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Focus on Headinq and lUritinq

High Intermediate

Andrew K. ~nqlish Laura Hanahan ~nqlish SIHIES EDITORS

frances Boyd Carol Humrich

~LONGMAN


NorthStar: Focus on Readin g and Wriling, High Inrerrnedia rc

Š 199 8 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved . N o part of this pu blicatio n may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system , or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechan ical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without th e prior permission of the publisher. Addison Wesley Longman, 10 Ban k Street, White Plains, l'\Y 10606 Edito rial directo r: Allen Ascher Senior acq uisitio ns editor: Louisa Hcllcgcrs Directo r of design and productio n: Rhea Banker Development editor: Penny Laporte Production man ager: Ma rie Mctcamara Managing editor: Linda Mose r Senior production editor: Lynn Conrrucci M an ufactu ring supervisor: Edith Pullman Pho to resea rch: Diana Non Cover design: Rhea Banker Cover illustration: Robert Delaunay's Circular Forms, Sun No. 2, 1912 -1913. Gira udoniArt Resource, NY. L&M Services B.V. Amsterdam 970902 Text design and composition: Delgado Design, Inc. Text credits : See page xiii Phot o and art credits: See page xiv Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data English, Andrew K.

Norch'ear : Focus on reading and writing , high intermediate/Andrew K. English, Lau ra Monahon English p.

em. - (NorthStar!

ISBN 0-20 1-84669- 1 (pbk.) L English language-Text boo ks for foreign spea kers. 2. Reading comprehension-Problems, exercises, ere. 3. Report wr itingPro blems, exercises, etc. I. English, Andrew II. "ide III. Series. I'E112 8.E58 1998

428. 6'4----dc21 1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 l Q-Rlli-03 02 01 0099 98

97-4326 1

CIP


Fo r our parents who ra ised us with boo ks an d for ou r litrle masterpiece of calipedia, Sam.


Introd uction

1

U NTRUTH A ND CO N SE Q UE N C ES Theme: Media Reading O ne: Peeping Tom Journalism, Nancy Day Reading Two : Focus on Bomb Suspect Brings Tears and a Plea, Rick Bragg Grammar: Passive Voice Style, Topic Sentences

CRIME AND PUN IS H ME NT Theme: J ustice Reading One: Crimebusting: \Vhat Works? Methods of Punishing. John Di Consiglio, James Anderson, and Pat ricia Smith Reading Two: Michael Fay's Caning, Sarah Fenske and Tram Kim Ngu yen Grammar: Gerunds and Infinitives Style: The Three-Parr Paragra ph

DYING FOR THEIR BELIEF S Theme: Medicine Reading O ne: Dying for Their Beliefs: Christian Scientist Parents on Trial in Girl's Death, Jeffrey Good Reading Two: No rman Cousins's Laugh Therapy Grammar: Past Unreal Cond itiona ls Style: Opi nion Essays

6 11

17 21

27

32 38 43 47

55

59 63 68 71

v


•

CON TE N TS

THE CALM A FTER TH E STORM T heme: Na tu ral Disasters Readin g O ne: M y First Night A /on e in th e Caribbean, Ga briel Garcia Ma rquez Reading Two: The Story of an Eyewitness, Jack London Grammar: Identifying Adjective Clauses Style: Descriptive Writing

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE Theme: Conservation Reading O ne: St. Paul Couple Give Com pos ting a Worm Welcome, Chuck Haga Reading Two: Eartb ship Hom es Catch O ld Ti res on Rebound, Eva f erguson Grammar: Advisab ility and Obligation in the Past

Style:

Cause and Effect

GIVE AND LEARN Theme: Philant hrop y Readin g One: j ustin Lebo, Phillip Hoose Readin g Two: Ma ndato ry Volunteering Gra mmar: Tag Q uestions Style: Punctuat ion

HOMING IN ON EDUCATION T heme: Education Reading One : Teaching at Hom e Hits Ne w High with Internet, Dor othy l .epko wska Reading Two: The Flat They Had, Isaac Asimov Grammar: Direct an d Indirect Speech Style: Concess ions

77

80 84 89 93

97

101 106 112

115

123 127 134 14 2 145

15 1

155 159 167 172


CONT ENTS . .

I I

WE'VE COME A lONG W A Y Theme: Space Reading One: First in Space, Alan Shepard and Dcke Slayton Reading Two: Pink Socks and [ello, Shannon Lucid Phrasal Verbs Gra mmar: Style: Chronological Order-Expre ssing lime

THE GRASS IS AL W A YS GR EEN E R Th eme: Immigration Reading One: Poor Visitor, Jam aica Kincaid Reading Two: Nosta lgia. Virgilio Davila Gra mmar: Past Perfect Style: Comparisons and Contras ts

I

TAKE IT OR lE A VE IT Theme: Technology Reading One: Inside the House, Bill Gates Reading Two: Th oreau's Home. Heney David Thoreau Grammar: Futur e Progressive Style: Outlining Answer Key

179

184 190 198 201

207 211

217 222 226

231 237 242

247 252

259


N orthSta r is an innovative four-level, integrated skills series for learners of English as a Second or Fo reign Language. T he series is divided into two strands: listening/speak ing and read ing/writing. There arc four books in each strand, ta king students fro m the Basic to the Advanced level. Th e two books at eac h level exp lore different aspects of the same contemporary themes, which allows for reinforcement of both vocabulary and grammatical struc tures. Each stran d and each book can also functi on independentl y as a skills co urse built on highinterest thematic con tent. N orthStar is designed to work alongside Addis on Wesley Longman 's Focus on Grammar series, and stu dents ar e referr ed directly to Focus on Grammar for furthe r pra ctice and derailed gra mma tical explanations. N orthStar is wr itten for students wit h academic as well as perso nal language goal s, for those who want to learn English while exploring enjoyable, intellectual ly challe nging themes.

NORTHS TAR'S PURPOSE The NorthStar series grows out of our experience as teachers an d curriculum designers, curre nt researc h in second -lang uage acquisition

an d peda gogy, as well as ou r beliefs abo ut language teach ing. It is based on five principles. Principle O ne: In lang uage learni ng, making meaning is all-imp ortant. Th e more pro fou ndly stu dents arc stimulated intellectually and emotionally by wha t goes on in class , the more language they will use an d retai n. One way that classroom teachers ca n engage stu dents in ma king mea ning is by organ izing lang uage study thematically. We ha ve tried to identify themes tha t arc upto -date, sop histicated, an d varied in tonesome lighter, some more serio us---on ideas and issues of wide concern. T he forty themes in NorthStar provide stimulating to pics for t he readings and the listen ing selections, including wh y people like dangerous sports, the effect of food on mood , an O lympic swimmer's fight against AIDS, experimental punishments for juvenile offenders, people's relationships wit h their cars, phi lant hropy, emotional intelligence, privacy in th e workplace, and the influence o f ar ts education on bra in develo pment. Each corresponding unit of the integrated skills books explores two distinct topics related to a single theme as the chart belo w illust rates.

T heme

Listening/S peak ing Topic

Reading/Writing Topic

Insects

Offbeat professor fails at breeding pests, then reflec ts on expefJence

Extract adapted Kafka's "The

Shyness, a personal and cultural view

Definition of, criteria for, success

Personality

M etamorphosis"

ix


•

I N TR OD U C TI O N

Principle Two: Second-language learn ers, particularly adults, need and want to learn both the form and content of the language. To accomplish this, it is useful to integrate language skills with the study of gra mma r, voca bulary, an d American culture. In N orthStar, we have integrated the skills in two stran ds: listening/speaking and readi ng! writing. Furth er, each thematic unit integrates the study of a grammatical point with related vocabulary an d cultural information. When skills are integrated, languag e use inside of the classroom more closely mimics lan guage use outside of the classroo m. This mot ivates students. At the same time, the focus can shift back and forth from what is said to how it is said to the relat ionship between the two . Stu dents are apt to use mo re of the ir senses, mo re of themselves. W hat goes on in the classroom can also ap peal to a greater variety of learn ing styles. Gra dually, the integra ted-skills approach narrows the gap between the ideas and feelings students wa nt to express in speaking and writing and their present level of English proficiency. The link between the listening/speaking and read ing/w riting strands is close enough to allow students to explore the th emes and review gram mar and reinforce vocabulary, yet it is dist inct enough to susta in th eir inte rest. Also, language levels and gra mma r point s in N orthStar are keyed to Add ison Wesley Long man's Focus on Grammar series. Prin ciple T hree: Both teachers an d students need to be active learn ers. Teachers mu st enco urage students to go beyond whatever level they have reached. With this principle in mind, we have tr ied to make the exercises creative, active, and varied. Several activities call for considered opinion an d critic al th inking. Also, the exercises offer students man y opportu nities for individual reflectio n, pair- and small-grou p learn ing, as well as out-of-class assignment s for review and research. An answer key is printe d on perfo-

rate d pages in the back o f each book so the teacher or st udents can remove it. A teacher's man ual, w hich accompanies each boo k, features ideas and tips for tailoring the mat erial to individual gro ups o f students, planning the lessons, managing t he class, and assessing st udents' progress. Principle Four: Feed back is essential for language learn ers and teachers. If students are to become better able to express themselves in English, they need a response to both w hat they are expressing and how they are ex pressing it. N orthStar's exercises offer multiple opport unities for oral and writte n feedback from fellow students and from the teacher. A number of open-ended op inion and in ference exercises invite students to share and discuss their answers. In info rmation gap , fieldwork, an d presentatio n activities, students mu st prese nt and solicit informatio n and op inions fro m their peers as well as members of their communities. Throughout these activities, teachers may offer feedback on the for m and content o f stude nts ' lang uage, sometimes on the spot and sometimes via audio/video recordings or no tes. Principle Five: The quality of relationship s among the students and between the students and teache r is impo rtant, particularly in a language class where stude nts arc asked to express themselves on issues and ideas. The infor mation and act ivities in No rthStar promote gen uine interaction, acceptance of differences, and au thentic communication. By buildin g skills and exp loring ideas, t he exercises help students participat e in discussions and write essays of an increasingly more complex and sophisticated na ture.

DESIGN OF THE UNITS For cla rity and ease of use, the listening/speaking and read ing/writing str ands follow the same unit outline given below. Each unit contains from 5 to 8 hours o f classroo m material. Teachers can customize the units by assigning


I NTROD U CT IO N . .

some exercises for homework and/or skipping others. Exercises in sect ions 1- 4 are essential for comprehens ion of the to pic, while teache rs may want to select among the act ivities in sections 5- 7.

Activities ask students to explicitly relate the two pieces, consider consequences, distinguish and express points of view. In the se exercises, students can attain a deeper und ersta nding of the topic.

1. Approaching the Topi c A warm-up , these activities intro duce students to the general context for listening or reading and get them personally co nnected to the to pic. Typically, stude nts might react to a visual image, describe a personal experience, or give an opinion orally or in writing.

5. Reviewing Language These exercises help students explore, review, and play with language from both of the selections. Using the thematic con text, st udents focus on language: pronu nciat ion, wo rd forms, prefixes and suffixes, word do mains, idiom atic exp ressions, analogies. The listening/speaking str and stresses oral exerc ises, while the reading/writing strand focuses on wr itten respon ses.

2. Preparing to Listen/Preparing to Read In this section, students are introduced to information and language to help them comprehend th e specific ta pe or text they will stu dy. Th ey might rea d and react to a paragrap h framing the topic, prioritize facto rs, or take a general-knowledge quiz and share inform ation . In the vocab ula ry section, students wo rk with words and exp ression s selected to help them with co mprehension . 3. Listening OnelReadin g One Th is sequence of four exercises guides students to listen or read wit h understa nding and enjoy ment by practicing the skills of (a) predictio n, (b) comprehension of main ideas, (c) co mprehension of deta ils, and (d) inference. In activities of increasi ng deta il and co mplexity, stude nts learn to grasp and interpret meaning. The sequence culminates in an inference exercise that gets stu dents to listen and read between the lines. 4. Listening Two/ Reading Two Here stude nts work wit h a tape or text that builds on ideas from the first listening/reading. Th is second ta pe or text contrasts with the first in viewpoint, genre , and/or tone.

6. Skills for Expression Here students practice related gramma r poin ts across the theme in both topi cs. The gra mmar is practiced o rally in the listening/speaking stra nd , and in writing in the reading/wr iting stran d. For addi tio nal pracrice, teachers can turn to Addison Wesley Longman's Focus on Grammar, to wh ich NorthStar is keyed by level and grammar points. In the Style section, students pract ice functions (listening/speaking) or rhetorical styles (reading/writing) th at prepare them to express ideas on a higher level. With in each unit, students are led from controlled to freer practice of productive skills. 7. O n Your O wn Th ese activities ask students to apply the content, language, grammar, and style they have pra cticed in the unit. The exercises elicit a higher level of speaking or writing than st udents were capa ble o f at the start of the unit. Speak ing topics include role plays, surveys, presentations, and experiments . Writing topics include paragr aphs, lette rs, summaries, and academic essays.


•

I N T R O D U C TI O N

In Fieldwork, th e second part of On Your Own, students go outside of th e classro om, using their know ledge and skills to gather data from person al interviews, librar y research , and telephone or Internet research. They report and reflect on th e data in oral or written presentati on s to th e class .

AN INVITATION We think of a good rexrbook as a mu sical score o r a movie script: It tells you the moves and ro ughly how quick ly an d in wha t sequence to make them. But until yo u an d you r stu dents bring it to life, a hook is silent an d static, a mere possibility. We ho pe tha t NorthStar orients , guides, and inte rests yo u as teachers. It is our hope th at the NorthStar series stim ulates yo ur srudcnrs' thinking, wh ich in (urn stimulates th eir langu age learni ng, and th at the >' will have man y o pport un ities to reflect on th e viewpo ints o f jou rnalists, commenta to rs, researchers, ot her students , and people in th e community. furth er, we hope th at No rthStar gu ides th em to develop the ir own viewpo int on th e many and varied th emes encompassed by thi s series. We welcome your comments and questions. Please send them to us at the publisher: f rances Boyd an d Caro l Numr ich, Edito rs N orthStar Add ison Wesley Longman 10 Bank Street Wh ite Plains , N Y 10606-1 951 o r, by e-ma il at : aw /eh @awl.com

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Writing a textb oo k, as with any writing process, is a process filled with peak s, valleys, and roads leading to territories unknown . Fortunat ely \v¡e had wonderful guides throughout this process whose expertise and creativity are wov en into every page o f thi s boo k. To th ese peopl e we owe great th ank s. First, to Allen Ascher for bringing thi s project to us and having confidence in us. Second, to Carol N umrich, our sage, for her outstanding patience, ex pertise, and most impo rtantly her unending suppo rt and enthusiasm. Words truly cannot express wh at a joy an d privilege it wa s to work wit h her. Third, to ou r editor Pen ny Laporte for her humor in th e late stages of editing (when humor is a requirement) and for her dedicati on to her craft. We wou ld also like to thank Diana Non for her ent husiastic support an d help resear ch ing the artscript in th e eleventh hour. Last, but by all means not least, we owe a grea t deal of th an ks to o ur students at Ro xbury Com munity College and Boston University for th eir feedback , coopera tion, and inspiration during th e pilot ing process.

AKE and

L~l E


Text Credits For permission to use the selections reprinted in this book , the aut hors are grateful to the following publishers and copyright holders: Page 6, " Peeping Tom Journalism, Mfrom Sensational TV-Trash or Journalism ? by Nancy Day. Reprinted by permission of Enslow Publishers. Page 11, "Focus on Bomb Suspect Brings Tears and a Plea," by Rick Bragg from The New York Times, August 27, 1996. Reprinted by permission of The New York Times. Page 32, "C nm ebusting: What Works? Methods of Punishing," from Scholastic Update, September 15, 1995 issue. Copyright © 1995 by Scholastic Inc. Reprinted by permission of Scholastic Inc. Page 39, "Michael Fay's Caning," originally titled "Ne xt Corres pondents on Fay," from The Plain Dealer, page 2E, May 30, 1994. Reprinted with permission from The Plain Dealer © 1994. All rights reserved. Page 59, "Dying for Their Beliefs," edited from the original text written by Jeffrey Good from The St. Petersburg Times, April 9, 1989. Reprinted with permission by The St. Petersburg Times. Page 80, "11y First Night Alone in the Caribbean," from The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor by Gabr iel Gard a Marquez, transl ated by Randolph Hogan. Translation copyright © 1986 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. Page 84, "The Story of an Eyewitness," by Jack London from Colliers, May 5, 1906. Page 102, "St. Paul Couple Give Composting a Worm Welcome," originally titled "Sr. Paul Couple Give Worms a Warm Welcome,M by Chuck Haga from The Star Tribune, Minneapolis- St. Paul. Reprinte d with permission of T he Star Tribune, Minneapolis-St. Paul. Page 107, " Earthship Ho mes Catch Old Tires on Rebound," by Eva Ferguson from The Calgary Herald, December 12, 1994. Reprinted with permission of The Calgary Herald. Page 128, "Justin Lebo," from It's O ur World, Too by Phillip Hoose. Copyright © 1993 by Phillip Hoose. By permission of Little, Brown and Company. Page 135, "Some Take the Time Gladly," by Mensah Dean from The Washington Times, May 14, 1997. Reprinted with permission from The Washington Times. Page 136, " Mandatory Volunteering for High School Diploma Nor a Good Idea," from The Sun-Sentinel, November 8, 1996. Reprinted with permission from The Sun-Sentinel, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Page 155, "Teaching at Home Hits New High with Internet," by Dorothy lepkowska from The Evening Standard, January 15, 1996. Reprinted with permission from the Associated Newspapers, Lrd., London, England. Page 160, "T he Fun T hey Had, " from Earth Is Room Enough, by Isaac Asirnov, Copyrig ht © 1957 by Isaac Asimov. Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. Page 180, pre-reading letter by Micheil Scott Thir d. Reprinted with permission of the Kennedy Library and M useum, Boston, Massachusetts. Page 185, "Fi rst in Space," from Moon Shot, by Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton . Cop yright © 1994 by Turner Publishing. Reprinted with permission of Turner Publishing, Inc. Page 191, "Pink Socks and j cllo," by Shannon Lucid. Repr inted with permission of Na tional Aeronautics and Space Administration. Page 212, " Poor Visitor," by Jamaica Kincaid from Lucy. Reprinted with permission of Farrar, Stra us & Giroux, Publishers Inc. Page 21 7, "Nostalgia," by Virgilio Davila, from O hras Completes, Insnru ta de Culrura Puertorriquena, San Jua n, Puerto Rico, 1964. Reprinted by permission of the editor. Page 236, "Inside the House," from "Plugged in at Ho me" (Newsweek, November 27, 1995), from The Road Ahead by Bill Gates. Copyright © 1995 by William H. Gates III. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Putna m, Inc. Page 242, "Thorea u's Home," by Henry D. Thoreau, from Walden. Text is reprinted from a first edition of Walden, or Life in the Woods 1854 , published by Ticknor and Fields, Boston.

xiii

I

I I I'


Photo and Art Credits Page 1, RueterslWin Mcnamee, Archive Photos. Page 3, David Shopper Photography, Inc., Stock Boston. Page 6, Dusan Petricic. Page 26, Dusan Petrick. Page 27, Ron Chironna. Page 32, © Barrie Maguire. Page 33, repr inted with permission of Macmillan USA, a Simon & Schuster Macmillan Compa ny, from Macmillan Visual Almanac, Bruce S. Glassman, Editor, Text by Jenny Tessar. Computer Graphics by David C. Bell. A Blackbirch Press Book. Copyright © 1996 by Blackbirch Press. Page 38, © David Woo, Stock Boston . Page 55, Micheal NewmanlPhotoEdit. Page 63, compliments of Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Reascarch. Page 77, Photos courtesy of American Red Cross. Page 79, len Shalansky. Page 84, Brown Brothers, Sterling, Pennsyvania. Page 97, Photo courtesy of Recycling Today magazine. Page 102, Dusan Perricic. Page 106, A. Stegmeyer Photography. Photo court esy of Solar Survival Archirecrure. Page 123, Frank Fournier/Contact Press Images. Page 126, Len Shalansky. Page 128, from It 's O ur World Too! by Phillip Hoose. Copyright © 1993 by Phillip Ho ose. Photo reprinted with permission from Litt le, Brown and Company. Page 153, © Pat Clear PhotographylPhotoEdit. Page 162, © Barrie Maguire. Page 179, courtesy of NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Page 191, Newsweek graph ic by Dixon Rohr and Christoph Blumrich. © 1996, Newsweek , Inc. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. Page 207, (left) Gus Bower/Compliments of L\1Gj (midd le) printed with permission from Robert Wootmington, phot ographer; (right) distribu ted by l.os Angeles TImes Syndicate. Photo courtesy of Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Page 2 I I , cour tesy of the Statue of Liberty Na tional Monument. Page 231, © Bill Layne. Page 233, Don Punchatz, first appeared in Boy 's Life magazine . Page 235, Courtes y of lntergraph. Page 242, courtesy of the Thoreau Society.


