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Joint Turkmen-Italian Archaelogical Mission in the Murghab Alluvial Fan (Turkmenistan) Report from October 13th to November 9th 2009 B. Cerasetti

The Ministry of Culture and TV Broadcasting of Turkmenistan and the Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient (IsIAO) conducted, under the direction of Prof. Mukhammed A. Mamedov and Dr. Barbara Cerasetti, the second campaign of the joint project in the Murghab alluvial fan from October 13th to November 9th 2009, according to the agreement signed in October, 22nd 2008. The research members, apart from the responsible directors, have been Prof. Bruno Genito and Dr. Maria D’Angelo of the University of Naples “L’Orientale”, Dr. Francesco Ghilotti of the University of Bologna. The main aim of the 2009 Autumn field season has been to obtain the scheme of nomad population, so called Andronovo culture, in the north-eastern part of the Murghab alluvial fan and to conclude the archaeological map of the fan, defining the eastern and northern limits of the settlement distribution. To achieve this aim, a systematic survey by eastern-western transects has been applied to obtain a complete and detailed observation of the area. During the season we had the possibility to visit different areas in the Caspian Sea, as the Cheleken area, the Jebel mountains and the mud vulcanous located along the eastern side of the sea along with Prof. Giovanni Gabbianelli of the University of Bologna and his team, under the agreement between the National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of Turkmenistan, under the direction of Dr. Paltamet Esenov, and the Integrated Geoscience Research Group (IGRG) of the University of Bologna. We had also the possibility to visit the area along the Karakum kanal, located 60 km to the west of the town of Kerki, close the modern centre of Karamet-Niyaz, and 200 km to the east of the town of Bayram-Ali. At the end of the season, the third visit will be focused in the Tedzhen alluvial fan to observe the area of Geoksyur site and to try to find the last traces of the Khapuz site, probably destroied by the modern agricultural works. The main aim of these visits was to establish the future plan of works to be made in different areas of Turkmenistan according to the permission of the Ministry of Culture and TV Broadcasting of Turkmenistan and the National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of Turkmenistan, in collaboration with the IsIAO and the University of Bologna.

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The surface survey of Takhirbai-Gonur area: the Bronze Age and Andronovo “Area of Interest� (AOI) The transect survey crossed a large area of the northern and north-eastern part of the Murghab alluvial fan, characterised by the presence of takyr and sand dunes covering the ancient landscape. The preliminary planning of the transects was made on the base of ASTER (2001) satellite images, particularly helpful to understand the area to survey suggested by the presence of palaeochannels and terraces along the ancient watercourses. Despite the fact that the resolution of the 2001 Aster image is not high, it is sufficient to clearly highlight the main characteristics of the arid landscape of the Murghab alluvial fan. By focusing on large takyr, generally characterized by palaeochannels, we returned outstanding results in terms of archaeological presence. Since the aim of this season's fieldwork is to understand different typologies of occupation, the quantitative results of our fieldwork will help systematically distinguish between different types of territorial exploitation, for example, agricultural fields, craft areas, open pastures and seasonal campsites. Our data will thus allow the first systematic comparison between different settlement typologies, as well as contribute to our comprehension of the relationship between sedentary farmers and nomad herders. The quantitative evaluation of the presence of nomad herders on the border of the agricultural occupation is fundamental to a better understanding the off-site area characterizing the landscape among the large Late Bronze Age (LBA) or Incised Coarse Ware (ICW) settlements. Furthermore, the methods employed during this season compliment those of previous campaigns. The transects were made mainly on foot; just some areas, as the zone to the east of the modern south-north canal running to Auchin, were visited by car because of the presence of high barkhan. The main aim was to establish the easternmost diffusion of the archaeological sites, which seems to be limited to the area to the west of the modern canal. All the data were recorded with a GPS unit, and detailed descriptions of the sites were always recorded in field notes. All the final data were included in the Geographical Information System (GIS), containing the archaeological map of the Murghab alluvial fan, and in the relative database in Acces format. During this campaign 11 transects were conducted, 5 to the east of the modern canal to Auchin, 1 to the south-east of Gonur and 5 to the north-east of Gonur.

