti-lynching efforts of the Southern Sociological Congress and the YMCA.

2017 - Dr. Jacqueline Brooks was elected to be the first black female president of the State Superintendents of Alabama. Dr. Brooks was superintendent of the Macon County School District, and a native of Ramer, in Macon County. Jun 22

1778 - William Bartram, the naturalist and artist traveled through Macon County. Bartram and his twin sister, Elizabeth, were born April 9, 1739, in Kingsessing, Pennsylvania. This is now in Philadelphia. His father was a well known botanist, John Bartram and his mother was Anne Mendenhall. William became a naturalist, nurseryman, artist and an author. John Fothergill, a London physician, bought some of William Bartram’s work, and hired him to collect and sketch more plants. Bartram left from Charleston in March 1773 to conduct his extensive travels and artist drawing records of the Southeastern U.S. This resulted in the book: “Travels through North and South Carolina, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscolgulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws”, published in 1791. This took place during the Revolutionary War era, and includes both flora and fauna of the Southeast, with descriptions of the Native Americans living in the region. This was the first environmental publication written and published in the U.S.

Jun 23

1944 - 332nd Fighter Group moved to Ramitelli Air Base, in Italy. 1997 - Tuskegee Alumnae, Betty Dean Sanders Shabazz died from injuries she received in a fire at her home in New York. Her daughter Qubilah had been arrested for hiring an assassin to kill Minister Louis Farrakhan, for the murder of her father Malcolm X. Qubilah accepted a plea agreement, where she maintained her innocence, but bore the responsibility for her actions. Part of the agreement was for 2 years to attend psychological counseling and treatment for drug and alcohol abuse. During that 2 year period, Qubilah’s 10 year old son, Malcolm, lived

with his grandmother, Betty Shabazz. On June 1, 1997, Malcolm set fire to Betty Shabazz’s apartment. Betty suffered burns over 80 percent of her body, and remained in intensive care for 3 weeks, ata the Jacob Medical Center, located in the Bronx. She had 5 skin-replacement operations as the surgeons worked tirelessly to replace her damaged skin, to save her life. She passed away on June 23rd. Her grandson, Malcolm Shabazz was sentenced to 18 months at a juvenile detention facility, on the charges of manslaughter and arson. Jun 24

1881 - Booker Taliafero Washington arrived at Tuskegee, to begin the work of establishing the Normal School for Colored Teachers. He met Lewis Adams, a former slave and business owner, and George Washington Campbell, a Tuskegee banker and former plantation owner. Booker Washington wrote his friend and Hampton’s treasurer James F.B. Marshall, the next day: “The place has a healthy and pleasant location -- high and hilly -- think I shall like it. Will open school 1st Monday in July. Please send me the addresses of some publishing houses where I can get my books at reduced rates. I will use about the same kind of text books as you use there . . .” Washington said he would use Hampton Institute’s philosophy, because he felt the Negro needed education that would be applied practically to meetings the needs of life. He also hinted that there was a need to get land and buildings to establish the school. 1896 - Booker T. Washington received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Harvard University. An account of the event was printed in a pamphlet to record the occasion, which included the following: “When the name of Booker T. Washington was called, and he arose to acknowledge and accept, there was such an outburst of applause as greeted no other name except that of the popular soldier-patriot, General Miles. The applause was not studied and stiff, sympathetic and condoling; it was enthusiasm and admiration. Every part of the audience from pit to gallery joined in, and a glow covered the cheeks of those around me, proving that sincere appreciation of the rising struggle of an ex-slave and the

work he has accomplished for his race.” The Boston Post reported: “In conferring the honorary degree of Master of Arts upon the Principal of Tuskegee Institute, Harvard University has honored itself as well as the object of this distinction. The work which Prof. Booker T. Washington has accomplished for the education, good citizenship and popular enlightenment in his chosen field of labor in the South, entitles him to rank with our national benefactors. The University which can claim him on its list of sons, whether in regular course or honoris causa, may be proud. 1944 - John T. Willis and Robert M. Preer became the final Weather Cadets to graduate from the Tuskegee Army Airfield (TAAF) training program. Jun 25

1881 - Booker T. Washington began his “Negro Extension Work” with trips throughout Macon County, Alabama. He traveled the county’s dirt roads, and ate meals with and stayed overnight with colored families to learn their conditions and lifestyles. It was from his observances that he developed the first curriculum for the Normal School for Colored Teachers at Tuskegee. He learned the southern white people “. . . were opposed to any kind of education of the Negro. Others inquired whether I was merely going to train preachers and teachers, or whether I propose to furnish them with trained servants”. The Negroes questioned why he needed to teach their children to work. Since they had worked in slavery for two hundred and fifty years. They wanted their children to get an education, and should then live like white people and not have to work any more. He saw the dilapidated one-room shanties where colored people lived. The lack of indoor water systems or sanitary toilets. The homes had a bucket of water inside with one dipper for all to use. He saw the illness and crippling health conditions in families. He saw that they planted cotton up to the door of their homes, to raise more money and neglected to plant food crops to feed the family. He saw that the school needed to teach principles to promote health, good nutrition and cleanliness.

1944 - Tuskegee Airmen pilots of the 302nd Fighter Squadron sank a German destroyer, with their machine gun fire, from their P-47 aircraft. 1957 - The Tuskegee Merchant Boycott began as the Crusade for Citizenship, through the support of the Tuskegee Civic Association. This action was taken to protest the disenfranchisement of colored voters, by redrawing the Tuskegee City boundary lines. This kept all of the one thousand plus white eligible voters, but left only twelve (12) of the over three thousand colored voters. The Boycott resulted in the closing of 75% of the white-only businesses in Tuskegee. 1958 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir ended its run of performances at the anniversary of the Radio City Music Hall, in New York City. Jun 26

1939 - Tuskegee Institute’s student Alfred ‘Tup’ Holmes entered the S.I.A.C. Golf Tournament in Des Moines, Iowa, after winning the championship for two (2) consecutive years. He played on a 36 hole course.

Jun 27

1942 - Walter Gunn, a black man, was beaten and shot in his Tuskegee back yard, by Macon County Sheriff Edwin E. Evans and Deputy Sheriff Henry F. Faucett. They then dragged Gunn to his car and took him to the hospital. He died the next day in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, from swelling in the skull. Gunn was the thirty-four year old husband of Sallie Hill Gunn and the father of four children. He was a mechanic and drove a truck for the Tuskegee Army Flying School. Walter Gunn’s father, Eddie Gunn convinced Ready Haguley and Louis Sargent to investigate the murder. They found the trail of blood and broken ground where Gunn had been dragged. When Sheriff Evans found out, he personally beat up Haguley. The case was eventually brought to court in Lee County, where the prosecution brought in 100 witnesses to testify. They also included the autopsy, showing the cause of death. The witnesses told of the Sheriff Evans’ history of beating and intimidating citizens, both black

and white. The defense made the accusation that the local blacks, who were bringing this case, were influenced to do so by the federal government, the First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, and the N.A.A.C.P. After a three day trial, the all-white jury acquitted Sheriff Edwin E. Evans and Deputy Sheriff Henry F. Faucett of all charges. 1965 - Tuskegee students attempted to integrate the Tuskegee First Methodist church. The students from the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL), Tuskegee Institute Summer Educational Program (TISEP), and the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), met at the church steps on South Main Street to enter the worship service. They were physically thrown out of the church. At that point, Rev. Lawrence Haygood, Sr., pastor of the Westminister Presbyterian Church in the Greenwood community, conducted a short service on the outside steps of the church. Jun 28

1810 - The Federal Road, that was built to connect New Orleans, Louisiana to Washington, D.C., was completed. The Road passed through Macon County, Alabama, which was land occupied by the Creek Nation. The Creek Nation gave permission for the Federal Road to be built on the condition that the Creeks would carry the mail, and have “stands” or places of business for travelers to stop. These “stands” would have stores for supplies, places to get a cooked meal, and a safe place to spend the night, with overnight rooms or areas for people to camp outside. The “stands” would also have services to repair wagons and care for horses or mules. They were positioned 20 miles apart, or the length of one days journey by foot or wagon. The Creek Nation insured that no Indian or wild animal would disturb any traveler on the Federal Road.

Jun 29

1950 - Evelyn Lawler (Tuskegee Institute student and later to become the mother of Track and Field star athlete Carl Lewis) set a new track meet record at Freeport, Texas in the 80 meter hurdles. Her time of 11.7 seconds tied the American record, that was set at the 1932 Olympic

Games. Jun 30

1944 - The 332nd Fighter Group escorted heavy bombers of the Fifteenth Air Force to the Vienna area (from 332nd Fighter Group Mission Report no. 15). This was the last P-47 mission of the 332nd Fighter Group. Five of the bombers were shot down by enemy aircraft, after the 332nd Fighter Group’s escort duty had finished. On the same date, the 99th Fighter Squadron, was reassigned and transferred most of its remaining P-40 fighter aircraft and prepared to move to Ramitelli Air Field, home of the 332nd Fighter Group. 1945 - During the January to June period of 1945, 422 black personnel entered primary flight training at Moton Field, but only 270 graduated to move on to basic and advanced flight training, at the Tuskegee Army Air Field. This means 64 percent of those who began primary flight training at Moton Field, completed that phase. However, 36 percent, or more than a third, “washed out” during that six month period. 1947 - The Tuskegee Airmen’s 477th Bomber/Fighter Composite Group was deactivated. The Group was organized by the U.S. Army to produce an all black pilot squadron to fly bomber planes in World War II. The program took place at the Tuskegee Army Air Field, and bomber planes were brought in for the cadets to fly. However, the war was over and the government ended the training program. 2004 - Tuskegee Attorney Jock Smith received the year’s largest judicial verdict, of $1.62 billion dollars, against the South West Life Insurance Company.

+VMZ Jul 01

1933 - Chief C. Alfred Anderson and Dr. Albert Foresythe flew across the U.S., to become the first AfricanAmericans to conduct a roundtrip transcontinental flight.

Dr. Albert E. Forsythe was a physician, from Atlantic City, New Jersey. Chief Anderson was known as the “Father of Black Aviation”. He taught himself to fly, after buying a plane. He was selected as the flight instructor for the Tuskegee Civilian Pilot Training program, and trained the Tuskegee Airmen to fly planes, before they learned to fly military aircraft. Anderson’s flying experience with Forsythe’s financial support made the flight possible. In 1934, they conducted an even more adventurous trip, in their “Goodwill Flight”. On this project they flew from the U.S. to the Caribbean and South America. Their’s was the first plane to ever reach the Bahamas and several of the Caribbean Islands. Their plane was a Lambert Monocoupe, which they named: the “Spirit of Booker T. Washington”. Upon their return, they were greeted by Tuskegee Institute’s President, Dr. Robert Russa Moton and his wife. 1945 - Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. assumed command of Godman Field, Kentucky, becoming the first black officer to command a major Army Air Forces base. He had already become commander of the 477th Bombardment Group there, since June 21. This action was the result of: Godman Army Air Base General Order 16, dated July 1, 1945. 1947 - The Tuskegee Airmen’s 332nd Fighter Group was reactivated after Tuskegee’s 477th Fighter Group was deactivated. Jul 02

1943 - The Tuskegee Airmen, 99th Pursuit Squadron, shot down their first enemy aircraft. The 99th received their first combat mission, that was in preparation for the July 1943, Allied invasion at Sicily. They were to attack a small, however strategic, island, called Pantelleria. It was one of the volcanic Mediterranean Sea isles. On Friday July 2, 1943, Lieutenant Charles B. Hall of Brazil, Indiana, shot down the first enemy plane for the group. It was an FW-190. He also damaged an Me-109. “It is probably the first time in history that a Negro in a pursuit plane has shot down an enemy in aerial combat.” The 99th was then moved to the island of Sicily. It was on Sicily that

the 99th received a Distinguished Unit Citation for its performance in combat. 1946 - Dr. Toussaint Tourgee Tildon was named Head of the Tuskegee Veterans Hospital. Dr. Tildon came to Tuskegee after graduating from Harvard with a medical degree. He began his career as a young doctor working in psychiatry. Dr. Tildon was one of the first 6 AfricanAmerican doctors to begin treating veterans in Tuskegee. 1958 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Rev. Ralph Abernathy, and Rev. Shuttlersworth attended the Tuskegee Civic Association (TCA) Meeting. King and Abernathy came from Montgomery, and Shuttlesworth came from Birmingham. They came to offer encouragement and show support for the Tuskegee Merchant Boycott, which was initiated by the Tuskegee Civic Association, in protest of the new city limits, drawn to exclude all colored voters from Tuskegee, except for 6, and keep all white voters. Dr. Charles Goode Gomillion, president of the TCA, had a call to action, to “shop with your friends”. Jul 03

1923 - Robert Russa Moton, Tuskegee Institute’s 2nd President overcame a major crisis, that had the potential of destroying the school and setting back much of what Booker T. Washington had achieved. Moton had given land for the federal government to establish a Veterans Hospital in Tuskegee. However, with a boost of $65,000 to the local economy from the hospital, local whites wanted control, and to have an all white staff, except for colored nurses-aides to actually handle the colored veterans. The white nurses were not to come in contact with colored patients, that was Alabama law. Moton held, along with Tuskegee’s renown medical director, Dr. John Kenney, Sr., to the stand that there were adequate numbers of trained and highly qualified colored physicians and nurses to staff the facility. At the hospital’s February opening, an all white staff had been hired, through pressure from Tuskegee segregationists, without the knowledge of Moton, or anyone at Tuskegee Institute. Moton, with the help of the NAACP, the Black press, Black churches, and the National Medical Association communicated,

out of the public eye, with U.S. President Warren G. Harding their strong disappointment in the move not to staff the hospital with qualified colored professionals. President Harding’s secretary wrote Moton to say that there would be a deliberate and determined move to find qualified colored medical professionals to staff the hospital. The white personnel would gradually be replaced by qualified colored personnel. The local Knights of the White Camellia learned of the move and mobilized the Ku Klux Klan, who threatened to burn the Tuskegee campus to the ground. Opposition also came from Alabama’s Governor, William W. Brandon and a Tuskegee resident, State Senator Richard I. Powell, who was running for governor. Powell said, “We do not want any Governmental institution in Alabama with niggers in charge. White supremacy in this state must be maintained at any cost, and we are not going to have any niggers in the state whom we cannot control.” He and others charged that Moton had betrayed the “good” White people and the legacy of Booker T. Washington. Many groups of white segregationists came to Tuskegee to change Moton’s decision. At one point a group of 15 “leading citizens of the community” brought a petition to Moton’s office, and demanded his signature. One of them told Moton, “Booker Washington gave 35 years of his life to build up this school. You, unless you are too stubborn to sign a little paper here, are going to have it all blown up in 24 hours.” Another one said, “You understand that we have the legislature, we make the laws, we have the judges, the sheriffs, the jails. We have the hardware stores and the arms.” Still another man said, “A thousand men - their spokesman called me up this morning - will be over on an hour’s notice and wipe out the whole - institution if things are not going the way we want them to go.” Dr. Moton replied, “Gentlemen, I would be sorry to have any harm come to Tuskegee Institute. You say my life is in your hands. I do not doubt it. You have in your hands all the things you mentioned - the laws, the judges, the jails, and even the guns - I haven’t a gun in my pocket or anywhere else. You can wipe me out; you can take my life, gentlemen; but you can’t take my character..” Then Moton lowered his voice, but said emphatically, “If Negroes who are thoroughly educated and trained for such services can’t serve their own people, can’t serve in that hospital, on land

given by a Negro school, for Negro veterans, provided by the Federal Government; if they can’t practice in that hospital, then you may as well wipe out Tuskegee Institute and every other Negro institution in the world. The sooner you do it the better, so far as I am concerned, gentlemen, I have only one life to give; but I would gladly give a dozen for this cause. If I were to sign that paper, I would be deceiving my people and my country. It’s a Negro hospital, built for Negroes; and, gentlemen, if Negroes trained for the job can’t run it, you can wipe out the hospital and the school and Moton.” The situation continued to get worse. The NAACP asked for President Harding to send in federal troops to protect Moton and the Institute. On July 1st the Klu Klux Klan announced it was tired of talk and men from all over the state would converge on Tuskegee on the eve of Independence Day. Moton’s secretary, Albon L. Holsey said, “I do not see how the situation could be worse, as we are really on top of a volcano and can almost literally hear the lava sputtering down below.” The very next day, on Tuesday evening, July 3rd, the volcano erupted, with a 40 foot cross set on fire in Tuskegee. As the cross burned 70 cars with members of the Knights of the White Camellia and the Klan slowly moved towards Tuskegee Institute. The Montgomery Advertiser reported, “The automobiles loaded with garbed and mysterious figures moved, like a gliding serpent, while groups of Negroes looked on with equal awe and silence.” Black witnesses said the part about the serpent was true, but that Black spectators watched with curiosity, more than anything else. One Black observer said, the parade “was masking the faces and the unmasking the souls.” The Klan were assisted by the staff at the Veterans hospital. They had a relaxful meal in the hospital’s cafeteria, and even got some of the sheets from the hospital. However, the “parade” of Klan bypassed the campus of Tuskegee Institute. This rerouting was no accident, because they most likely learned of another much larger group of automobiles that arrived earlier that day from Mobile, Montgomery, Birmingham and many other locations. These were not the Klan nor the Camellia Knights, but were Institute graduates and friends of the Institute, very well armed and highly disturbed that anyone would dare to threaten violence to their beloved “Mother Tuskegee”. Colonel William H.

Walcott, the commander of the Tuskegee Institute Cadet Corps, positioned them around buildings, along the highway that goes through the campus, and at all access roads leading to the campus. He also stationed a large group of extra supporters in the nearby countryside, to be ready for sudden and quick deployment if needed. With the campus secure, the tension continued through the media. Moton was quietly moving behind the scenes, but the Black press attacked him, saying he was conforming and not standing his ground. He was called “Uncle Tom” since he was not responding to criticism. Then in August, when his plan had come to fruition, Moton broke his silence at the national convention of Booker T. Washington’s National Negro Business League. Moton said, “I have steadfastly and unswervingly taken that position from the beginning and have said that by every right of sentiment and justice our physicians and nurses should have the opportunity to serve in that hospital, and I have made this assertion where it would mean most; namely, before the Superintendent of the Veterans Hospital at Tuskegee, the Director of the Veterans Bureau in Washington, and before the late lamented President W. G. Harding himself. I stand on that position today and there is no man living who can make me change it, and there is no force on earth that can make me surrender it.” In July 1924, a year after the Klan march, the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital was controlled and administered by a Black staff of 21 doctors and dentists, headed by Dr. Joseph H. Ward, of Indianapolis, Indiana. Moton’s character and the integrity of Tuskegee Institute remained strong. 1965 - Tuskegee Institute students made their second attempt to integrate the Tuskegee First Methodist church. The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL), Tuskegee Institute Summer Education Program (TISEP), and Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) met at the church to enter the worship service. However, a group of white men gathered across the street, with pipes, sticks, bricks and bottles, placing them in the gutter next to the sidewalk. Then a white owner to a local restaurant (Pat’s Cafe) drove up, and the only two (2) police cars present disappeared. The white men

then picked-up the items in the gutter and rushed on the students, beating them as they went. One white student with polio and leg braces, was beaten on his spine till he had to go the hospital. They attacked Sammy Younge Jr. beating him on his side. He only had half a kidney, and if it was struck he would die, but they beat him on the other side opposite his partial kidney. They viciously attacked anyone with a camera or who was a reporter. One of the TISEP students reported that while her arm was being beaten bloody and bruised, she could hear the congregation inside the church singing the hymn, “Blessed Be the Ties that Bind Our Hearts in Christian Love.” After about 10 minutes, they stopped and left. Students were taken to the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, for treatment and admission. However, they all returned the next week to continue the protest. Jul 04

1881 - The Normal School for Coloreds at Tuskegee held its first day of classes. This took place in a small shanty on the grounds of the Butler Chapel A.M.E. Zion church. Booker Taliafero Washington was the instructor. “. . . My first task was to find a place in which to open the school. After looking the town over with some care, the most suitable place that could be secured seemed to be a rather dilapidated shanty near the colored Methodist church, together with the church itself as a sort of assembly-room. Both the church and the shanty were in as about as bad condition as was possible. I recall that during the first months of school that I taught in this building it was in such poor repair that, whenever it rained, one of the older students would very kindly leave his lessons to hold an umbrella over me while I heard the recitations of the others . . .” The church lay approximately two miles from what would later become Tuskegee Institute. The criteria for becoming a student was to be at least 15 years of age and to have had some education. He taught 26 students that first day of class.