CONSEQ l!JENCES

n I

I A PPRO A C H I N G THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING

1. look at the photograph and the title of the unit. Take some notes about the picture. What does it show? What is happening? How do the people in the picture feel? What do you think "Untruth and Consequences" refers to? What do you think this unit will be about? 2. Work in a small group. Discuss the following questions: Where do people learn about news? Who decides what is news and what is not news? What news source do you most frequently use-newspapers, magazines, television, radio? Why? 1

,


.

UNIT

1.

B. SHARI NG IN f O RM ATI ON

Work in a small group. Read the (ollowing quotations describing news . What do )'OU tbinh they mean? Circle the most appropriate interpretatio ns for quotes 1 and 2. Then write your own interpretation of quotes 3 and 4. Discuss your answers with the group. Do you agree with any of these quotations? Why or why no t?

1. "When a dog bites a man , that is nor news ; hut when a man bites a dog, that is news." - Leo Rosten, political scientist and author a. News is only ab out exciting or un usua l events. b. News is only interesting when an animal is invo lved. 2. "A dog fight in Brooklyn [New York] is bigger tha n a revolution in China." - Brooklyn Eagle (newspape r) a. News about the United States is always mo re newswo rthy than interna tional news. b. People are more interested in local news than intern at ional news even when the internatio nal news is more newsworthy. 3 . " Goo d news isn't news . Bad news is news." - Henry Luce, fou nder of Time Magazine This means:

4. "What is news? You know what news is? News is what (yo u) news directo rs interpret it as. News is wha t we at CNN interpre t it as. The peop le of this cou ntry see the news tha t we think they oug hta ' see. And q uite fra nkly, a lot of that decision is geared to wha t's gonna? keep them interested, keep them at you r station ." - Ted Turner, fo under of CNN (Cable News Netwo rk ) Th is means:

1

I

ol<ghla: o ught to go nna s going 10


UN TR UTH AND CONSE Q U EN C ES .

PREPARING TO READ A. BACKGROUND

o

Read this information.

News is everywhere and serves ma ny different functions. The news gives insta nt coverage of important events. News also provides facts and information. In add it ion, news is business: a way to make mo ney by selling ad vertising and /or newspapers and magazines. Sometimes news is propaganda or disinformation: a way to control a popu lat ion . But whatever news is, it is all arou nd us. You can 't escape it. Every day we are bombarded by informa tion : newspapers, magazines, television, and the Internet. " News" does not always mean something that is unquestion ably true. Although the news seems to be based on facts, these facts are interp reted and reported the way the media choose s to report them. For example, some information th at ap pears as news is really only speculation or theories formed by the reporters. Furthermore, many journalists and reporters sensationalize o r dramatize a news event in o rder to make a story more inte resting. Unfor tu nately, sensationalism oft en bends the truth and causes anguish to th e people it victimizes. Therefore, as consumers of news we must learn to th ink critically about the news, the media, and what the truth is.


D UNtT

1 .

8

The news functions in many different ways. In your ex perience, can you recall the news functioning in any of the following ways? Complete the chart with your ow n exam ples. Share your exam ples in

small groups.

To give in stant coverage of importa nt events

---------------------------------------1r---------------. ---.---------------------------------------------------------To provide facts

:

•, •, •• •• ---------------------------------------if-----------------------------------------------------------------------------To make money fo r the :• newpaper or rad io/te levis io n :

!

station

••

---------------------------------------if-----------------------------------------------------------------------------• To spread propaganda or disi nformation

:

!, •,,

---------------------------------------if-----------------------------------------------------------------------------To sensatio naliz e events

:

•,• ,,,•

---_:


U N TR U TH AN D C ONSEQ UENC ES .

B. V O C A B U LAR Y FO R COM PREH EN SI O N

Work with a partner and guess the meaning of the vocabulary wo rds. Use your dictionary if necessary. Check (V') the category or categories you associate with each w ord. The first one has been do ne for you.

PRINT MEDIA

VOCA BULA RY W O RDS

Reporters

· · ··,, ··• ·· ··,, ,, :

TELEVISIO N

PEO PLE IN THE NEWS

,, , V'

:"

V'

:

-----------------------~---------~-------~------------~---------~-----~------------------~----------------------------Affi l iates

:

,.

: :

--- ----- --- - ----------- - -- - - -- -- ----- -- --~- --------- ----- - ---------- --~--- ----- - -- - - - - ---}------- - --- - -- - ------ -- - -- ---

," , .. -----------------------------------------r----------------------------r------------------r----------------------------" • •. ", Celebrities , . -----------------------------------------r----------------------------r------------------r----------------------------, . , . , , Col um nists ,. . -----------------------------------------r----------------------------r-----------------_r----------------------------, . , . , . Corresponde nts , . , .. , ,, Editor s -----------------------------------------r----------------------------r-----------------_r----------------------------,, , . Heroes ,• •• A ncho rs

.. ... . .. ..,• • . . . . . • • • •

---------------------------- --------- -- - -r - ----- ------- --- ------- -----r -- - --- -- - --- --- -- -r --- -- - --- -- - --- - -- -- ~ --- - - . --

, •,, ---- ----- ------ - --- - - - -- -- ------ -- - -- --- - , ,,r -- -- --- - - -- -- - --- -- - ---- -- --r - - -- -- - -- - - -- ---- -r~ ----------- ---- -- - --- ------ Jou rnalists • - ----- - -- - --- --- -- - - -- --- - -- - -- - -- - -- --- - ~- -- - - -- ~~-- ~ - - -- - - -- - ------ -r- -- - --- ---- -------r- -- - -- - -- --- - --- -- - -- - --- -- - •• •• •• M agazines • • • • - --- --- - -- --------- ------------- -- - --- ---~- - - -- --- - -- - -- --- - --- --- -- - -r- -- - --- --- --- - -- -_r - --~----- ---------- --- --- - -- •• • •• • M ovi e stars . , • • • - --- --- - -- - --- -- - ----- ---- --- --- --- -- - - --r --· -- ~ ------ -- ~ -- - --------- _r- - --- -- ---------- _r - -- - - -- -- - --- --- --- - -- --- --- ------ - ----- ------- -- - --------- - -- -- - - -- - r- --- - -- - -- - -- - --- -- - --- -- - - -r - -- --- - -- - -- - -- - - -r -- - ---- - · --- - -- -- ~ - -- ------ ~ -

High-profi le personalit ies

Networ ks

·· ·· ·· ···

.. . . . . . " " , ""

,, , , , ,, .

------ -- ------ ------ - -- ---- --- --- -- ~ --- --~ - -- ---------------- --- ------r----- -- - --- - -- -- - _r- - -- --- - ------ --- -- ~ --- - -----

Senators

-- -- - - -- --- --- - --- ----------------- .-----~------ - - - - -- - - - --- - -- - -- - - - -r---- --------------r---------------- -~-----------

Tabl o ids

,. "


. U ~ IT

1 .

READING ONE:

Peeping Tom' Journalism

A. I N T R O D U C I N G THE TOPIC

Read the first three paragraphs. Work with a partner to answer and discuss th e questio ns in paragraph 3. Th en read the rest of the article.

Peeping Tom Journalism BY

NA~ C Y

DA Y

(fr om Sensational TV-Trash or Journalism )

---

\

"-

~-

2

1

l

R eporters consta ntly str uggle with what and how much to tell. Sometimes the facts are clear. O ther times, journalists must rely on their ow n judgment. A retired min ister- in a small town doe s not return fro m a fishing trip. Police find his car parked about halfway to the lake. It is locked and unda maged. In it they find a half-eaten ha m sandwich, fishing tackle, a gun with one shell fired, and a copy of Penthouse Peeping Tom; a person who secretly watches others m inister.. a person who perfo rms religio us funct ions in a Pro testant church


UN T RU T H AND CONSE QUENC ES .

(a magazine that contai ns pictures of naked wo men). The min ister is missing. You'r e the reporter and your story is due. 3 What do you repo rt? Suppo se the minister just went for a walk? Do you risk embarrassment and ment ion the magazine? Is rhe gun important? Should yo u propose any theor ies abo ut what might have happened? â&#x20AC;˘ The reporter who actually faced these decisions decided to mention the gun, the sandwich, the fishing tackle, and the condition of the ca r, but not the magazine or any speculation. Th e minister's body was later found. He had been killed by a hitchh iker, who had left the magazine in the minister's car. j In the old days, reporters knew politicians (includ ing presidents ) who slept around. movie stars who were gay. and public figures who used dru gs or abused alcohol. Th ey just kept it to themselves. Now. at least in part because the pu blic seems to have an end less hunger for it, reporters sometimes cover these aspects of celebriti es' lives more than any other. Ii Some of the interest ca n be justified on the basis that cha racter affects how peop le perform their jobs. But what if the infor mati on isn't relevant? For example, does rhc public need to know that a senator is gay? \Vhen a famou s person dies, docs the public have a right to all the details? Should the public know which public figures arc unfaithful to their spou ses? Are these things we need to know or just things we want to know? 1 When Gennifer Flowers alleged a twelve-year affair with President Rill Clinton, she first sold the story to the tabloid Star. CNN repo rted the story and so did th e networks and the major newspapers and news magazines. Peter Jennings, anc hor for ARC's3 " World News Ton ight, " was aga inst broadcasting the Flowers story without furthe r repo rting by ABC correspondents, but says, "it was made clear to [me) . . . that if yo u didn't go with the story, every [ABC] affiliate in the country wou ld look up and say, 'What the hell's going on in this place? Don 't they know a story when they sec it?' " 8 Some stories receive such wide visibility that to ignore them is to "play ostrich man," says Shelby Coffey, edito r of The Los An geles Times. " Yo u have to give your readers some perspective on the informati on they are gett ing." 9 Scrutiny may be the price o ne pays for fame. But what a bout relatives of celebrities? Are the y fair game too? And what about the average person ? 10 When Sara Jane Moore pointed a gun at President Ford, a man in the cro wd knocked her hand, deflecting the shot . The man, Oliver W. Sipple, became an instant hero . He was thirty-three years old and a Marine veteran . What else did the public wa nt or need to know abo ut J

A BC: American Broadcas ting Companies, Inc.; a ma jo r relevisicn network in the United Stares


¡ U N IT 1.

11

11

him? In itial reports did not ment ion Sipple's sexual orientation . But when a San Fran cisco news colu m nist said that local gay leaders were pro ud o f Sipple's actions , other papers began to rcporr it. Sipple sued the columnist and several news pa pers for invad ing his privacy. He said that he suffered "great mental anguish, em barrassment an d hum iliation ." Lawyers argued that by beco ming invo lved in an event of worl dwi de importance, Sipp le had given up his right to privacy because the public has a legitimate interest in his activity. Rosa Lop ez was a mai d working qui etly and ano nymously until she became a key witness in the 0.]. Sim pso n tr ial ." Sudde nly, she was the focus of intense scru tiny. Lopez was hounded by cameras and reporters everywhere she went. H er every move was analyzed. She event ually returned to her native country to escape the pressure, only to find that the media followed her there. H ow many witnesses will come forwar d in the fu tu re, knowi ng wha t kind of treatment' awaits them ? Do people who accidentally find themselves in volved in such h igh-profile cases have rights, or do we deserve to k now everything about them ?

â&#x20AC;˘ o. J. Simpso n is a famous forme r football player. actor. and sportscaster who was accused of killing his ex-wife and a male friend of hers. H is tri al was followed dosely by the media. He eventu ally was found no t gu ilty in cr iminal court bur guilty in civil court.

B. READING FOR MAI N ID EAS

"Peeping Tom Journalism " can be divided into four main ideas. What does the reading say about each idea? Circle the letter of the sentence that gives the best summary. 1. Repor ting of facts a. Jo urnalists somet imes use their ow n judgmen t and leave out certai n facts when reporting a story. b. Jou rnalists usua lly report all the facts that they know ab out a story. 2. Repo rting abo ut famous peopl e a. In the old days , certain facts about celebrities we re held back from the public. T his is not always the case today. b. In the old da ys, certain facts about celebri ties were held back fro m the p ublic. T h is is still the case today.


UN T RU T H

A ND C ON SEQ UENC ES .

3. Ch oosing to rep ort all stories a. The decision to report or not report a story is based only on the reporter 's judgment . b. The decis ion to rep ort or not rep ort a sto ry is influenced by many factors. The repo rter's opinion is just one of these factors.

4. Right to privacy a. All people agre e that the pub lic has a right to know a bout a fam ous pers on 's life.

b. Some people believe that you lose the right to privacy when you arc fa mo us. Others disagree.

C. READING FOR DETAILS

Find examples or details the author uses to support each of the four main ideas. Comple te the chart with the supp orting details. The first one has been done for you.

case of t he retired minister

1. Re porting of facts

- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- -----------------,,----------------------------------------------------~-------------------------

2. Re po rting about fa mous peo p le

~~

ww

~

3. Choosing to report a ll . sto nes

: :•

••• •

.•

~

~

: :

••• --- - --------- ------~ --~-~~ -------- - ---- ~--- ------ -- - - - - -- -- - --- - -- --- - -- - - - --- --- --- - -- --- - -------- --- - --~----- ~-- ---4. Right to privacy

:

••• •• ••


III

U N IT 1 â&#x20AC;˘

D . READI N G BETW EE N THE LINES

The reading raises some interesting questions abo ut one's right to privacy. Would the author agree or disagree with each of the following statements? Check (......) your answ er. (N otice that the auth or addresses each of these issues but does not actually state her opinion. N everth eless, th rough careful reading it is possible to infer what her opinion is.) Wh en you are finished, discuss yo ur answers w ith a partner. If necessary, refer back to the text to supp ort your reason s for believing the author w ould agree or disagree with each stateme nt. 1. Th e public has the right to know about the sexual preferences of pol iticians.

wri ter agrees _ _

writer d isagrees _ _

2. When a famous person dies, the public has a right to know all the deta ils of the per son's life and death . writer agrees _ _

writ er disagrees _ _

3 . The public should know which pu blic figures are unfaithful to their spouses. writer agrees _ _

writer d isagrees _ _

4. An average person who suddenly becomes the focus o f unwanted media attenti on has no right to privacy. writ er agrees _ _

wr iter disagrees _ _

S. It was easier to be a reporter in " the old days." writer agrees _ _

wr iter disagrees _ _

6. Th e Gcnn ifer Flowers story should not have been covered by CNN and the oth er major networks. wr iter agrees _ _

writ er disagrees _ _


U N T RU T H A N D CON SEQUENCE S

III

A . EXPA N D I N G T H E TO PI C

Before you read "Focus on Bom b Suspect Brings Tears and a Plea," read this backgro und information about the Richard Jewell case. Work in a small group and discuss the questions that follow. On J uly 27, 1996, during one of the first evening celebrat ions held a t the Ol ympics in Atlanta, Georgia, a bomb exploded in Cente nnial Olymp ic Park. ' T he bomb killed one per son a nd injured 111 others . Richar d Jewell, a secur ity guard at the park wh o discovered the bomb and helped numerous people to safety, was at first considered a hero of the tragic incident . La ter, he was accus ed of pu tt ing the bom b there. T he media th en surro unded him and scrutinized his every acti on : past a nd present. They left nothing abou t his personal life unto uche d. H e was la ter cleared of any suspicions, but his life would never be th e same.