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Overview of the transects (1994-2009). In blue, transects made during Autumn season on the base of 2001 Aster images

As already said, the transects to the east of the modern canal highlighted just the presence of few spots of pottery, probably transported from the western area by the wind and the movement of the high barkhan.

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Overview of transects 2009 with the distribution of the GPS points on the base of 2001 Aster images

Particularly interesting is the area located to the north-east of Gonur, partially analyzed by two grids during the June campaign.

Overview of the area to the north-east of Gonur, surveyed last June, on the base of 2001 Aster images

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The area is characterized by the presence of palaeochannels, but for the majority is covered by sand. The survey provided an interesting view of an exclusively pastoral landscape, consisting of seasonal campsites without stratified archaeological deposits and light agriculture. Anyway, along the transects A-B, C-D, E-F, G-H, I-L, M-N consistent ICW campsites were collected. Especially along the transect C-D a very complex site, dated to the Late Bronze Age but with a consistent presence of Andronovo culture, was collected. Approximately 500 m to the west were collected a compound of three ICW campiste of which, Site No. 1740, presents built-up areas.

Overview of the complex LBA-ICW archaeological compound to the east and ICW campsites to the west on the base of 2001 Aster images

Overview of the tepe Site No. 1681 of the LBA-ICW archaeological compound

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The archaeological area is composed by different EDA and LLDA areas related to a main tepe (Site No. 1681) and the area covered by the distribution of the pottery material is approximately 3 hectares large. This confirms the importance of this area for what concerns the presence of nomad culture and it suggests to revaluate the consistence of the Andronovo presence and the relation with the sedentary people. Until now we imagined this area as an exclusively pastoral landscape, consisting of seasonal campsites, but the data coming from the complex site visited at the end of the present campaign suggests a multifunctional and multistratified relation of nomad herders with the sedentary farmers. It is interesting to note that the LBA-ICW archaeological compound is along the same palaeochannel of the ICW Site No. 1557, located inside the grid surveyed last June. From the craft area of the compound, identified as Site No. 1685 with a location of a pottery kiln, come different stone tools among which one identified as a millstone, but particularly accurate in the shape.

Pottery kiln and stone tool from Site No. 1685

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Overview of LBA-ICW archaeological compounds and a detail of Site No. 1557 on the base of 2001 Aster images

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Visits in the Caspian Sea, Kerki area and Tedzhen alluvial fan Caspian Sea The trip to the Caspian Sea, for a total of four days, included the visits to the caves of Dam Dam Chesmeh and Jebelskaya Peshera in the Jebel mountains. The caves were already excavated in the past by TRUDY YuTAKE expedition and it was very interesting to see the status of the caves at the present. The visit to the caves, as in the rest of the east side of the Caspian Sea, was very important to plan a probable archaeological project in the area in collaboration with the Turkmen Authorities and the IGRC.

Overview of the caves in the Jebel mountains on the base of 1999 Landsat-5 image

The caves are located at 100 km from the east side of the Caspian Sea, approximately at an altitude of 200 m in the rock wall of the Jebel mountains, surveying a large valley. In the cave of Dam Dam Chesmeh is still possible to observe the limits of the trench and the archaeological deposit is well preserved.

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Overview of the cave of Jebelskaya Peshera in the Jebel mountains

Overview of the cave of Dam Dam Chesmeh in the Jebel mountains

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Archaeological trench inside the cave of Dam Dam Chesmeh

Really interesting was the trip to Cheleken area, because of the visit to an archaeological site located in a terrace close the Caspian Sea. We were not able to understand exactly the period on the base of pottery, but it is possible to date it approximately at the Bronze Age. The site is characterized by a large quantity of surface material, mainly pottery, shells and bones. It is very well preserved, but unfortunately a part of it fell down in the sea. We collected some samples for C14 analisies in Italy.