1907 - Guy R. Trammell, Sr. was born in Lineville, Alabama, to King E. Trammell, and Dollie Magby Trammell. He would attend Tuskegee Institute, taking electric wiring and building construction, and becoming a football star, known as “Speed”. Upon graduation, he wired the original buildings on the Institute campus. He then began teaching electricity and building construction, in the Tuskegee Institute’s School of Arts and Sciences. He trained 75% of the black electricians in the U.S. midwestern states (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan). The Agency for International Development sent he and his family to Southeast Asia, for the Tuskegee-Indonesia Project. The Dutch had colonized the islands, but were made to withdraw, by the League of Nations. They left the materials for developing infrastructure (plumbing, telephone, electricity) however, the Indonesians did not have the skills sets needed to set them up and maintain them. Tuskegee specialized in the Trades, so they sent instructors to work as “Counterparts” with the Indonesians. Trammell taught electricity there for 2 years, traveling to many of the 10,000 islands that make up the nation. This project facilitated Indonesia to become an economic power in Southeast Asia and the world. Trammell also became the first black Lt. Governor in the service organization, Optimist International, for the states of Alabama and Mississippi. The Tuskegee Optimist Club created an annual award in his honor. 2002 - General Benjamin O. Davis Jr. passed away in Washington DC. He was the leader to the famous Tuskegee Airmen and a member of the first Tuskegee Airmen graduating class. Jul 05

1943 - Judge William H. Hastie, after resigning, published with the NAACP, “On Clipped Wings: Jim Crow in Army Air Corps”.

1972 - The Honorable Myron Herbert Thompson became the first black Assistant Attorney General for the State of Alabama. Born in Tuskegee, Thompson earned his J.D. from Yale Law School. In 1980, U.S. President Jimmy Carter nominated him for U.S. District Court Judge, for the Middle District of Alabama. He served as Chief Judge from 1991 to 1998. On August 22, 2013, he obtained senior status as Judge. Judge Thompson was also the first black Alabama Bar Examiner. Jul 06

1846 - Maria Howard Weeden was born in Huntsville, Alabama. During the Civil War, her home was confiscated by Union troops in 1862. Her family and their servants moved to the Tuskegee plantation of Maria’s older sister. Weeden enrolled in the Tuskegee Female Methodist College, where she formed a close friendship with college president George Price, who introduced her to the works of important literary figures and would remain an influence in her life. She returned to Huntsville in 1866, and began writing inspirational poems and fables and essays that reflected her strong moralistic viewpoints, for the Christian Observer newspaper, under the pseudonym Flake White. She also painted scenes of Huntsville and more than 200 wildflowers found on Monte Sano, a mountain near Huntsville. In 1893, Weeden traveled to Chicago for the World’s Columbian Exposition and viewed works of other artists. She was struck at the common portrayal of freedpeople in an exaggerated, caricatured minstrel-show style, such as A. B. Frost’s illustrations for Joel Chandler Harris’s Uncle Remus tales. Recognizing the inadequacy of such depictions, Weeden was inspired to paint the people she had known all her life. She would spend many years painting the freedpeople that she grew up with, cared for, and respected. Maria Howard Weeden believed that the common portrayal of freedpeople in her day lacked individuality and character. Her goal became to record the images of the freedpeople whom she knew with love and respect and also to record the stories she heard from them for future generations. Her books include: “Shadows on the Wall” (1898), “Bandanna Ballads” (1899), “Songs of the Old South” (1901) and “Old Voices”

(1904). Weeden died from tuberculosis on April 12, 1905, and was buried in Maple Hill Cemetery in Huntsville. Jul 07

1881 - Booker Taliafero Washington wrote Hampton Institute’s treasurer, James F.B. Marshall requesting for Olivia A. Davidson to come to Tuskegee as a teacher. Davidson was originally educated at Ohio’s Albany Enterprise Academy, a black college. During Reconstruction she worked as a teacher and for a short while attended a school in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1878 she enrolled in Hampton and graduated the next year from the senior class. She received a grant to attend Framingham State Normal School, in Massachusetts, where she graduated in the spring of 1881. Because of her weak constitution, she had to rest before coming to Tuskegee. She later became the first Tuskegee Institute Assistant Principal. She served in that position from 1881 to 1886. Davidson would also become Booker T. Washington’s second wife. 1924 - Dr. Joseph Ward became the Director for the Tuskegee Veterans Hospital. 1970 - Deborah Partridge Cannon Wolfe was ordained a minister of the Gospel, in the Progressive Baptist Ministry. Her mother, Gertrude Cannon, was in attendance. Wolfe remembered the occasion with excitement. She felt that she was being ordained “for my mother, who always wanted me to become a priest, for myself, and for all the women who were to follow.” She had earlier studied at Union Seminary “not necessarily to earn a degree” but to “enrich her understanding of the Bible and to learn how to preach”. She found Union to be one of the most exciting places because is was not traditional, not fundamental - “it exposed me to a wide range of religious ideas, from modern thinkers in theology as well as more traditional. It provided the whole gamut of viewpoints, which is how it ought to be. One of the great aspects of Union was its diversity.” After her ordination, she continued to serve as the Associate Pastor at First Baptist Church of Cranford. This was the same church in which she was baptized and that her father served as pastor.

Her sermons addressed democracy, respect for difference, the Love of Jesus and the Bible. She joined the New Jersey Convention of Progressive Baptists and in 1999 was elected its first female President. Jul 08

1930 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the Inaugural Southern Tennis Championship. The site was selected because of Tuskegee’s long history of tennis and it’s fourteen (14) tennis courts, with lighting.

Jul 09

1775 - William Bartram began his exploration journey that would lead him through Macon County, Alabama, collecting plant samples and drawing plants and animals along the way. 1892 - The first Telephone system was installed on the Tuskegee Institute campus. The system was donated by Mr. D.L. Carson, Southern agent of Bell Telephone Company.

Jul 10

1924 - Dr. George W. Carver wrote to James Hardwick, “God cannot use you as He wishes until you come into the fullness of His Glory. Do not get alarmed, my friend, when doubts creek in. That is old Satan. Pray, pray, pray. Oh, my friend. I am praying that God will come in and rid you entirely of self so you can go out after souls right, or rather have souls seek the Christ in you. This is my prayer for you always.” 1965 - Three (300) hundred Tuskegee Institute students met with SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) at the Tuskegee Square. They met to discuss strategies after the violent reaction by local white men, when they made their second attempt at integrating the Tuskegee First Methodist Church.

Jul 11

1965 - The Tuskegee Institute students made their third attempt at integrating the Tuskegee First Methodist church. However, this time they were surrounded by local black parents, who all had firearms to protect the young people. There was also present members of the Deacons of Defense from Louisiana. One TISEP student said that someone would have to come by at least nine (9) black men to get to the students that day. One black man came in a truck and laid his shotgun on the hood. A white fireman came over and asked him what he intended to do. The black man looked him in the eye and asked him, “What do you intend to do?” The fireman left the area and rejoined the firemen at their truck. That day they were not able to join the worship service, again. However, they held a service on the sidewalk outside the church, and left. No one was hurt that day.

Jul 12

1836 - Osceola, the Seminole warrior, contracted malaria with other Seminoles and European settlers. Osceola was born in Macon County, Alabama.

Jul 13

1881 - Booker Taliafero Washington received the $200 loan from James F.B. Marshall, treasurer of Hampton Institute. Washington requested the loan to begin purchase of a 100 acre plantation for sale, with 3 shanties, near the Zion Hill church. The plantation owner, William Banks Bowen asked $500, but was ready to take a down payment of $200. The remainder would be paid within a year. Marshall was not able to get the money from Hampton, so he loaned it from his personal funds. 1887 - Isaiah Montgomery (40) and his cousin, Benjamin Green (33), both former slaves, worked with Booker T. Washington, to establish Mississippi’s first all colored town, Mound Bayou. Isaiah Montgomery was a slave of the Confederate President Jefferson Davis. He grew up on Davis’ Hurricane Plantation at Davis Bend, 20 miles from Vicksburg. In December of 1886, Montgomery and Green purchased 840 acres from the Louisville-New Orleans & Texas Railroad, for $7.00 and acre, to create Mound Bayou. Even though the land was covered

with thick brush and trees, that had to be cut by hand, 12 former slave families were ready and able to move in. They fought against the bears, panthers, snakes and swamp fever to create their own town. By 1907, the population grew to 4,000, and it was 99.6% colored. Mound Bayou had a post office, a bank, a train depot, churches, many successful industries, a newspaper, a variety of stores and restaurants, a telephone exchange and a hospital. 1912 - Julius Rosenwald wrote Booker Taliafero Washington a letter, asking for an outline of how he would spend an annual donation of $25,000.00. This was part of Rosenwald’s celebration for his 50th birthday. This was also the beginning of what would be the Rosenwald Schools program, that spread elementary education for colored children throughout the southern United States. 1967 - The Joyettes and the Jays, musical performing groups were featured in Jet magazine. The Joyettes were a quartet of young ladies, from Tuskegee’s Greenfork community, an extension of the Greenwood community. The group included: 16 year old, Joyce Carter (German), 17 year old, Vera Williams (Smith), 18 year old, Deloris Williams (Harris), and 18 year old, Sylvia Thornton. The Jays were a band of musicians consisting of: Bobby Owens, Lionel Richie, Tom Joyner, Tommy McClary, and William King. The Joyettes won the Tuskegee Institute talent show, and caught the attention of the Dean of Students, Dr. Bertram Phillips. He arranged for them to be joined by the Jays and members of another group, the Mystics. The new group began performing together and touring. They recorded an album together, and were offered a recording contract. The Joyettes declined, because they wanted to finish college. The Jays and Mystics continued to perform and members from both groups joined together to become The Commodores. 1985 - Lionel Richie performed “We are the World” at Live Aid to raise money for Africa Relief. Live Aid was held on Saturday, July 13, in both Wembly Stadium, in London, England, and JFK Stadium in Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania. London had a crowd of 70,000 in attendance and Philadelphia had 100,000 spectators. The 6 hour concert was covered by 13 satellites, and viewed on television by over a billion people in 110 countries. 40 countries held telethons to support African famine relief, during the broadcast. Besides Richie many of the top music artists were featured. Performers included: the Beach Boys, Mick Jagger, David Bowie, Elton John, Madonna, Sade, Santana, Queen, U2, Run DMC, the Who, Phil Collins, and Eric Clapton. The final song of the 6 hour concert, was “We are the World” with Lionel Richie leading the group. Jul 14

1881 - Ten (10) days after opening, Tuskegee Normal School for Coloreds goes from thirty (30) to forty (40) students, ranging in age from 16 to 40 years old. Most of these students were Macon public school teachers. 1953 - Dr. George W. Carver’s birthplace, in Diamond Grove, Missouri, became a National Monument. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dedicated $30,000 to the National Park Service for the monument. This was the first national monument to honor an AfricanAmerican, and the first national monument to honor someone other than a U.S. president. The 210 acre complex includes: a three quarter mile nature trail, Moses Carver’s house from 1881, the Carver cemetery and a bust of George W. Carver. 2014 - Alice Coachman passed away, in Albany, Georgia. She had been undergoing treatment for a stroke. She was 90 years old. In 1939, Alice was 16, she earned a scholarship to attend Tuskegee Preparatory School. That same year, just before traveling to Tuskegee, she broke the collegiate and National high jump records, at the Women’s National Championships, and she was barefoot. She was a member of the Tuskegee Tigerettes track team in the 4 x 100 meter relays, who were champions in 1941 and 1942. In 1943, she won the AAU Nationals in both the 50 yard dash and the high jump. She would win the national 50 yard dash 4 times. Alice also played on the Tuskegee Women’s basketball team, winning 3 national

championships. She would end up winning 34 national titles. In 1948, Alice qualified for the U.S. Olympic team, by breaking a 16 year old high jump record by 3/4 of an inch. Her jump was 5 feet 4 inches. In the London Olympics, Alice had a sore back, but that didn’t stop her from breaking another record, with a leap of 5 feet 6 1/8 inches. Her record would stand until the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, Australia. That jump earned her the Gold Medal, which was the only Olympic medal earned that year by an American woman athlete. She also became the first black woman to earn an Olympic Gold Medal. She was the first black woman athlete to get a commercial (Coca Cola) endorsement. She would later teach and coach at Tuskegee Institute for many years. She also founded the Alice Coachman Track and Field Foundation. This non-profit was formed to give assistance to young athletes in their career and help Olympic athletes adjust to life after the games. Alice Coachman was named to 5 All-American teams and was inducted into 9 different Halls of Fame. She won 10 years straight of high jump championships. At the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, she was named as one of the 100 Greatest Ever Olympic Athletes. Jul 15

1924 - Dr. John Kenney resigned from Tuskegee Institute under Dr. Robert Russa Moton. He would then go on to open the first black hospital in New Jersey.

Jul 16

1881 - Booker Taliafero Washington had cleared 25 acres of timber from the newly purchased 100 acre Bowen Plantation. He was having the land prepared for farming. The Plantation had 3 shanties still standing. Washington “. . . lost no time in getting ready to move the school on to the new farm. At the time we occupied the place there was standing upon it a cabin formerly used as the dining room, an old kitchen, a stable, and an old hen-house. Within a few weeks we had all these structures in use. The stable was repaired and used as a recitation-room and very presently the hen-house was utilized for the same purpose.” Washington led the students to the farm each day to clear the land of trees and repair the existing buildings. Most of the students did not appreciate having to stoop so low as to do menial

labor and common work. However, that changed when they saw “Mr. Washington” chopping down a tree and cleaning up an old building. Their work made it a brief time for the buildings to become usable, for the school and for crops to be planted. 1943 - Tuskegee Airman Luther Blakeney was killed in an air accident. 1949 - The Surgical Residency Training Program was developed at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital, with graduate instruction in general surgery. The program included training in surgical principles and techniques. It was guided and supervised by the Medical Advisory Committee, appointed by the Chief Medical Officer. The original committee members included: Dr. Roy R. Kracke, dean of the Alabama Medical College; Dr. Richard Lyman, clinical professor of psychiatry, Duke University School of Medicine; Dr. Charles R. Drew, head of the Department of Surgery, Howard University School of Medicine; Dr. Paul Beeson, chairman of the Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine; Dr. Ira A. Ferguson, chairman of the Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine; and Dr. Eugene H. Dibble, Jr., medical director, Tuskegee Institute. Many of the graduates were able to successfully complete the American Board of Surgery examinations and one, Dr. Richard Montgomery, became Chief of Surgery at Provident Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland. Jul 17

1965 - Sammy Younge, Jr. held the Freedom Rally at Tuskegee’s City Hall, located on North Main Street, behind the Macon County Courthouse.

Jul 18

1864 - The Battle of Chehaw Station, took place during the War Between the States. This was a critical incident, for the Confederate troops to prevent the Union troops from proceeding from Auburn, Alabama and conquer Montgomery.

1913 - Carolyn Walcott Ford became the first girl born in the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, located on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. Jul 19

1941 - The Tuskegee Army-Air Field officially was opened, and the dedication for the Squadron training program took place. The air base had over 200 buildings and 3 landing strips, each a mile and a half long. By the end of the program, a few years later, a total of 992 black pilots would be trained at the Tuskegee Army Air Field. 1942 - Dr. George Washington Carver began an Experimental Project with Henry Ford: Like Carver, Ford was deeply interested in the regenerative properties of soil and the potential of alternative crops such as peanuts and soybeans to produce plastics, paint, fuel and other products. Ford had long believed that the world would eventually need a substitute for gasoline, and supported the production of ethanol (or grain alcohol) as an alternative fuel. In 1942, he would showcase a car with a lightweight plastic body made from soybeans. Ford and Carver began corresponding via letter in 1934, and their mutual admiration deepened after Carver made a visit to Michigan in 1937. As Douglas Brinkley writes in “Wheels for the World,” his history of Ford, the automaker donated generously to the Tuskegee Institute, helping finance Carver’s experiments, and Carver in turn spent a period of time helping to oversee crops at the Ford plantation in Ways, Georgia. By the time World War II began, Henry Ford had made repeated journeys to Tuskegee to convince Carver to come to Dearborn and help him develop a synthetic rubber to help compensate for wartime rubber shortages. Carver arrived on July 19, 1942, and set up a laboratory in an old water works building in Dearborn. He and Ford experimented with different crops, including sweet potatoes and dandelions, eventually devising a way to make the rubber substitute from goldenrod, a plant weed. Carver died in January 1943, Ford in April 1947, but the relationship between their two institutions continued to flourish: As recently as the late 1990s, Ford awarded grants of $4 million over two years to the George Washington Carver School at Tuskegee.

Jul 20

2003 - In 2003, the United States Tennis Association (USTA) honored Tuskegee’s Peters Sisters, with the Achievement Award, during the Federation Cup tournament. This honor comes after decades of denying them the right to play tennis at any USTA event.

Jul 21

1897 - Booker Taliafero Washington influenced the Alabama Legislature to pass a law that created the Tuskegee Agriculture Experiment Station. George Washington Carver was selected as its first director.

Jul 22

1932 - The Tuskegee Institute Chapel’s “Singing Windows” were constructed and installed. Artist Katherine Lamb Tait was commissioned to design a window for the newly renovated Chapel. Tuskegee President Robert Russa Moton proposed that Lamb use as a design motif 11 songs most often described as Negro spirituals. Tuskegee had been a lead institution in preserving and celebrating these songs borne out of slavery. Lamb would combine words and images to a stunning effect. The “Singing Windows”, as they came to be known, were inspired by music that had both emerged from and been adopted by a people struggling to survive bondage in a foreign land. The windows were designed during a transitional period in stained glass making. “The day when we merely told a Bible story in glass is gone,” Lamb would say in 1934. “Though of course we’ll never lose the basic religious significance.” The 11 songs include: “Go Down, Moses, Way Down in Egypt Land,” “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot,” “Deep River, My Home is Over Jordan,” “My Lord, What a Mornin’ When the Stars Begin to Fall, “Joshua Fit de Battle of Jericho, and the Walls Come Tumblin’ Down,” “We are Climbin’ Jacob’s Ladder,” “Roll, Jordan, Roll,” “Oh, Sing All the Way, Sing All the Way, Hear the Angels Singing,” “Steal Away, Steal Away, Steal Away to Jesus,” “Going’ to Shout All Over God’s Heaven,” and “Rise Up, Shepherds, an’ Follow de Star of Bethlehem.” Like the lyrics of the spirituals, the imagery in the glass combined secular and religious themes to tell stories that were both painfully and powerfully timeless. It was a visual retelling of the

African American experience. In April 1933, during the dedication ceremony of the chapel, the choir sang all 11 songs while standing beneath the windows. Tuskegee’s Reverend George L. Imes then guided a diverse audience made up of students, alumni, philanthropists and others through the history so colorfully depicted and explained how that history was the foundation upon which African Americans were building a brighter future.

Jul 23

1934 - The meeting was held to make Kenney Memorial Hospital a Community Hospital. This took place at Hopewell Baptist Church, Newark, New Jersey. Seven (700) hundred people attended, with a vote count of 699 to 1 in favor of the Community Hospital. “I want a hospital for ourselves and by ourselves, Our own hospital!”, said Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr.

Jul 24

2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson received the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority’s Mary Church Terrell Award. Dr. Robinson was a Tuskegee Institute graduate and the Mother of the Voting Rights Movement..

Jul 25

1965 - Tuskegee Institute students try their fifth attempt to integrate Tuskegee First Methodist church, on South Main Street. They were never able to integrate the church. However, many of the students involved in this protest, became major parts of the Black Liberation Movement in the United States. 1972 - Jean Heller, the New York Times reporter broke the news of the U.S. Health Department Syphilis Study that was conducted at Tuskegee.

Jul 26

1948 - President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 to integrate the U.S. military. This took place as a direct result of the Tuskegee Airmen officers, who were stationed at Freedman’s Field, in Indiana. The officers attempted to enter the Officers Club on base, as other

officers were doing. However, the Tuskegee Airmen were stopped at the door and told it was for white officers only. When the Tuskegee Airmen refused to leave, one of the white officers attempted to use force, and a Tuskegee Airmen punched him. For this the group was court marshalled, however, when the other Tuskegee Airmen on the base heard of the incident, they all joined in solidarity, and were also court marshalled. As a result of this action, the Tuskegee Airman that punched the other officer was stripped of his rank. It wasn’t until U.S. President William J. Clinton restored his rank, that he was able to receive his full honors as a U.S. Veteran. The Executive Order 9981 was used by Attorney Thurgood Marshall in Brown vs. Board of Education, that began the laws for civil justice and brought civil rights legislation. Jul 27

1948 - TAAF Weatherman Charles Anderson left the military to work for the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory’s Cloud Physics Branch. This is the lab that pioneered in eliminating high altitude contrails.

Jul 28

1812 - During the War of 1812: General Floyd attacked the Village of Atasi, near Shorter, in Macon County, Alabama. This was one of the Creek’s larger towns. The attack resulted in the Creek Nation attacking General Floyd along the Calebee Creek.

Jul 29

1918 - The Tuskegee Institute Red Cross Chapter, which was chaired by Dr. Robert Russa Moton, met at his home, in Tuskegee, to choose its officers. Bess Bolden Walcott was selected to serve at it’s first Executive Secretary. She held this position until 1951.