1. In your opinion, wa s it legitima te for the repor ters

to scrutinize a nd

make speculations about Richard Jewell? 2. H ow sho uld th e media have cond ucted the investigation? I Centennial Olympic Park: a large park and central meeting place located in Atlanta , Georgia, site of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games

Focus on Bomb Suspect Brings Tears and a Plea By Rick Bragg (from The New York Times)

Barbara Jewell stared into the unblinking eyes of the television cameras she has come to despise and spoke in tears today of how life had changed for her son, Richard, since he was named a month ago as a suspect in the bombing in Centenn ial Olympic Park. " Now my son has no real life," said Mrs. Jewell, a little gray-haired woman , speaking out for the first time since her 33-yearold son was suspected-but never arre sted or

2

3

charged-in the bombing that killed one person and injured 111 others. "He is a prisoner in my home," Mrs. Jewell said at a news conference this afternoon. "He cannot work. He cannot know any type of normal life. He can only sit and wait for this nightmare to end." She begged President Clinton to clear her son's name and asked reporters to spread rhe word that


III

4

5

2

1

U N IT 1 .

her son was innocent of any wrongdoing in the July 27 bombing. After he r tearful request, her son 's law yers sai d they would file civil lawsuits over reporting on the casco Richard A. Jewell, a secu rity gua rd in Centennial O lympic Park and a former she riff's dep uty," was at first hailed as a hero for d iscovering t he bomb and helping to clear people from the a rea. Then news acco unts, including a specia l edition of the Atlanta Journal,3 named him as a suspect. Since then, television an d news executives have repeated ly deba ted t he intense attentio n focused on M r. Jew ell, wit h most decidi ng that too many peop le knew he was a sus pect for his na me to be avoided or suppressed. "Last week, a close fami ly frien d of twenty-nine years took seriously ill," Mrs. Jewell said . " While he was on his deathbed, because Richard did not wa nt to sub ject him to t he world at tent ion of the media , he did not go see him. R ich ard was not a ble to see his friend before he died." H er so n did go to the fune ral home afte r his friend died, she

6

7

8

said. "When we returned fro m the funeral home, for the firs t time I sa w my son sobbing," M rs. Jewell said , brea king into tears hersel f as she recounted the story. H e said, " Mama, everybody was loo king." " I do not think any of you ca n even begin to imagi ne what o ur lives a te like. Richard is not a murderer," said M rs. Jewell, an insurance claims coord inator. But , she sai d, "He has been convic ted in the court of public opinion." Meanw hile, th e Jewells con tinue to be besieged by reporters. "T hey have taken all privacy from us," M rs. Jewell sa id. "They have ta ken all peace. They have rented an apartment wh ich faces o ur home in order to keep their cameras trained on us aroun d the cloc k. T hey wa tch an d photograph everything we do . We wa ke up to ph otographers, we go to sleep w ith photographers. We ca nnot look out the windows. We cannot wal k our dogs witho ut being followed down the sidewa lk." M rs. Jewell said she was not just saddened an d hu rt by the ordeal, but was also a ngry.

sheriffs deputy: law enforcer Atlanta Jou rnal, newspa per

Complete the right side of the chart showing how Richard Jewell's life changed after he was named a suspect in the bom bing.

1. Worked a s a security guard

1.

2. Visited fr iends

2.

3. W ent out; w alked hi s d ogs

3.

4 . Cou ld ha ve a p riva te life

4.


U N T R U T H AND CONSfQUfNCES

III

B. LINKING READINGS ON E AND TWO

Imagine you are Barbara j ewell. Comp lete the following letter to the Atlanta Journal, the newspaper that first named your son as a suspect in the Olym pic bombing. In the letter express your anger at being named as a suspect and explain how your life has changed because of it. Address the issue of a person 5 right to privacy. Use people mentioned in Reading On e (Rosa Lo pez and Oliver Sipple) as examp les of others whose lives the media has damaged.

To the Edit or : Sensat ionalist r eportin g is har mful to a ll people involved and has no place in our society.

I

As a result of the media's tolerance for irresponsible reporting, my family and I are a fe w more vi ct im s of sensationalism at it s worst. On behalf of all victims of s ensat ionalism, we demand a formal apology. Barbara Jewell


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UNl1 1 .

IR E V I EW IN G

LANGUAGE A . EXPLORING LANGUAG E: Idioms

You know yo u are reading an idiom wh en you understan d each separate word in an expression, but no! the ex pression as a whole. Work in a small group. Read the sentences tha t follow and circle the best ex planation for each underlined idiom.

1. In the old da ys reporter s ~ some in form ation a bo ut politicians a nd movie stars to themselves. to keep something to oneself a. to not talk about something b . to make a promise c. to ca re for oneself 2 . Now, at least in part because the pu blic seems to ha ve an endless hun ger for it, reporters sometimes cove r the se aspects of celebrities' lives more th an any other.

to have an endless hun ger for a. to need to consta ntly ca t b . to have continual need for something c. to d islike som ething immensely 3. Some storie s receive such wid e visibility tha t to ignore them is to "play ostrich ma n, " says Shelby Coffey, editor of The Los Angeles Tim es. to play ostrich man a. to wea r a spec ial bird costu me b . to try to find the tr uth in someth ing c. to igno re som et hing that is obvious 4. Scrutiny may be the pri ce one pay s for fa me. to pay the price a. to suffer for your actions b. to spend what you ar e not abl e to afford c. to pay rhe amount you are willing to spen d


UN T RU T H A N D CONSEQ U ENC ES "

5. But what about relatives of celebrities? Are they fair game too? fair game a. victims of sensational writin g b. an approved ob ject of attack c. a game that is played at a fair or festival 6. Lopez was hounded by cameras and reporters everywhe re she went. to be hounded a. to be found

b. to be followed c. to be treated like a dog 7. She begged President Clinton to clear her son's name and asked reporters to spread the wo rd th at her son was innocent of any wrongd oing. to spr ead th e word a. to hide the fact h. to sto p report ing c. to tell everyone 8. Even though Richard Jewell's friend was on his deathbed, Richard didn't visit him. to be on your deathbed a. to be in the bed you have chosen to die in b. to be extremely sick, dying c. to be in a deep sleep 9. " Richard Jewell is not a murderer," says his mot her, bur "he has been convicted in the cou rt of public opinion ." to be convicted in the court of public op inion a. to be considered guilty by everyone before going to trial b. to be in a special tr ial in which you are found guilty c. to be forced to take pan in a trial as a member of the jury 10. Reporters watched the Jewell fam ily around the clock. aro und th e d ock a. from sunup to sundown b. twenty-four ho urs a day c. during the night


III

UN IT 1 â&#x20AC;˘

B. WORKING WITH WORDS

Work in a group or with a partner to determine which of the following people could have made the statements listed below. Indicate the appropriate letter in the space next to each statement. In some cases, it is possible that more than one of these people could have made the statement. Refer to the readings to suppo rt your answers. a. Gennifer Flowe rs, wo man alleged to have had an affair wit h President Clinton b. Reporter of the minister story c. Shelby Coffey, edito r of The Los Angeles Times

d. Peter Jenni ngs, ABC News anchor e. Rosa Lopez, key wit ness in the 0. ]. Simpson tr ial

f. Richard Jewell, the man accused of the Olympic Park bom bing _ _ 1. Th e pu blic seems to have an end less hunger for news, and it is o ur respo nsibility to prov ide in formation to the readers so they can form their own opinions.

_ _ 2. I wa nt the pu blic to know about my life; if the President wants to keep his private life to himself, that's his business. _ _ 3. The media can ru in your life. Reporters ha ve no right to invade my privacy by hound ing me around the clock. _ _ 4. Even though there are some stories I would rat her not report, I can't play ost rich man all the time. _ _ 5. I'm glad I waited to report all the facts, because some of them might have been misinterpreted. I don' t want anyone to be convicted wro ngly in the co urt of public opinion . _ _ 6. Ju st because I' m a small parr of a news sto ry does not mean that unr elated part s of my life are fair game fo r repo rters to write about .


UN TRU T H AN D CON SEQ UE N C E S

S FOR EXPR E S S I O N

IfI

I Voic e

o

Examine each of the following sets of sentences and answer the questions with a partner. Passive Voice

Act ive Voice

• Th e minister had been killed by a hitch hiker.

A hitchhiker had killed the minister.

• Rosa Lopez was hou nded by came ras and reporters everywhere.

Cameras and reporters hounded Rosa Lopez everywhere.

• At first, Richa rd Jewell was hailed as a hero (by people).

At first, people hailed Richa rd Jewell as a hero .

a. Each of the sets of sentences has the same meaning but different gra mma r struct ure. What is the common gra mmar structure in the passive sentences? Is this the same structure in the active sentences?

b. List the words in subject position in the passive sentences.

C.

List the words in sub ject position in the active sentences.

d. The cha nge in sub ject in the act ive to th e pass ive sentences changes the focus of the sentence. In the act ive sentences the focus seems to be on a hitchhiker, cameras and reporters, and people. The subject in these sentences performs the action. What seems to be the focus of the passive sentences? Do the words in the subject position in these sentences perform the act ion?


l1li1

UN IT 1 •

Passive Voice

Focus ON GRAMMAR Sec Pass ive in Focus on Grammar; High Intermediate.

Fo rm of the Passive Voic e To fo rm the passive voi ce, use the co rrect fo rm of be + pa st particip le . At times , the perso n or thi ng (the agent ) responsible for d o ing the actio n is used . In th is case. use by + the name of the agent : Subject Position 8 e

Past Participle (By + Agent)

• Rosa Lop ez

Is

hounded

by ca meras and repo rters.

• Rosa Lopez

was

hounded

by ca meras and reporters.

• Rosa Lopez

ha s been hounded

by camera s and repo rters.

Use of the Pas siv e Voice Act ive sent enc es focu s o n the per son o r th in g that performs an actio n.

Passive se ntences focu s on the per son or th ing tha t rece ive s or is the result of a n actio n. The mean ing o f pa ssive and active sentences is usually simila r, but th e focus c hange s. Use the pa ssive vo ice when : 1. yo u do n't kno w who is respo nsible for an acti on , o r it is not impor tant to know:

• "The minister's body was later found ." (Yo u don 't know who foun d the body ; it doesn't ma iler who foun d the body. The importance is that someone, anyone, fo und the body. ) 2. the person respo nsible fo r the action is understood fro m the context: • "It was made clear to Pete r Jennings that he had to go with the story." (It is understood th ai a superior, p ro ba bly his boss, made it clear to him. ) 3 . yo u don't want to name the pe rson respo nsible for the ac tio n: • "The FB I said the Richard Jewell investigatio n was ca rried out incorrectly." (The FBI does not want to name exactly who in the FB I mad e mistakes during the investi gatio n.)


UNTRUTH A N D C O NS EQU EN C ES

I~.

you w ant to make t he recei ver of the action more important than the one who performs the act ion: â&#x20AC;˘ " Lopez wa s hounded by came ras and repor ters everywhere she w ent." (Lopez is the focus of the sentence. She is more important than the cameras and reporters that hounded her.)

Use the passive vo ice with an agent (by + nou n) when the information is necessary to com plete the meanin g, or w hen it is new or surpr ising information. â&#x20AC;˘ 'The story was reported by Peter Jennings." Use the passive voice without an agent when : the agent is not known or is not important. t he agent is cl ear fro m the context. you w ant to avoid nam ing th e agent.

e

Com plete the follow ing sentences. Use the active or passiue voice in the past tense. The first one has been don e for you.

1. The news columnist

reported

on all aspects of Oliver Sipple's

(repo rt )

life, not only those related to his act of heroism. 2. The Gennifer Flowers story - - =-:-:c=:c-- - on all the ma jor 1V (broa dca st)

netwo rk s. 3. Some of the interest in the lives of po liticians _ _ ---,= cc;

on

(justify)

the basis that character affects how people perform their jo bs. 4. The retired minister _ _

=::-::==_ _ from his fishing trip. (nut ret urn )

5. A half-eaten ham sandwich, a gun, fishing tack le, and a magazi ne ___ """'

in the minister's car.

(find)

6. The reporter who wrote the story about the minister - - -u:::::;:: ; - - (decide)

to ment ion the gun and the sandwich, but not the magazine.

m


.

UNIT

1 .

7. The reporter's story -----,-;c--- by many people, including the minister's relatives.

--,==

8. Sara Ja ne Moore _ _

3

gun at President Ford.

{deflect)

10 . Witnesses _ _

===__ about t he shooting by th e police. (q uestio n)

11. Rosa Lop ez _ _,

,"-=. ._

_

the United States to avoid the intense

(flee}

scrutiny of the media.

. . Complete the following sentences. Use the passive voice in the past tense. Include the agent only if it is necessary information. The first one has been done (or you. 1. Th e local police force worked hard . Th e investigation was completed (co mp lete/po lice)

2. Richard Jewell

-,,--,---= = oc--- - - a bo ur where he saw the (interview lF BI)

package co ntaining the bomb and why he suspected that it contained a

bomb. 3. They interr upted the news to report that the president (shot/an a ssassin)

4. Richard Jewell's mother felt Richard - -- --,-= '"7---,-,,-- - -(co nvict/media)

before he even went to trial. 5. Th e celebrity

;=:::::;:-::cc::;;::;;-

today at 5:00

P.M .

{ma rry/a m inister}

6. The newspap er story. which

;::::=;;;::::>= = :;-

â&#x20AC;˘

talks

(write/Peter Jennings}

about the respo nsibility of the med ia in reporting the news. 7. The defendant, a news reporter,

-",===-c:-= (find gu ilty/a jury )

character defamati on after a three-week-lo ng jury trial.

of


UN T RU T H AN D C ON SE QU ENC ES

IJI

B. STYLE : Topi c Sentence s

o

Examine this paragraph from the background reading, and discuss the questions with the class. News is everyw here an d serves ma ny different functions. The news gives insrant coverage of important events. News also prov ides facts and in formation. In addition, news is business: a way to mak e mon ey by selling advert ising andlo r newspapers and magazines. Somet imes news is propagan da or disinformation: a way to contro l a pop ulation. But whatever news is, it is all around us. You can' t escape it. Every day we are bombarded by infor mation-newspa pers, magazines, television, and the Internet. a. What is the topic of this paragraph?

b. Th e first sentence is the topic sentence. What two ideas are presented in this sente nce? c. H ow does the content of the rest of th e pa ragrap h relate to the top ic sentence ?

Topics and Topic Sentences The topic sentence is an essential part of a well-written paragraph. The topic sentence co ntro ls the co ntent of the rest of the paragraph: It introduces the topic and states the main ideas. This co ntrol helps the writer focus on supporting details in the paragraph that are directly related to the topic sentence. The first step in writing a top ic sentence is to choose a subject and find a point of view or idea about the subject. For examp le: Subject

Topic/Point of View

news

News is everywhe re.

te levision

Television is a bad influence.

reading

Reading is good for you.


. . U N IT 1 â&#x20AC;˘

The next step is to narrow the top ic even more by findi ng a " contro l-

ling idea." The co ntrolling idea is the idea you wan t to exp lain, illustrate, or descri be in the paragraph. For example: Topic

Contro lling Idea (Topic Sentence )

news is everywhere

News is everywhere and serves many different funct ions.

television is bad

Television has a violent influence on children.

readi ng is good

e

-.

Read ing helps you expand yo ur mi nd

and broaden your interests.

Each of the following paragraphs is missing a topic sentence. Circle the topic sentence that best fits the paragrap h. Discuss your choices with a partner.

1. For example, you can't pick up a newspaper these days wit ho ut reading a bo ut so me o utrageous or gruesome crime. Th e to p television news story is usually about a m urder or ot her violent incident. We need to rea d and hear about the good news stories, too . Otherwise, we will continue sending the message that only violence is wo rth reporting. And wha t kind of message is t hat for ou r children? a. O ur society is becoming mo re and mo re violent every day. b. Television news cove rage focuses only on violent news. c. All the med ia has become increas ing ly negative by focusing on ly on violence. 2. As a result of live television, people can rece ive news as it ha ppens. Fo r exam ple, dur ing the Gulf War, CNN viewers aro und th e world co uld watc h the war as it was going on. Because of " live" reporting, peop le nowad ays can feel as though they are participating in histor y, no t just reading or hearing about it afterwards. It has cha nged the viewer's role co mpletely. a. T hese days there is mor e live television cove rage th an ever before. b. " Live" television repo rting has change d the way we see the news . c. CNN changed the way we saw the news during the Gulf War crisis.


U N T RU T H

A N D C O NS EQ U E NC ES

3. Expert s recommend limiting viewing to one ho ur per da y durin g the week and up to two ho urs per day on weekends. The programs sho uld be educational in content and promote discussion betw een the parent and child. Programs on animal behavior and family values, and programs that teach basic learn ing skills, are highly recom mended. a. Wat ching television is not bad for ch ildren. b. Watching television is fine for ch ildren as long as you limit the hours an d mon itor the prog ram s. c. Programs for children should be ed ucation al in content so that the time spent watching TV is not wasted. 4. What we see on the nightly news has been ca refully selected by the news department at the television station. Because the sta tion is interested in making money, the news that is selected is not necessarily the most importa nt news but rat her the news whi ch will attract the most viewers . As a result, we only see the news that has been chosen for us, w hich is not always the most informa tive. a. News makes mo ney. b. The news d irecto r selects the news. c. News is not simply wha t we see, but what the news director at the television station want s us to see.

â&#x20AC;˘

The topic sentences in the (ollo wing paragraphs are underlined. They are rather weak. They do not state the main idea. Rewrite each topic sentence, making sure that there is a controlling idea. 1. Celebrities have jobs. Being a movie sta r or sports sta r is the ir job. It is

what they arc good at. They shou ld not be under the continu al scrutiny o f the med ia just becau se of their profession. Th ey have a right to a private life just like you and me. Rewrite: Celebrities deserve private lives like any other person.

2. News is different . In the old days, peopl e got their news by word of mo uth . As society becam e more literate and pr inting costs decreased, newspa pers became the medium. Radio then bro ught a sense of immediacy to the news. Television added the visua l impact. Now we have the Internet, wh ich gives up-to -the-second news about any news event any time we want it. W ho know s what the news medi um of the future will be? Rewrite:

_

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3. Po liticians are public figures. As a president, one is supposed to repr esent the qualities of honesty and integrity. Remaining faithful to your husband or wife is the purest exa mple of th ese qualities. If a president is unfaithful to his or her spouse, how can we trust tha t he or she is hon est in his or her presidential duties? Therefore, the media has the responsibility to inform us when a pu blic figure is unfaithful. Rewrite:

_

4. Readi ng is hard. As with any program of exercise, you have to discipline yours elf and make reading the new spaper a part of your everyday routine. And just as exercise makes your body stronger, reading makes your mind stronger. It broadens you r interests, gives yo u the ability to th ink crit ically about importa nt issues, an d enables you to part icipate in interesting conversations. In conclusio n, reading the pa per, like any exerc ise, is time well spent. Rew rite:

_

A. WRI TI N G TOPICS

Write a paragraph about one of the following topics. Be sure to use some of the vocabulary, grammar, and style that you learned in this unit. 1. Does sensatio nal news ever have a place in our society? If yes, be specific and describe wh en and in what place. If no, be specific and explain why not. 2. How can the med ia influence o r shap e a society's values? Be specific and give examples. 3. Do governments have the right to censor television programs (for nu dity and violence, for example )? Be specific and ex plain why or why not. 4. Does the media reflect society, or does society reflect the media ? Be specific and give exa mples.