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Location of the archaeological site in the Cheleken area identified by number 059

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Overview of the archaeological site in the Cheleken area and its deposit

Kerki area The trip to the Kerki area allowed us to understand the actual situation of the territory along the Karakum Kanal. The aim was to understand if it is possible at present time to observe the ancient terraces along the Kelif Uzboj to collect pre-Bronze Age sites. Unfortunately because of the short time and the allowing facilities we were able just to visit the area close the modern centre of Karamet-Niyaz.

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Overview of the area along the Karakum Kanal on the base of Google Earth

Tedzhen alluvial fan The last trip we would like to do at the end of the season is in the area of Tedzhen alluvial fan to visit the complex of Geoksyur sites and to try to find the traces of the site of Khapuz-tepe to establish a probable work in the area.

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Overview of the Tedzhen area with Geoksyur 1 site in the red circle on the base of 1:200.000 topographical maps

Overview of the Tedzhen area with main archaeological sites (from Khlopin, I.N. (1964) Geoksyurskaya gruppa poselenij epokhi Eneolita. Moskva-Leningrad).

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Pottery Fragments from the Topographic Survey in the Murghab Alluvial Fan (1990-2009): a State of Art and a Proposal for a Future Research Strategy B. Genito and M. D’Angelo

Introduction Under the invitation of the Ministry of Culture and TV Broadcasting of Turkmenistan, and in agreement with the Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient (IsIAO) a small team from the Università degli Studi di Napoli, L’Orientale, composed by Prof. Bruno Genito and PHD student Dr. Maria D’Angelo, participated to the activities of the 2009 season. The work activities, nevertheless, were aimed at surveying the pottery remains coming from the 19 years-long topographic survey (1990-2009) in the Murghab alluvial fan, in order to plan a future research activity and achieve as many results and in the shortest time as possible, according to the following points: •

to analyse in details the quantity and the state of conservation of

the whole set of the pottery materials; •

to single out the best work strategies in processing the foreseen

large amount of the pottery fragments, according to an up to date methodological approach, which takes in consideration not only the typological and morphological aspects, but also the characters of the body clay identifying the fabrics of the fragments. As far as the first point is concerned at the moment the quantity of the material can only approximately be calculated, mainly because for the short time at disposal not all the wooden boxes have been opened and the fragments exactly counted; each of them, nevertheless, contain a clear still preserved and protected label with the indication of the site-provenance.

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The wooden boxes containing the material are as a whole 137; assuming as a possible average of the inner content 200 fragments c., the total amount of the ceramic fragments collected during the topographic survey can be 30.000 c. As far as the second point is concerned in order to adopt a precise and definite work strategy in the next year, one should take in account the differing methods of the field activities during the

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different phases of the topographical work conducted, and the consequent different ways and modes of pottery surface collection utilized. The following different phases of the field work, at that time utilized, can be shortly, thus, summarized: 1.

From 1990 to 1992, most part of the sites identified were

surveyed by a rather large group of people, walking and using traditional system of capillary recording: use of camion, auto, collecting large quantity pottery on the surface, both random and through transects, and site mapping process through topographic instruments as theodolite, total station etc.; 2.

From 1992 to 1994 the use of first rudimental type of GPS and

of more sophisticated survey processes (helicopter, aerial photos, remote sensing), determined a progressively reduced number of archaeologists working in the field, and a progressively increased number of sites to be daily recorded and less material to collect; 3.