Jul 30

1877 - The Butler Chapel AME Zion church’s second building was completed.

1948 - Theresa A. Manuel was the first African American woman, from Florida, to compete in the Olympics. This took place in London, where she became the first African American woman to compete in the Olympic javelin throw. She also competed in the 80-meter hurdles and ran the third leg of the 440-yard relay, with teammate Alice Coachman. This year she was the AAU indoor champion in the 50 meter hurdles. In college, she was on the Tuskegee track and basketball teams, where she was called “Trick Shot”. During her four years at Tuskegee, the women’s track and basketball teams were repeat national champions. After graduation, she coached high school sports in Florida. In 1976, she was voted Florida Basketball Coach of the Year, and the largest Tampa area track meet was renamed, the Manuel-Griffin Relays, in her honor. In 1994, Manuel became the first African-American female to be inducted into the Tampa Sports Hall of Fame, and in 2004, the track of her school, Middleton High School, in Tampa, was named in her honor, the Theresa A. Manuel Track and Field. Jul 31

1926 - Tuskegee Institute’s Dr. Frederick D. Patterson and Ed Ramsey won the doubles championship at the Annual Southern Open Tennis Tournament. Patterson became the third President of Tuskegee Institute. 1953 - Betty Dean Sanders left Tuskegee Institute to attend the Brooklyn State College of Nursing, in New York. This move was recommended to her by the Dean of Nursing, Lillian Harvey. It was in New York where she would later meet and marry Malcolm X to become Betty Shabazz. 1955 - Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke at the Tuskegee Institute Chapel. He came at the invitation of his fellow college mate, from Boston College, Tuskegee Chaplain Daniel W. Wynn. King was given 25 minutes to speak, and his sermon topic was: “The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life”.

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1902 - Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. arrived at Tuskegee Institute on the train, at the Chehaw Station. He would become the Medical Director for the college and Booker Taliafero Washington’s personal physician. 1929 - Chief Charles Alfred Anderson purchased a plane and taught himself to fly.

Aug 02

1975 - Daniel “Chappie” James became the first Black four (4) Star General in the United States Military. General James was trained to fly at Tuskegee’s Robert Russa Moton Field. His instructor was Chief Charles Alfred Anderson, the “Father of Black Aviation”. James would go on to work in the Pentagon, in Washington, D.C.

Aug 03

1891 - Dr. Halle Tanner Dillon was hired by Booker Taliafero Washington, as the first Tuskegee Institute medical doctor. At the age of 24, Halle attended the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. She was the only African American in her class and graduated with honors on May 7, 1891. Booker T. Washington wrote the college dean, Dr. Clara Marshall, concerning his need for a resident physician at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School. Dr. Marshall informed Halle, and she contacted Booker T. Washington to accept the position. He let her know that she would first have to pass the rigorous Alabama Medical Certification Exam, that took 10 days to complete. She agreed to do so and became the first resident physician for the school.. Dr. Dillon provided medical service to Washington and his family, the Tuskegee staff, faculty and students.

1972 - Rev. Malcolm Hassan Stephens was born in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, to Ernest Cornelius “Trap” Stephens and Elizabeth “Pookie” Jones Stephens. He attended Lewis Adams Elementary School, in Tuskegee Institute’s Greenwood community. He went to Sunday School at Washington Chapel A.M.E. Church with his grandmother, Florence Trammell. Malcolm became a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, in the footsteps of his great-great grandfather Bishop Horace Talbert, of Wilberforce University. Bishop Talbert wrote the official history of the A.M.E. Church, entitled, “Sons of Allen”. In commemoration of the Bicentennial of the A.M.E. Church, Rev. Stephens, with his aunt Sussetta Talbert McCree, of Detroit, Michigan, republished an enhanced version of “Sons of Allen”. Rev. Stephens passed away on April 15, 2017, in Atlanta, Georgia. Aug 04

1973 - Author, Alice Walker, inspired by Zora Neale Hurston’s life story, traveled to Fort Pierce, Florida, and located Zora’s unmarked grave. It was located in the Garden of Heavenly Rest cemetery. Alice Walker placed a headstone on the burial spot reading: “Zora Neale Hurston: A Genius of the South, 1901 - 1960, Novelist, Folklorist, Anthropologist.” Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama.

Aug 05

1865 - Lewis Adams opened his tinsmith shop by the Town Square, in downtown Tuskegee, Alabama. In addition to tinsmith services (making cookware and utensils), he also was a blacksmith, and he fixed and fitted harnesses. Adams spoke four languages (Spanish, French, German and English). He used his shop to instruct colored men in his trades.

Aug 06

1865 - Union General James Wilson’s Raiders passed through Tuskegee. They quartered, or housed their horses, in the yet unfinished walls of the Tuskegee First Methodist church, on South Main Street, a block from the town square.

1980 - Frank Walker, Jr. was born. He was raised in Tuskegee and attended Tuskegee Public School and Booker T. Washington High School, where he began playing football. He then attended Tuskegee University and joined the Golden Tigers football squad. He was drafted to the NFL’s New York Giants. He has played with the Baltimore Ravens, the Dallas Cowboys, the Minnesota Vikings and the Atlanta Falcons. He is the only professional athlete from Macon County to hold an annual camp for the children in Macon County. He brought in college and professional football players, from the U.S. and Canada to teach the youth each summer. Aug 07

1946 - The U.S. Law was passed to print the Booker Taliafero Washington Commemorative Coin. Isaac Scott Hathaway, the Tuskegee Institute Art and Pottery instructor was chosen to create the mold for the coin. Hathaway was the first black to be commissioned to create a U.S. coin.

Aug 08

1948 - Alice Coachman became the first Black Woman to win an Olympic Gold medal. This took place in the 1948 Olympic Games. She was also the only U.S. Woman to win an Olympic Medal that year. Coachman was a Tuskegee Institute track star. She was nursing a back injury, when she got to the London Olympics. She set a new record with her high jump of 5 feet 6 1/8 inches, which lasted until the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne. This was decades before the “flop” jump technique was used. Coachman said, “I didn’t know I’d won. I was on my way to receive the medal and I saw my name on the board. And, of course, I glanced over into the stands where my coach was, and she was clapping her hands.” Coachman was awarded the Olympic Gold Medal by King George VI, father of Queen Elizabeth II. She was 24 years old. 1972 - The Honorable Johnny L. Ford, Jr. was elected to become the first Black Mayor of Tuskegee, Alabama. Ford was from Tuskegee, and graduated from Tuskegee Institute High School, in the Greenwood Community. Ford entered the race for mayor after working with the

Bobby Kennedy Presidential campaign. Aug 09

1852 - The East Alabama Female College was established in Tuskegee, by the Alabama Baptist Church. 1926 - Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson and Edward Ramsey won the doubles championship, of the annual Southern Open Tennis tournament. The tournament was sponsored by the American Tennis Association, and Dr. Patterson was Tuskegee Institute’s third President. Ramsey was a food service specialist.

Aug 10

1944 - The School of Veterinary Medicine was established at Tuskegee Institute. This took place during the term of Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson, as Tuskegee Institute President.

Aug 11

1853 - Macon County’s first Courthouse was built on the Tuskegee Square. It was located in the middle of the actual square.

Aug 12

1984 - Lionel Richie, of Tuskegee, was the featured performer at the Olympics games, held in Los Angeles, California. 1995 - The U.S. Airforce cleared the service records of the Tuskegee Airmen involved in the 1945 “Freeman Field Mutiny.” This vindicated their stand on equality for all people.

Aug 13

1790 - U.S. President George Washington celebrated the first treaty signing with a Native American Nation. This was with the Creek Nation, whose territory included Macon County, Alabama. Secretary of War, Henry Knox initiated the treaty, upon the President’s request, and members from the Creek Nation and the Southeast Native American confederacy traveled to Philadelphia’s Freedom Hall for the celebration. The President’s family

was present, along with Alexander McGillivray, leader of the Creek Nation. 1919 - Charles Edward Anderson was born in Clayton, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. He was the first African American to earn a Ph.D in Meteorology. In 1941, he earned his B.S. in Chemistry from Lincoln University. He enlisted in the U.S. Army and was assigned to the meteorology division. He was one of 150 cadets sent to train at the University of Chicago. He completed training and was awarded his certification in meteorology in May of 1943. He was then assigned to the 332nd Fighter Group, known as the Tuskegee Airmen. He was stationed at the Tuskegee Army Air Field. He later became a squadron weather officer and trained fighter pilots across the United States. In 1946, he earned his masters in chemistry, at the Polytechnic Institute in Brooklyn. Then, in 1960, he earned his doctorate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His dissertation was entitled, “A study of the Pulsating Growth of Cumulous Clouds.” 1949 - Baseball star, Andre “Thunder” Thornton was born in Tuskegee, Alabama. Thornton grew up in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, in a family of athletes, and graduated from Phoenixville Area High School. He played football, basketball and baseball in school. He was signed as an amateur free agent, with the Philadelphia Phillies in 1967, at the ages of 17. Included in his agreement, was the condition that his college expenses would be paid for by the club. He played Minor League Baseball with the Phillies from 1967 to 1972, when he was traded to the Atlanta Braves. The next year he was traded to the Chicago Cubs. On July 28, 1973, he made his majorleague debut as a pinch hitter. His first hit was on August 3rd, in a win over the Montreal Expos. In 1974, he was named to the All-Rookie Team as first baseman, by Baseball Digest. On May 17, 1976, he was traded to the Montreal Expos. He played 69 games and hit 11 home runs and 38 RBIs. On December 10, 1976, he was traded to the Cleveland Indians. His first year, 1977, saw him hitting 28 home runs. In 1978, he hit a careerhigh 33 home runs. In 1979, he was honored with the Roberto Clemente Award, given to the player who

best exemplifies the game of baseball, sportsmanship, community involvement, and team contribution. As a Cleveland Indian, Thornton appeared in 1,225 games, batting .254 with 214 home runs and 749 RBIs. 1963 - Federal Justice Frank Johnson ordered the Desegregation of Macon County Schools. This was targeted for Notasulga High School and Tuskegee High School, as a result of the Lee versus Macon County Board of Education. The integration had been opposed by Governor George Cornelius Wallace and James Rea, who was Notasulga’s Mayor. When the 12 black students attended the Tuskegee High School, white parents withdrew their children from school, causing the school to close for lack of attendance. Six of the black students were sent to Shorter High School and six were sent to Notasulga High School. The six at Notasulga were: Anthony Tilford Lee, Patricia Camille Jones, Shirley Jean Chambliss, Willie Wyatt Jr., Marsha Marie Sullins, and Robert L. Judkins Jr. Aug 14

1938 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the Annual American Tennis Association’s (ATA) Annual National Championship. Tuskegee was the first member school with enough clay courts to hold the National Tournament. Tuskegee Institute, under Coach Cleve Abbott, had fourteen (14) tennis courts. The courts also had lighting for night play and practice. 1965 - The USS George Washington Carver was launched. It was the ninth of twelve Benjamin Franklin class fleet ballistic missile, nuclear powered submarines, and the second U.S. Navy vessel named after Carver. Its construction was awarded on July 29, 1963, and vessel construction began on August 24, 1964, on the Virginia shores, by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, of Newport News, Virginia. It had one propeller and was 425 feet in length. It reached speeds of 16 to 20 knots on the water, and 22 to 25 knots submerged. Its armament included 16 vertical tubes for Polaris or Poseidon missiles, four 21 inch torpedo tubes for Mk-48 torpedoes, Mk 14/16 torpedoes, Mk 37 torpedoes and Mk

45 nuclear torpedoes. Its crew included 13 officers and 130 enlisted sailors. It was decommissioned and removed from the Navy list on March 18, 1993. Its recycling process was completed on March 21, 1994, in Bremerton, Washington. Aug 15

1866 - Monroe Nathan Work was born in Iredell County, North Carolina. His parents were Alexander Work and Eliza Hobbs Work. His grandfather, Henry Work, was emancipated in North Carolina before 1847. He purchased a farm, and was a brick mason in Michigan. Later, Henry purchased freedom for his wife and 10 of the 13 children they had. Monroe’s father, Alexander, was one of the 3 children left in North Carolina. Alexander was bought by the Poston family, in Iredell County, where he married Poston’s slave, Eliza Hobbs. Together they had 11 children, 3 born after Emancipation. After Monroe Nathan Work was born, Alexander bought a mule team, moved to Cairo, Illinois, and became a farmer and a trader of livestock. In 1867, Eliza Work came with the children to live with Alexander in Cairo. This is where Monroe started elementary school and finished it when the family moved, in 1876 to a farm near Arkansas City, Kansas. Work left school to run the farm, after his mother passed away and his father began living with one of his married siblings, when he became physically unable to work. Nathan began attending high school in 1889, in Arkansas City, where he earned a diploma in 1892, when he was 23. He wasn’t able to find many places to work, so in 1894 he enrolled in the Chicago Theological Seminary. Nathan would later join the staff at Tuskegee Institute, to establish the Department of Archives and Records, which would lead the nation in accurate reports on lynching activity, throughout the country.

Aug 16

1928 - “The Bibliography of Negros in Africa and America,” was published by Monroe Nathan Work, at Tuskegee Institute.

Aug 17

1891 - Halle Tanner Dillon began taking the ten (10) day Alabama Medical Examination, to be certified as an Alabama Medical Doctor. Dillon had come to Alabama to accept the position of resident physician at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial School. The exam was mandatory for practicing medicine in Alabama. It involved answering hundreds of questions from the white members of the Board of Examiners, over the 10 day period. Booker Taliafero Washington, arranged for Dr. Dillon to study, in Montgomery, under Dr. Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, the first Black physician to pass the Alabama Medical Certification test. Dorsette was born in North Carolina in the early 1950s, and was Washington’s classmate at Hampton Institute. Dorsette graduated from the University of Buffalo Medical School in 1882. Washington then persuaded Dr. Dorsette to come set up practice in Alabama, as the first licensed African-American physician in Montgomery, and the second in the state. Dr.. Burgess E. Scruggs of Huntsville was the first in Alabama. In 1890, Dr. Dorsette founded Hale Infirmary, the first hospital for African-Americans in Alabama. It closed in 1897. Dorsette served on the Tuskegee Board of Trustees, until his death in 1897. 1942 - The Army Airforce issued its letter to report the number of black military personnel being trained as weather cadets, at the Tuskegee Army Air Field (TAAF).

Aug 18

1905 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson was born in Augusta, Georgia. She graduated from Tuskegee Institute and would become instrumental in organizing the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama. The civil rights leaders stayed in her home and ate their meals in her home, in Selma. Dr. Martin L. King Jr. and others drafted the Civil Rights bill on her kitchen table. She earned the title “Mother of the Voting Rights Movement”.

Aug 19

1931 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the 15th Annual American Tennis Association’s National Championship. It took place on fourteen (14) red Alabama clay courts, with floodlights. (August 17 - 22, 1931)

Aug 20

1899 - Booker Taliafero Washington and his wife Margaret Murray Washington returned to Tuskegee, from their travels in Europe. This is where he saw the severe poverty of European slums. As a direct result of his travels, he authored the book, “The Man Farthest Down”. 1936 - Tuskegee Institute beat the Lincoln Golf Club of Atlanta, on the Tuskegee golf course. This took place after a heavy morning rain shower. The site of the golf course was on Taylor Street, off Franklin Road, in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama.

Aug 21

1931 - Estelle Pearson was named to the 1932 Olympic Team. Pearson was a Tuskegee Institute basketball star and a second year discus throwing champ at the annual Tuskegee Relays.

Aug 22

1903 - During this year, the Harris Barrett School was constructed, “In 1903 a two (2) room school house was built in Tuskegee, Alabama by students of Tuskegee Institute, under the direction of Booker Taliafero Washington. The school was named “Harris Barrett School”. Harris Barrett was chairman of the bank in Virginia that helped to fund the project for the rural school. He did have an opportunity to visit the school and speak to the students and teachers around 1910. The school is developing into a historic museum to tell the story of the early school life and what it was like to live in rural Alabama.” (from Harris Barrett School history)

Aug 23

1900 - Booker Taliafero Washington established the National Negro Business League, in Boston, Massachusetts. This organization consisted of some of the top black business owners in the U.S.

1942 - The Honorable Johnny L. Ford Jr. was born in Tuskegee, Alabama. Ford attended Tuskegee Institute High School, located in the Greenwood Community. He would become the first black mayor for the City of Tuskegee. Ford also founded the World Council of Mayors, with headquarters in Tuskegee, Alabama. He became the first president for the organization. The group had mayors from cities throughout the world. 2016 - The Honorable Lawrence “Tony” Haygood Jr. was elected to be Mayor, of the City of Tuskegee, Alabama. Haygood graduated from Tuskegee High School. He was there just a few years after it was integrated, in the landmark “Lee versus Macon” desegregation court case. He became the first former college president to become mayor. He was president of the Southern Community College (originally Southern Vocational College, which his father Rev. Lawrence Haygood, Sr. founded and served as president), of Tuskegee, Alabama. Aug 24

1909 - Tuskegee Female College fire - By the end of the 1908-1909 academic year, the decision had been made to move the college (by this time called the Alabama Conference Female College, and later Huntingdon College) to Montgomery. With the move from Tuskegee to Montgomery, the college was renamed the Woman’s College of Alabama. Flowers Hall, the first building of the Montgomery campus, was not completed in time for the start of the 1909-1910 academic year. To provide for the college’s first year in Montgomery, Hamner Hall, located on Clayton Street, was rented to temporarily house the college. On the night of August 24, 1909, the same date that the library, the official college records, its furniture, pianos, and laboratory equipment were to be moved into Hamner Hall, a fire destroyed the building and all its contents. As a result, students were transferred for the school year 1909-1910 to Sullins College, which was then a two-year college for women located in Bristol, Virginia, and in the fall of 1910, the college moved into the still unfinished Flowers Hall.

1941 - Tuskegee Institute hosted the Silver Anniversary of the Annual American Tennis Association’s National Championship. Aug 25

1881 - Olivia America Davidson arrived in Tuskegee, and became the Assistant Principle of the Normal School for Colored Teachers, in Tuskegee. Her first task was to raise funds to payoff the loan and purchase price for the newly acquired 100 acre Bowen Plantation. She personally visited whites and colored people in Tuskegee to request donations of food and baked items, to be sold at fundraising ‘suppers’. She raised enough money, including cash donations, to payoff all the school debts. 1941 - The Tuskegee Army-Airfield Flight training began. 2016 - U.S. NASA’s Dr. Mae Jemmison, the first Black female astronaut, spoke at the Tuskegee University’s Daniel “Chappie” James Arena. This was part of the University’s Lyceum Series of speakers and presenters. As part of her presentation, she brought a short video clip of the yet unreleased film, “Hidden Figures”, the story of the black female “computers” that made U.S space travel possible.

Aug 26

1867 - Dr. Robert Russa Moton was born, in Amelia County, Virginia. He was the only child of Booker and Emily Brown. He had 2 younger half-brothers. He attended Hampton Institute at 18, in 1885. In 1890 he graduated and became the Commandant, in charge of military discipline. He served in that position for 25 years. On June 7, 1905, Moton married Elizabeth Hunt Harris. She died in July 1906. He later married Jennie Dee Booth, and they had 5 children. He became the second president of Tuskegee Institute. Moton expanded the school’s academic program from 11 to 12 years, and included a Junior College program and a 4 year college program that led to a bachelor’s degree, in either Agriculture, Home Economics, Mechanical Industries, or Education. He also expanded the campus’ physical plant: by adding: the William G. Willcox Trade Buildings, the

Dairy and Horse Barns, James Chambliss Building, a new Greenhouse, Chambliss Children’s House, a new wing to John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, Margaret Murray Washington Hall, Logan Hall, Hollis Burke Frissell Library, and the Samuel Chapman Armstrong Hall. He also had the “Singing Windows” added to the Institute Chapel. 2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson passed away, in Jackson Hospital, located in Montgomery, Alabama. She was the Mother of the Voting Rights Movement and a Tuskegee Institute graduate. Aug 27

1912 - The National Medical Association met at Tuskegee Institute from August 27 to 29, 1912. The attendees were black physicians from across the U.S., with many of them the top in their field of medicine. They held medical clinics and treated 500 medical cases, performed 25 surgeries, and met in Douglass Hall for medical questions and answers from the community.

Aug 28

2008 - The Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site was completed. It was located at the Robert Russa Moton Airfield, in Tuskegee, Alabama, near U.S. Interstate 85.

Aug 29

1833 - Tuskegee was laid out (founded) by General Thomas Simpson Woodward, a Creek War veteran, who was serving under General Andrew Jackson. Woodward built the first house in Tuskegee on a ridge, near the town square. Afterward, James Dent built the first house, to be located on the town square. When Woodward arrived in Tuskegee, there was a great ball play taking place, by the Tusgegees, the Chunnanugges, the Chehaws and the Tallesees. Woodward planted 5 cedars at the McGarr place, when he owned it, in town.