U N T R U T H A N D C D N Sf Q U E NC ES

III

B. FIELDWORK

PREPARATION

Work in a small group. Think about news events in the past or present when you felt the media (television or print) sensationalized the reporting of the story and caused anguish to the person(s) invo lved. Discuss how the media sensationalized the story and how it should have covered the story instead. Take notes below and share your examples with the class.

-

News story:

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I I

I I

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

How the story wa s sensational1zed:

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I

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:

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How t he media should have cov er ed the story: I

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: I

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UN IT 1 .

RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Becoming a Critical News Hound

Over the course of a few days, find examples of sensationalized news events from newspapers, magazines, or television news programs. Try to find articles about the same story covered in different newspaper or magazine sources. Compare the information in the different sou rces. Bring the articles or stories to class and discuss them in groups. Answer the following questions abo ut each story. 1. If you have more th an one source tha t covers the same story, is there any difference in th e information present ed in each news so urce ? Wha t arc the d ifferences? Which source do you feel covered the story best? Wh y? 2. H ow was the story sensationa lized? 3 . Why do you think the med ia covered th is story? 4 . What docs th e media think you want to kno w a bout this sto ry? 5. Does the srory change the way you feel a bout the news even t or th e peo ple involved in the event ? If so, ho w ?


CRIME

The Straits Times SIN GAPOR E

JUVENILE CRIME LEADS TO SHARP INCREASE IN ARRESTS The number of juven ile delinquents

arreste d fo r vio lent crimes has doubled in the last ten years. A

..

'.

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.'"

II

worrisome trend is that mo re girls

are gett ing arrested. The number of girls arrested went up from 494 fa 722 within the past year.

APPROACHING THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING 1. l oo k at the tit le of th is unit, the news headline, and the pictu re. Discuss these questions with a pa rtner: What is the problem presented her e? Who is the pe rson in the picture? Where is she? What has happened to her? 2. Write a list of problems involving juvenile crime in countries you know. Then make a list of solutions those countries have developed in an effort to co rrect those problems. Share your list with the class. Do you th ink the so lutions are effective? 27


El UNJT 2. B. SHA RING I N FO RM A TI O N

o

Read the news summaries. Then work wi th a partner and answer the questions .

Russia n Press Dige st

The New York Times

Paris, Press Service

HArnE wrru CRIME The juveni le crime rate increased 6% in the first four months of this year.

YOUTH CRIME: TOUGHER lAWS? The rate of violent crime among

EUR O PE: vourn DETENTION CENTERS While general crime figures remain stable, the number of juvenile crimes has risen 15% .

teenagers is soa ring, even as it is

decreasing among adults.

Is the increase in juvenile cr ime un ique to one co untry ? Why do you think juveni le crime is increasi ng? What type of cri me would you expe ct teena gers to be involved in the most?

e

Read each of the following statemen ts. If you agree, write A. If you disagree, write D. Then share your opinions with a partner. W hen possible, support your opinions with examples (rom yo ur own experience.

__ 1. M ost juvenile offenders continue with a life of crime as ad ults . __ 2 . Societal su pport (progra ms in su pport of juveniles, such as teen centers an d job s for teens) can keep juveniles off the streets and away from a life o f crime. __ 3. M ost juvenile offenders co me fro m problem homes wit h alco hola bus ing or drug-ab using parents, physically abusive pa rents, or a bsentee pa reors (pare nts who are never ar hom e). __ 4 . J uveniles shou ld have a curfew; that is, the law should require teenagers to be off the streets an d indoo rs by a cer tain hou r of nigh t. __ 5. Parents of a juvenile offe nder should also be p unished when their chil d breaks the law. __ 6 . Corporal pun ishment (physical pun ishment such as beating, strik ing, or hirting) is an effective way to keep a juvenile offend er from committing a crime agai n.


C RIM f

A N D P U N1S HM f N T

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A . BACKGROUND

With the rat e of crime by juveniles on the rise, people have been forced to tak e a careful look at the causes and to try to create effective ways to stop this trend. Below are three solutions some cities have tried in order to control juvenile delinquency. What do you th ink about them?

Read the info rmatio n and write your opinion. Begin: "I believe this program would (or would not) work because. . . . " An example has been done for you. 1. TEEN COURT At most teen co urts, teenagers who have been accused of minor cri mes, ranging fro m traffic violations to attempted burg lary, agree to admit to the crime . A jury made up of th eir peers- that is, other people their age-decides on the penalty or pun ishment. I believe t his program would work because tee ns list en t o ot her t eens more t han t hey Heten to adu lts.

2. CURFEWS Curfews arc time limits that require a certain popu lation of people to be off the streets by a specific time. For example, in some cities, anyone under 18 years of age must be indoor s by 8 P.M . on schoo l nights and 11 P.'\I. on Fridays and Saturdays.


. U N IT

2 .

3. PARENTAL PUNISHMENT Some towns hav e put a law into effect th at makes parent s resp onsi ble for the behavior of thei r teenage children. Wh en teens commit a minor crime, the law allows judges to ma ke parents pay up to $ 1,000 and take " parenr effectiveness" classes.

B. VOCAB U LARY FO R COMPREHENSION

Work with a partner and help each other to guess the meaning of the underlined words. For each sent ence, circle the word which has the most simila r meaning to the underlined w ord. Use yo ur dictiona ry if necessary. 1. In the United States, 40 to 50 percent of teen offenders commit cr imes agam. a. law breakers b. good citizens c. athletes 2 . At teen courts, penalties are set by a jur y of peer s. a. re wards b. punish ments C.

cnmes

3. M any teena gers accus ed of a mino r cri me choose to plead guilty rather than plead innocent. In exchange, th ey receive a red uced pu nishment and they can avo id go ing to tri al. a. ask for for giveness b. ad mit to the crime c. don't admit to th e crim e


CR IME AND P U N I SH M E NT "

4 . M an y teen juries han d down ha rsher penalties than the sta ndard co urts do . a. receive b. reduce c. give

5. Th e law s in so me communities allow judges to fine parents up to 51,000 and req uire them to take "parent effective ness" classes if their child commits a minor crime. a. to punish fina ncially b. to discover

c. to pay

6. Supporters of teen co urts say they are an effective way to cont ro l delinquent teen s before th ey becom e serio us cri mina ls.

a. late b. law- breaking c. at tentive

7. After the girl was ca ught with th e lipstick in her pocketbook, she ad mitted to shop lifting while the clerk was helping another customer. a. pa ying for it

b. stea ling fro m the sto re c. borro wing it S. Despite the apparent success of curfews in red ucin g teen cr ime, curfews ha ve been critic ized by teens. M an y law-abiding teens find the cu rfews unfair. a. non-cri mina l b. law -bre aking c. delin qu ent

9. W hile the idea of teen cou rt is very appealing, there is no conclusive evidence th at it is really effect ive in red ucing cr ime.

a. theory b. experiment c. proo f


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UN I T 2 â&#x20AC;˘

10 . Sometimes the inexperience o f teen juries leads to overzea lous verd icts. For example, a convicted teen may be punished by ha ving to stay a t ho me for six mont hs, jus t for being ca ugh t in the street five minu tes after curfew. a. severe judgments b. light judgmenrs c. religious judg ment s

READ I N G O N E:

Read the title and the first paragraph of the article. Write three questions that you think the article will answer. Then read the rest of the article. 1. Who? 2 . What? 3. W hy?

_


C RI M [

AN D P U N I SHMHH ' "

Crimebusting: What Works? Methods of Punishing By John M. DiConsiglio, James And erson, and Patricia Smith (from Scholastic Upda.te)

Rou nd up every teen on the street aft er sundown? Send shoplifters to cou rts where the judge, lawyers, and jury' arc all teenagers? Punish parents if their kid gets caught with a beer? Cities and towns across the co untry (the United States) have come up with so me unusua l solutions to juvenile crime. He re's your chance to pass judgme nt on three o f them .

1

"She didn't show the cou rt any respect," says Philip Dcla Rosa, the director o f the Family Y~ t CA Teen Co urt in Housto n, Texas. " Here, dissing! the jury is a very big mistake." .. Nationally, however, teen co urts are gain ing respect and atte ntion, with at least 185 operating in 24 sta tes. At most of these co urts , teens charged with misdemea no rsmino r crimes ranging from traffic violatio ns to attempted burglary-plead guilty in exchange for having their pena lty set by a jury of their peers. s Although teen juries usually ca nnot order fines or jai l time, they ca n sentence offenders to perform commun ity service, offer apologies, write essays, and return to teen cou rt as juro rs. O nce the sente nce is completed th e teen's record is wiped d ean, as tho ugh he o r she never com mitted a cn me. 3

Teen Court T he le -ycar-old defendant hasn't got a prayer. It's not a qu estion o f wh ether or not she co mmitted a crime. She's already admitted shoplifting a rube o f lipstick from a departme nt -sto re counter. Slouching in the witness sta nd, absent-mindedly twirl ing her hair, she loo ks as if her day in cou rt is boring her. And in teen court- where the judge, lawyers, and jury are all teenagersbad attitude is a serious offense.

1

jury: a group of peo ple who decide if a person is guilty or not guilty in a court of law

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dissmg : insulting; ncr showing respect

JUVENILE CRIME ON THE RISE 1983 vs. 1992

400 ,000

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Ro bbe ry

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Burglary

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U NIT 2 .

"This is not a mock trial-these are no Mickey Mouse' courts ," says Dcla Ro sa, who ha s helped create more than 50 teen courts aroun d the co unt ry. "T he teens take this co urt very serious ly. An d if they don't , they learn th eir lesson the ha rd way." In fact, many teen juries hand down harsher penalt ies than the standard cou rts do . The lipstick thief had to perform 48 hours of community serv ice, att end an ant itheft class, write a 1,OOO-wo rd essay, a nd serve on a teen-cour t jury. But do teen co urt s really help keep kids out of tro uble? Suppor te rs say th e courts are an effective way to reach del inqu ent teens befo re they become serious cri minals. The courts help ease the burd en on the alrea dy overloaded juvenile justice system. And they have a track record o f success. Nationa lly, 40 to 50 percent of teen offenders co mmit cr imes again. But of those who go th rough teen cou rts, less than 10 percent get arrested again . Critics say such numbers are deceiving. Since mo st defend ants are first-time offenders charged with mi nor crimes, few are likely to become repeat offenders anyway. " For the youn g people invo lved, teen cour t is an inva luable learning experience," says Hu nter H urst, directo r of the National Center for J uvenile Justice in Pittsburg h. "But as for cha nging behavior, the evide nce is not th ere at all." Lega l experts also question whether tee n courts are really fair to defendants. Dangling the opt ion of a teen jury before teenagers facing an ad ult judge may pressure the m to plead guilty, even if th ey're not . And while teen-co urt jurors receive weeks of tra ining an d mu st pass a law test, critics say even the most high ly trained teen is not mat ure eno ugh for jury duty. Sometime s inexperience lead s to overzealous verdicts. Bad attitu de, alt hou gh not a crime, can yield har sh pu nish ment, as the

1 Micke)' Mou,e: preten d ; not se riou s â&#x20AC;˘ housing pro-ea. govcrn menT-spon sored huusing 5 heavy drink ing: drinking a large amo unt of alcohol â&#x20AC;˘ detention center: a buildi ng specifically for juvenile delinquents

12

Houston shop lifte r fou nd out. A jury in Los Angeles ordered one offend er to perform 750 hou rs of com mu nity service. And some teen co urts have seen their proceedings d isrup ted by par ticipants wh o ha ve doze d off, broken int o laughter, or arrived unprepared to try a case. " If young people are sufficiently different from adu lts to war rant a diff erent legal process, are they capable of run ning a cou rt ?" ask s Hurst. "Is that what we want ?" The Law Says: Be Home by 8:00

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It's a typical night in Ne w Orleans. At the St . T ho mas ho using proj ect ," 14-year -old boys spray gunfire into the night. Across town , in the city's famed French Q uarter, a grou p of teenage girls vomit on th e st reet after a night of heavy drinking.' Not far away, police burst into a motel room chockfull of stolen goods, an d arrest two 17-year olds and a Ie -year-old. As one of th e nation's most violent cities, New O rleans has had its share of you th crime. So last year, the city adopted a cur few to get teena gers off the stree t . Today, an yone under 18 mu st be indoors by 8 P.M . on scho ol nights and 11 P.M. Friday and Satu rday. N ew O rlean s police say the curfe w has produced dram ati c results. In th e past year, police have ro und ed up 3,900 kids for vio lating the cur few. Juvenile m urders have fallen by 33 percent, ra pe by 67 percent, armed ro bbery by 33 percent, and car theft by 42 percent. Seeing these results, local govern ments acro ss the nation have fou nd yo uth curfews hard to resist. Of the 77 lar gest American cities, 59 now have curfews . T he laws va ry from place to place. M ost allow po lice to ro und up teens at night, while ot hers also cover scho ol hours. In some cases, offenders ar e taken to detention centers;" in ot hers,


CRI ME AN D PU N I S H M E NT "

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they are handed a citation, like a par king ticket, and then escorted home. Despite their ap parent success, curfews have drawn a chorus of criticism from teens, parents, an d civil liberties advocates. Many law-abiding teens find the restricti ons unfair. " It is totally and co mpletely wrong to punish all of the teenagers whe n only a sma ll percentage are the rea lly guilty ones," says Jessica Levi, 15, of Washingto n, D.C., where a cur few was adopted this summer. Parents and their kids often complai n that curfews get in the way of after-school jobs, social act ivities, and ath letics. And civil liberties groups such as the America n Civil Liberties Unio n charge that curfews violate the First Amendment right to peac eful assembly. Cou rts have overtur ned" ma ny cu rfew laws on these grounds. Law enforcement gro ups, however, say you can 't argue with success. In Dallas, where crime dropped 15 percent dur ing curfew hours, po lice arc content with the new law. "We don 't look at the cur few as another way to hassle juveniles," says Vicki Hawkins of the police dep artme nt. "We look at it as ano ther tool to keep kids safe."

Punish the Parents When Ly-year-old Jeremiah Beck was caught shoplifting a bottle of cologne, he got off scot-free-but his mother didn 't. Though she hadn't set foot near the scene of the crime, Anita Beck went to court for Jeremiah's mista ke. The charge? Failing to super vise her son. Faced with a grow ing number of minor crimes committed by juveniles, the to wn of Silverto n, O regon, where the Becks live, passed a law ho lding pa rents responsi ble for their kids' wrong do ings. T he law allo ws judges to fine parents up to $1,000 and require them to ta ke "parent effectiveness" classes if the ir kids commit a minor crime.

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Th e law was recently adopted statewide and may beco me a model fo r communities around t he nation. The reason: It seems to be work ing. Since the law took effect in January, Silverton's juvenile crime rate has declined by 55 percent, Police Chief Randy Lunsford claims. Befor e, minor offende rs often went unpunished an d felt free to try more serious crimes, he says. Now, parents are forced to step in and police their kids before they grad uate fro m petty thievery to armed robbery. "This ordi nance was never meant to punish parents; it was meant to get them actively invo lved in parenting their kids," says Tina Lasater, assista nt to Silverto n's city man ager. "The kids are still held accou ntable. We're just putting the other element in: getting their parents involved." Not everyo ne co nsiders the law such a shining model. Many parents claim it's unco nstitut ional to cha rge one person for someone else's crime. "This law smac ks o f totalitarianism," says attorney Jossi Davidson , who represents a gro up of parents cha llenging the law. " It's too much govern ment intru sion into families' lives. It abso lutely violates due process," under wh ich you can't be pu nished unless you've do ne someth ing wro ng. " Anita Beck was found innocent, but sooner o r later, Dav idso n says, a Silverton parent who is found guilty will ap peal." A higher court, he predicts, will judge the law unconstitu tional. Meanwhile, other pa rents are still stuck in court. Sylvia Wh itney was cited when her 1 7~ yea r- o l d son, Scott, got caught wit h a beer. Wh ile Scott takes a court-ordered alcohol awa reness co urse, his mom is fighting the charge. Scott takes her side. "It should be my fault," he says. "1got in trouble; she didn't . The government's trying to be my dad, and it's not right."

; overturn: reverse a legal decis ion â&#x20AC;˘ due process: th e legal system th a t is meant to protect you as a citizen â&#x20AC;˘ appeal: to ask a higher co urt of law to cha nge the decision of a lower court of law


III

UN IT 2 â&#x20AC;˘

B. READING FOR MAI N ID EAS

Put the following main ideas in the order they appear in the article. N um ber them from 1 to 7. The first one has been done for you. __ a. Last year, N ew Orleans adopted a curfew to get teenager s off the street. __ b. Supporters say the cou rts are an effective wa y to reach delinqu ent teens before th ey become serious cr imina ls. __ c. N ot everyone con siders the pa rent al law such a shining model. _ _ d. Silverton, Oregon , passed a law holding par ent s responsibl e for th eir kids' wrongdoi ngs. _ _ c. Curfews have drawn a chorus of cr iticism from teens, parents, and civil liberties advocates.

__ f. Teen courts are becoming more and more popu lar every year. ~ 1 _ g.

Cities and to wns across the United States hav e come up with some unusual solutions to rcen crime.

C. READING FOR DETAilS

"Crime bust ing: What Wor ks? Me tho ds of Punishing" can be di vided int o three m ain parts. Each part descri bes a di fferent type of program.

Work in groups of three to complete the chart on the next page. Each person should complete the chart for a diffe rent program. Then share you r information with the group so that the chart is comp lete for all three programs.


C R I M E AN D

ARG UM ENTS IN FAVO R O F THE PROGRAM

TYPE O F PRO G RAM

P U N I SHM E NT "

ARG UM ENTS AGAINST

THE PROGRAM

Teen Court

____ _____ ___ ._.w_._ . . _w

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__ w__ w_w_w. __ .