From 1996 to 2009, including the short phases of small trial-

trenches opened at Adzhi Kui (1997) (Sandro Salvatori) at tepe Sites No. 173-174 (2001-2002) (Bruno Genito), and at Sites No. 1211, 1219 (2001-2002) (Maurizio Cattani), (2006-2007) (Barbara Cerasetti), the survey (2005-2009) was intensively conducted again with new and more fast approaches and methods (different types of GPS, establishment of a preliminary GIS, extensive use of different set of satellite imagery) (2004-2009) (Barbara Cerasetti), which led to have, at the present time more than 1500 sites registered. The state of the pottery documentation at disposal (graphic, photographic, database, inventories etc.) results particularly irregular and fragmentary. The work of Dr. G.B. Codini last year, furthermore, conducted mostly on the pottery from the excavation on the Takhirbai 1 represents, nevertheless, up to now a comprehensive approach to the analyses on the ceramic production of the area as far as it concerns an excavated site. The work of the team from Naples aims to start to process the ceramic production from the survey, taking in the due consideration the preliminary results on the individuation of different fabrics and on the morphological and typological aspects made by Codini. The analyses and the processing done in the visit on 5518 fragments coming from the following Sites No. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, - 17 -


58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 107, 116, 117, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, P2, P 19, PN 10, PN 14, PN 17, PN 20, PN30, PN 36, have been organized in the following different steps: •

recording of the fragments (un-diagnostic, when possible; diagnostic, drawn and/or

only numbered), within a relational database in Access format; •

identification of some pottery classes;

recognition and analysis of different typologies of fabrics;

removal and re-location of the examined fragments within numbered boxes (from No. 1 to

No. 28), with a new label distinguishing in time in different boxes the drawn and numbered fragments from the un-numbered. At the moment a morphological typology has not been propose, with the exception of a preliminary distinction in closed (jars, and small jars, cylindrical/cone-vessels, beakers ?) and open forms (basins, semi globular bowls, carinated basins, cups, carinated cups, beakers ?). Pottery Classes

One probably class of possibly coarse ware (partly hand-made) is that represented by the fragments produced in fabrics No. 4.1, 4.2, 7., 7.1, followed by those in fabrics No. 8. and 9., with smaller grit tempered material; their chronological horizon should still be detected by now. As a preliminary suggestion one can also give evidence of some fabrics, as No. 2., 2.1, 2.3. 2.4, 1.2, 1.2a, most probably belonging to a post IA 3 horizon, perhaps Parthian/Sasanian period and early Islamic as well, which can be also recognized within fragments of fabrics No. 1.2 and 1.2a, generally belonging to IA 2 and IA 3 period. This mostly wheel-made pottery is mainly constituted by a ware utilized for open forms as large

and medium size basins, semi globular cups, carinated cups and beakers (fabrics No. 1.2, 1.2a., 1.3, 1.4, 1.5) and closed forms as globular, cylindrical and cylindrical-conical jars and different types of small jars too (fabrics No.1.2, 1.2a., 1.3, 1.4, 1.5). This class presents a characteristic reddishyellowish slip and it is a typical standardized ceramic production with types of similar morphological and functional characteristics. No any cooking ware has been furthermore up to now identified.

Fabrics The main aim of the activity of this year has been the definition of the differing fabrics. All the material examined has been submitted to a scrutiny and subdivided on the basis of the inner - 18 -


composition and of the eventual presence of a slip. Since in this moment one has been based only on an macroscopic examination of the fragments, every little difference inside the body clay has been registered. Only the future analysis in laboratory, will establish the exact chemical and mineralogical composition and the cooking temperature, in order to investigate the petrographic composition, and to give the most significant information about the origin of the prime materials and of the productive methods. 22 types of different fabrics have been sampled for a total (including different samples for each one) of 66 fragments. For the detailed description of the samples see below and figures.