Aug 30

1965 - Sammy Younge and TIAL (Tuskegee Institute Advancement League) students assisted the voter registration effort in Lee County. They also attended a voter rally at White Church, in Auburn, Alabama. During this project, Younge and others were arrested and had to spend the night in the Lee County Jail, located in Opelika, the county seat. This was one of his most frightening nights, because of the reputation of the Ku Klux Klan in Lee County, and how the Lee County Law Enforcement officers treated blacks.

Aug 31

1995 - Dr. John Andrew Kenney Jr. was named “Master of Dermatology” by the American Academy of Dermatology - its highest honor. Tuskegee’s Dr. Kenney Jr. was known as the “Dean of Black Dermatology.” He founded the Department of Dermatology at the Howard University Hospital.


1891 - Halle Dillon became the first female physician to become certified to practice medicine in Alabama, upon passing the stringent ten (10) day Alabama medical exam. After being prepared by Alabama’s first physician to pass the exam, Dr. Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, Dillon endured answering the hundreds of questions, from the all white Alabama Board of Examiners. At some time between April 1891 and April 1892, Dr. Anna M. Longshore, a white physician, took the test, however, she failed the exam. Reports suggested that Longshore, who had practiced medicine in Pennsylvania and Michigan, was allowed to practice in Alabama, without certification. Halle Dillon was examined by 10 white examiners, on 10 medical subjects. The examiners included some of the top physicians in Alabama. Dillon, unlike Longshore, passed the examination with the score of 78. The Transactions of the state medical association noted the following in its annual report of examination results, “The case of Halle

Tanner Dillon is remarkable as that of the first colored woman examined in the state.” In 1891, it was unusual for any woman to become a board-certified physician. This was noticed by the New York Times, even though the southern newspapers passed off the notion that a colored woman would attempt the exam. The New York Times noted that Dillon had passed the “unusually severe” exam to become “not only the first colored female physician, but the first woman of any race” to be certified to practice medicine in Alabama. Dr. Dillon became the personal physician for Booker T. Washington, his family, and the school. Dillon provided medical care for 450 students, along with 30 officers and teachers, with their families. She made her own medicines, while teaching 1 to 2 classes each term. She received $600 annually, with room and board, and 1 month vacation each year. Dr. Dillon founded a training school for nurses at Tuskegee. In May of 1894, Dillon created Tuskegee’s La Fayette Dispensary, which was a pharmacy. Her purpose was to address the extremely poor health conditions of the rural, poor African-American population in Macon County. The African American Women Physicians said of Dillon, “She has undertaken a Herculean Task”. She served Tuskegee till 1894, when she married Rev. John Quincy Johnson, a mathematics teacher at Tuskegee. He became President of Allen University, in Columbia, South Carolina the next year. In 1900, Rev. Johnson began study for a graduate degree in divinity, and became pastor of Saint Paul’s AME church in Nashville. The couple had 3 sons. Dr. Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson’s older brother was Henry Ossawa Tanner, a talented painter. Her niece was Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, who was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. in economics in the U.S. She was also the first woman to earn a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and she was the first National President of the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc.

Sept 02

1963 - Governor George Cornelius Wallace issued the Executive order to stop the Tuskegee High School integration. The justification for this action was listed as safety issues. This Executive order was in defiance of the ruling by Judge Frank Johnson, in the case “Lee versus Macon”, to integrate the school. As a result of the ruling, Tuskegee parents formed a plan for black students to integrate the all white Tuskegee High School. The students were: Anthony Tilford Lee (the plaintiff), Carmen Louise Judkins, Helois Elaine Billis, Harvey Lynn Jackson, Janis Laverne Carter, Edith Elaine Henderson, Patricia Camille Jones, Shirley Jean Chambliss, Willie B. Wyatt Jr., Wilma Jean Jones, Marsha Marie Sullins, and Robert L. Judkins Jr. When the black students came to school, the white parents kept their children from attending. There were 13 teachers and 12 students in the whole school. Judge Johnson finally agreed that economically it was unwise to keep the school open, but offered an alternative solution, to place six of the students in Notasulga High School and six in Shorter High School. Both of these were all white schools. The result of this action would eventually integrate all 99 school systems in the state of Alabama. 2006 - Franklin’s Harris Barrett School was incorporated, with the Honorable William Baker, President and Mrs. Memphis Boston, Vice President.

Sept 03

1888 - Elizabeth Evelyn Wright arrived at Tuskegee Institute as a student. Because of her poor health and lack of funds, she would work each day and attend classes at night. Booker Taliafero Washington’s wife, Olivia Davidson Washington learned of her physical condition and took her under her wing. Olivia Davidson arranged for her to work at night and attend school during the daytime. Wright learned much from Davidson, the former Assistant Principal of Tuskegee Institute. Wright was inspired to eventually establish her own school that became Voorhees College, in South Carolina.

1963 - Macon Academy was founded. An evening meeting was held, in the Tuskegee High School auditorium, with parents, to form a separate segregated school for whites only. Macon Academy was created to accommodate the white Tuskegee High School students, whose parents did not want them attending school with Blacks, because of federally mandated integration. Macon Academy was supported, with both encouragement and funding by then Alabama Governor George Cornelius Wallace. Wallace actually came to Tuskegee and encouraged white parents to withdraw their children from the public schools and place them in Macon Academy. He studied segregated academies in other states and developed a model for Macon County. This was the first of many Alabama segregated “academies� to come. 2004 - Dr. Deborah Cannon Wolfe passed away. She was hired by Tuskegee Institute when she was 22 years old, to direct the elementary education program, supervise student teachers and serve as principal for 2 rural laboratory schools. She was the first Tuskegee faculty member to earn a Doctoral degree. In 1951, she became the first black professor at Queens College. She was the first black woman to be named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Wolfe was also the first black woman to become a member and then serve as the chair of the New Jersey State Board of Higher Education. She was the only black member of the Seton Hall University Board of Regents, the advisory board to Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College. She worked with U.S. Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. She marched with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. up Constitution Avenue and served as Vice President of the National Council for Negro Women. Dr. Wolfe served as Grand Basileus (President) of the Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. In her honor New Jersey City University created the Deborah Cannon Wolfe College of Education. Also, in Shorter, Alabama, the public school is named Deborah Cannon Wolfe.

2015 - Barbara Flowers Howard passed away in the hospital in Montgomery, Alabama. She was a long time worker for civil and human rights. In her teens and twenties, she was a receptionist and typist with the Southern Courier newspaper. She was an organizer and leader with the New South Coalition. She was also a science instructor and student counselor at Tuskegee University. She served as president for the Tuskegee Chapter of the NAACP, and worked with the New South Coalition. She established the Paradise Foundation that provided educational services and summer training programs for youth, in the engineering sciences and advanced math. Sept 04

1944 - The Tuskegee Weather Detachment was redesignated as the 67th Army Air Force Base Unit. 2009 - Dr. Athema Etzioni became one of the first black female board certified veterinary clinical pathologists. Dr. Etzioni received her Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine at Tuskegee University, and also completed a Veterinary Clinical Pathology Internship at Tuskegee under Dr. William O. Jones, the nation’s first black board certified clinical pathologist.

Sept 05

1857 - William F. Samford, General Agent of the College, solicited funds to expand the Methodist Tuskegee Female College library (Ellison, p. 23 from History of Houghton Memorial Library) 1952 - Betty Dean Sanders enrolled as a student, in Tuskegee Institute. She had just graduated from Northern High, in Detroit, Michigan. She began majoring in education, but would later change to nursing, under Tuskegee’s Dean Lillian Harvey.

Sept 06

1890 - Lewis Adams became a Tuskegee Institute instructor. Booker T. Washington was brought to Tuskegee by Adams, and received constant advice and guidance from him. Washington also was purchasing

food service utensils and cookware from Adams’ tinsmith shop. As the Tuskegee Institute student population grew, this budget item continued to increase. Washington decided the school could save money if it hired Lewis Adams to teach his trade, and instruct the students to make the utensils themselves for the school. Adams taught three (3) trades: tinsmithing, harness making and black smithing. The building that became the first band cottage on campus, was his classroom building. 1919 - Dr. Mary Starke Harper was born in Fort Mitchell, Alabama, and grew up in Phenix City, where she raised white mice, and sold them to hospitals and laboratories. She graduated from Tuskegee Institute and was the first black to graduate from the University of Minnesota School of Nursing. Her nursing career started when she was a caretaker for Dr. George W. Carver. She later became the Head of the Nurses Department at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital. She was a policymaker with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and an adviser to 4 U.S. Presidents. She established an NIH program that trained thousands of minority scientists and health-care workers. She became a participant in the U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study on Black men in Macon County, Alabama. When she learned about it, she vowed to change the system. Sept 07

1916 - Dr. Mildred Dixon was born. She became the first Black female Podiatrist with any Veterans Administration Hospital in the United States.

Sept 08

1896 - The first Agriculture Experiment Station was established at Tuskegee Institute.

Sept 09

1943 - Cadets Grant L. Franklin, Paul Wise and Archie F. Williams arrived at Tuskegee Army Air Field as the final Assistant. Weather Officers.

1989 - Carole Simpson, former Tuskegee Institute instructor of Journalism and head of the Institute’s Information Bureau, became the first black female to anchor a major United States television station news program, on a week day broadcast. She anchored ABC’s evening news program, to substitute for Peter Jennings. Sept 10

1938 - USDA Secretary Henry A. Wallace visited Tuskegee Institute a second time. 1944 - Four (4) Tuskegee Airmen of the 332nd Fighter Pursuit Squadron were awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Sept 11

1911 - The John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital opened. It was named to honor the grandfather of Elizabeth Mason of Massachusetts. He was a War Governor of Massachusetts. Elizabeth Mason donated $50,000.00 to build a hospital on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. 1963 - Tuskegee High School transformed from all white students in attendance, to all black students. All the white families kept their children from attending school with black children. The school now had 12 children being taught by a full staff of teachers.

Sept 12

1930 - Tuskegee Institute becomes the first black college to build a golf course. The course was a 9-hole 3,400 yard, par-35 facility located about three miles from campus on a plot of ground near a greenhouse (New York Age, Sept. 13, 1930, p. 6) 2010 - The Honorable Frank Toland passed away. Toland was the first Black Mayor Pro-Tem on the Tuskegee City Council. Dr. Toland was also a history professor at Tuskegee Institute.

Sept 13

1878 - Booker T. Washington enrolled in Wayland Seminary, located in Washington, D.C. The school president was Dr. George Mellen Prentiss King. Washington studied at the Seminary for six (6) months before returning to Hampton Institute, in 1879 to work as a night-school teacher for two (2) years. It was also the supervisor for the Kiowa and Cheyenne students that had recently began attending the school. 2016 - Victoryland Dog Track reopened after bingo machines were confiscated, by the Alabama Attorney General. Victoryland was owned by Milton McGregor and it was located in Shorter, Alabama. 1957 - Keith L. Black was born in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. He was the younger of 2 sons born to Robert and Lillian Black. He had an early passion for science. In third grade, his father brought him a cow’s heart to dissect. In eighth grade, the family moved to Ohio, where he hungout in the Case Western University campus labs. By 10th grade, he was so good at surgery that he performed his first organ transplant on a dog. At 17, he wrote his first scientific paper on the damage artificial heart valves can do to red blood cells. While working on his M.D. at the University of Michigan, he began intense research into the brain and the nature of human consciousness. And after a study of world religions, he began working on a cure to brain tumors. By 1987, he was the head of the Comprehensive Brain Tumor Program at UCLA Medical Center, and stayed for ten years. In 1997, he became director of the division of neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. He discovered a natural body peptide that helps deliver drugs to the brain to fight tumors. He also developed an eye test that detects Alzheimer’s Disease 20 years before it occurs. The 10 - 15 minute test reveals Amyloid plaques in the retina, before the disease is symptomatic. The screening test is manufactured by NeuroVision, and enables lifestyle modification and the ability to track the effectiveness of treatments. He is a dedicated and skillful surgeon. While most surgeons perform an average of 100 surgeries per year, Dr. Black performs 250 to 300

operations annually. He is married to a fellow medical doctor, Carol Bennett, and has 2 children, Keith and Teal. Dr. Keith Black was named by Esquire Magazine, one of the 21 Most Important People to Know in the 21st Century. Sept 14

1939 - U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visited the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital. She went through each Ward and spoke with each Veteran in the Hospital, taking notes to follow-up with them later.

Sept 15

1963 - Tuskegee Institute graduates, Chris and Maxine McNair’s 11 year old daughter, Carol Denise McNair, was killed in Birmingham, Alabama, at the racial bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Denise and 25 other children were in the church basement preparing to participate in the sermon program. At 10:22 a.m., a bomb that was set under the steps to the church exploded. Over 20 people were injured from the blast that was so strong it blew a hole through a brick wall. The children were closest to the bomb and received the worst injuries. A total of four (4) teen girls were killed. In addition to Denise, those killed included: Addie Mae Colliins, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke at their funeral. Many of the Black Liberation Freedom Fighters intensified their efforts in Alabama following these children’s murder. 1964 - Rev. Buford and Dr. Smith became the first Blacks elected to public office in the Tuskegee City government.

Sept 16

1892 - Tuskegee Institute opened its School of Nursing. The school of Nursing was established as the Tuskegee Institute Training School of Nurses, and registered with the Alabama State board of Nursing, under the auspices of the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital.

2011 - Tuskegee University President Dr. Gilbert Rochon was honored as the Alpha Man of Year. This honor was bestowed by the Tuskegee University chapter of the Alpha fraternity. Sept 17

1965 - Rosa Louise McCauley Parks became secretary for U.S. Congressman, the Honorable John Conyers. She worked in his Detroit, Michigan office. 1980 - Myron Herbert Thompson (born 1947), of Tuskegee, was nominated by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to a seat on the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama. It had been vacated by Justice Frank M. Johnson, Jr. Judge Thompson was the first African American employee of the state of Alabama, who was not working as a custodian nor a school teacher. He graduated from Tuskegee Institute High School in 1969. He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University in 1969, and his Doctorate degree from the Yale Law School in 1972. He served as the first black Assistant Attorney General of Alabama, from 1972 till 1974. He was also the first black bar examiner for the State and the second black federal judge in Alabama. The U.S. Senate confirmed him as Justice on September 26, 1980, and he received his commission on September 29, 1980. Judge Thompson served as chief judge from 1991 through 1998. He achieved senior status on August 22, 2013. Judge Thompson was the Founding Director and Board Chairman for the Alabama Legal Services Corporation.

Sept 18

1895 - Booker T. Washington gave his “Drop Your Bucket” or Atlanta Compromise speech. The occasion was the Cotton States Exhibition in Atlanta, Georgia. This speech pushed Washington to prominence in both the Black and White communities of the United States. 1927 - The Kenney Memorial Hospital opened in Newark, New Jersey. This hospital was established by Tuskegee Institute’s former Medical Director, Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. to honor his parents. He was Booker Taliafero Washington’s personal physician.

1937 - Zora Neale Hurston’s novel, “Their Eyes Were Watching God”, was published. Hurston, from Notasulga, wrote the novel in 7 weeks while conducting research in Haiti. Sept 19

1902 - After Booker Taliafero Washington spoke in Shiloh Baptist Church, a stampede occurred that killed 115 people. The event was the 1902 Baptist Convention, which was held in Birmingham, Alabama. Over 3,000 assembled in the Shiloh Baptist Church, which was the largest colored church in Birmingham. They all came to hear Booker T. Washington, from Tuskegee. After Washington’s speech, a delegate from Baltimore and the choir leader got into an argument. People began yelling, “quiet” and “fight”. Unfortunately, the crowd of people thought they were yelling “fire.” A stampede began, as attendees rushed for the doors, and people were trampled and some suffocated in the press of the crowd. A local minister and banker, William R. Pettiford, organized relief efforts for those victims of the stampede. 1948 - Tuskegee Institute began its baccalaureate program in Nursing. Dr. Lillian Harvey became the Dean of the School of Nursing. Tuskegee developed the first nursing program in the state of Alabama, with a Bachelor of Science degree. The Nursing department continued on to achieve full accreditation from the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission and became approved by the Alabama State Board of Nursing. The first students enrolled in the program were: Della D. Sullins, Ester Carter and Elizabeth Richardson. They were all graduate students. 2015 - Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson received the Harold Washington Phenix Award, from the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus.

Sept 20

1928 - This year Rosa Louise McCauley attended 9th grade at Booker T. Washington High School, but dropped out when her mother became seriously ill, and she was

needed to help around the house. Sept 21

1945 - Isaac Scott Hathaway was selected to design 2 commemorative coins to honor Booker Taliafero Washington and George Washington Carver. The coins were commissioned by the U.S. Mint. The first coin to commemorate Booker T. Washington was minted from 1946 to 1951. The second coin commemorated George W. Carver. It was minted from 1951 to 1954. These were the first U.S. coins to honor African Americans, and Hathaway was the first African American to be commissioned to design a U.S. coin.

Sept 22

1970 - Florence E. Talbert Trammell opened the Learning Resource Center, on the third floor of the Tuskegee Institute Hollis Frissell Library. It was the first educational audio-visual lab set-up in central Alabama. Libraries were accustomed to cataloging books and periodicals, but Mrs. Trammell set-up a new system that was designed for this new set of library items. As Auburn University and other colleges established A/V labs, they traveled to Tuskegee to learn how to catalog this new media consisting of: micro fishe, micro-film and cassette tapes.

Sept 23

1897 - The Tuskegee Institute Armstrong-Memorial Boys Trades building was erected. This later became the Armstrong Hall, where the Tuskegee Science Departments were located.

Sept 24

1914 - Monroe Work began sending Lynching Reports to the Associated Press, World Almanac and the Leading Black Newspapers.

Sept 25

1830 - The Creek Nation warriors were banned from hunting in the Alabama Territory by the Federal government.

1901 - Dartmouth College awards Booker Taliafero Washington with an honorary Doctorate of Law degree (LL.D.), at the Webster centennial celebration, in his absence. Washington would later come to Dartmouth and deliver an address there on Friday, February 17, 1909. They said of him, “Mr. Washington is representative of the capability of his race, and America may well hearken to the voice of one who has devoted his life to the cause of his distressed people with such tremendous energy, and indomitable perseverance.” Sept 26

1899 - William Levi Dawson was born, in Anniston, Alabama. His parents were George W. Dawson, an illiterate day laborer and former slave, and Eliza Starkey, who came from an educated family. William was the oldest of 7 children. He was precocious and selfdetermined as a child and had an early love for music. His mother encouraged him to take music lessons from S. W. Gresham, a former Tuskegee Institute bandmaster. William was determined to attend school at Tuskegee, so at the age of 13, he boarded a train and headed to Tuskegee. He worked in fields around the campus to pay his tuition, and participated in every music activity offered. He was in the Tuskegee Choir, playing trombone in the band, and traveling with the famous Tuskegee Singers. He graduated in 1921. He moved to Kansas and taught music and arranged African American spirituals. He also continued his education. In 1930, he returned to Tuskegee to organize and conduct its new School of Music. He brought in professionals to make a program of excellence. Under Dawson’s direction, the Tuskegee Choir gained popular acclaim. In 1946, it made the first African American performance in Constitution Hall. He would go on to conduct music around the world and teach music around the world. Dawson was the final authority on Negro Spirituals and his arrangements have been used throughout the years.

Sept 27

1849 - The Tuskegee Female Seminary and Boarding School was established.

Sept 28

2012 - This year the Tuskegee Institute Peters Sisters were inducted into the Black Tennis Hall of Fame. Their tennis record of 15 years of consecutive doubles National Championships has been unrivaled.

Sept 29

1927 - The asphalt road on Tuskegee Institute’s campus was completed. 1942 - The SS Booker T. Washington became the first Liberty ship to be named for an African American. It was launched by the famous singer Marian Anderson, by breaking a bottle of champaign over the ship’s bow. Weighing 10,500 tons, it took its maiden voyage to England. Captain Hugh Mulzac was the commander for the ship. Because of this assignment, he became the first African American to command a merchant ship and an integrated crew during WWII. The crew represented 17 nationalities. Captain Mulzac had been offered an opportunity to command an all black crew in 1920, however, he refused to have a “Jim Crow” (i.e. segregated) ship. The SS Booker T. Washington would make 22 round-trip voyages between 1942-47, carrying 18,000 troops to Europe and the Pacific. After World War II, the Booker T. Washington hauled coal for the Luckenbach Steamship Company, under the command of another Black shipmaster, Captain James H. Brown, Jr. In 1947, the vessel was laid-up in the defense reserve fleet, where it remained for the next 22 years. In July 1969, it was recycled in Portland, Oregon. Liberty Ships were large transport ships built during World War II. They were named after prominent (deceased) Americans, beginning with Patrick Henry and the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Out of the 2,700 plus ships built, only 17 honored outstanding African Americans.