.

.

~w

w

w

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•• : •• •• •• •• •

Teen Curfew

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- ---- - --- - - - ----- --_._._------~--- -------------- --------------~---------------------------------

Parental Law s

D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES

Read the following scenario. Comp lete the exercise in a small group. Yo ur group is the town cou ncil for a small town ca lled Little Bend. The town cou ncil is an elected gro up of people who act as the town's government . As a group , you make decisions on education, land development, town resou rces, and crime. You have gathered to day to discuss solut ions to your town's mo st recent problem: teen cri me. Last year, teens committe d 5 1 percent of all crimes. That is up 1a percent from the year before. You have co me together to decide on a program to red uce juvenile crime. Th ree programs have been pro posed: teen court, teen curfew, and parental laws.


.

UN IT

2 .

1. Decide wh ich p rogram wo uld be best for your comm un ity. Use th e chart in Exercise 3C on page 37 to talk a bout th e pros an d co ns of each program. Take no te of the following comm unity facts: • 10,000 people live in Little Bend • Th ere is a ten -pers on po lice department

You must also take the following issues into consideration: • H ow eas y is the program to set up an d maintain ? • Is the progra m fair to all the people involved ? • Does the program enco urage ed ucation for t he cr iminal? How ? • Does the program encourage st ronge r commun ication and comm itment within the family? H ow? • What do es the program focus on: the immediate benefit for society, or th e teen cr imina l? 2. Come to an ag reement and write a grou p paragrap h. In th e paragra ph, give th e group's decision and explain why the group cam e to the decision. 3. Exchange paragraphs with another gro up. Read th e other gro up's decision and discuss the simila rities and differences in rhe rwo decisions.

READING TWO : Michael Fay's Caning A. EXPANDING THE TOP IC

Read this background information, answer the questions that follow, and discuss your answers in small groups. Then read the two opinion statements written by American high school students at the time of Michael Fay's caning. On May 5, 1994 , Michael Fay, a 19-year-old American living in Singap ore, received a can ing (four whippings by a stick on his bar e bo tto m ) as p un ish men t for a cri me he committed. The crime: spraypainting graffiti on cars. In the United States, news of th e lashings received bo th support and cr iticism. Many people who were fed up w ith crime and violence felt the lashings were a goo d lesson for Fay and orher you ng peop le in volved with crime. Other peo ple felt the lashings were a cru el form of justic e and that because Fay was an American , he sho uld have been sent bac k to the United Stares to receive punishment.


Cll: IM{ AN I) PUN IS H"HN T

m

1. Do you think caning is an appropriate form of punishment ? Why or why not ? 2. Do you think that foreigners should receive the same form of punishment as nat ionals? Wh y or wh y not?

Spray-painting graffiti on a wall.

Michael Fay's Caning By Sarah Fenske and Tram Kim Nguyen (from The Plain Dealer )

Opinion Two

Opinion One

2

Ages ago , Socra tes wro te of the implied contr act . T his is the idea that if one voluntarily cho oses to live in a co unt ry, one has the duty to obey tha t country's laws and accept its jur isdiction . If you don 't intend to follow through on this contract, you have no busin ess living there. When Fay chose to live in Singapore, he made the unspoken decision to obey its laws and accept its punishment s. When Fay bla tan tly broke t he law, he co uld expect to receive the harsh punishment s t hat Singap ore is known for. As a resident , it was d early his duty to accep t it. His very presen ce in th e cou ntry indi cated his agreement to receive what the govern ment decreed, no matt er how unusual. Sarah Fenske, Lutheran High School

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Caning and other methods of cor pora l punishment do not have a p lace in our cult ure, where cruel and unusual p unishm en t is deemed unacceptable. The most evident proof of the failure of vio lent punishments to deter crime is th e death penalt y.' Death sentences have not mitigated the crises of teeming prisons and a society of victims. Even th e phrase s death by electrocution and death by injection so und absurd and incongruous with modern society. Those who pro pose such violent meth ods to end tee n cri me arc setting a preced ent whereby you nger childre n will learn the twisted idea that violence is accepta ble and th e ends justi fy the means. Tram Kim Nguyen , N ewbury High School

death penalty: sentencing a criminal to death; 38 of 50 states in The United States have th e deat h pena lty


l1li

U NIT 2 â&#x20AC;˘

Complete the following statements. 1. Sarah Fenske believes that if you live in a foreign co untry, you must

2. Tram Kim Ng uyen believes that "violent" p unish ments arc

B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

You have now read about four different uravs of dealing with juvenile crime. Discuss the following questions with your classmates. Theft choose one question and develop a well-written answer. Refer to the readings if necessary. 1. Some people believe that you mu st accept and ab ide by all the laws an d punish ments of the country or town in which you live. Ot hers disagree. Do you believe that you always have to agree with the laws an d pu nishments w herever you live? Are the laws always mad e to protect you? What can people do w hen they d isagree with the laws?

2. The juvenile punishments presented in this unit have bot h supporters and critics. Which punishments that you have read ab out in th is unit do you find accepta ble? Which p unishments do you find unacceptable? W hy?

REVIEWING I LAN GUAGE A . EXPLORING LANGUAGE

Work with a partner. Read the numbered sentence and the lett ered choices that follow. For each item, circle the lettered choice that is closest in mean ing to the numbered sentence.


C R I M E A N D P UN I S H M ENT

1. She didn't show the court any respect. Her dissing the jury was a very

big mista ke. a. She was rude and disrespectful to the co urt. b. She kept her distance an d remained cool. 2. These are no M ickey Mo use cou rts . a. Th ese co urts are very serious. b. T hese co urts arc not for young people. 3. The teens take this court very serio usly. And if they do n't, they learn their lessons the hard way. a. It is difficult for a teen to learn anything in court . b. Wh en teens are not serious about their cou rt appea rance, they will be in tro uble. 4. Dangling the optio n o f a teen jury before teenagers who wo uld ot herwise go befor e an adult judge ma y pressure th em to plead guilty, even if they're not. a. Teenagers who choose a teen jury are usually guilty. b. Many teenagers wou ld rather lie and say they are guilty th an go before an adult judge. 5. Some teen courts have seen their proceed ings disrupted by jurors who have dozed off, bro ken out in laughter, or arrived unprepared to try a casc o a. Some teen jurors have been rude, impolite, and unp repared in court. b. Some teen jurors laugh and sleep in court, but they always arrive ready to discuss the issues. 6. In t he past year, police have round ed up 3,900 teenagers for violating the law. a. Almosr 4,000 teenagers have been arrested in the last twelve months. b. There have been almost 4,000 rapes involving teenagers in th e last twelve mont hs. 7. We don't look at the cur few as anot her way to hassle juveniles. a. Curfews have not been established to bother juveniles. b. Estab lishing curfews has not been cons idered.

III


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UN I T 2 .

8. When 15- year-ol d Jeremia h Beck was cau ght shoplifting a bottle of cologne, he got off scot-free. a. Jerem iah Beck took a bottle of cologne, but he was not punished because the cologne was free. b. Although Jeremia h Beck stole a bot tle of co logne , he was not puni shed. 9. Now, parents are forced to step in and po lice their kids before they graduate fro m pett y th ievery to armed robber y. a. It's the parents' resp onsibility ro not let their kids progress from small to large crimes . b. Becau se of their parents, many teens commit crime s and therefor e have contact with the pol ice before the y graduate. 10. Th e government's trying to be my dad, an d it's not right. a. T he govern ment is trying to control areas of my life that do no t co ncern it. b. T he go vernment wants to arrest my fath er and put him on tria l.

B. WORKING WITH WORDS

Working with a partner, cross out the wo rd that does not belong in each group. Describe the category for the remaining three words . The first one has been don e for you . 1. detention center

commu nity work

fl 6fefl:t

elass

jail time

Category: k en punish ments by tradit ional courts 2. lethal injection Category: 3. traffic vio lations Category: 4. go to co urt Category:

electrocution

lashi ng

han ging _

sho plifting

pa y a fine

murder

underag e dr ink ing _

spray graffiti

attend parent class _


C !l IM E AN D PUN IS HM ENT

5. written apol ogies

community work

anti-theft class

III

jail time

Caregory: 6. shoplifting Ca tegor y:

_ robbery

7. stea ling beating Category:

rioting

stealing _

lashing

camng _

SKillS FOR EXPRESSION A. GRAMMAR : Gerunds and Infinitives

o

Exami ne the sentences and answer the questions with a partner. a. Decreasing crime is the goal of teen courts. b. The curfew proh ibited walking on the street afrer 8:00 1'. .\1. c. He was sent to jail for breaking the law. d. He said the governme nt was trying ~ his dad. e. The co urt can sentence offenders to perform commun ity service. f. Some juvenile offenders felt free .tQ...tIy more serio us crimes. g. You have a duty to obey the laws of the cou ntry yo u are in.

1. In sente nce a, what is the sub ject? 2. In sentence b, what is the ob ject of the verb ? 3. In sentence c, what word follows the preposition for? 4. Look at the unde rlined words in a, b, and c. Th ey are gerunds. How are gerunds formed? 5. In sentence d, the main verb is try. What is the verb that follows it ? 6. In sentence e, the main verb is senten ce. What is the object of the ma in verb? What is the verb tha t follows it ? 7. In sentence f, wha t is the verb that follows the adjective free? 8. In sente nce g, what is the verb that follows the noun duty? 9. Look at the underl ined wo rds in d, c, f, and g. They arc infinitives. How are infinitives formed?


III

UN I T 2 â&#x20AC;˘

Gerunds and Infinitives

Focus ON GRAMMAR

Gerunds

See Ge runds and Infinitives in Focus on Grammar, High

To form a gerund, add -ing to the base form of the verb.

Intermediate.

Use the gerund: 1. as the subject of a sen tence 2. as the obje ct of the sente nce after ce rtain verbs (such as: prohibit, admit, deny) 3. after a preposition (suc h as: for, in, of, about)

Infinitives To form an infinitive, use to an d the base fo rm of the verb. Use the infinitive after:

4. certain ver bs Some verb s are often foll owe d by an infi nitive (such as: try, fai/, hope) Some verb s are followed by an object and th en an infi nitive (such as: sentence, allow) O ther s are fo llow ed by an infi nit ive with or w ithout an obj ect

(such as: want, need ) 5. certai n ad jectives (suc h as: free, hard, w rong) 6. ce rtain nou ns (such as: duty, dec ision, method)

e

Underline the gerund or infinitive in each sentence below. Work with a partner and decide which of the rules in the above grammar box applies to each sentence. Write the number of the rule in the space next to each lettered sentence. Th e first one has been do ne for you.

_1_ a. 5..e.e.i.n.g, th e results helpe d local governments ma ke a decision. _ _ b. Teens plead guilty in excha nge for having thei r pena lty set by a jury of their peer s. _ _ c. Local governments ac ross th e natio n hav e fo und youth cu rfews hard to resist. __ d. The lipst ick thief needed to perform 4 8 hours of community service.


C R I M E A N D P U N I SHM E NT

_ _ e. A jury in Los Angeles sentenced one offender to perform 75 0 hou rs of comm unit y service. _ _ f. She's already admitted shoplifting a tube of lipstick. _ _ g. Some peop le say it is a citizen's duty to obey all laws even if the law seems unfair. _ _ h. Some say because Fay did not choose to live in Singapore, he shou ld have been sent ho me for his pun ishment. _ _ i. Are teenagers capable of runn ing a co urt? _ _ j. Some peop le wa nted the city to establish a curfew for teenagers.

e

Read the following information about teen crime. Summarize each situation using a form of the first verb given and the gerund or infinitive form of the second verb. Th e first one has been done for you.

1. The town set a curfew for teenagers. T hey had to be off the streets by 8:00 P.M.

the town did n't a llowt eena gers t o be on the s treet after 8 :00

P.M.

(not allo w/he)

2. Th e teenager's parent s were never at home during the day. They didn't know what he d id all day or who his friends were.

(fail/ supervise]

3. The grocery store was missing a can dy bar. Th e boy was found with a candy bar in his pocket. He said that he had taken it.

[ad mit/shoplift]

4. The teenager hadn't committed the crime. Th ere was no evidence implicating him. Nevert heless, he was convic ted and sent to a juvenile detention center.

(be w rong/punish]

1m


.

UN IT 2 .

5. The teenage r wa s convicted . The judge to ld h is parent s that they were responsible for the teen's acti ons. T herefo re the y had to pay a fine and take a course on "effective parent ing."

(sent ence/pa rticip ate)

6. Although the teen adm itte d that she had co mm itted the crime, she begged th e judge not to send her to jail. She th ought something bad wou ld happen to her there.

(be afraid of/g o )

7. There are man y ways th at a com munity can protect its citizens . Curfew, more police, stricter laws, and education arc a few of the ways tha t a community can choose.

(choose/pro tect)

8. Th e parent was shocked. She kept shaking her head in disbelief. She co uldn't believe th at her son had been in volved in a crime.

(be surprised/hear}

9. After he was caught with the sto len car, the teen said he was very sorry for what he had done and for the damage he had caused to the car. H e real ized th at he had been very foolish and wanted people to forgive him.

(a po logize for/steal)

10. Despite all t he evidence, the teenager said that he hadn't written th e graffiti on the schoo l wall.

(deny/write)


CR I ME A N D P U N I S H M E N T

IfI

B. STYlE : The Three-Part Paragraph

o

Work with a partner. Examine the paragraph below and answer the questions that (ollow .

Th ere are many problems with implementing a teen curfew in our town. First o f all, not all teens are criminals, but if we are treat ed as criminals, we will begin to believe we are. In addition , many teens have busy lives; the cur few will interfere with our lives. I, fo r example, wor k at a movie theater on the weekends an d do not get out of work unt il after midnight. Finally, the law doe sn't even mak e sense because sta tistics show that teen crime occurs mo st frequently in the aftern oons between 3:00 and 5:00 P.M ., not in the late evening. In concl usion, the usc of curfews is not on ly senseless, but it also treat s teens as second-class citizens, witho ut the respect and support that we need. It is respect and support that will keep us off the street, not curfews .

1. What is the top ic of the paragraph ? Underline it. 2. What is the contro lling idea ? Circle it, 3. What are the supporting sentences? Double-underline them. 4. Wha t is the co nclusion? Unde rline it, NOTE: For more information on topic se ntences and co ntrolling ideas. see Unit 1.

The Paragraph A paragraph is a group of sentences that talks about one main idea . There are usually three parts to a paragraph: the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and the concluding sentence. The Topic Sentence The topic sentence introduces the subject you are going (0 write about and your ideas or opinions about the subject. In (his way, it controls what you write in the rest of the paragraph. Fo r examp le, in the paragraph above, the fi rst sentence is the topic sentence. It introduce s the topic, teen curfews, and the controlling idea, many problems. All the sentences in the paragraph must relate to, describe, or exemplify the topic sentence.


.

UNIT 2 .

Suppo rting Sentences The second part of the paragraph includes deta ils o r examples that deve lo p your idea s about the topic. This part of the paragrap h is usua lly the longest, as it discusses and explains the contro lling idea. In the pa ragraph in 68, page 47, there are three examples of prob lems with havin g a teen curfew : it makes all teens feef like crimina's; it interferes with daily life; it doesn't make sense.

The Concluding Sentence The last part of the paragraph can do several things. It ca n summarize the paragraph, offer a solution to the problem , restate the introd ucto ry sentence, or offe r an opi nion. The paragraph in 68, page 47,

concludes with: In concl usion, the use of curfews is not only senseless, but it a/50 treats teens as second-class citizens. This paragraph a lso adds the final co mme nt: It is respect and support tha t will keep us off the street, not curfews.

Transition Words Transition words are ofte n used in sup po rting sen tenc es and concluding sentences. They help the reader follow the progress ion of examples, details, and idea s. Some of these words are listed belo w. Transition Words

For the first suppor t

First, For one thing, First of all

For additional support

In addition, Furthermore, Moreover,. Also, Ano ther reason

For examples

For example, For instance, Specifically

Fo r final support

Finally, Last of all

For the co nclu sion

In short, In conclusion, In summary

NOTE:Transition words and phrases are followed by a comma L).


CR IME A N D PUN ISHMENT

e

Read each topic sentence and cross alit the one lettered idea that do es not suppor t the topic sentence. The first one has been done for you.

1. Some peop le believe that juvenile cou rt is not fair

to

the defendant s.

a. Reason s why juvenile courr isn't fair

h. l)t'finirioA of

j tH

el"i ile ,Oliff

c. What the defenda nts think about juvenile court 2. La ws that punish parents for their children's crimes get parents involved in their children 's lives. a. Reason s wh y parents get involved b. Examples of how pare nts become involved c. Other wa ys (besides these laws) parents can become involved with their child ren 3. Juvenile crime seems to be on the rise all over the world. a. Some examples of crime statistics from around the world b. Wh at juveniles do in their free time c. Reason s why juvenile crime is on the rise 4. When peo ple choose to live overseas, they must obey the laws of that country no ma tter how harsh they may seem. a. Reasons why people choose to live overseas b. Reasons wh y peopl e should obey the laws c. Reasons why peop le should expect to receive pun ishments

. . In each of the following paragraphs there is one suppo rting sentence that does not directly relate to the topic sentence. Cross out this sentence and ex plain why it is unrelated. The first one has been done for you. 1. There arc a number of reasons w hy juvenile co urt is not fair to teen defendants. First. teens may plead guilty just so they ca n avo id adult court. In add ition, many teen jury members are not mature enough to judge their peers reasonab ly. FiAAll,., IllAR)' aetelH:lanrJ Jwuld IoJe tfied ft.l atltllt!9. Clearly th ese con cern s must be addressed if we want these courts to succeed.

Exp lanation: This paragraph explains why teen courts are unfair to teens, not why teens should be tried as adults.

IIEI


.

UNIT 2 .