List of Fabrics (1990 - 2009 survey) Fabric 1.1 Almost hard and compact body clay, slightly irregular fracture, medium and small holes, very small white brilliant inclusions, medium frequency. Very high frequency of small opaque white inclusions. Large mouthed jars, carinated basins, carinated bowls. Inner colour: 2.5 YR 6/8 or 5 YR 7/6. Slip 10 YR 8/2-3. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0452 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 367, Inventory No. 0823 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0451 Sample 4: Site No. 47, 1990, square 33, Inventory No. 0444

Fabric 1.2 Hard and compact body clay, slightly irregular fracture, low frequency of middle sized elongated holes and medium frequency of small holes, medium frequency of very small white brilliant inclusions (sometime holes are not present in fracture). Carinated basins, jars, necked jars, cylindrical jars, cylindrical-conical bases. Inner colour: 2.5 Y 8/4 or 5 YR 7/6-7/4-8/4 or 10 YR 6/2 or 7.5 YR 8/6. Slip: 5 YR 8/2-3 or 7.5 YR 8/2-7/3. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 47, Inventory No. 0453 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 37, Inventory No. 0822 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, square 37, Inventory No. 0807 Sample 4: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0471 Sample 5: Site No. 49, 1993, Inventory No. 7863

Fabric 1.2a Compact body clay, quite regular fracture, medium density of very small rounded holes, low density of big holes. Medium density of small white brilliant inclusions. In some cases high frequency of very small opaque white inclusions. Cups, carinated cups, small beakers/bowls, small jars. Inner colour: 5 YR 7/6 or 10 YR 8/4 or 7.5 YR 7/6. Slip: 10 YR 8/3 or 7.5 YR 8/4. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 7, Inventory No. 0011? Sample 2: Site No. 38, 1990, square 83 Sample 3: Site No. 38, 1990, square 38 - 19 -


Fabric 1.3 Hard and compact body clay, regular fracture, small and medium holes, low frequency; very small white brilliant inclusions, low frequency. High or medium frequency of small (also medium, low frequency) opaque white inclusions. Carinated cups and small jars, small cylindrical-conical vessels. Inner colours: 2.5 YR 6/6 – 5 YR 7/8. Slip 10 Yr 8/4. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0681 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 81?, Inventory No. 0066

Fabric 1.4 Hard and compact body clay, slightly regular fracture, medium density of small and medium holes (elongated and rounded shapes). Very small white brilliant inclusions, low frequency. Medium frequency of medium size opaque white inclusions. Small jars, small cups (burnished). Inner colour: 2.5 YR 6/8. Slip: 7.5 YR 8/4. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0483 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 29, Inventory No. 0460 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, square 5, Inventory No. 0065

Fabric 1.5 Compact body clay, slightly irregular fracture; no inclusions, small and medium holes, elongated and rounded shapes, medium frequency. Sometimes big rounded holes are present. Low frequency of small white brilliant inclusions. Small jars. Inner colour: 7.5 YR 8/6. Slip: 7.5 YR 8/4. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 34 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 34 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, square 34

Fabric 1.6 Compact body clay, quite regular fracture, small opaque white inclusions, medium frequency; very low density of medium and irregular opaque white inclusions; low density of medium holes, of elongated and rounded shape, no white brilliant inclusions. Pottery discs, cups, jars. Inner colour: 7.5 YR 7/6 or 5 YR 7/6. Slip: 5 YR 8/2-3 or 10 YR 8/3. Sample 1: Site No. 37, 1990, square B Sample 2: Site No. 37, 1990, square B Sample 3: Site No. 37, 1990, square B Sample 4: Site No. 37, 1990, square B Sample 5: Site No. 37, 1990, square B

Fabric 2 Very hard and compact body clay, quite regular fracture. Medium frequency of small holes. Low frequency of small white brilliant inclusions. Jars, jugs. Inner colour: 2.5 YR 8/4 or 2.5 Y 8/2 or 7.5 YR 8/4. Slip: 10 YR 8/3 or 5 Y 8/2-4. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0462 Sample 2: Site No. 39, 1990, square 16 Sample 3: Site No. 49, 1993, Inventory No. 7597 Sample 4: Site No. 49, 1990, Inventory No. 0018 - 20 -