Sept 30

1965 - Sammy Leamon Younge Jr. held a funeral for Alabama Justice, with Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) members. This was done in protest of the acquittal of the murder of Jonathan Daniels, a theology

student, who worked in the Black Liberation Movement. Daniels was arrested for participation in civil rights protest, along with Ruby Sales. Upon release, they went into a local store to purchase soft drinks, because of the Alabama heat. As they were coming out of the store, a local law enforcement officer, outside the store, pointed his gun towards them. Jonathan Daniels saw this and stepped in front of Ruby Sales, and pushing her out of the way. Daniels was hit by the bullet and died. The law enforcement officer was acquitted from all charges. When Sammy Younge learned of this, he borrowed a small casket from a Tuskegee undertaker, and placed a sign on it reading, “Alabama Justice”. He and a group of TIAL members marched with the casket from Tuskegee Institute to the Tuskegee town square. On the square, the students formed a circle, spoke against the injustice of the acquittal and prayed for justice.

0DUPCFS Oct 01

1915 - Booker T. Washington wrote JR (Julius Rosenwald, president of the Sears company) about the success of the Rosenwald Fund, to create elementary schools for rural colored children, “It is impossible for us to describe in words the good that this schoolhouse building is accomplishing - not only in providing people with comfortable school buildings who never knew what a decent school building was before, but even in changing and revolutionizing public sentiment in the South as far as Negro education is concerned.” 1932 - The United States Public Health Service Syphilis Study on Black men in Macon County, Alabama, began operations.

Oct 02

2000 - Dr. Lucenia Williams Dunn became the first Female Mayor for the city of Tuskegee, Alabama. Dr. Dunn grew up in the Tuskegee Institute’s Greenwood community, and attended both Chambliss Children’s House and Tuskegee Institute High School. She graduated from Fisk University. During her term as Mayor, she established Tuskegee as an Economic Empowerment Zone, which added points to any grants written for the area, giving them a higher priority in getting funded. Mayor Dunn also established the Macon County Farmer’s Market and built the pavilion on the City Square. Her focus was to get the City financially sound and to increase business and industrial development for the area. She was also is the founder of the Tuskegee Macon County Community Foundation, the first rural community foundation in the United States.

Oct 03

1870 - Rev. Andrew Geary was killed in Butler Chapel A.M.E. Zion church, Tuskegee, Alabama. “After I left Macon County, Andrew Geary, a colored preacher, was killed by a crowd of disguised men in Zion church (Butler Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church), at Tuskegee and another colored man was killed whose name I do not remember, and several colored men were seriously wounded at the same time and place. It happened late in the night of the 3rd of October, 1870”Honorable James H. Alston, Alabama State Legislature, testimony 1941 - Notasulga’s Zora Neale Hurston became a story consultant for Paramount Pictures in Hollywood. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama.

Oct 04

1965 - Governor George Cornelius Wallace responded to Gwen Patton’s letter about the Jonathan Daniels trial in Hayneville, Alabama. Gwen Patton was the Chairman for the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) operations. Her letter addressed the injustice of a law enforcement officer gunning down Jonathan Daniels, as he was exiting a store with a bottle of soft drink in his hand, and the Lowndes County court system finding the

officer innocent of any charges. 1995 - Dr. Charles Goode Gomillion passed away, in Montgomery, Alabama. Dr. Gomillion was a Tuskegee Institute Dean and instructor. He was also the President of the Tuskegee Civil Association, and the lead plaintiff in the landmark Supreme Court case against the gerrymander: Gomillion versus Lightfoote. 2013 - The Amelia Boynton Robinson Parkway was dedicated in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. The ceremony took place on the grounds of the Tuskegee Institute Middle School, formerly the Tuskegee Institute High School, which was originally located on the campus of Tuskegee University. Queen Mother Dr. Amelia Platts Boynton-Robinson was present for the event, which was presided over by Dr. Elaine Harrington and the Rev. Harold Lusk, of the Greenwood Missionary Baptist Church, in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Oct 05

1835 - James Edward Cobb was born in Thomaston, Georgia. He fought in the Civil War and was taken prisoner at Gettysburg. Upon release, he moved to Tuskegee and established a law practice, in partnership with Robert F. Ligon, in Macon, Russell, Lee, Chambers and Tallapoosa Counties. In 1874 he became Circuit Judge. He served as Democratic representative for Alabama’s Fifth Congressional District from 1887 to 1896. Some of his House committees included overseeing education, Native American affairs, railways and canals, the District of Columbia, elections and banking and currency issues. After leaving Congress, he was a delegate to the Alabama Constitutional Convention of 1901. He died on June 2, 1903 in East Las Vegas, New Mexico and is buried in the Evergreen Cemetery, in Tuskegee, Alabama. 1844 - The Macon Female Institute was established in Macon County, Alabama.

Oct 06

1949 - Dr. Lonnie Jeremiah Johnson was born in Mobile, Alabama. He would later attend and graduate from Tuskegee Institute, majoring in engineering. He worked in the area of energy and ways to reduce man’s carbon footprint on the earth, by finding alternatives to fossil fuels. In the process of his research, he invented the “Supersoaker” toy water gun and the Nerf gun toy, with the Hasbro company. With the proceeds from these inventions, he established a research lab in Atlanta, Georgia. His research led to his breaking the 70 wi limit of electrical storage in batteries. He raised in to 200 wi. He also developed a solar energy collector that uses thermal energy versus light energy. He also developed methods of extracting water from the air around us.

Oct 07

1942 - U.S. Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, visited the 99th Fighter Squadron at Tuskegee Army Air Field. (99th Fighter Squadron history, March 1941 - October 1943). 1944 - The 332nd Fighter Group escorted a squad of B17 bombers of the 5th Bombardment Wing. They were engaged in a raid against the Lobau Oil Refineries at Vienna, Austria. Lieutenant Robert Wiggins, 2nd Lt. Roosevelt Stiger of the 302nd Fighter Squadron and Flight Officer Carl J. Woods of the 100th Fighter Squadron were reported lost on this mission. Stiger and Woods were last seen over the Adriatic Sea. One B-17 was reported hit at 30,000 feet, but there was no corresponding Missing Air Crew Report, therefore the B-17 made it back safely to base. 1944 - The Tuskegee Army Air Field’s football team, the Warhawks, defeated Alabama State College’s football team. The score was 21 - 0. 2nd Lt. William M. Bell, who was an All-American tackle at Ohio State University, was the Warhawks’ coach.

Oct 08

1843 - Notasulga established its first Post Office. Amos Moore became the first Notasulga Post Master. Moore was an early settler in Macon County. After the Indian

removal, from east Alabama in 1836, many settlers from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee moved into the area. In 1842, he purchased 160 acres of land, and the area was called, “Moore’s Cross Roads”. In 1949, the named was changed to Notasulga. The town was named for a local creek. After Amos Moore was served the Post Office, other Post Masters included: H. H. Armstrong (1849), W. A. Shaw (1855), J. J. Dickson (1875). 1896 - George W. Carver accepted the agriculture teaching position, offered to him by Booker Taliafero Washington, at the Tuskegee Normal School. Carver arrived by train, at the small railroad station at Chehaw. 1902 - The Tuskegee Railroad was incorporated in Alabama, for the purpose of acquiring a railroad owned by E.T. Varner and Company. The date of organization was October 8, 1902, and the railroad was acquired on October 18, 1902. The authorized capital stock was issued at $75,000. The primary purpose of the railroad was to create a railroad to enter the campus of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, under the direction of Principal Booker Taliafero Washington. The line extended from a connection with the Western Railway of Alabama, located at Chehaw, to the end of the line at Tuskegee. A total of 5.713 miles. It was originally built with a narrow gauge rail, but in August 1898 it was converted to a standard rail. The first two miles of the rail line was in a valley of a small stream, but from there to the end of the rail line the line rose up onto a broad plateau. The rail line was ballasted with cinders, gravel and sand. The line was used greatly by Booker T. Washington and George W. Carver, along with students, staff and faculty from Tuskegee Institute. For many years, travelers had the daily option of three departures each from Chehaw and the campus. The fare was ten cents per passenger. At Chehaw, they would make connections to the Western Railway of Alabama, to catch a long-distance train, such as the Crescent Limited and the Piedmont Limited, traveling to Atlanta, Montgomery, and New Orleans, and even eastern cities such as Washington. D.C. For southern blacks, the amenities provided on even the

segregated train cars, was equivalent to those in the white only passenger rail cars. These included: dining cars, Pullman cars with a bathroom and pull-down beds, and comfortable cushioned seat passenger cars. 1955 - Senator Samuel Martin Englehardt Jr., of the Alabama Legislature, a Shorter cotton farmer, organized the Central Alabama Citizens’ Council, which became the most effective white citizens council in Alabama. Fellow organizers included: Alston Keith, a Selma attorney who organized the first Alabama Citizens Council; Walter Coats Givhan of Safford a state Senator and an active speaker; and Luther Ingalls, an attorney and one of the earliest leaders of the Montgomery White Citizen Council. The Central Alabama Citizens’ Council was dominated by groups from Dallas and Montgomery counties, however, it grew and included seven other adjacent counties, as members and organizing areas. Englehardt was the most important organizer and leader of the White Citizen Councils of Alabama, and would later become the leader of the Alabama association of Citizen Councils. The Citizen Council movement was created to maintain segregation in the southern United States. Oct 09

1812 - Arthur Lott was murdered in Macon County, which caused the Creek Indian War of 1813-14; Billy McIntosh with John McQueen (a celebrated Negro) searched for and found Lott’s murderers at Notasulga Creek, or the Williamson Ferrell’s settlement. McIntosh and McQueen shot and killed them, and went home. This aroused the Tallasees, but since James McQueen had died one year before, his leadership was not in place to take control of the situation. Big Warrior was killed trying to pursue them McIntosh and John McQueen. In the meantime, some of the Otises gotten drunk, and upon hearing of what happened, a few days later the Otises attacked Tukabachi Wemitta at Polecat Springs. 1855 - Moses Carver, a German immigrant, with a plantation at Diamond Grove, Missouri, purchased a slave couple from William P. McGinnis. He paid $700 for

them. They were Mary and Giles, who would become the parents of George W. Carver, the world’s greatest scientist. Oct 10

1901 - Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson was born in Washington, DC. He became an orphan at the age of two. He was raised by Wilhemina, his oldest sister, who was a school teacher in Texas. In 1923, he received his doctorate in Veterinary Medicine from Iowa State College. He continued to study there, and in 1927, he earned his Master of Science degree. In 1932, he earned his second doctorate from Cornell University. He taught veterinary medicine for 4 years at Virginia State College, and was the director of Agriculture. In 1928, he became the Head of Tuskegee Institute’s Veterinary division, then Director of the School of Agriculture, and finally Tuskegee’s third President. In 1944, he founded the Tuskegee School of Veterinary Medicine and the United Negro College Fund. He also founded the College Endowment Funding Plan. He married Catherine Elizabeth Moton, the daughter of Tuskegee’s second President, Dr. Robert Russa Moton, after he met her in Logan Hall, during a basketball game.

Oct 11

1847 - The Tuskegee Military Institute for Boys was established in Macon County, Alabama. This was a prep school for those looking to go to college. The Institute was one of early school in Macon County, before 1898 when the public school system was created. It was later known as Park High School for Boys. 1892 - The Calhoun Colored School was established. Hampton teachers, Charlotte Thorn and Mabel Dillingham, at Booker T. Washington’s direction and prompting, along with a Tuskegee Institute graduate, met with 300 Negroes at the old Ramah Church near Calhoun, in Lowndes County, to establish the Calhoun Colored School. Many of the adults at that first meeting worked to build: schoolhouses, a barn, teacher’s cottages, a shop, and dormitories for the students. 10 acres was donated by N.J. Bell of Montgomery, for the school location. By 1896, the campus was constructed, along with a work

farm of 100 acres. The school had 300 students, with 40 living on campus, and 13 teachers. In 1895, Mabel Dillingham died of yellow fever, and Pitt Dillingham, her brother, who was a minister, continued her work with Charlotte Thorn, in the position of co-principal, for several years. He also conducted public speaking tours in the North, for fundraising. The founders and the community joined together on a priority that was not in the Hampton education model. They created a land bank, with more than 4,000 acres. They sold parcels of 40 to 60 acre tracts, and provided financing, supported by friends in the North. The new land owners built full homes with 3 to 8 rooms, which were much better than the tiny sharecroppers’ cabins, where they previously lived. They also received assistance from Williams College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to create a much needed road, built by the Calhoun students. It was surfaced with gravel by the county and became Lowndes County Route 33. 1901 - Alabama Lt. Governor R.F. Ligon passed away in Montgomery, Alabama. He was from Tuskegee, Alabama. He was born in Watkinsville, Georgia and studied law in at the Tuskegee Law School, and became a lawyer. He served in the Mexican War and in the Confederate Army in the War Between the States. He was a planter and ran for Governor of Alabama. He was Lt. Governor of Alabama from 1874 to 1876. He also served as a U.S. Representative in Congress, for the Alabama 5th District, from 1877 to 1879. He was buried in the Oakwood Cemetery, in Montgomery, Alabama. He was 77 years old. Oct 12

1824 - The last of the Revolutionary War Generals, French General LaFayette visited Macon County, at Fort Bainbridge where Native American, Kendall Lewis lived. Lewis was rich and the perfect gentleman. LaFayette was on his way to Montgomery’s Goat Hill.

Oct 13

1938 - The Tuskegee Civilian Pilot Training program began. This program was supported and pushed by

Tuskegee Institute President, Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson. His insistence on the segregated training of black pilots was ridiculed by the N.A.A.C.P. (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Through Patterson’s support, the program continued through 1943, at the end of World War II. It trained over 900 black pilots . Oct 14

1918 - Tuskegee Institute’s main Trades building burned. 1943 - Gwendolyn Marie Patton was born in Detroit, Michigan. Patton would move to Montgomery, Alabama and later attend Tuskegee Institute. She became the first female president of the Student Government Association. She also joined the Black Liberation Movement and was the strategy leader for the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL). TIAL was the radical student organization, engaged in working on desegregation in the southern U.S. 1973 - Jock Smith established the first Chapter of the Black Law Student Association, located at Notre Dame University. He would later set up his law practice in Tuskegee, and become a partner in the Johnny Cochran law firm.

Oct 15

1917 - Emmett J. Scott was appointed, by President Woodrow Wilson as the special advisor on black affairs, to the Secretary of War, Newton Baker. He served in this position for two years, and was the highest ranking black in the Wilson administration. In his position, Scott was able to: enroll black Red Cross nurses to serve wounded black soldiers, continue the black officer training program, increase black chaplains from four to sixty, create training opportunities for black soldiers at colleges and universities, establish the Women’s Branch to engage black women in the war effort, open the doors of all military branches to blacks, appoint the first regular commissioned black war correspondent and improve conditions in camps where black soldiers were stationed.

1927 - Richard Morrison, a Utica Institute graduate, became President of Alabama A&M College in Normal, AL. Utica Institute was the first black college in Mississippi, and was founded by a graduate from Tuskegee Institute, who used Booker T. Washington’s philosophy and practices to conduct the school’s education program. 1992 - Carole Simpson became the first woman and the first minority to moderate a U.S. Presidential debate, on the major television broadcast networks. The debate was between: President H. W. Bush, William Clinton, and Ross Perot. It took place on the campus of the University of Richmond, in Richmond, Virginia. This was also the first ever “town hall”, style debate, with questions coming from the public. Simpson’s first employment, out of college, was a journalism instructor at Tuskegee Institute, and, she became the head of the Institute’s Information Bureau. Oct 16

1901 - Booker T. Washington received an invitation to eat dinner with U.S. President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt, in Washington, D.C. This made Washington the first black person to be invited to dinner at the White House. 1922 - Monroe Work began sending the Lynching Report to over 2,000 Newspapers including the Atlanta Constitution and the Chattanooga Free Press. His Report was more valued and accurate than any of the northern sources on lynching.

Oct 17

1864 - Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her parents were Benjamin Tucker Tanner and Sarah Elizabeth Miller Tanner. Halle was the eldest daughter and one of 9 children. Her father was born in 1835, and his parents were free. He graduated from Avery College and supported himself as a barber. Her mother was a teacher in Pittsburgh. When they married, Benjamin Tanner became a successful

minister and the editor of the “Christian Recorder, the AME Church Review”. He later became a bishop in the AME (African Methodist Episcopal) church. Halle’s parents exposed the children to the works of African American artists, and African American culture. In 1886, Halle was 22, and married Charles E. Dillon, of Trenton, New Jersey. In 1887, they had one child, Sadie. Dillon died, and in 1888, Halle, at the age of 24 attended the Woman’s Medical College in Philadelphia. On May 7, 1891, Halle Dillon graduated with high honor, in a class of 36 women. Booker T. Washington brought her to Alabama, where she took the 10 day medical exam for certification. She passed the exam and became the first licensed female physician, certified to practice in the state of Alabama. Dr. Halle Dillon then became Tuskegee Institute’s first resident campus physician. She was 28 years old. 1925 - The Tuskegee Alumni Bowl was dedicated, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. The dedication took place at the first official Institute Football Homecoming game. The construction cost was $50,000. The game was between Tuskegee Institute and Atlanta University. Tuskegee won the game 22 to 0. Tuskegee Institute was the first black college to have a football stadium. Oct 18

1943 - This year, Dr. Myra Adele Logan became the first woman to perform open heart surgery. Logan was the daughter of Warren Logan, Booker T. Washington’s treasurer and an instructor for Tuskegee Institute. Her mother was Logan’s wife, Adella Hunt Logan, another Institute instructor and a leader in the Women’s Suffrage Movement. She was born and raised in Tuskegee Institute’s Greenwood community. 1959 - Gomillion vs. Lightfoote went to the U.S. Supreme Court. In this case Dr. Charles G. Gomillion, Dean and instructor at Tuskegee Institute challenged the equity of Tuskegee’s Mayor Lightfoote, to allow a resetting of the city limits, or gerrymander, so that most of the black voters were no longer living in Tuskegee, but all the white voters were still living in Tuskegee. In the resetting, or

redrawing of the city limits, all of Tuskegee Institute and the Greenwood community was no longer in Tuskegee. This plan was orchestrated by the Honorable Sam Englehardt, a Senator in the Alabama State Legislature. Oct 19

1960 - Tuskegee’s Marilyn Pryce (Hoyt) was arrested, with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. while attempting to integrate the Atlanta Rich’s department store. Pryce, a student at Spelman college, had joined the Atlanta Student Movement, which was organized in March that year, by Lonnie King. Pryce was initially a foot soldier with the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights. On October 19th, students from the five colleges in the Atlanta University Center converged on downtown Atlanta to conduct sit-in demonstrations, similar to those done in North Carolina. Marilyn Pryce, and her roommate, Blondean Orbert-Nelson, joined Lonnie King and the young Rev. Martin L. King, Jr., along with ten other students, in requesting to be served at the Rich’s Bridge Cafe. When they were denied, the group of four took the elevator to the sixth floor Magnolia Room restaurant, to conduct a sit-in. They were arrested, and when Rev. King refused to pay the bail of $500, because they were peaceful and broke no laws, they were sent to jail. This was the first time Rev. Martin L. King, Jr. spent the night in jail. President John F. Kennedy learned of the arrest and assisted in getting Rev. King and the others released. It was this action that caused Rev. A.D. King and others to support Kennedy and gain the additional votes needed for him to narrowly defeat Richard Nixon in the election that year. Pryce would later study in Paris, however, one of her Spelman classmates immortalized her in poetry. In “Chic Freedom’s Reflection”, which pictures the ability of Pryce to freshen her makeup in the reflection of a sheriff’s badge, before being carted off to jail. “One day, Marilyn marched beside me (demonstration) and we ended up at a county farm. No phone. No bail. Which irrelevance Marilyn dismissed with a shrug. She had got back from Paris . . . . . . . . . She smelled like spring. And love. And Freedom . . . . “ The writer and her classmate was Alice Walker.

2009 - Booker T. Washington’s Monument was dedicated, in Virginia. Governor Joe Manchin joined dozens of others at a ceremony for the “Booker T. Washington Park of West Virginia State University” in Malden. Organizers picked the location because it is the site of the African Baptist Zion Church, the first black church in West Virginia. Booker T. Washington and many other African American families used the building in Old Malden, throughout history. West Virginia State University, State University History and Culture Committee, Booker T. Washington Memorial Association of Malden and Kanawha Valley Historical and Preservation Society, Inc. were all sponsors of the project. Oct 20

1918 - Tuskegee Institute students contracted the Spanish flu during the infamous 1918-19 epidemic that killed more people than the First World War. Tuskegee Institute at the height of the epidemic had 250 students hospitalized and John A. Andrew Hospital treated a total 449 cases, with 33 people developing pneumonia. Tuskegee’s response to the epidemic included an aggressive quarantine ordered by the school’s medical director, Dr. John A. Kenney; a high level of care from the school’s hospital; and extraordinary efforts by seven hundred volunteers from the Tuskegee Institute Chapter of the Red Cross. These volunteers sewed 1,000 napkins for sputum, 100 face masks, 135 bags for beds, 59 bed protectors, 11 pairs of slippers, 14 kimonas and even constructed thirty beds. They accomplished all this while as students, attended their classes, studied for tests, and continued reporting to work at their campus jobs. As a result, not one person on Tuskegee’s campus lost their life from the epidemic.