2 . Making laws that punish parents for th eir chi ld ren's crimes is a good way to get parents involved in their child rens' lives. First of all , parent s must stop their childre n from committing cri mes if they themselves don't wa nt to go to jailor be fined. Furth ermore , in oth er cou nt ries these laws seem to work. Most importantly, it opens communication bet ween the parents and the childre n beca use they are all involved. Explan ation:

3. J uvenile crime seems to be on the rise all over rhc worl d. Fo r example, in H am bu rg, Germa ny, cri mes committe d by children increased by 24 .7 percent. Also, in Poland juvenile crime increased by 10 percent. Even more shocking, in Russia th e juvenile crime ra te increased 6 percent in the first four months of th is year. J uven ile cri me was no t an issue when I was growing up. We mu st make every effort to find the ca use of this international t rend and try to sto p it. Exp lanation:

4. When peop le cho ose to live overseas, they must ob ey th e laws of tha t country no matter how harsh they may seem. For one thing, yo u can't expect the laws to change just because yo u are a foreigner, Anot her re aso n is, by disrespecting the laws of the cou ntry yo u are disrespecting the people and the culture. Finall y, as the expression says, "When in Rom e, do as the Ro mans do. " We arc all citizens of plan et Eart h and sho uld learn to get along. Expla nation :

o

For each to pic sentence below, write two or three supp orting sentences. Use transition words and phrases.

1. T here are so me important things parents can do to keep their children away from a life of crime.


C R I M E A ND

P U NI SH M E N T

2. Sports are a good way to keep teens off the streets .

3. There are man y ways people can work together to keep communities safe from crime.

4. Being a teenager is difficult, especially if you move overseas .

5. Punishment s for juvenile crime vary from state to state and country to count ry.

III


m

UN IT 2 â&#x20AC;˘

Ilg~~OUR I A. WRITING TOPICS

Write a paragraph abou t one of the following topics. Be sure to include a topic sentence and to support your ideas with examples and details. Include transition words and a concluding statement. L In yo ur ow n cult ure, how ar c juvenile crime offenders trea ted? Do you agree with the treatm ent ? Why or why not? 2 . Do you believe teens shou ld have the sa me rights and privileges as adu lts? Why or wh y not ? 3. Do you think tee ns should be tried and convicted as ad ults? If yes, w hy and under what circu msta nces? If no , why not? 4. Shou ld teenagers under eighteen years of age be sent to their hom e co untries for trial when convicted of crimes overseas? 5. What kinds of programs should cities and to wn s prov ide for teens to keep them off the streets and aw ay from lives of crim e?

B. FIEL DW O RK

RESEARC H ACTI VITY

Research a teen court organization through your loea/library or on the Internet at keywords teen court and/or juvenile court. If you do not have access to a library or the Internet, write a letter to an organization requesting information (see references on page 53). Try to find the following information:


(R IM E AND P U NI SH M E NT

• Program purpose, goals, and ob jectives • Methods used • Sentencing options • Selection, use, and training of volunt eers • Success rates (statistics)

SHAR ING YOUR FINDINGS \Vhen yO Il have collected the information , share your findings with your classmates. Compare different programs. REFERENCES For general informat ion about teen cou rts, an excellent reso urce is: Nationa l Crimina l Justice Reference Service P.O . Box 6000 Rockville, ~ID 208 49 Intern et: hrrp:llwww.ncjrs.org The following are addresses for individua l teen court program s: Mid land Texas Teen Co urt Program Midland ISD Admini stration Building 6 15 West Missou ri #226 Midland,1')( 79701 Internet: http://www.basinJink.com Knox County Teen Co urt 55 West Tompkins Street Galesburg, IL 61402 Internet: httpv/rqd.advanced.org Division 7 Aurora Mun icipal Ju stice Center 15001 E. Aurora Drive Auro ra, CO 80012 Internet: htrp :llwww.ci.aurora.co.uslmuntccn. htm l

III


. . UNI T 2 â&#x20AC;˘

Keywords

Here are some other useful keywo rds fo r searching for ot her resou rces on th e Intern et: tcen court information implementing teen courts juvenile justice problems and juvenile justice alternative juvenile justice


APPROACHING THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING I

Look at the title of this unit and the photograph. Then answer these questions with a partner. 1. What do you think are some types of conventional medical treatment? 2. What do you think are some types of nonconventlonal, or alternative, medical treatment? 3. Which types have you used? 4. Who do you think should be responsible for deciding what or how much medical treatment a person receives? Is this also true in the case of children? 55


.U N IT l. B. SHARING IN FORMATION

Read the following statements regarding medicine. Write A if you agree or D if you disagree. Discuss your answers in small groups.

_ _ 1. If you a re sick, taking drugs (medicine) is th e best way bett er.

to

get

__ 2. Praying ca n cu re sick ness . _ _ 3. People who ha ve a positive attitude will be cured fas ter than those who don't ha ve a positi ve at t itud e. _ _ 4. Sickness is o ften only in the mind o f the person who is ill. __ 5. M edicine co uld be mor e effect ive if we pa id mor e atte nt ion to alternative an d natural or her bal remedies. _ _ 6. Rest, proper diet, exercise, and fresh air a re the best kinds of treatment . _ _ 7. Patients have the rig ht to ch oose the tr ea tment they believe in, conventi onal o r a lternative, even if doctors do not agree. _ _ 8. Parents, rather than doctors or th e go vernme nt, sho uld choose the treatme nt they believe is best for their children.

PREPARING I TO READ A. BACKGROUND

Read this information and do the exercise that follows on page 57. Mary Baker Eddy: Founder of the Christian Sc ie ntists M a ry Baker Eddy was an American religiou s leade r and th e found er of the Christian Science movement. She was bo rn in Bow, Ne w Hampsh ire (USA), on J uly 16, 1821. As a child she was not very hea lthy; as a resu lt she missed a grea t dea l of sch oo l. H er edu cati on came through ho me schooli ng a nd study of the Bible and scriptu res . She continued to suffer from poor hea lth as an ad ult a nd tried many alternative th erapies of the times . T hese included mesme rism (hypnosis),


D YIN G F O R TH E IR B ELIE F S "

hydrotherapy (water cures), and mental heal ing. On ce, after falling o n ice and suffering a severe injury, she asked for her Bible and read a Gospel ' accounr of one of Jesus's healings. Afrer reading the New Testa ment;' she was com pletely cured and felt she had finally found the answer to her medical problems: th e scriptures.' Eddy believed that all sickness was mental rather tha n physical. She bega n the p ractice o f hea ling others by reading the Bible an d teac hing ot hers to be healers as well. In 1875 she published Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures . Eddy later pu blished sixtee n other books. In 1879 she founde d the Churc h of Christ, Scientist, an organization she oversaw closely unti l her dea th. H er followers, the Christian Scientists, believe that disease, as well as sin and death, do not originate with God and therefore arc not real. They see God as the on ly hea ler. Instead of medicinal remedies, Christian Scientists pray for the sick pers on. In addit ion, a church "practitio ner?" p rays for the sick and a church nurse gives non medical physical ca re.' The church, however, does not stop its members from seeing a doctor; it leaves the choice to the individual. The ch urch does perm it co nvent ion al therap y for "mechanica l" p ro blems such as broken bones and dental cavities. Today there are mo re than 2,700 Christian Science churches worldw ide. Gospel: in the Bible, one of th e fo ur stories of Chri ~r's life New Testament: pa rt of the Bible that tells abou t Chr ist's life and his teachings ' scriptures; holy books or w ritings of a religion; the w ritings of the Bible â&#x20AC;˘ "practitioner": a person who has been schooled and trai ned in pr aying for the sick I nonmed irol physical care; includes tak ing care of hygiene and dieta ry needs as well as caring for woun ds and inju ries; does not include giving any medicatio n 1

2

No t everyone believes in conventional medicine. Some peop le do not agree that doctors, drugs, or surgery are the best way to treat medical problem s. Instead. they seek alternative ty pes of medical care. Mary Bak er Eddy created a religious movement whose beliefs supported non conventional medical care. What do yo u think? Complete the following sentences ind ividually and then discuss your answers with a partner.

1. Some people try nonconvc ntiona l met hods of healing because

_

2. Man y peo ple look to spiritu al healing-read ing religious script uresto help them get better because

_

3. I agree (o r disag ree) with Mar)' Baker Eddy's phi losophy that all sickness is mental rather than physical beca use

_


â&#x20AC;˘

UNI T

1.

B. VOCABULARY FO R COMPR EH EN SION

Reading On e examines the role of the legal system in controlling a person 's choice of medical treatment. Look at this list of words and put them in one of the two categories in the chart below. Discuss their meaning with a partner. I f you are not sure of their meaning, use you r dictionary. Some words may be applied to both categories. Verb phrases commit (a crime) co nvict go (to co urt)

heal judge shed (weight) stand (tr ial) suffer

LEG A L SYSTEM VOCABU LARY

Nouns accuser ailment a mb ulance attorne y a utopsy consequence d iabete s felony mansla ughter physicia n pra ctitioner prosecutor stomachache

Adjective phrase s list less sun ken (eyes)

MEDICAL VOCABULARY


D Y I NG F OR THEI R B ELIEF S "

'=~~==2....::Dying for Their Beliefs A. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC

Read the first three paragraphs and discuss these questions with a partner. W hat is t he p roblem ? What do yo u t hin k is h appe nin g to Am y at h o m e ?

Dying for Their Beliefs: Christian Scientist Parents on Trial in Girl's Death By Jeffrey Good (from St. Pete rsburg Times)

2

3

4

1 2

Amy H ermanson was a sunny seven-year-old with blond hair and bubbly ways. She liked to serenade ad ults with her favor ite song: Disney's " It's a Small World After All." But Amy's world went a wry on e Sunday in 1986. An adult friend of her family noticed t he child 's sunken eyes, her listless manner, the way her clothes hung from her tiny bones. She tried to get th e chi ld to sing her favorite song. " She used to come over and sing every verse to me. I couldn 't even get her to make a comment on the song , let a lone sin g it ," the friend, Ma ry Christman, would later tell investigators. She recalled her husband saying, "If the child does not receive medical attent ion, she will be dead wit hin a week." But Amy's parent s are Chris tia n Scient ists. T hey decided to try to heal the child with prayer rat her than seek a do cto r's aid. Two da ys aft er the Christmans saw her, Amy died of diabetes.

5

6

7

On M onday, Amy's parent s are sched uled to go on trial in t he Sarasota Cou nty Cou rt house on charges of third-degree murder' and felony ch ild abuse." Prosecu to rs say Will iam and Ch ristine Hermanson committe d a crime by putt ing religious principles ahead of prot ecting their daughter. Th e Hermansons say their accusers ar e wrong. If convicted, the co uple co uld face th ree to seven years in jail. At issue is a legal p rinciple with national ramifications. Since 1967, no Chr istian Scient ist in the United States has stood trial for denying children med ical care for religious reasons. Six simi lar cases arc pending, but t he Hermansons are th e first to go to court. "T he children are entitled to protection, and if t he parents wo n't give it to th em, th ey [th e parents] will suffer the [legal] conseque nces," says M ack Futch, an ass ista nt state atto rney 10 Sarasota County.

third-degree m urde r; murder with out intention felony child abuse: a serious crime involving hurt ing a child physically or psycho logically


. 8

9

10

It

12

13

14

15 3

UNIT

J .

T he H er ma nson s, however, ha ve mai nt ain ed that prosecutors wa nt to viola te th eir co nstitutional right of religious freedom. And in inter views last w eek, their su ppo rters maintained th at the couple treated their da ughter with a provcnif unconventional-met hod of healing. Frederick H illier, a Christian Science "practitione r" wh o was ministering to the child w hen she died, said that Chri stian Scientis ts regard pray er as a better treatment than co nventional medicine. "A Christian Scientist is doing nothing an y different chan anyone wh o has foun d medica l tr eatment to be effective," said H illier, who also acts as the spokesman for Flo rida Christian Scie nce ch urc hes. "W hy do Christian Scient ists rely on spiritual healing when t hey could go to a physician if they wanted to? In their experience , they found it to be effective. " Churc h me mbers acknowledge that th eir methods somet imes fail, just as doctors sometimes fail, he sa id . But t ha t do esn't mea n th e Chr ist ian Scient ists deserve criminal charges any more than t he doctors do , he said. "We don't claim an y more than anyone else cla ims to be t OO percent effective," H illier said. "Even Jesus did n't. " Amy's th ird grade report ca rd was her last. It showed A's in reading, English, spelling, mathematics, science, and social studies. "Amy tak es a keen inte rest in all her work, " a teache r w rote. But in September 1986, Am y began fo urth grade as a d iffere nt child . Teach ers not iced her doz ing off in class, shedding weight a t an ala rm ing rate, and comp lai ning of st omac hac hes . At one point, she held her hands over her ea rs and pleaded, " Stop the noise. Sto p the noise," at the sound of a pencil scratching pa per. "After the school year began , Am y was ofte n upset. She wo uld cry an d sa y that she did not feel well," said June R. McH ugh, directo r of the privat e Julie Rohr Acade my attended by Amy a nd her o lder brother, Eric. McHu gh told investigators that about a week before Amy's death , she to ld Mrs. H erman son her daughter might be suffer ing fro m a physica l ailment. M cl-Iugh recalled that M rs. H erma nson said "t he sit uat ion w as being handled. " O n Sep te m ber 22, on e of the practitioners bega n pra ying for the child. On September 25, the H ermansons left Amy in

material: relate d

16

17

18

a ba by -sitte r's care a nd wen t t o Indian a for a Chr istian Science conference on spiritual healing. T hey returned on September 29. But a t 8:30 A .;\t. on Septembe r 30, 1986, a sta te socia l wor ker in Saraso ta took a call from Am y's au nt. The worker's notes sk et ched a chilling picture: "Ov er the last tw o weeks (Amy) has lost 10 pou nds , drink s constantly, eats large a mounts o f food, m uscle tone is virtually gone, eyes a re sunken and functioning sepa ra tely. Child can barely wa lk and has to be carried-All indicat ions poin t to diabetes bu t pa rents ref use to ta ke said child to the do c to r as they are Chris t ia n Scienti sts." A court hear ing was scheduled for 1:30 j '.,\t. an d Am y's fat he r arrived ea rly. At 1:2 7 P.M ., Hermanso n took a phon e call fro m home reporting th at Amy had taken a turn fo r the w orse and a n ambulance w as en rout e. Learning t his, t he jud ge ordered th at a medical doctor exa mine Amy. But it was too late. With Chr istian Science practit ioner Hillier nearby, Am y had died in her parents' bed. Most Importa nt Right

19

20

21

After performing an autopsy on the ch ild , Associate M edi cal Exa miner Ja mes C. Wil son concl uded t ha t med ica l treatment up to just hour s before her death p robably co uld ha ve saved Amy. T he H erm anson s have ack nowledged they never sought such treatmen t. That does not make th em cr iminal s, say their lawyers a?d supporte rs. "There isn't any one w ho is more loving to their ch ildren t ha n Chri stian Scie ntist s, " said Bob Dra bik, chairma n of the boa rd of d irectors a t Sa raso ta 's First Ch urch, Chr istian Science, w here the H erman sons a re mem bers. fl orida la w sa ys parents can 't be judged "a bus ive o r neglect ful " bec ause th ey w it hh o ld co nventio nal med ica l treatment fo r religio us reasons . Similar la ws exist in most st ates. T hey were enacted under heavy lo bb ying from th e Bo ston-based church after one of its me m bers, Dorothy Sher idan of H a r wich, M assachusett s, w as convict ed in 1967 o f manslaughter in the dea t h of her child . " Willia m a nd Chr istine Hermanson, at all times mat erial! to the fact s in


DY ING FOR T H EI R BEl i EF S "

22

this case, followed the religious teach ings of the ir church an d relied upo n Chris tian Science healing in the care and treatment of Amy Hermanson," the court record states . Wit hin the legal community, there is considerab le debate over whether that is an adequate defense when a child dies. Harvard law professor Alan Dershowirz says that such trials revolve a round two impor tant co nsti tutiona l rights: parents' freedom o f religion, an d ch ildren's right to grow up healthy.

23

24

In cases where o ne right must take pr io rity, Dcrshowitz says, the choice is clear: "It's not a difficult question. Children have a right to live and be brought up to make their own religious decisions ... Hillier, the Christian Science spokes man , said that church members view prayer as the best way to make sick children well. "We don't want the right to do harm to childre n," he said, "we only want the right to do what is good for chi ldren."

B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

Com plete the following sentences based on your un derstanding of the reading. 1. Amy's disease was _

2. Amy cou ld have been saved if

3. Her parents are going on trial because

_

~

4. Chr istia n Scient ists and ot her supporters defend the Hermansons because

5. Some people in th e legal co mmunity believe that there are two issues:


I!I

U N IT 1 â&#x20AC;˘

C. READING FOR DETAILS

Write whether the following sentences are true (T ) or false (F l.

_ _ 1. If Amy had received medical ca re just two hours before she died, she probably could have been saved.

__ 2. Some of the symptoms of Amy's disease we re: loss of weight, stomachac hes, and an inte nse inte rest in schoolwork. _ _ 3. Th e H erman son s fed chi ldren ha ve t he right rel igious decisions.

to

m ake their own

__ 4. Chris tian Scientists and their sup porters believe they want only to do what is go od fo r their children. _ _ 5. Chr ist ian Scientis ts believe pray er is better tha n conventi onal medicine.

_ _ 6. In Flor ida, pa rents can be judged "abusive or neglectful" if they choose to deny their child ren co nventional medical care for religio us reasons.

D. READI NG BETWEEN THE LINES

Work in groups and decide which of the following peop le could have made the statements on the nex t page. In some cases, it is possible that more than one of these people could have made the statement. Write the appropriate lett er(s) nex t to each statem ent. Refer to the reading to supp ort your answers. a. Amy Hermanson sick child b. Alan Dersho witz Harvard law professor

e. Dorot hy Sherida n Christian Scientis t con victed of manslaugh ter

f. Ja mes C. Wilson associate medical examiner

c. Mack Fut ch assistant state attorney d . Frederic k H illier Christian Science "practitioner" and spokesman


DY ING FOR TH E I R REL I EF S .

1. If parents don't give the ir children medical protection, the co urt (govern ment) mus t then get involved.

2. Prayer, althoug h not always effective, is the best treat ment ava ilable.

3. The Hermansons are responsible for Amy's death. 4. This was a senseless death. Medica lly, it co uld have been prevented.

5. O ur right to religiou s freedom allows us to decide what is best for our children. 6. Being a good studen t is easy if you can concentrate on you r schoo lwork . 7. A child sho uld be ab le to live long enough to ma ke his/her own religious decisions.

8. It's wo rth being convicted of a crime if what we do is for the benefit of our children. 9. Spiritual healing is just as legitimate a type of medical treatment as drugs. _ _ 10. A child's right to live is mo re importa nt than his or her parents' religious beliefs.