Sample 5: Site No. 40, 1990, Inventory No. 0663 Sample 6: Site No. 40, 1990, Inventory No. 0019 Sample 7: Site No. 40, 1990, Inventory No. 0404 Sample 8: Site No. 40, 1990, Inventory No. 0013 Sample 9: Site No. 40, 1990 Sample 10: Site No. 56, 1990, square 14, Inventory No. 1032

Fabric 2.1 Very hard and compact body clay, dusty, almost regular fracture, very low density of light brown and dark grey inclusions, low density of very small and small rounded holes. Big jars. Inner colour: 5 Y 8/2-3. Slip: 5 Y 7/2-8/2. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, Inventory No. 0723 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, square 38

Fabric 2.2 Hard and compact body clay, slightly rough in fracture. Very few and small holes, very few and very small white brilliant inclusions. Close shapes probably used for carrying water, walls decorated with circular parallel incised lines. Inner colour: 5 Y 8/1. Slip: 5 Y 6/3. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 16

Fabric 2.3 Hard and compact body clay, very slightly rough in fracture. Very few and very small holes, very rare middle sized reddish inclusions and very rare whitish inclusions. Jars with flat bases and jars with ring (?) shaped bases. Inner colour: 2.5 Y8/2 or 5 Y 8/2. Slip: 5 Y 8/3. Sample1: PN 2, 1995, 10 Sample 2: P2, 1995, 18

Fabric 2.4 Very hard and compact body clay, very rough in fracture, very rare small holes, low frequency of medium size holes; medium frequency of very small white brilliant inclusions. Conespherical vessels. Inner colour: 5 Y 6/2. Slip: 5 Y 6/1 Sample 1: PN 2, 1995, 14

Fabric 3 Hard and compact body clay, quite regular fracture, very low frequency of medium holes (rounded, elongated and irregular shapes); medium frequency of small holes; low frequency of white brilliant inclusions. Jars. Inner colour: 10 YR 8/4 or 7.5 YR 8/6. Slip: 5Y 8/4 Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 20, Inventory No. 0153 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990

Fabric 3.1 Very hard and compact body clay, quite regular fracture, rough texture. Medium density of elongated holes. Medium frequency of small white brilliant inclusions. Cups, open shapes. Glazed. Inner colour: 5 YR 8/2-4 or 10 YR 8/4 and 5Y 8/1.

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Sample 1: PN 2, 1995, 4, under-glaze painted with brown, dark and light green (cup); Sample 2: PN 2, 1995, 8, under-glaze painted with light green (fragmentary base of open shape).

Fabric 4.1 Extremely rough and hard body clay, presence of different kinds of angular inclusions (10 R 6/8), of medium and big dimensions. Low frequency of small white brilliant inclusions, low density of small (rounded shapes) holes, medium density of medium and big holes (irregular shapes). Medium and big pots and horizontal (like ear-shaped) handles. Inner colour: 10 R 6/8 or 5 YR 8/1. Slip: 7.5 YR 8/2 or 5 YR 8/4 or 5 YR 8/2. Sample 1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 3 Sample 2: Site No. 47, 1990, square 37 Sample 3: Site No. 47, 1990, square 37 Sample 4: Site No. 47, 1990 Sample 5: Site No. 38, 1990 Sample 6: Site No. 38, 1990, square 36 Sample 7: Site No. 38, 1990, square 56 Sample 8: Site No. 46, 1990, Inventory No. 0006 Sample 9: Site No. 38, 1990, square 22