Oct 21

1837 - General Jesup tricked Osceola to meet at a “peace council”, under a peace flag, the universal sign of truce. Osceola came with good intentions, but instead of honoring the white flag, Jesup’s soldiers surrounded Osceola and threw his white flag to the ground. They captured Osceola, by grabbing him and placing chains on his hands and they shackled his feet.

They kept him imprisoned near St. Augustine, Florida. However, because of his popularity and their fear of him being a dangerous enemy, they transported him to Charleston, South Carolina, and placed him in jail at Fort Moultrie. Osceola’s capture made the Seminoles even more determined to fight and they continued to attack settlements in the Florida area. 1952 - Tuskegee’s Alice Coachman became the first black woman athlete with business endorsements. She became a spokesperson for the Coca-Cola Company, out of Atlanta, Georgia. Oct 22

1735 - Letters were sent from Sir James, or General Oglethorpe, to the Creek Nation’s James McQueen. Oglethorpe was urging McQueen to prevent Indians, including his people, the Creek Nation, from siding with the Spaniards who were planning to attack Oglethorpe’s small initial colony in Georgia. He was asking for protection.

Oct 23

1944 - Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. left Tuskegee Institute and returned to New Jersey. There he began a private medical practice.

Oct 24

1905 - U.S. President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt visited Tuskegee Institute. 2005 - Rosa Louise McCauley Parks passed away, in Detroit, Michigan. Parks was born in Tuskegee and became the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”. In her honor, her body was allowed to lie in state, in the Rotunda, at the Capital Building. This was an honor reserved for heads of state. She was the first black woman to receive this honor.

Oct 25

1902 - Booker T. Washington became the first black to be a White House dinner guest. He was invited by and dined with U.S. President Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, his wife

and daughter. This produced a big media scandal, and caused President Roosevelt to loose popularity. 1911 - JR, or Julius Rosenwald, made his first visit to Tuskegee Normal and Industrial, at the invitation of Booker T. Washington. He was so impressed by what he saw that Rosenwald agreed to be a Tuskegee Trustee, and made a life-long relationship with Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee. Oct 26

1902 - Booker T. Washington spoke to John D. Rockerfellar’s Holt Street Sunday School, in New York City. 1974 - Tuskegee Institute became the first Black college designated as a National Historic Site. 2017 - The Captain Joseph N. “Pete” Peterson highway was dedicated in Tuskegee, Alabama. The section of County Road 199, adjacent to the Robert Russa Moton Field, was named to honor the famous U.S. Air Force Thunderbird team member. Among those paying tribute was Captain Peterson’s Thunderbird team member, his father and his fellow Tuskegee High School classmates, who returned to Tuskegee specifically to honor him. As a tribute to Peterson, a team of the Thunderbirds conducted a slow fly-over, of Tuskegee, during the ceremony.

Oct 27

1842 - Lewis Adams was born a slave in Macon County, Alabama. He was the son of Jesse Adams, a white plantation owner, and Sallie, a black slave woman. Lewis Adams learned to read and write, and he spoke 4 languages: Spanish, French, German and English. He learned the trades of blacksmith, harness making, shoemaking and tinsmith (making pots and pans). He ran a successful business in Tuskegee, and began teaching other colored men his trades. He married Sarah “Sallie” Adams, and they had 16 children. Sallie began teaching colored women how to keep house and cook. Because of Adams business, which included wagon repair, he was like a mechanic, and became very popular and respected

by both the colored and the white community. One of his friends was a Tuskegee banker, and former plantation and slave owner, George Washington Campbell. Campbell caught Lewis Adams’ vision for a school to educate colored people. In 1880, an opportunity allowed their vision to take place. Colonel Wilbur F. Foster and Arthur Brooks were running for the Alabama Legislature, and they approached Lewis Adams to endorse them. They asked him what he wanted in return, because most people accepted money or a personal favor. Lewis Adams told them he wanted nothing for himself, however his people needed a school. Foster and Brooks agreed to help get a school, and Adams delivered the votes needed to get them elected. In February 1881, the Alabama Legislature passed the bill, appropriating $2,000.00 to pay salaries for the Normal School for Coloreds at Tuskegee. Booker T. Washington was sent to be it’s first principal, in June and the first day of class was July 4th. Lewis Adams provided the school with a “good” horse, a second-hand lumber wagon, a plow, a harness, and feed. He later became a teacher at the school. Oct 28

1927 - Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. spoke on national radio in support of the Herbert Hoover for U.S. President campaign. 1935 - The inauguration ceremonies for Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson were held at Tuskegee Institute. Dr. Patterson became the third President of Tuskegee Institute. 1946 - The Tuskegee Army Air Field closed down.

Oct 29

1853 - Josephine Beal Wilson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her parents were Dr. Joseph Wilson and Elizabeth Harnett Wilson. Josephine was the first of 5 children. About a year later, the family moved to Cleveland, Ohio. Josephine graduated from Cleveland Central High School in 1871, then took some teaching courses. This allowed her to teach at the Mayflower School, and which made her the first black teacher in the

Cleveland public school system. In 1878, she married Blanche K. Bruce, and they traveled through Europe, where she learned different cultures. Her husband became Senator Blanche Bruce, and they moved to Washington, D.C. Josephine Bruce became an activist for equality and committed her life to the National Association of Colored Women (NACW). In 1896, she became vice president of the organization. Her husband passed away in 1898. Booker T. Washington recruited her to become a teacher and the Dean of Women at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial. She served in those capacities from 1899 through 1902. She assisted in training and inspiring teachers. Her son was also inspired by her service to Tuskegee, and when he graduated from Harvard University in 1902, he became the head of Tuskegee’s academic department. Josephine Bruce moved to Mississippi, to be with her family briefly, then she returned to Washington, D.C. She attempted to gain the presidency of the NACW, however, because of her skin color being so light, she wasn’t accepted as fully colored. She became the editor for the NACW’s National Notes. She wrote to promote the equality and education of colored women, and to publicize the strides women had made in relation to education. Josephine Beal Wilson Bruce passed away on April 15, 1923, in Kimball, West Virginia. She was seventy years old. 1945 - The Tuskegee Airmen 332nd Fighter Group returned home to the U.S. from World War II. 1959 - Zora Neale Hurston entered the St. Lucie County Welfare Home, in Fort Pierce, Florida. She had suffered a series of strokes and was forced economically, to apply for welfare. Oct 30

1945 - Through a series of transfers from the Tuskegee Army Airfield (TAAF) by Cadets and Weather Officers, Godman Field became the second, of only three (3), all black Weather Detachments in the U.S. Military.

Oct 31

1945 - Booker T. Washington was elected to the Great Americans Hall of Fame. 1953 - Dr. Luther Hilton Foster, Jr. was inaugurated as the 4th President of Tuskegee Institute. He followed Dr. Frederick D. Patterson. Dr. Foster was serving as the Tuskegee business manager for 12 years. Over 100 officials from leading universities and some 3,000 graduates attended the 2 day event. New Mexico Board of Education Chancellor, Dr. John D. Russell, delivered the inaugural address.


1901 - Charles P. Adams, and his wife Martha Adams (daughter of Lewis Adams), founded Grambling University. They were sent to Louisiana by Booker T. Washington, to help create a school for blacks. 1944 - Dr. John A. Kenney Sr. left Tuskegee Institute to live in New Jersey.

Nov 02

1966 - The Marvin Segrest trial was changed to an Opelika venue, with arguments that he would not get a fair trial in Tuskegee. Marvin Segrest shot and killed Samuel Leamon Younge, Jr. when Younge insisted on using the white only bathroom in the AMOCO service station, located next to the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station. Segrest was a 67 year old attendant at the gas station. The surprise change in venue motion was made after 4:00 p.m., which gave the prosecuting attorney no time to garner resources for opposing the motion. The change of venue removed all possibility of any blacks being selected for the trial jury. As a direct result of this action, the trial was conducted with an all white jury. The trial took place in the Lee County Courthouse, in Opelika, Alabama.

Nov 03

2005 - Rosa Parks was the first woman to lie in state at the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

Nov 04

1944 - Thomas Monroe Campbell, the first U.S. Extension Agent, was selected to be on a Committee of three (3) to survey West Africa. 2015 - Dr. Hadiyah Nicole Green, Tuskegee University physics professor, was awarded a one million dollar grant to research targeting cancer cells with lasers, using nanoparticles. Dr. Green was the second black female to earn a doctorate degree in physics from the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

Nov 05

1872 - The Alabama Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South took over complete management and control of the Tuskegee Female College (later Huntingdon College). The reincorporation created a new governing body - a board of trustees and a change in the school name, to the Alabama Conference Female College.

Nov 06

1961 - The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital Canteen building (building 90) was dedicated. 1998 - U.S. President William J. Clinton passed Public Law 105-355 - to establish the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Robert Russa Moton Field, in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Nov 07

1977 - The Peters Sisters were inducted into the Tuskegee Athletic Hall of Fame. They were nicknamed “Pete” and “Re-Pete” because of their dominance of the tennis doubles competition. As a team, they won the National American Tennis Association double championships for 15 consecutive years.

Nov 08

1966 - Lucius Amerson was elected the first Black Sheriff in the South, since Reconstruction. His election was a direct result of the murder of Sammy Leamon Younge, Jr., at the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station. Following Younge’s murder, members of the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) registered hundreds of new voters throughout Macon County, Alabama. This produced a major impact on the election and won Amerson the position of Sheriff. 1977 - The Tuskegee Veterinary Medical Alumni Association was incorporated, in Tuskegee, Alabama. The incorporators were Dr. Raymond R. Adams, Dr. Cuthbert Padmore and Dr. Edward T. Braye.

Nov 09

1906 - Booker T. Washington and Seaman A. Knapp signed the Cooperative Extension Agent MOU (Memorandum of Understanding). 1923 - Alice Coachman was born in Albany, Georgia. Her parents were Evelyn and Fred Coachman. Alice was the fifth of 10 children. She was very athletic as a child, but she didn’t have access to training facilities, growing up in the segregated South. She would run on dirt roads and make her own hurdles to practice jumping. This was made more difficult, because her parents encouraged her to be more “ladylike”. However, she was encouraged to develop her athletic talents by her fifth grade teacher, at Monroe Street Elementary School, Cora Bailey and her aunt, Carrie Spry. She was able to show her skills in track and field at Madison High School. Tuskegee Institute then offered her a high school scholarship, when she was 16. Alice then competed against black teams across the southern U.S. In 1943, she started college at Tuskegee, in dressmaking. She played basketball and won 4 national championships in sprinting and high jumping. She would go on to become a national athletic star in the high jump. In 1948, at the London Olympics, she became the first black female to win a Gold Medal at the Olympic Games. It was also at the London Olympics that she was the only U.S. Woman to win an Olympic Medal.

Nov 10

1962 - James G. Charity was hired by Macon County Sheriff Preston Hornsby, as the first Black Deputy in the state of Alabama. He had been trained at the FBI Academy in Virginia and was well -respected in the community.

Nov 11

1938 - Mozell Ellerbe’s Tuskegee Institute track team defeated the track team from Germany.

Nov 12

1906 - Thomas Monroe Campbell was hired as the first U.S. Cooperative Extension Agent. He was notified by Booker T. Washington, while he was working in the field, on the Tuskegee farm. The location was at the site of the Chambliss Children’s House school building. A monument commemorating this occasion was erected in January of 1952.

Nov 13

1956 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the Montgomery bus segregation. The case was the result of Tuskegee’s Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus, to let a white customer sit there instead of her. This resulted in the integration of the Montgomery bus lines. 1973 - George W. Carver, the world’s greatest scientist, was elected to the Great Americans Hall of Fame. 1989 - Lonnie Johnson, Tuskegee University Engineering graduate created the “Super Soaker” pressure water gun toy, that became the top selling toy in the U.S. He would go on to invent the “Nerf Gun” with the Hasbro company, and create several variations of Nerf Gun, that brought him over 70 million dollars in profits. He would use these funds to create his own research laboratories, and work on solutions to help reduce the use of fossil fuels.

Nov 14

1915 - Booker Taliafero Washington passed away, in Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. “The grandest feature of the whole thing, is that the fame and honor that are coming thus to Mr. Washington, do not spoil him. Twelve months in the year, night and day, he works for Tuskegee--his heart and love. No vacation, no rest; his life is one unceasing struggle for his school. This is the secret of his power. Here is the lesson to be learned.”--Thomas J. Calloway, in The Colored American. Washington was buried in the cemetery, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute.

Nov 15

2003 - The Peters Sisters tennis duo were inducted into the USTA (United States Tennis Association) Mid-Atlantic Section Hall of Fame. The Peters Sisters were national tennis champions, winning 15 consecutive years of National Doubles Championships. They were excluded from competing in the USTA throughout their careers.

Nov 16

1540 - Spanish Conquistador Hernado Desoto traveled through Macon County, at Tuskegee and Polecat Springs. (Desoto Trace is path) Desoto was known by the Creek Nation as “White Warrior” and “Tustanugga Hatke”.

Nov 17

1944 - Samuel Leamon Younge Jr. was born in the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. His father was Samuel Younge Sr., a worker at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital, and Renee Younge, a school teacher in Macon County. He became the oldest child of two, with his brother Steve Younge. Sammy would go on to join the U.S. Navy, attend Tuskegee Institute, and become a leader in the Black Liberation Movement. He worked with the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) and the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

1951 - Carole Denise McNair was born in Birmingham, Alabama to Chris and Maxine McNair, both Tuskegee Institute graduates. When Denise became 11 years old, she attended Birmingham’s 16th Street Baptist Church, as she always had done. She joined the other children in the church basement in preparation for the worship service. It was September 15th, 1952, and at 10:22 a.m. a bomb exploded under the stairs and killed Denise. Three other girls were also killed: Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley. They were all 14 years old. This sparked a movement to get black people in Alabama registered to vote, by the Black Liberation Movement. A Spike Lee documentary film, “4 Little Girls”, about the incident, featured Chris and Maxine McNair, along with their 2 other daughters. In 2013, Carole Denise McNair and the other 3 girls were awarded the United States Congressional Gold Medal, as victims and martyrs, who became symbols against racial violence in the struggle for civil rights. Nov 18

2015 - Robin Cabiness Banks passed away, in Atlanta, Georgia. Robyn was the great granddaughter of Booker Taliafero Washington.

Nov 19

1924 - Dr. George W. Carver spoke to over 500 people at the Woman’s Board of Domestic Missions. He said, “God is going to reveal to us things He never revealed before, if we put our hands in His. No books ever go into my laboratory. The thing I am to do and the way are revealed to me the moment I am inspired to create something new. Without God to draw aside the curtain, I would be helpless. Only alone can I draw close enough to God to discover His secrets.” 1972 - The United States Health Department’s Syphilis Study ended. This was the unethical human study of how the disease, syphilis, would affect men, from initial contraction of the illness to their death from the disease.

Nov 20

1939 - The Triangle Airport was completed in Tuskegee.

Nov 21

1940 - Bess Bolden Walcott raised a large donation for the Tuskegee Institute chapter of the Red Cross. Walcott arranged for cotton, from land purchased to build the Tuskegee Army Air Field, to be picked, milled and sold. The funds from this action, made it possible to fund the Tuskegee Institute chapter of the Red Cross, by donating a total of $2,000.

Nov 22

1991 - Barbara Jacket was named to serve as a U.S. Track & Field coach for the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. This caused her to become the second Black female to coach an Olympic Team. The first was Barbara’s Tuskegee Institute track and field teammate, Dr. Nell Jackson, who coached in the 1956 Olympics. Coach Jacket led the U.S. Women’s Track and Field Team, including Jackie-Joyner Kersee, Evelyn Ashford, Gwen Torrance, and Gail Devers, to four gold, four silver, and two bronze medals— more than any Olympic Women’s Track Team since 1956. Also, in 1990, Barbara became the only women athletic director in the SWAC when she was named to the position at Prairie View. She began her career in athletics at 10 years old, on her high school softball team and as a member of the Tuskegee Institute track team.

Nov 23

1949 - Tom Joyner was born in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute. He had one brother, Albert. He attended Tuskegee Institute, and created a syndicated radio program. He was offered jobs in both Dallas, Texas and Chicago, Illinois, so he said yes to both. He conducted his morning program in Dallas, then flew to Chicago for his afternoon program. By accumulating so many travel miles, he became known as the “Fly Jock”. He then became the most popular radio host in the U.S. with affiliates in every state. 1960 - Robin Renee Roberts was born in John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Her parents were: Lawrence E. Roberts, a Tuskegee Airman, and Lucimarian Tolliver. Robin became an American television broadcaster, and in 2005, she became the anchor for the Good Morning America

program, with the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). 2015 - The Robin Cabiness Banks memorial was held in the Tuskegee University Chapel. Nov 24

1874 - Robert Fulwood Ligon was elected to be the Alabama Lt. Governor. He served with Governor Houston. Ligon moved to Tuskegee in 1844, from Athens, Georgia. He studied law at the Judge Chilton’s Tuskegee Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He practiced law in Tuskegee and served in the Mexican War. He served in the Alabama Legislature in the House (1849-1850) and the Senate (1861-1864). He was also in the Confederate Army as captain of Company F, 12th Regiment, of the Alabama Infantry, Rhodes’ division. After the War Between the States, he returned to practicing law in Tuskegee and tried to run for Governor, unsuccessfully. He served in the 45th Congress, as a Democrat, from March 4, 1877 to March 3, 1879. He also worked as a banker and a farmer. He served as trustee on the following boards: the Alabama Female College (40 years) and the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in Auburn. 1942 - The Franklin School closed and 75-80 students were transferred to schools in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Nov 25

1911 - Julius Rosenwald accepted membership on the Board of Trustees for Tuskegee Institute. Booker T. Washington had asked Rosenwald to serve as Trustee, during a speaking trip to Chicago. However, Rosenwald said he wasn’t interested. He also said he wasn’t interested in making a donation to Tuskegee. Booker T. Washington returned to Tuskegee and had Emmitt Scott organize a visit by Rosenwald to Tuskegee’s campus. Rosenwald came by train, and stopped for 1 day at Fisk, in Nashville. He then came to Tuskegee and spent 2 days touring and learning about Tuskegee. On his return to Chicago, Julius Rosenwald proclaimed, “If a white industrial school could be that good, Tuskegee is BETTER!” Rosenwald and Washington became lifelong

best friends, and Rosenwald eventually became the chairman to the Tuskegee Board of Trustees. Nov 26

1924 - The Tuskegee Institute Chapter of the Red Cross constructed, equipped staffed and opened Alabama’s second Health Center. This resulted from the Chapter fighting tuberculosis and pellagra in the rural areas, and the discovery of dry brewer’s yeast as the treatment for pellagra.

Nov 27

1777 - William Bartram journeyed through what is now Macon County, Alabama. Bartram was a nature artist, botanist and naturalist who recorded many of the plants and animals in the southeast region of the United States. Bartram traveled through Cherokee territory and southwest through Choctaw territory and the Creek Nation, to the Mississippi River. He went along the area of what later became the Federal Road. In Alabama, he passed through Russell and Macon counties to the future site of Montgomery. Friends had given him up for dead at least one time. The trip increased Bartram’s reputation as an expert in natural history and Native American cultures. It also helped his family plant nursery business.

Nov 28

1861 - The Alabama Hospitals in Richmond, Virginia were established by an Act of the Alabama Legislature. $30,000 was appropriated to establish hospitals to care for the sick and wounded soldiers from Alabama, serving in the Army of the Potomac, later called the Army of Northern Virginia. Additional legislation authorized the governor to appoint “an efficient and skillful medical man” to oversee the receipt and distribution of food, clothing, medical supplies and money provided by the state, benevolent associations and private individuals, to benefit wounded Alabama soldiers in Virginia. This position for an “efficient and skillful medical man”, was given to Mrs. Juliet Opie Hopkins, of Tuskegee, Alabama.

Nov 29

1811 - James McQueen, great grandfather of Osceola passed away in Macon County, Alabama, at the age of 128 years old. He journeyed to America from his homeland, Scotland by ship. He had an altercation with one of the ship’s officers and fled from the ship, in Savannah, Georgia. McQueen escaped capture by living among the Creek Indians, where he would marry and start a family. Since the Creeks were a matriarchal society, his relationship to his wife made he a member of the Creek tribe. He became an overall leader of the Creek Nation, and the U.S. Federal government would contact him concerning matters with the Creek Nation. McQueen was buried in Franklin, just north of Tuskegee, Alabama. 1813 - U.S. General John Floyd destroyed the Creek Nation town of Atasi. Atasi or Autossee town, was part of the Upper Creek Nation. It was located near present day Shorter, Alabama. This was one of the larger towns in the Upper Nation and the home of the Red Stick Prophet, High Head Jim.