,R EA D I N G TWO : A. EXPAN D I NG TH E TOP IC

Read this background information about Norman Cousins. Work with a partner and answer the questions that follow. Then read "Norman Cousins's Laugh Therapy." No rman Cousins was a well-kn own writer and editor who, when diagnosed with a serious illness, decided to find his own type of alternative therapy. After writing abo ut his reco very, he received ma il fro m all over the world. Many letters came fro m doctors . They supported

Charlie Chaplin, comedian


Dl UNIT

J .

his idea. N or man Cousins stresse d the importan ce of a positive attitude in healing. 1. What do you think Norman Cousins mean t by "a positive attitude in healing" ? 2 . What do yo u th ink you can do to have a posi tive attit ude?

3. Why do you think Charlie Chaplin (see the photograph on page 63) could be associa ted with a positive attitude an d healing?

orman Cousins's Laugh Thera12Y-

1

In the summe r of 1964, we ll-known writer and edi tor Norma n Cousins became very ill. H is bod y ached an d he felt con stantly tired. It was difficu lt for him to even mo ve around . H e consulted his physician, who did many tests. Event ually he was d iagnosed as havi ng ankylosing spo ndy litis, a very serious and destruct ive form of arthritis.' H is doctor told him that he would becom e immobili zed- and event ua lly d ie from the disease. H e was told he had only a 1 in 500 cha nce of survival. Despite the diagnos is;' Cousins was derermined to overcome the disease and survive. H e had always been interested in med icine and ha d read the work of organic chem ist H ans Selyc, The Stress of Life (1956 ). This book discussed the idea o f ho w body che mistr y and health ca n be dam aged by emoti onal stress an d negativ e atti t udes. Selyc's boo k made Cou sins think about the possible benefits of po sitive attitudes an d emotions. He tho ught, " If negative emot ions produce (negative) changes in the body, wou ldn' t po sitive emotions produce positive chemical changes? Is it possible that love, hop e, faith, laughter, confidence, and the

3

4

arthritis: a disease {hal ca uses pain a nd swelling of t he joints of the bod y immo bilized: not able 10 move J diagnosis : identificatio n of the cau se or nat ure of an illness

1

2

will to live have positive therapeutic value?" H e decided to concentrate on positive emo tion s as a remedy to heal some of the sym pto ms of his ailment . In addit ion to his conventiona l medica l treatment, he tried to put himself in situations that would elicit positive emot ions . "Laugh therap y" became part of his treatment . H e sched uled time each da y for wa tch ing comedy films, reading humorous books, and doing other act ivities that wo uld bring about laughter and posi tive emotions. Within eight days of starting his " laugh therap y" pro gra m his pain began to decrease and he was able to sleep more easily. H is body chem istry even improved. Doctors were able to see an improvement in his condition ! H e was able to retu rn to work in a few months' time an d actually reached co mplete recovery after a few years. Skeptical readers may qu estion th e do cto r's prelimina ry diagnosis, but Co usins believes his recovery is the result of a mysterious mind-b ody interaction. H is " laugh therapy" is a good exa mp le of on e of the many alterna tive, or nonconventio nal, medical treatments people look to toda y.


DY IN G

F O R T HE IR

R ELIEF S

III

Write short answers to the following questio ns.

1. What was No rma n Cous ins's origina l diagno sis?

2. How did he react, or respond, to his diagnosis?

3. What is the con nection between mind and body in laugh therapy?

4. What are some examp les of la ugh therapy?

5. What was the result of Cous ins's laugh therapy?

B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

Work in a small group . Discuss the following questions. Then choose one of the questions and write your own response.

1. What are the similarities and differences between Norman Cousins's laugh therapy and the Christian Scientists ' therapy through prayer and the Bible? 2. No rman Cousins decided to take responsibility for his own health care; he applied laugh therapy. In other wo rds, he used an alterna tive form of trea tment to help cure his arthritis-and he is con vinced this therapy saved his life. He used his right as an adult to choose the treatmen t he believed was best for him. Does this right also exten d to parent s' choice of treatment they believe is best for their child? Why or why not?


_ UNIT3. REVIEWING LANGUAGE A . EXPLORING LANGUAGE

Work with a partner. Indicate wh ether the following pairs of words are similar (S) or different (D) in meaning. Th e first one has been done for you.

, 1. doze

, sleep

:, S

--------------------------~- ---------- ----------------~---------_._-

2. sympto m

,: a ilmen t ,: ---------------------- --- -~-----------_ .. _.. _------ ---~------ - ----' . , 3. persuade :, convince :, , 4. skeptic ,: follow er , , , --------------------------~---------------------------~------------5. co nventional : alternat ive ,: , , --------------------------~---------------------------~------------

.

6. princ ipl es

: bel iefs

â&#x20AC;˘

,

:

.â&#x20AC;˘

--------------------------.--------- -------------- ----~ -------------

7. accuse

:, ,: defend , , 8. attorney :, law yer ,: , , --------------------------~---------------- -----------~-----------9. acknow ledge :, admi t ,: , , -----------~-~------------~--------------------------~------------10. shedding ,: losing ,: ---------_._--------------~-----, ------ - -- - ---~- -- - -- -~ , - -- -~-------11. debate ,,: agreement ,,:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ . _ - - - - - - ~ - _ . _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~~ - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -


D YI NG FOR TH EIR BEl i EFS "

B. WORKING WITH WORDS: An a logie s

An an alogy is a comparison between two words that seem similar or are related in some way. In the word sets below, the two words in the secon d set relate to each ot her in the same way that the two words in the first set relate to each other. For example, in set 1 arthritis is a type of diagnosis; in the same way, achiness is a type of symptom .

Working with a partner, discuss the relationship between the words . Underline the word that best completes each analogy. The first one has been done for you. 1. arthritis is to diagnosis as achiness is to

a. disease

b. symptom

_

c. cure

2. therapy is to cure as treatment is to a. heal

_

b. regimen

c. practitioner

3. lawyer is to attorney as doctor is to a. nurse

b. patient

_ c. physician

4. typical is to common as unconventional is to

a. conventional

_

b. mainstream

5. judge is to verdict as doctor is to a. symptom

_

b. diagnosis

6. medicine is to physician as law is to a. prosecutor

b. accuser

c. disease

_ c. attorney

7. evidence is to crime as symptom is to a. Jury

b. ailment

c. alternative

_

c. treatment


¡ U N IT 3. IsKill S

FOR EXPRESSION A. GRAMMAR : Past Unre al Condit ionals

o

Work with a partner. Examine the sample sentences below. Write whether the statements following these sentences are true (T ) or false (F). a..If Amy hadn't died, the medica l exa miner wouldn't have examined her. b.If Amy's pa rent s had seen a conventiona l docto r, Amy cou ld have taken me dicine to control her dia betes. c.If Amy ha d sung her favo rite song, M rs. Chr istman might not ha ve noticed she was sick. In a: Am y died .

_

The medical examiner didn' t exa mine her body.

_

In b: Amy's par ents didn 't see a convent iona l do ctor.

_

Amy didn't ta ke medicine to cont ro l her di a betes.

In c: Amy did n't sing her favorite song.

_

_

M rs. Chr istman didn't not ice she was sick.

_

Past Unr eal Conditional

Foc us O N GRAMMAR See Unreal Conditionals: Past in Focus on Gramma r, H igh Intermediate.

Form of th e Past Unreal Conditional A past unreal conditio na l sente nce has two cla uses: the if clause, which states the co nd itio n, and the result clau se, which states the result. The sen tence can begin with either the if clause or the result clause and the meaning is the same. Not ice the use of the comm a (,) when the if clause co mes at the beginning of the sentence. Notice also the verb forms used in each clause . If Clause

Result Clause

If + subject + past perfect, subject + would (not) have + past participle could (not) have might (not) have â&#x20AC;˘ If Amy hadn't died, he would not have examined her.


D YING

Result Clause

F OR

TH EI R BE L IE F S

If Clause

Subject + would (not) have + past participle if + subject + past participle could (not ) have might (not) have â&#x20AC;˘ Amy could have taken medicine if her parents had brought her to a doctor. Meaning of the Past Unreal Co nditiona l The past unreal con ditional talks about past unrea l, untrue (co ntrary to fact). or imagined co nd itions and their results. Both parts of the sentence describe eve nts that are the opposite of what really happened . Conditiona l statement:

Mrs. Christman might not have not iced if Amy had sung.

What really happened :

Mrs. Christman noticed. Amy didn't sing.

The past unrea l co nditio nal is often used to express regret about what really happened . To express possibility or uncertainty abou t the resu lt clause, use m ight have or could have in the result clause.

e

Read the condi tional sentences . Decide if the statements that follow each conditional are true or false. Write Tor F. The first one has been done for you.

1. If Mary Baker Eddy hadn't slipped on the ice, she wo uldn 't have broken her ankle. _ T_ She slipped on the icc. _ F_ She d idn 't break her ankle. 2. If Norma n Co usins had been healthy, he wo uldn' t have had to try laugh therapy. _ _ N or man Cousi ns was healthy. _ _ H e d idn't have to try laugh therap y.

IlII


.

UNIT 3 .

3. According to the medical examiner, Amy H ermanson might ha ve lived if she had been given medication. _ _ Amy died.

_ _ Amy was n' t given medication. 4. lf Amy had stayed awak e in class, her teacher might nor have noticed that something was wrong. _ _ Amy slept in class. _ _ Her teacher no ticed that someth ing was wr ong. S.H M ary Baker Edd y had n' t been so religiou s, she might not have turn ed to prayer to cure herself.

_ _ Mary Baker Edd y was religious. _ _ She turne d to prayer to cure herself. 6. If Amy's parents hadn't been Ch ristian Scientists, they might have gotten conve ntional medical help for Amy. _ _ Amy's parents are not Ch ristian Scient ists. _ _ Amy's parents d idn't get her conventional med ical help. 7. Amy's parents wouldn't have gone on trial for th ird-degree mu rder if she had no t died. _ _ Amy's parents didn 't go o n trial for third-degree mu rder. _ _ Amy died.

8. If Norma n Cousins hadn' t believed in a mind-body interaction, laugh therap y might not have worked for him . _ _ No rman Cou sins didn 't believe in a mind -body interacti on. _ _ Laugh therap y d idn't wo rk for him.

. . Write a sentence abou t each of the fol/ow ing situations. Use the past unreal conditional. A n example has been done for you . t. M ar y Christman had a head ache. She rook some asp irin. She soon felt better. If she hadn't ta ken as pirin , she might not have felt bet ter.


D Y I N G F OR TH E I R B El i E F S

iii

2. James C. Wilson had a pro blem with his allergies. He didn 't go to a homeopathic doctor. He co ntinued to have problems.

3. Norma n Cous ins read extensively about alte rnative medicine. When he was diag nose d with ankylosing spon dylitis, he already had some ideas abo ut alternative treat ment s.

4. Norma n Cous ins was sick. He tr ied to cu re himself by using laugh rhera py. He soon got better.

5. M ack Futch was not a Christian Scientist. He believed in convent ional Western med icine. He gave his daughter drugs when she was sick.

6. Amy began dozing off in class. Her teacher noticed that something was wron g. She called Amy's parent s.

7. No rman Cousins d idn't like his docto r's treat ment plan. He developed his own laugh therap y tr eatment.

B. STYLE: Opinion Es sa y s

William and Chr istine Hermanson were found guilty in the death o f their child, Amy. They received a four-year suspen ded sentence and were placed on probation for fifteen years. The sentence created a great deal of discussion both in favor of and aga inst the verd ict. M an y people wrote to newspapers expressing their opinio n.

o

Work with a partner. Examine the opinion essay on page 72 and answer the questions that follow.


)

. U N IT

3 .

The sentencing of the Hermansons is a shock and disap pointment to me. Th at any such loving and devoted pa rents cou ld be convicte d of negligence in the death of th eir children is a mystery. First let me say that I am a loving an d devoted parent. I am p resident of ou r local parent-teacher associa tion. I am a H ar vard graduate an d a lawyer. I am a Chr istian Scientist also . I kno w th at spiritua l healing can be an effective treat ment and r would like to sha re my positive experiences with you. When I was horn , I had a blood problem. The doctor gave me two hou rs to live. At th e time, bloo d t ran sfusions wer e not available for this problem. M y mo t her, a Christ ian Scientist, brou ght in a pract ition er and through their prayer

I was healed. I believe tha t if my mother hadn 't been a Christian Scientist, I would probably not have lived. With my own children there have been numerous occasions where conventional medicine wou ld ha ve prescr ibed ant ib iot ics for ear infections, colds, etc. With the powe r of prayer, my children have been healed without these medicines. In the end, I believe that the type of medical treat ment chosen shou ld be left up to the individual. N ot on ly is this my opinion, but, in fact, it is a right guaranteed by our constitution. Choosing the treat ment you feel is most effective is a right that cannot be taken away. Children die under medical treatment too , and no one accuses the parents of negligence or brings them to court.

a . W ha t is the writer 's opinion ? b. H o w docs she usc her bac kg round to su p po rt her opin io n? c. What d et ails a nd exa m ples docs she usc to su ppo rt her o pinion?

d. W ha t is her co nclusion ? H ow d oe s she support her conclusion?

Opinion Essays An essay incl ude s seve ra l paragraphs which are written about the sa me sub ject. An op inion essay is w ritten to pe rsuade o r convince the reader that yo ur op inion is "the right way to th ink abo ut thin gs." Organ iz ation The simplest opi nio n essay incl udes th ree part s: • An introd ucto ry par agraph that clea rly states the opin ion of the writer • The bod y of the essay (o ne or two paragraphs) that gives examples, details, and facts to support the opinion • The co ncl ud ing par agraph that summa rizes the arguments in the essay and reinforces the op inion .


DY ING fO R T H EIR B EL IEFS

Audien ce When writing an opinion essay, you must think about your aud ience - your reader s-and any opinions o r know ledge they already have. If your readers have no opinion on the subject, persuading them to agree with you may not be difficult. However, if the audience has an opin ion contrary or opposite to you rs, persuading them may be more cha llenging. In that case, you must try to conv ince the read ers that at the very least, your opinio n is justifi able and worth co nside ring. In order 10 do this you must present your arguments clea rly and suppo rt your opinion with evidence : exam ples, facts, or perso nal experience. Suppo rting Evidence If you are trying to convince the readers to accept you r opinion, you need to give evidence to supp ort your opi nion . You also need to give reason s wh ich explain why the evidence supports your opi nion. You need to explain why you feel your opi nion is co rrect and the reade rs' opinions are incor rect. N OTE: See Un its 1 and 2 for infur mation on paragraph writing .

â&#x20AC;˘

What is your opinion on the court's judgment of the Hermansons? Prepare to write an opinion essay (do not actually write it). 1. Begin by taking a position. Do you support the decision ? Why or w hy not ?

2 . Complete the char r on page 74 with note s to introduce, suppor t, an d co nclu de your essay. Use information fro m th e readings and from personal exp erienc e. 3. D iscu ss yo ur outline with a classmate. Is your op in ion clearly stat ed ? Do your supporting details rea lly suppo rt yo ur position ?

iii


Bl U N I T 3 .

THREE MAIN PARTS

I. The int rod uctio n: Clea rly state your position/

Introd uctio n :

identify your positi on

__ _________ ________ __ __ ___ _____ __L

II. The body: Give deta ils and exa mples to

â&#x20AC;˘

_

Body:

support you r posi t ion

---------------------------------r-------------------------------------------------------------III. The conclusion: Conclusion; Summarize and reinforce your position

A . WRITING TOPICS

Write a short opinion essay on one of the following topics. Be sure to include the three parts of an essay: Try to use the past unreal conditional and any ideas or language you have learned in this unit.


DY I NG FOR T H EIR BElI EF S

iii

1. Write an essay giving your opi nion on the co urt 's decision regarding

the Hermanson s. Use the above chart to guide you as yo u write. 2. Different cultures define non con venrional medicine in different ways. What do yo u think noncon venrional medicine is? How do you feel abou t the use of nonconventional medicine? Write abo ut your ideas and opi nion s. 3. What do you think o f Norman Co usins's laugh therapy? Do you think there is any truth to the idea of a mind-bod y interactio n? Have you ever had a medical experience where your mind was stro nger tha n your body? Write an essay expressing your opinion . If possible, include personal experiences.

B. FIELDWORK

Take a survey of your classmates. What do you and your classmates do for the following ailments? Do you think the treatments your classmates use are conven tional or nonconuentionali Enter your findings on the chart. Th en discuss the questions on page 76 with your class.

AILMENT

NONCO NVENTIONAL

CONVENTIONAL

•• ••• Co ld ••• • - --- - - - - - -- - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - • ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~•- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - •• •• Coug h • • • Headache ,•• • , --------------------------------t-------------------------------1-----------------------------Backach e ,,, - - ------- - -- --- -_ ._-----------_ .~ ------- -- ----_ ._-- _.--------- -- ~ .. _._---_._----------------_. _, ,,, Sto machach e (nausea) • •, _ _______ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ L

·· ·· ···

~

_


III

U N IT 3 â&#x20AC;˘

1. Which remedies are most commonly used by your cla ssmates?

2. W hich remedies do you person ally use most often ? 3. Are there any remed ies your cla ssmates use that you would like to tr y? Expla in your answer. 4. Do you and your classmates have the same ideas ab out what is co nventional and non con venrional medical treatment ? If not , discuss the differences.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY Work in sma ll gro ups. What treatment would yo u like to know more about? Brainstorm places where yo u can get informa tion about this treatment (such as a library or a drugstore). Research the treatment. Share yo ur research with your group. Then write a brief report and present it to the class. Answer the following questions in you r re port. 1. What is th e name of the t reatment ?

2. What does the treat ment cure? 3. Where can you find this tr eatm ent (for exa mp le, in a dru gstore, a health food store, in another cou nt ry, in nature)? 4. Is this treatment com monly used ? 5. Do you need a prescript ion (written perm ission fro m a doctor ) to buy it ? 6. Where does it come fro m (for examp le, a plan t, a tree, an anima l, ma n-made pro duc ts )? 7. H ow do you ta ke it (for exa mple, a pill, a drink, a compress)? 8. H ow does it ma ke you feel (for exa mple, tired, happ y, dizzy)?