Fabric 4.2 Very hard and compact body clay, very rough texture, irregular fracture, medium frequency of small and medium elongated and rounded inclusions: low frequency of small white brilliant inclusions; low frequency of small and medium holes, sometime of big size. Big pots with earshaped handle. Inner colour: 7.5 YR 8/4-6 or 7.5 YR 4/0 or 7.5 YR 6/11. Slip: 7.5 YR 7/6-6/4 or 5 Y 8/1 or 10 YR 5/1. Sample1: Site No. 47, 1990, square 33 Sample 2: Site No. 40, 1993, Inventory No. 7507 Sample 3: Site No. 46, 1990, Inventory No. 0415 Sample 4: Site No. 39, 1993

Fabric 5 Hard and very compact body clay, very regular fracture. High frequency of very small and small grey, black, light reddish and whitish inclusions, low density of very small and small elongated and rounded holes. Necked jars. Inner colour: 5 Y 5/3. Slip: 2.5 Y 8/2-7/2. Sample 1: Site No. 38, 1990, square 11, Inventory No. 0012

Fabric 6 Hard and compact body clay, quite regular fracture, high frequency of small and medium dark grey, opaque white and black inclusions; high density of light brown inclusions. Close shapes. Inner colour: 2.5 Y 6/2. Slip: 7.5 YR 7/6. Sample 1: Site No. 49, 1993

Fabric 7 Hard and compact body clay, very irregular fracture. Salty or calcareous remains (white colour) which cover the whole surface, small and medium light grey inclusions. Low density of small white brilliant inclusions. Low density of big circular and elongated holes. Big jar with flaring rim. Inner colour: 2.5 YR 6/6 or 5YR 7/6. Slip: 5YR 8/3. - 22 -


Sample 1: Site No. 56, 1990, Inventory No. 0979 (13956)

Fabric 7.1 Hard body clay, irregular and rough fracture. Very thin salty or calcareous remains (white colour) which cover the whole surface, small and medium light grey inclusions, low density. Low density of small white brilliant inclusions. Low density of big irregular holes. Inner colour: 5 YR 7/6. Slip: 5 YR 8/3-6/3. Sample 1: Site No. 41, 1990, Inventory No. 0379 Sample 2: Site No. 41, 1990

Fabric 8 Hard and compact body clay, regular and rough fracture. Medium density of whitish and dark grey inclusions of small and medium size; low density of small elongated and rounded holes. Necked jars. Inner colour: 10 R 6/8 and 2.5 YR6/4. Slip: 10 R 5/6. Sample 1: Site No. 62, 1990, Inventory No. 1135 Sample 2: Site No. 215, 1993, Inventory No. 8384 (13763)

Fabric 9 Hard body clay, irregular and very rough fracture. Medium density of middle and large size whitish and brownish inclusions. Low density of medium size black inclusions. Very low density of small and medium holes. Close shape, probably tile. Inner colour: 5YR7/4 and 2.5 YR 6/8. Slip: 5 YR 8/4 Sample 1: Site No. 111, 1992

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APPENDIX. List of the archaeological material from the campaign 2009 stored by the National Historical Park “Ancient Merv” under the supervision of the “Ministry of Culture and TV and Radio Broadcasting of Turkmenistan”

Inventory of collected material Campaign M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09

Site No. 1741 1746 1740 1673 1742 1734 1726 1723 1730 1702 1722 1739 1659 1745 1621 1603 1635 1633 1662 1598 1637 1671 1630 Kerki Area-

Bags 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Note potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd adobe potsherd potsherd adobe potsherd potsherd

M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09

Islamic Site 1652 1660 1632 1667 1582 1661 1629 1630 1583 1700 1726 1722 1709 1726 1633 Kerki Area

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

potsherd potsherd potsherd adobe potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd adobe potsherd potsherd stone potsherd potsherd

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M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09 M09

1631 1701 1736 1740 1737 1677 1644 1685

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

potsherd potsherd potsherd adobe potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd

M09 M09 M09 M09 M09

1681 1681 1684 1682 1746 TOTAL: 55 BOXES

2 1 1 1 1

(random survey) potsherd potsherd potsherd potsherd

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Report 11 2009 Turkmenistan