Nov 30

1878 - Lewis Adams and George Washington Campbell began work on establishing a school for coloreds, in Tuskegee, Alabama.


1918 - The film “Birth of a Race” was released. The original concept of the film was developed by Tuskegee’s Emmett Jay Scott, Booker T. Washington’s secretary. It was produced in direct contrast to the film “Birth of a Nation”, which depicted the Ku Klux Klan in a favorable light, and black people in a negative light. Scott’s original film was trashed half way through production, and a different film was created, with a completely different focus. Scott wanted to show locations of where blacks came from in Africa, how they were slaves and then

how they emerged from slavery to become educated, industrious and highly productive. He wanted to show all people as equal. In the published version, there is only one scene that stayed with the original intent of the film. 1955 - Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was arrested on a Montgomery public bus. She was sitting in a middle area between the white and colored section of the bus. This was lawful, until the white section, located in the front of the bus, was filled. At that point any colored people would have to move to the back section, also known as the colored section. However, Mrs. Parks refused to move, and when asked to move by the white bus driver, she continued to refuse to move. She was then arrested and this became the catalyst for the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the organization of the Montgomery Improvement Association (M.I.A.). This organization would be led by a young Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the new pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, in Montgomery, Alabama. Dec 02

1964 - SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) began organizing students at Tuskegee Institute as part of their Alabama Voter Registration campaign. George Ware became the SNCC field coordinator. 1966 - The Ku Klux Klan’s local chapter of the Knights of the White Camellia burned a cross at Washington Public School, on Cedar Street, in Tuskegee Alabama.

Dec 03

1921 - Edith Meriwether Washington Shehee established the Washington Candy Company, in Tuskegee’s Greenwood community. Edith was the wife of Ernest Davidson Washington. She created the recipe for the gourmet peanut brittle, that had a clear hardened sugary glaze, and was packaged in the bright red gift boxes. Customers placed their orders from near and far, to give the candy as gifts and to enjoy it themselves. The company sold the delicious candy till her death, in 1968. However, her daughter, Margaret Washington Clifford,

reopened the enterprise in 1981, operating it out of Atlanta, Georgia. 1942 - The second Weather Cadet graduates arrived at the Tuskegee Army Air Field. Dec 04

1924 - Zora Neale Hurston’s short story “Drenched in Light” was published in the journal, Opportunity. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama.

Dec 05

1866 - Bullock County, Alabama was established from lands of Macon County, along with lands from Barbour, Montgomery and Pike counties. It was named for Colonel Edward C. Bullock. Union Springs was selected as the County Seat. 1866 - Lee County was established by the Alabama State Legislature out of parts of Macon, Tallapoosa, Chambers, and Russell counties. Opelika was selected as the county seat. The county was named for Confederate General Robert E. Lee. 1955 - Rosa Parks was fined $14.00, for violating segregation laws on the Montgomery Bus Line. This took place because she refused to give up her seat, to a white rider, on a Montgomery public bus.

Dec 06

1844 - The Montgomery-West Point (RR) Railroad construction was completed. The railroad ran through the town of Notasulga and Chehaw. Thomas Simpson Woodward, historian and federal soldier, who founded Tuskegee and Macon County, wrote about the railroad in his book, “Woodward’s Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indian, contained in letters to friends in Georgia and Alabama.” In his letter to E. Hanrick, Esquire of Wheeling, in Winn Parish, Louisiana, dated December 9, 1857, Woodward wrote: “The rail road from Montgomery to West Point runs within five feet, if not over the place, where the cabin stood in which Billy Powell, or Ussa Yoholo, was born.”

Dec 07

1932 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir performed for the opening of Radio City Music Hall, in New York City, New York. 1941 - News Anchor Carole Simpson was born in Chicago, Illinois. She was the daughter of Lytle Ray Simpson and Doretha Viola Wilbon Simpson. In 1962, she graduated from the University of Michigan, earning her bachelor’s degree in journalism. Her first job was an instructor on journalism, at Tuskegee Institute, and she was the head of the Institute’s Information bureau. In 1970, she became the first black female reporter for Chicago’s WMAQTV. She became the first black woman to anchor a major television news program. This was with the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). In 1985, she and 15 ABC newswomen confronted the ABC administration on the fact that no women ever had any leadership roles with the television network. She told them that other networks were farther along with conducting equality in gender responsibility. Because of her actions, ABC began to change and in 1987 she received the Award of Courage from the National Organization for Women (NOW). She covered such major news stories as: Nelson Mandela’s release from the South African prison, the Senate impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, China’s Tianamen Square massacre, and the bombing at Oklahoma City. Simpson focused her reporting on social issues of: racism, teen pregnancy, and violence against women and children. She worked on the team to produce ABC’s Black in White America. She also received an Emmy award for her excellence in Journalism. She was married to James Edward Marshall on September 3, 1966, and they had 2 children: Mallika Joy and Adam. 1966 - The Marvin Segrest trial began for the murder of Sammy Leamon Younge, Jr. The trial took place in the Lee County Courthouse, located in Opelika, Alabama, before an all white jury.

Dec 08

1958 - The Civil Rights Commission examined Macon County, Alabama. 1966 - Marvin Segrest was acquitted for killing Sammy Leamon Younge Jr. Segrest said Younge was harassing him, and he shot him in the back of the head, while Younge was running to get in his car at the Tuskegee Greyhound Bus Station. The Southern Courier covered the story.

Dec 09

1892 - Coach Cleveland “Cleve” Abbott was born in Yankton, South Dakota. His parents were Elbert and Mollie Brown Abbott. In 1890, they moved to South Dakota from Alabama. In 1912, Cleve graduated from Watertown High School, in Watertown, South Dakota, with 16 letters in sports. Cleve entered college at South Dakota State University and during his first year, a chance meeting would change his life. His college president, Ellwood Perisho attended a meeting in New York City on the advancement of African-Americans. Following the conference, President Perisho met Tuskegee Institute’s President Booker T. Washington on the train. Washington told Perisho that he was considering starting a sports program, to hold the interest of his students, and to attract more students. Washington asked if he had any young men that could qualify to become a sports director. Perisho told him about Cleve Abbott, but warned that he was just a freshman. Washington said that if Abbott would work and study hard to earn his Bachelor of Arts degree, he could come to Tuskegee as its sports director. Perisho told Cleve about the proposal, and Cleve committed himself to excellence in sports and in the classroom. In 1916, Cleve graduated from South Dakota State University at Brookings, where he earned 14 varsity athletic awards, covering the sports of football, basketball and track. He married Jessie Harriet Scott (1897-1982) that year. They had a daughter, Jessie Ellen, who became the first coach of the Tennessee State University women’s track team, in 1943. Cleve remembered the proposal that Booker T. Washington had offered him, but he didn’t think it could take place, because Washington passed

away in 1915. However, Emmitt Scott, Washington’s assistant found a memo of the agreement for Abbott’s employment. Therefore, he became an assistant coach and an instructor in the dairy division. His work was interrupted during World War I. After the war, in 1923, Cleve Abbott was hired as Tuskegee Institute’s agriculture chemist, football coach and athletic director. In 32 seasons, Abbott’s football record was 203-95-15. His teams earned 12 conference titles and 6 National Black College championships. In 1954, he was the first black coach to reach 200 victories. He created women’s track and field for both black and white schools in the U.S. His teams dominated the National championships for 4 decades. His track teams won 21 International AAU crowns, with 49 titles by individual team members. Also 6 of his athletes were on Olympic track and field teams. He is also one of the founders of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference Basketball Tournament. 1966 - Tuskegee Institute students rioted over Marvin Segrest’s acquittal before an all white jury, in the Lee County Courthouse, in Opelika, Alabama. The students marched downtown, and set fire to the shrubbery on the Tuskegee City Square. They painted the Tuskegee Confederate Soldier statue black, with a yellow stripe down its back. Black Power was painted on the base of the Confederate statue. The students also broke all the windows in white owned businesses down North Main Street. Dec 10

1961 - Macon County, Alabama registered 5.9” rain. This was the largest one day amount of rain ever recorded, in the county.

Dec 11

1939 - Dr. John A. Kenney returned to Tuskegee Institute, to become the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital’s Medical Director.

Dec 12

1891 - The Franklin School was started, with first through eleventh grades. By the 1930’s the school was reduced to first to sixth grades. Students would bring a stick of wood each day for the school stove. Famous country-western music recording artist, Hank Williams, of Montgomery, performed often at dances held in the school building. 1915 - Women’s suffrage activist and Tuskegee professor Adella Hunt Logan committed suicide, following the memorial service for Booker T. Washington. Mrs. HuntLogan leaped from a top floor window of the Tuskegee Institute Administration Building, to the horror of visiting dignitaries, campus staff, many students, and 2 of her children. Mrs. Hunt-Logan had become disillusioned following a failure of the Alabama State Legislature to pass a bill for the Women’s vote. However, she continued her activism, but she became irritable and disagreeable. She had an emotional breakdown, when marital problems surfaced in September 1915, and one night set fire in her husband’s (Warren Logan, school treasurer and best friend of Booker T. Washington) office. She was sent to the Battle Creek sanitarium, in Michigan. Her mental condition began to improve, until she learned that her friend and President, Booker T. Washington, was very ill and returning home. She returned to Tuskegee and Washington passed away, on November 14th, 1915. Mrs. Hunt-Logan went into severe depression, leading up to the memorial service for Washington. She was buried in the Tuskegee campus graveyard. Unfortunately, because of her suicide, for years her contributions to the suffrage movement and to education were not told. She had been a national leader and spokesperson for the women’s suffrage movement. She was the only Alabama member of the Susan B. Anthony’s National American Women’s Suffrage Association (N.A.W.S.A.). Her’s were the most effective arguments to prove that women had a right to vote U.S. elections.

Dec 13

1942 - Robert Robinson Taylor, Tuskegee Institute’s architect and industrial education leader, collapsed in the Institute Chapel, which he designed. He was rushed to John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital, which he also designed, and passed away there, at the age of 74. He was the first black person to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1970 - The Honorable Fred Gray, Sr. and The Honorable Thomas Reed Sr., both of Tuskegee, were elected as the first blacks, since Reconstruction, to serve in the Alabama State Legislature’s House of Representatives. 2016 - The Rosa Parks Railway Station was opened in Paris, France. This building was dedicated to honor Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”. Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Dec 14

1906 - Elizabeth Evelyn Wright passed away in Denmark, South Carolina. Wright was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute, and the founder of Voorhees College, in Denmark, South Carolina. 1930 - Atty. Fred David Gray, Sr. was born, in Montgomery, Alabama. He would go on to become the attorney for the Montgomery Improvement Association, to desegregate the Montgomery public bus lines, and Tuskegee’s Lee vs. Board of Education, to integrate all Alabama schools.

Dec 15

1939 - The Tuskegee Civilian Pilot Training Program started its first class with twenty (20) students. The class included eighteen (18) men and two (2) women. George L. Washington was the Tuskegee administrator. He recruited two (2) Alabama Polytechnic Institute (early name for Auburn University) engineering professors, B. M. Cornell and Robert G. Pitts, to give ground training for the first class. Joseph Wren, a white pilot in Montgomery, conducted the flight training at the Montgomery municipal airport. Nineteen (19) of the first class completed the training and became licensed pilots, even

though they had to endure a difficult 40 mile trip for each class. By Spring of 1940, the program improved the local airstrip, purchased planes and hired the Pennsylvania aviator, Chief C.A. Anderson to take charge of the training. Dec 16

1898 - President William McKinley visited Tuskegee Institute. McKinley was visiting Alabama and Georgia to gain support for the Treaty of Paris. While the trip was being planned Booker T. Washington visited President McKinley, in Washington, D.C., requesting that he include a visit to Tuskegee Institute. After several visits by Washington and some behind the scenes contacts by Tuskegee supporters, McKinley agreed to come. Atlanta was his first stop, and as Alabama Governor, Joseph F. Johnston waited in anticipation with the gathering 6,000 attendees, on Tuskegee’s Campus Avenue, another group showed up. The entire Alabama Legislature adjourned and came to Tuskegee Institute’s campus. Then President McKinley arrived with his family and members of his cabinet, and generals Joseph Wheeler, Henry Ware Lawton, and William Rufus Shafter, all aboard special trains. Booker T. Washington took the President on a tour of Tuskegee Institute, and then they were treated to a parade featuring the various departments of the school, religious, academic and industrial, and its goals in uplifting the black race. They then assembled in the Chapel and heard speeches by President McKinley and others in attendance. This was the first of more Presidential visits to Tuskegee.

Dec 17

1962 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir performed at the White House Christmas Tree Lighting ceremony, in Washington, D.C. The Choir were invited guests of the United States President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Relford Patterson was the Choir Director. 1954 - The Tuskegee Indonesia Project sent it’s first team to the country of Indonesia. The purpose of the project was to train the people in how to set up, operate and maintain the infrastructure materials left in the country

by the Dutch colonists. They had materials for telephone, telegraph, electricity, plumbing, and more, but no training in their installation or use. Tuskegee sent their instructors in the trades to act as “counterparts’. Each electrical instructor had an electrical trainee working with them, to both install, test and repair the electrical system. This pattern was used for each system in the country. The Tuskegee team left from New York by plane. The instructors stayed in Indonesia for 2 years training the local technicians. After a few month, the families of the Tuskegee team would join them for their remaining stay in the country. This allowed the family members to visit countries around the world. Tuskegee Institute was the first black college to receive an Agency for International Development contract. The contract included working in the countries of Indonesia and Liberia. 1957 - Alabama voters passed the Alabama Constitution Amendment 132, to abolish Macon County. The bill was introduced by Senator Samuel Englehardt, Jr., the Executive Secretary for the Alabama Association of Citizens Councils (a pro-segregation organization). Englehardt claimed he was on a crusade to “split Negro political power”. Macon County had 25,771 Negroes (84%) to 4,677 whites. He wanted to place portions of Macon County within the surrounding majority white counties, to break up the Negro voting power. The vote tallies were: 58,824 Yes; and 40,710 No. The Tuskegee Civic Association stated that this was a device to “maintain an undemocratic system of social relationships, a system that cannot be justified morally or politically”. Dec 18

1832 - Macon County was created by the Alabama Legislature, with lands from the cessation of the Creek Nation. The legislation prohibited the Creek Nation from hunting on the property where they previously lived. The county name was taken to honor Nathaniel Macon, a soldier and statesman of North Carolina. 1835 - Osceola led a group from the Creek Nation, who ambushed and killed Charley Emathala, a Seminole chief who advocated deportation to Oklahoma.

1912 - General Benjamin O. Davis Jr. was born, in Washington, D.C. He became the first Black to graduate from the West Point Military Academy, where he spent his entire four (4) years of matriculation in isolation. He was not able to speak or interact with any of the his fellow cadets. He later became the leader of the Tuskegee Airmen. 2014 - The “Selma” movie premiered at Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boynton Robinson’s home, on Amelia Boynton Robinson Avenue, in Tuskegee Institute. The producer and a film documentary team were present during the viewing, along with dignitaries from Selma, Alabama, including The Honorable Senator Hank Sanders and his wife. Dec 19

1892 - During the fall or winter, Robert Robinson Taylor arrived in Tuskegee Institute to teach architecture and building construction, and to design the campus buildings. Taylor was the first Black to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). Tuskegee Institute became known as the Southern M.I.T.

Dec 20

1956 - The Montgomery Bus Boycott ended. The Boycott was begun as a protest of Tuskegee’s Rosa Louise McCauley Parks arrest. She was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the Montgomery bus, to a white passenger, even though she was demanded to do so by the white bus driver, because of Jim Crow laws. 1966 - The suit challenging the Marvin Segrest trial being moved to Lee County was dismissed. The trial was originally to be held in the Macon County courthouse, however the defense argued Segrest would not be able to get a fair trial in Tuskegee. He was being tried for the murder of Freedom Fighter Samuel “Sammy” Leamon Younge, Jr. The suit was dismissed because the trial was over and Segrest had been acquitted from all charges.

Dec 21

1881 - Tuskegee Institute’s Porter Hall was completed for a cost of $6,000.00. This was the first building constructed on the new Institute campus, which was the former Bowen Plantation. It was made of wood and was constructed by the Tuskegee students. Porter Hall, at that time, became the administration building.

Dec 22

1916 - Dr. Deborah Juanita Cannon Partridge Wolfe was born, in Cranford, New Jersey. Her parents were Rev. David Wadsworth Cannon and Gertrude Moody. She had an older brother and an older sister. Wolfe would become the first Tuskegee Institute staff member to earn a doctorate. At 22 years of age, she would become the principal of 2 Macon County schools and the director for the Tuskegee Institute Rural Education Program.

Dec 23

1823 - Alabama Lt. Governor Robert F. Ligon was born in Watkinsville, Georgia. He later moved to Tuskegee and lived there with his family. 1945 - The Tuskegee Army Air Field Weather Cadet Wallace Reed left the Military to go to the Philippines, and become a Pan American Air meteorologist.

Dec 24

1934 - Dr. John A. Kenney donated his New Jersey Hospital to the local community, as a Christmas gift.

Dec 25

1901 - The Tuskegee Female College (established by the Methodist Church) fundraising campaign began this day, to raise money for a library and laboratory building. A total of $2,000.00 was raised by May 1902. This amount included a donation of $300.00 from Booker Taliafero Washington and his associates. However, this was not enough to cover the building, therefore the College President, Dr. John Massey (who served from 1876-1909) decided to move the college to Montgomery, Alabama. (Ellison p. 123) - from History of the Houghton Memorial Library 1854-1988.

Dec 26

1683 - James McQueen was born in Europe. He later traveled by ship to North America, and came to port in Savannah, Georgia. He lived in Georgia for a while, then he joined the Creek Nation in 1716, by marrying a Creek woman. He later became a Creek leader. James McQueen is father to Peter McQueen. Peter McQueen was father to Polly. Polly married a Copinger and gave birth to Billy Powell, who became the famous Seminole Warrior, Osceola. James McQueen lived to be 128 years old. He died and was buried in Franklin, Alabama, located just north of Tuskegee, Alabama.

Dec 27

1904 - Tuskegee Institute’s Archivist, Monroe Nathan Work married the former Miss Florence Hendrickson, in Savannah, Georgia. 1932 - The Tuskegee Institute Choir performed at the Music City Hall Inaugural Opening, in New York City, New York. Their performance was so well received, that they were held over for four (4) more weeks of performances. Dr. William L. Dawson was the Choir Director. 1983 - Macon County’s temperature registered 0 degrees F. This was the County’s coldest day on record.

Dec 28

1835 - Osceola led Seminoles to ambush, shoot and scalp Indian Agent General Wiley Thompson, along with four other whites, to prevent the deportation of Seminoles to an Oklahoma homeland. 1982 - Barbara Jean Mahone was selected by the Reagan Administration to be the first Black woman to chair the Federal Labor Relations Authority, in Washington, D.C. Barbara Mahone was born in Notasulga, Alabama. She attended the Shiloh Rosenwald School, and graduated from Notasulga High School. She earned her Bachelor’s in business from Ohio State University, and earned her Masters degree in Business Administration from the University of Michigan. Barbara began working at

General Motors in 1968. She worked in several positions, and reached the status of manager for industrial relations of the Packard Electric Division. At 36 years old, she became one of the first Black women to hold a policymaking personnel position with the General Motors Corporation. In preparing for the federal position, the March 21, 1983 issue of Jet magazine reported: “Barbara Jean Mahone dazzled members of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee when she testified recently in her bid to win confirmation for the position which would make her a key figure in policies relating to an estimated 2.8 million federal workes in the nation.� Mahone was one of the highest-ranking Black women appointed by President Ronald Reagan to jobs in the federal government. She succeeded Leon B. Applewhaite as member of the Labor Relations Authority. Barbara Mahone was the recipient of the 1976 Public Relations Award, from the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women Incorporatted. She also received the National Alliance of Businessmen Youth Motivation Task Force Award. Dec 29

1918 - The U.S. War Department selected Tuskegee Institute, to become the site for World War I Black Soldiers Vocational and Technology Training. Through this program, Tuskegee trained a total of 1,229 Soldiers in vocational skills.

Dec 30

1913 - Tuskegee Institute became one of the ten (10) founding members of the S.I.A.C. (Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference). This organization promoted and regulated athletic competition between Black colleges and universities.

1965 - Sammy Younge, Jr. worked in setting up and caring for those staying in Tent City in Lowndes County, Alabama. This project was conducted by Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) members to assist sharecropping families, that were evicted from their farms, because they registered to vote. The project set up tents for living space, food and assistance with employment. It was sponsored by the Lowndes County Black Panther Party, created to elect Black candidates to public office. Younge also met with Stokley Carmichael to discuss the possibility of creating a Macon County, Alabama Black Panther Party. Dec 31

1835 - Osceola planned the attack on U.S. General Duncan Clinch’s force of 1,000 troops on the Withlacooche River. With fewer warriors, Osceola won the battle and was injured. However, he escaped capture to continue guerilla warfare with the federal troops for two years, in the swamps of Florida. The swamp terrain, temperatures, humidity, insects, quicksand, wildlife, and distant taunting by the Seminole warriors, were a continual hindrance to the moral of the federal troops. The soldiers could not track the Seminoles, as they could other people in forests or in the prairies, so they could never locate where they were. The longer the federal troops stayed in the swamps, the less they accomplished, and the more victories were won by the Indian tribe.

References: Alabama Historical Quarterly Alabama in the Civil War Message Board American Tennis Association Beacon on the Hill a novel, by Linda Kenney Miller Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians Black Golfers Association Blacks at the Net: Black Achievement in the History of Tennis, by Sundiata A. Djata, 2006 Britanica Encyclopidia Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, by Walter Lynwood Fleming Confederate Veteran online Dictionary of Afro-American Performers Digital Commons, University of Nebraska at Lincoln Encyclopedia of Alabama Fisk University archives Gomillion versus Lightfoote, by Charles G. Gomillion Google Books online Historic Resource Study - Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site, Tuskegee, Alabama, by John W. Jenkins, June 1977. History of Alabama, by Albert James Pickett History of the Creek Nation: Early Development and the U.S., by Jeffrey R. Gudzune Hulton Archives Jet Magazine archive Journal of Daniel Bedinger 1811-1812 Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South, by Peter M. Ascoli Justice Stanley Mosk: A Life at the Center of California Politics, by Jacqueline R. Braitman and Gerald F. Uelmen The Legacy: A History of the Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine (1945-1995), by Eugene W. Adams Library of Congress Los Angeles Herald Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry 1890-1919, by Tim Brooks McIntosh and Weatherford: Creek Indian Leaders, by Benjamin W. Griffin Jr. Miscellaneous Documents, by 42nd Congress (Norris vs. Handley) National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race

National Park Service Neither Carpetbaggers Nor Scalawags: Black Officeholders During Reconstruction, by Richard Bailey New Georgia Encyclopedia Northwest District Magazine of the North Alabama Conference of the United Methodist Church, July - September, 2012 edition. Osceola’s Legacy, by Patricia Riles Wickman Ralph Ellison: A Biography, by Arnold Rampersad Reaping the Whirlwind, by Robert J. Norrell Red Stick Rebellion, by Jeffrey R. Gudzune Reconstruction in Macon County, Alabama Sammy Younge Jr.: The First College Student Killed in the Black Liberation Movement, by James Forman The Chicago Tribune archives The History of Alabama by Albert James Pickett The New York Age archives The Opelika News archives The Murder of Walter Gunn and the DOJ Effort to Prosecute His Killers, by Ruth Harper - Northwester School of Law, (Nov. 2014) The Southern Courier The Tuskegee News archives Tropical Animal Health and Production: A Systems View, edited by T. Habtemariam, W.C. Bowie, E.W. Adams (graphics by V. Robnett) Tuskegee, by Amalia K. Amaki and Amelia Boynton-Robinson Tuskegee Airmen, Tuskegee Airmen - 324 Fighter Group history for May 1944 Tuskegee Airmen - 99th Fighter Squadron history, June 1944; Maurer, Combat Squadrons of the Air Force and World War II Tuskegee Community Network Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site Tuskegee Macon County Community Foundation Tuskegee University Archives Tuskegee Virtual University of North Carolina Archives Up From History, by Robert J. Norrell Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial People, by Colin G. Calloway Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.

Macon County Firsts

Macon County, Alabama events and people that were first 1714

James McQueen (Scotland) was the first European to trade with the Creek Nation. He later married into the Nation and became a Creek Chief. He lived to be 128 years old, and is buried in Franklin, Alabama.


The first treaty between the United States government and the Native Americans was with the Creek Nation, which was located in Macon County, Alabama. This was initiated by President George Washington and Secretary of War, Henry Knox.


The first Methodist church representative to Alabama, Matthew Parham Sturdivant, made his first visit at LaPlace (Shorter), Alabama.


Judge William Parish Chilton established the first Alabama law school, with Attorney David Clopton. It was located in Tuskegee.


Tuskegee’s William Flank Perry became the first Alabama Superintendent of Education.


The Tuskegee Railroad was the first narrow gauge rail line in the southern United States.


Tuskegee Institute created the first brickmaking plant in Macon County, Alabama.


Tuskegee Institute opens the first YMCA in Macon County, Alabama.


Robert R. Taylor was the first black enrolled in Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).


Tuskegee Institute established the first HBCU musical marching band, the Tuskegee Normal School Brass Band.


Tuskegee Institute built the first clay tennis courts of any Alabama college, and was the first HBCU to have clay tennis courts.


Emmitt Scott established the first college tennis program in Alabama at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute.


Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson became the first female physician to practice medicine in Alabama, after passing the rigorous Alabama Medical Examination, that took 10 days. Her score was 78. She became the physician for Tuskegee Institute.


Tuskegee Institute developed the first Alabama architecture training program.


Tuskegee Institute became the first black institution to teach electrical engineering.


Tuskegee Institute was the first location in Macon County, Alabama to install an electric power plant, moving the campus from gas to electric power. This also provided electricity to the train depot on North Main Street and many homes in downtown Tuskegee.


Tuskegee Institute’s Chapel became the first Macon County building with electric lights.


Booker T. Washington built the Oaks, which was the first house in Macon County to have electricity.


George Washington Carver established the first weather station, in Macon County, at Tuskegee Institute.


Tuskegee Institute had the largest Alabama college student population, of any school in the state, with almost 800 students.


Margaret Washington became the first President of the National Association of Colored Women.

1897 02-15

George Washington Carver established the first Agriculture Experiment station at Tuskegee, through the Alabama Legislature.


Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. established the first Colored Nurses Training School at Tuskegee Institute.


Tuskegee Institute built the first colored hospital (Pinehurst) in Alabama. The hospital was administered and operated by black doctors and nurses, to treat Tuskegee Institute students and staff. It was funded with a donation from Mrs Bennett of New Haven, CT.


Ernest Davidson Washington and Charles G. Kelly established Alabama’s first tennis club.


Tuskegee Institute built the first electric power plant in Macon County.


Tuskegee Institute became the first location in Macon County with street lights, curbs and sidewalks.


William Henry Holzclaw (Tuskegee Institute graduate) opened Utica Institute, the first black college in Mississippi.


Booker T. Washington became the only Alabama college principal to have his own train cars.


Booker T. Washington became the first black person to be invited to the White House for dinner. He was invited by President Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt.


George Washington Carver’s Jessup Wagon was the first mobile teaching classroom in the Alabama Black Belt counties.

1906 Nov. 12

Thomas Monroe Campbell became the first Extension Agent in the United States of America.


Dr. John Kenney established the National Medical Association Journal.


George Washington Carver served the first all peanut-based meal to Southern farmers, to demonstrate products they could create from their over stock barns of peanuts, from a bounty created by Carver.


John A. Andrew Hospital opened to become the first black full service Hospital in the U.S.A. It was administered and operated by black doctors and black nurses.


Booker T. Washington authorized Monroe Nathan Work to establish the Negro Almanac, which became the first and only black created source for information on lynching to the Associated Press. It was eventually used exclusively to cover news on lynching in the U.S.

1912 07-15

Booker T. Washington partnered with Julius Rosenwald to establish over 5,000 elementary schools for blacks. This was the first ever wide scale building project for schools to serve black children.


Monroe Nathan Work established the first ever Negro Health Week.


George Washington Carver discovered over 100 products from the sweet potato.

1922 05-30

President Robert Russa Moton became the only black person to dedicate the Abraham Lincoln Memorial, when he spoke at it’s unveiling at Washington, D.C. He was also the first black to dedicate one of the monuments on the Mall in D.C.


The Tuskegee Veterans Administration Medical Center was the first black Veterans Hospital in the U.S.A. and it was administered and operated by black doctors and nurses.


Sadie P. Delany, the Veterans Administration Medical Center Librarian, was the first to treat military veterans with Bibliotherapy, or prescribing books to be read on various subjects to treat medical and psychological problems.


Lula Ballard won the National Tennis Association Doubles Championship, with Ora Washington as her partner. Their record wins would continue for 12 years. Ballard became the first nationally recognized athlete from Tuskegee, as the third most recognized, behind the first, who was Joe Louis.


Tuskegee Institute’s Alumni Bowl was dedicated, and became the first HBCU to have a football stadium. It was also the first Macon County College stadium and it held the first ever college Homecoming, in the County.


Tuskegee Institute, under the direction of Cleve L. “Major” Abbott, athletic director, became the first black college to build a 9-hole golf course. It was a 3,400 yard, par-35 facility about 3 miles from campus.


Tuskegee Institute hosted the first ever black college track and field relays. Created by Coach Cleve Abbott, the Tuskegee Relays for several years was the third largest track event in America.


Dr. John A. Kenney, Sr. opened the first black operated hospital in New Jersey.


The Southern Tennis Championship was inaugurated at Tuskegee Institute.


Chief C. Alfred Anderson became the first black pilot to obtain an Air Transport rating.


The Tuskegee Institute Choir performed at the opening of New York City Music Hall, with Martha Graham. They were held over for four (4) additional weeks of performances.


Chief C. Alfred Anderson and Dr. Albert Forsythe became the first blacks to conduct a transcontinental round trip flight.


Tuskegee hosts the first Men’s SIAC Basketball Tournament in Logan Hall, and won the championship game against Clark College 44-28.


Tuskegee Institute’s Athletic Director, Cleve L. Abbott creates America’s first National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament for high school boys and girls. (boys and girls had never competed before in the same tournament)


Tuskegee Institute’s Athletic Director, Cleve L. Abbott creates the first U.S. Women’s College Track program


East Macon County farmers move, to establish the Prairie Farms community, thus creating the first National Forest all located within one county.


Tuskegee Institute’s Athletic Director, Cleve L. Abbott has the first all-Black women’s track and field team to compete in the National Women’s Amateur Athletic Association Track and Field meet.


Mable Smith, of the Tuskegee Institute Tigerettes track team, became the first Black woman track star to win a national individual championship. She won the long jump with 18.0 feet.

1937 - 1953

Tuskegee students, Margaret and Matilda Roumaina, the Peters sisters, known as “Pete and Re-Pete” dominated tennis with fourteen (14) doubles championship wins.


Tuskegee Institute hosted the first ever black College Intercollegiate Golf Tournament, on the golf course on Franklin Road.


Booker T. Washington was the first black to be honored on a U.S. Postage Stamp.


Mozell Ellerbe became the first black male to win a national track meet at the Penn Relays.

1915 - 1925

George Washington Carver discovered over 300 products from the peanut.


The Tuskegee Institute Infantile Paralysis Center opened as the first of its kind globally, completely operated and directed by black professionals..

1941 02-01

Mildred Carter became the first black female to become a licensed pilot in Alabama. She was also the first woman to graduate from the Tuskegee Civilian Pilot Training Program.


Nurse Della Hayden Rainey becomes the first black to join the U.S. Army Nurses Corps. After joining, she was stationed at Fort Bragg. She would go on to become the first nurse assigned to the Tuskegee Army Air Field and was appointed the Chief Nurse over the base hospital. This was the first time a black nurse was placed over a military hospital.


George Washington Carver created an automobile part from the peanut.

1941 - 1942

Bess Bolden Walcott became the first black field director for the American Red Cross. She was director of the Tuskegee Institute chapter of the Red Cross.


Tuskegee Army Air Field established the first program to train black military pilots.


Chief C. A. Anderson became the first black pilot to fly a plane with a United States First Lady on board. His passenger was Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.


The Tuskegee Army Air Field established the first program to train black bomber pilots.


Dr. Myra Adele Logan became the first female physician to perform open heart surgery and the first black woman to join the American College of Surgeons.


The Tuskegee Institute Veterinary Medical School was founded by Frederick Douglas Patterson. It became the first and only HBCU veterinary medical school.


Hattie Turner of the Tuskegee Institute Tigerettes track team became the first African American woman champion of both the discus and the basketball throw.


Tuskegee Institute President, Dr. Frederick Douglas Patterson established the United Negro College Fund.

1945 0701

Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. became the first black officer to command a major military base (Godman Field, Kentucky).


Alfreda J. Webb began training, at the Tuskegee Institute School of Veterinary Medicine, to become the first black Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.


The Tuskegee Institute Choir became the first black group to perform in Constitution Hall, Washington, D.C.


Tuskegee Army Air Field Weather Cadet Wallace Reed became the first black to work for the Weather Bureau in the Philippines.


Tuskegee Institute track star, Alice Coachman, became the first black woman to win the gold medal in the Olympics. Also, during the Olympics, Coachman was the only American woman to be a gold medalist.


Theresa A. Manuel was the first African American woman to compete in the Olympics javelin throw. This took place at the London Olympics. Manuel, a Tuskegee graduate, was also the first African American woman, from Florida, to compete in the Olympics.

1948 09

Tuskegee Institute began the first Alabama bachelor’s degree program in Nursing.


Alice Coachman was the first black female athlete to be endorsed by commercial companies. She was spokesperson for Coca-Cola.


Carver National Park, in Missouri became the first national park dedicated to a black person in the United States.


Jessie P Guzman ran for Board of Education, and became the first black to run for a public office in Macon County.


Tuskegee Institute Coach Cleveland Abbott became the first AfricanAmerican college football coach to achieve 200 victories.


Tuskegee track star Nell Jackson became the first black female to be named Head Coach of a United States Olympic Team. Dr. Mildred Dixon became the first female podiatrist and the first black podiatrist to work full-time at a Veterans Administration hospital. She was also the first podiatrist in both Macon County and Tuskegee, Alabama. When she became a podiatrist, she was one of only twenty in the United States.


1957 12

The Alabama Legislature passed the Amendment No. 132, to be placed in the Constitution of Alabama, for Macon County to become the first Alabama county to be abolished.

1957 - 1961

The Tuskegee Merchant Boycott was the longest civil rights protest conducted in the United States.


Tuskegee Institute Post Office became the first black operated Post Office in Macon County, Alabama.


Tuskegee Army Air Field Weather Cadet Charles Anderson became the first black Meteorology PhD, while studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).


Dr. Charles G. Gomillion and Beulah Johnson established the first black political party in Alabama, the Democratic Conference.


James G. Charity became the first black Sheriff’s deputy in the state of Alabama. He was hired by Judge Preston Hornsby.


Two (2) graduates from the Tuskegee School of Nursing were the first blacks admitted to the graduate study program at Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia.


Tuskegee’s John Andrew Kenney, Jr. founded the post-graduate Dermatology Department, at Howard University.


Tuskegee’s Dr. Howard Washington Kenney became the first black medical director of the Veterans Administration Hospital, of East Orange, New Jersey.


Tuskegee High School becomes the first integrated public school in Alabama.

1963 09-02

The first students to integrate an Alabama segregated public school, were the Black students attending Tuskegee High School. These students included: Anthony Tilford Lee, Willie B. Wyatt Jr., Carmen Louise Judkins, Helois Elains Billis, Harvey Lynn Jackson, Janis Laverne Carter, Edith Elaine Henderson, Patricia Camille Jones, Shirley Jean Chambliss, Wilma Jean Jones, Marsha Marie Sullins and Robert L. Judkins Jr.


Macon Academy became the first of the white segregated county academy schools funded and promoted by the Alabama Governor George Cornelius Wallace.


Dr. Raymond Adams, Sr. performs the worlds first open heart surgery.


Queen Mother Amelia Platts Boynton was the first black woman to run for U.S. Congress, in the state of Alabama.


Tuskegee Institute student and U.S. Navy veteran, Sammy Leamon Younge, Jr. was the first black college student killed in the United States Black Liberation Movement.


Lucius Amerson became the first black southern Sheriff elected since Reconstruction.


Tuskegee Institute instructor, Frank Toland became the first black to be elected as Mayor-Pro-Tem of Tuskegee, Alabama.


Florence Talbert Trammell established the first college audio-visual lab in central Alabama, in the Hollis Frissell Library, on the campus of Tuskegee Institute.


Lucenia Williams organized the first Office of Financial Aid and Work-Study, at the Allegheny Community College, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She was also the first African American administer for a community college in Pittsburgh.

1972 04-11

Edward L. Pryce became the first licensed Landscape Architect in the state of Alabama.

1972 04

The Tuskegee Institute Golden Voice Choir became the first black choir to perform in Lincoln Center, New York City, New York. Roy E. Hicks was the Choir Director.


Johnny L. Ford, Jr. became the first black to be elected as Mayor of a town, in Macon County, Alabama.


Edward L. Pryce submitted the proposal that created the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site, the first National Site ever to include a college campus.


Lucenia Williams managed one of the first infant Day Care centers, in the United States. The Centers cared for babies 6 weeks to 3 years old. It was part of a longitudinal study, at the University of Pittsburgh.


The Tuskegee Institute Golden Voices Choir was the first college or university choir ever to be invited by the U.S. Strategic Air Command to give concerts at Air Force Bases in Maine, Michigan, Montana and North Dakota. Roy E. Hicks was the Choir Director.


Edward L. Pryce created the first Landscape Design Department at Auburn University.


Dr. Mildred Dixon established the first podiatry Residency Program, in the state of Alabama, at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Medical Center.


William “Bill” Clark established, through the Tuskegee Institute Human Resource Development Center (HRDC), the first tutorial program by an Alabama college, that provided phone call-in homework assistance for youth, by college instructors.


Dr. Howard Washington Kenney became the first black to achieve the position of Assistant Eastern Regional Medical Director, and Associate Deputy Chief for Policy, Planning, and Operations for Veterans Administration Central Headquarters, in Washington, D.C.


Daniel “Chappie” James became the first black four (4) star General in the U.S. military.

1976 04-12

Tuskegee established the first black chapter of the Optimist Clubs, International.


Lucenia Williams organized and managed the first certification program for Head Start teachers in the U.S. She was working in Jackson, Mississippi.


Edward L. Pryce became the first black American Society of Landscape Architects Fellow.


Guy R. Trammell Sr. became the first black Optimist International Lieutenant Governor, for the states of Alabama and Mississippi.


Lionel Richie was the first black artist to produce videos on MTV.


Dr. Ellis Hall, Sr. became the first African-American Board Certified Radiologist in the United States. Dr. Hall was an instructor at the Tuskegee Institute School of Veterinary Medicine.


Tuskegee University established the first and only Aerospace Engineering degree offered by an HBCU.


Dr. Tsegaye Habtemariam created the first ever Veterinary Scholar Workstation, at Tuskegee University.


Lionel Richie and Michael Jackson wrote and produced “We are the World”, the first song of its kind, sung by a host of musical recording stars, that is known and sung throughout the world.


Tom Joyner is the first Radio D.J. to operate daily in 2 urban markets.


Dr. Phil Loretan and Dr. Walter Hill conducted the first NASA sweet potato experiment in space, for Tuskegee University.


Theresa A. Manuel became the first African American woman to be inducted into the Tampa Sports Hall of Fame.


Tuskegee’s John Andrew Kenney, Jr. was named the “Master of Dermatology” by the American Academy of Dermatology - it’s highest honor.


Willie Mae Powell was elected to become the first black woman Mayor of a town in Macon County, Alabama.


Lucenia Williams Dunn was elected to become the first black woman Mayor of the city of Tuskegee, Alabama.


Daniel James III became the first black director of the United States Air National Guard.


Rosa Louise McCauley Parks became the first black woman to be laid in state, under the National Rotunda, in Washington, D.C.


Dr. Tsegaye Habtemariam, from Ethiopia, of Tuskegee University’s School of Veterinary Medicine, became the first African born dean in a United States college or university.


Attorney Tiffany Cole became the first female judge in Macon County, Alabama. She served as Judge over the Tuskegee Municipal Court.

2010 04

Dr. Mildred Dixon was the first female and first black American to be inducted into the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine Hall of Fame.

2010 06-22

Dr. Roberta Morris was selected as the Interim President, to become the first woman President of Tuskegee University.

2013 06

Dr. Lucenia Williams Dunn founded the first ever rural community foundation in the United States of America. The organization is the Tuskegee Macon County Community Foundation.


Dr. Carla Jackson-Bell became the first tenured female Tuskegee University Architecture Faculty member and only one of twelve tenured African American Female Architects.

2016 11-23

Lawrence “Tony” Haygood, Jr. became the first college president to be elected a Mayor in Macon County, Alabama.

2017 05-31

Dr. Roberta Morris was selected as the first second term Interim president of Tuskegee University.

2017 06-01

Dominique Cooper became the first black person from Alabama to become a contestant on the CBS television reality program “Big Brother”.

2017 06-21

Dr. Jacqueline Brooks became the first black female to be elected president of the State Superintendents of Alabama organization.

2018 05-08

Dr. Lily A. McNair was selected to become the 8th President of Tuskegee University and the first female President of Tuskegee University.

Stay Tuned! More to Come!

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Macon County 365  

The history of Macon County, Alabama for every day of the year.

Macon County 365  

The history of Macon County, Alabama for every day of the year.