APPROACHING THE TOPIC

l

A. PR EDICT! NG

I

Look at the photographs and the title of this unit. Take some notes about each of the natural disasters you see pictured. Describe what has happened. What do you think "The Calm after the Storm" refers to? 77


. . UN IT 4 •

B . SHARING INFORMATION

o

Work with a partner. Look at the photographs on page 77 and your notes . What happens in a natural disaster? Match the pictures with some of the common consequences (listed be/ow) of each of the natural disasters shown. Some of these consequences may occur after more than one type of disaster. ashes falling like rain flames pour ing down co llapse d and smashed buildings flooded st reets and ho mes ships lost at sea

e

water ma in brea ks debris in the streets fallen walls disruptions of telephone service earth moving and shaking

Discuss one or more of the following topics with a partner. • Describe a time when you fel t the mo st pan icked in your life. • Describe a time when yo u felt the most alone in your life. • Di scuss a time when pat ience and the passage of time were the only sol ut ions to a pre dica ment.

PREPARING I TO READ A . BACKGROUND

Work with a partner. Look at the two pictures on the next page and answer the following questions. 1. In which picture does the man appear to be in the safest position, protected from th e wa ter and sea creatures? Why? 2. What do you th ink has ha ppened to this man ? 3. How do you think he feels?


TH E C A LM A FT ER T H E S TOR M .

Gunwale

Life raft

Basket

B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION

Work in a small group. Circle the word which does not belong in each set of wo rds. Use a dictionary if necessary. Discuss how the remaining th ree words are related. The first one has been done for you. 1. sun

~

moon

sta rs

torture

pat ience

hopelessness

3. alone

so litude

loneliness

hop e

4. aband oned

deserte d

thick

empty

5. red

dark

yellow

violet

6. dense

thick

packed

glowi ng

7. qu iet

straight

silent

tranqui l

8. look

scrutinize

divert

watch

9. immense

endless

inevitable

infinite

10. searc h

thro w

fling

toss

11. blink

whip

hit

slap

2. desperation


EII U N I T 4 .

READING ONE:

My First Night Alone

During a severe storm in February 1955, several crew membe rs of a in the Caribbean Co lombia n destr oyer were thrown over the side of the ship and disa pA. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC peared . Ten days later on e of the crew was fou nd , half-dead , on a desert ed beac h in northern Colom bia. At tha t time, novelist Gab riel Gard a M ar quez was wo rking for a new spaper in Colombia . The hook entitled Th e Story of a Shipwreck ed Sailor is his acco unt of that sailor's story. Th e excer pt below, a passage from the hook , describes the sailor's first night alone in the Ca ribbean.

Before yo u begin reading the excerpt, make a list of the dangers you th ink this sailor ma y have faced. Compare yo ur list with a partner's.

My First Night Alone in the Caribbean BY

G ABR I E L G AR C iA M AR QU E Z (from The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor)

At

first it seemed impo ssible that I had been alone at sea fo r three hours. But at five o'cloc k, after five hours had passed, it seemed I might have to wait yet an other hour. T he sun was setting. It got very big and red in the west, and I began to o rient ' myself. Now I knew where the planes wou ld ap pear: with the sun to my left, I stared straight ahead, not moving, nor daring to blink , not divert ing my sight for an instant from th e direction in which, by m y beari ngs,' Cartagena- fay, By six o'cloc k m y eyes hurt. But I kept wa tch ing. Even after it began to get dark , I wa tched with st ubborn patience. I knew I wouldn' t be able to see the planes, but I would spot their red and green lights heading tow ard me befo re I heard the no ise of the eng ines. I wanted to see the lights , forgetting tha t, in the da rkne ss, no one in the planes wou ld see me. Soon the sky turne d red , and I co ntinued to searc h the hor izon . T hen it turned a deep violet as I kept watching. To one side of the life raft like a yellow diamond in a wine colored sky, I

1 J

M ient: to locate bearing: directio n or relative position Cartagena: large city in Colo mbia on the Caribbean coast


T H E C A LM AF T E R TH E S T O R M

2

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the first star appeared, immobile and perfect. It was like a signal: immediately afterw ard, night fell. T he first thing I felt, plun ged into darkness so thick 1 could no longer see the palm of my hand, was that 1 wouldn't be able to overcome the terror. From the slapp ing of the waves agai nst the sides, I knew the raft was moving, slowly but inexorably. Sunk into dar kness, I rea lized I had n't felt so alone in the daytime . I was mo re alone in the dark, in a raft that 1co uld no longer see but could feel beneath me, gliding silently over a dense sea filled with strange creatures. To make myself less lonely, J look ed at the dial of my watc h. It wa s ten minutes to seven. .Much later- it seemed as if two o r three hours had pa ssedit was five minutes to seven. When th e minute hand reached twelve, it was exactly seven o'clock and the sky was packed with stars. But to me it seemed that so much time had passed, it sho uld now be nearly dawn. Desperately 1 went on thinking about the planes . J sta rted to feel cold. In a life raft it's impossible to stay dry even for a minute. Even if you arc seated on the gunwale, half your body is underwater because the botto m of the ra ft is shaped like a basket. extending more than half a meter below the surfa ce. By eight o 'clock the water was not as cold as the air. I knew that at the bottom of the ra ft I was safe from sea creatu res because the rope mesh tha t protected the bottom prevented them fro m com ing too close. But tha t's what you learn in school, and that's what you believe in school, when the inst ructor put s on a demonstration with a scale model of the life raft and you' re seated on a bench among fort y classma tes at two o'clock in the aftern oon. When you 're alon e at sea at eight o'clock at night, and wit hout hope, the instr uctor's words make no sense at all. I knew that half of my bod y was in a realm tha t didn't belong to men but to the creatures of the sea, an d that despite the icy wind whipp ing my shirt, I didn 't da re mo ve from the gunwale. Accor ding to the instr ucto r, tha t wa s the least safe part of the ra ft. But all things considered, it was only there that I felt far enough away from the creatures: those immense unknown beast s I could hear passing the raft. My first night at sea seemed very long because absolutely nothing hap pened. It is impo ssible to describe a night on a life raft, when no rhing happens and you' re scared o f unseen creatures and you've got a wa tch with a glowing dial that you can't stop checking even for a minute. The night of February 28-my first night at sea- I look ed at my watch every minute. It was to rture. In desperation, I swore I wo uld stop doi ng it and I'd stow' the watch in my pocket, so as not to be so depende nt on the time. I was able to resist until twent y to nine. I still wasn't hungry or thirst y, and I was sure I co uld hold out until th e following day, wh en the planes wo uld arrive. But 1 tho ught the watch wou ld dr ive me crazy. A prisoner of anxiety, I too k ir o ff my wrist to

â&#x20AC;˘ stow: to p ut a way. ( 0 store

11II


III

UN IT 4 â&#x20AC;˘

stuff it in my pocket, but as I held it in my hand it occurred to me that it wo uld be better to fling' it into the sea. I hesitated a mom ent . Then I was terr ified: I thou ght I wo uld feel even mo re alone without the watch. I put it back on my wrist and began to look at it again, minute by minute, as I had in the afternoon when I searched the horizon for airplanes until my eyes began to hurt . s After midnight I wanted to cry. I hadn't slept for a moment , but I hadn't even wa nted to. With the same hope I had felt in the afternoon as I waited for airplanes, th at night I looked for th e lights of ships. For hours I scru tinized the sea, a tranquil sea, immense and silent, but I didn 't see a single light other than the stars. 6 The cold was more inte nse in the early hours of morn ing, and it seemed as if my body were glowing, with all the sun of the aftern oon embedded under my skin. With the cold, it burned more intensely. Fro m midn ight on, my right knee began to h urt and I felt as though the water had penetrated my bones. But these feelings were remote : I thought ab out my bod y less than about the lights o f the ships. It seemed to me, in the midst" of that infinite solitude, in the midst o f the sea's dark murmur, that if I spotted the light of only a single ship, I wou ld let out a yell that could be heard at any distance. 5 f1ing: to throw â&#x20AC;˘ midst: middle

B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

Com plete the chart. Summarize the sailor's physical and emotional state from the first afternoon at sea through the followin g morning. An exa mple has been done for you. TIME

During the first afternoon

PHYSICALSTATE

EMOTIO NAL STATE


T H E CA L M AF T E R T HE S TO It M

11II

C. READING FOR DETAILS

Write short answers to the follow ing. 1. Why was the sailor afr aid to blink during the first afternoon?

2. Why did he feel so much terror in the dark? 3. What had he learned in school about being in a raft?

4. Wh y didn 't he wa nt to mov e away from the gunwale and into the life

raft? 5. H ow did he try to overcome his loneliness?

6. Why did his watch begin to driv e him crazy? 7. From midn ight on, what was his main conc ern?

D . READING BETWEEN THE LINES

i magine that you are the sailor in the star)'. You have just found an empty bottle in the sea, and you want to w rite a note to put in the bottle. Complete the no te on the right. Describe what happened to you, how you have been feeling, and any othe r info rmation you think is important. Think about the following feelings as you w rite you r note: patien ce, terror, loneliness, anxiety, and hopelessness.

Hello! I hope s omeone fin d s this soon and can help rescue me. I was swept off the deck of a ship on February 27, 1955. By my calculations, I believe I am near the northeast coast of Colombia.


111

U N IT 4 â&#x20AC;˘

IR EADI N G TWO:

The Story of an Eyewitness

~-..lii_--:' A . EXPA N D I N G TH E TO P IC

In 1906, San Francisco was hit by one of the biggest and deadl iest ea rthquakes in U.S. history. Jack London, an Amer ican novelist, was working as a reporter at the time. Work in groups. Make a list of damages an earthquake causes to a large city. Then read the article.

-

he Story of an Ey-ew itness On Wednesday morning at a quarter past five came the earthquake. A minute later the flames were leaping upwa rd. In a dozen different quarters south of Market Street, in the working-class ghetto, and in the factories, fires started. T here was no organizacion, no commu nication. All the cunning! adjus tments of a twentieth-century city had been smashed by the earthquake. The streets were humped into ridges and depressions, and piled wit h the debris of fallen wa lls. The steel rails' were twisted into perpendicular and horizontal angles. The telephone cunning: clever, smart steel rails: railroad track J thrown out ofgear: disru pted â&#x20AC;˘ conf/agrarion: large fire that destroys prop erty 1

2

2

and telegraph systems were disr upted . And the great water mains had burst. All the shrewd contrivances and safeguards of man had been thrown out of gear '> by thirty seconds' twitching of the ear th-cru st. By Wednesday afternoon, inside of twelve hours, half the hea rt of the city was gone . At that time I watched the vast conflagra tio n" from out on the bay. It was dead calm. Not a flicker of wind stirred. Yet from every side wind was pouring in upon the city. East , west, north , and south strong winds were blowing upon the doomed city. The


T H I C A L M AF TfR T H f S TOR M

3

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heated air rising made an enormous suck.' Th us did the fire of itself build its own colossal chimney through the atmosphere. Day and night this dead calm continued, and yet, nea r to the flames, the wind was often half a gale," so mighty was the suck. Remarkable as it may seem, Wednesday night, while the wh ole city crashed and roared into ru in, was a quiet night . There were no crowds. There was no shouting and yelling. There was no hysteria, no disorder. I passed Wednesday night in the path of the ad vancing flames, and in all those terri ble hours r saw not one wo man who wept, not one man wh o was excited, not one person who wa s in the slightest degree panic-stricken . At nine o'clock Wednesday evening 1 walke d down thro ugh the heart of the city. I walked through miles and miles of magnificent buildings and towe ring skyscrapers. Here was no fire. All was in perfect ord er. The police pat rolled the streets. Every building had its watchman at the door. And yet it was doomed, all of it. There was no water. And at right angles two different conflagrations were sweeping down upon it. At one o' clock in the morning I walked down through the same section . Everyth ing still stood intact. There was no fire. And yet there was a chan ge. A rain of ashes was falling . The watchmen at the doors were gon e. The police had been with drawn. There were no firemen, no fire-engines, no men fighting with dynamite. The district had been abso lutely abandoned. I stood at the corner of Kearney and M arket, in the

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very innerm ost heart of San Francisco. Kearn ey Street was deserted. It was at Union Square that I saw a man offering a thousand dolla rs for a team of ho rses. He was in charge o f a tr uck piled high with trunks from some hotel. It ha d been hauled here into what was considered safety, and the horses had been ta ken out. The flames were on three sides of the Squ are, and there were no horses. Also, at this time, standing beside the truck, I urged a man to seek safety in flight. He was all but hemmed in by several conflagrat ion s. He was an old man and he was on crutches. Said he: "Today is my birthd ay. Last night I was worth thirty thousand dollars. I bought five bottles of wine, some delicate fish, and other things for my birthday dinner. I have no dinn er, and all l a wn are these crutches." O n Th ursday morni ng, at a qua rter past five, just twenty-four hours after the ear thquak e, 1 sat on the steps of a small residence on N ob Hi ll. . .. I went inside with the owner of the house on th e steps of which I sat. He was cool and cheerful and hospitable. "Yester day mo rning," he said, "I was worth six hundr ed tho usand dollars. Th is mo rni ng this house is all I have left. It will go in fifteen minutes." He pointed to a large cab inet. "That is my wife's collection of china. This rug upon which we sta nd is a present. It cost fifteen hundred dollars. Try that piano . Listen to its to ne. There are few like it. There are no horses. The flames will be here in fifteen minutes."

5luck, air current, vacuum half a gale: 15 to 30 mile per hour winds

6

Write short answers to the following questions. 1. Parts of San f rancisco were devastated by the earthquake. What were some of the damages? Are these dam ages similar to what you p redicted in your grou p before you read the art icle? 2. By the night after the earthquake, all was seemingly q uiet. Ho w does Jack London describe the people and city at that time?


. U N IT 4. 8. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

Th e authors of the tw o readings address som e similar them es (underlined in the questions below) relating to the aftermath of a natural disaster. Work with a partner. Ans wer the following questio ns using examp les from each reading. When you have finished , work individually and use this information to w rite a summary of the themes you discussed.

1. Wh at is th e rela tionshi p betw een man (humans) and nature in the two readings? 2. H ow does t he at mosphere or the environ ment chan ge in the afterm ath of eac h disaster ? 3. H ow do the people's reactions and emoti ons cha nge over the period of time covered in the two readings? 4. H ow do the authors express the feelin g of helplessness?

IREV lE W I N G L A NG U A G E A. EXPLORING LANGUAGE

Work with a partne r. Look at the adjectives in italics in the chart on page 87. Which ones can be used to describe the nouns that surround them? Write the adjectives beside the noun . Add more adjectives of your own. Some adjectives can be paired with more than one noun. An example has been don e for you.


TH E C A L M

lmmenee

Immense

A f TER T H E S T O R M .

LONELINESS

SKY

Immense

SEA

WIND

Immense

CITY

Immenee

PATIENCE


.UNIT

4 .

B. WORKING WITH WORDS : Synonyms

Work in a small group . Read th e sentences below. In these sentences you can see how words from one reading can be used to ex press ideas from the other reading. Look for a syno nym in the readings for each of the underlined words or phrases, and w rite the syno nyms above them. Use the numbers in the parenth eses to help you find the synonyms. The first number refers to the reading; the second number to the paragraph; and the thi rd number to the line in the reading (1 :1:13 means Reading One, paragraph 1, line 13). The first one has been don e for you. sun was set ting 1. The day was ending as great fires broke out all over San Francisco. (U :3)

2. In the aftermath of the earthquake, many peopl e put away in secret places, belongings they could not take with them. (1:4:7)

3. San Fran ciscans tried to wait as long as they co uld before leaving their ho mes. (1:4:9) 4. As they left their hom es, they had to their suitcases. (1:4:12)

~

as much as they could in

5. People were forced ro tass what they cou ldn't carry an ymor e inro the streets. (1:4:13 ) 6. The ingenious engineers who designed the life raft had never act ually been at sea. (2:1:7) 7. The life raft ha d some interesting devices such as a water filter to filter out salt from the water. (2:1:16) 8. Although he tried to rema in hopeful, the sailo r couldn't help feeling that he was inevitabl y ruined by his trag ic situ ation. (2:2:8) 9. The sailor tried not to be scared, but being alone at night at sea was terr ifying. (2:3:1 1) 10. When the sailor was on the ship living wit h man y other sailors, he often felt restricted, qui te the oppo site of how he felt in his life raft in the middle of the sea. (2:7:3)


THE CA L M AFTER TH E STO RM

11III

IsK ILL S

FOR EXPRESSION A. GR AMMAR : Id enti f yin g Adjective C lauses

o

Exami ne the following sentences. Then discuss the questions with a partner.

• I saw no t on e woman who wept, not one man who was excited, not one pers on wh o was in the slightest degree panic stricken. • You've got a watch with a glow ing d ial that you can't stop checking. • I began to look at my watch agai n as I had in the afte rnoon when I searched the ho rizon for airplanes. a. In the first sentence, what kind of woman is being described ? W ha t kind of man? Wh at kind of person?

b. In the seco nd sentence, wh at does th e writer say about the glow ing dial ? c. In th e las t sente nce, which afternoon is the wr iter describing ? d. What words begin the phrases printe d in bo ldface lett er s? What words come just before th ese phrases?

Identifying Adjective Clauses Focus ON GRAMMAR See Adjective Clauses in

Focus on Grammar, High Intermediate.

Identifying adjective clauses, sometimes ca lled restrict ive relative cla uses, are groups of wo rds (phrases) that act like ad jectives to describe or identify a noun. These phrases co me d irectly after the noun s they descr ibe. They are introduced by relative pronoun s that refer to the noun be ing described . Sentences with adjective cla uses can be seen as a com binat ion of two shorter sentences talking abou t the same noun . Jived in a house . + The house was destroyed by a flood. = I lived in a hous e which was destroyed by a flood.

J

The house was very old. + The flood destroyed the house. = The house which th e flood destroyed was very o ld.


. U N IT

4 .

I

I

Relative Pronouns Ident ifying adjective clauses begin w ith a relative pronou n. The ch oi ce of pronoun is determi ned by the nou n it descr ibes. For exam p le, use:

• who fo r a person or peop le • which for a thing or th ings • tha t for a person or peop le, and a thing or things (less forma l than which)

• when for a time or ti mes

• where or in which for a place or places GRAMMAR TIP: Remembe r that the relative prono un takes the place of the noun

it describes; the noun is not repealed.

I lived in the town . + The hurrica ne destroyed th e town . = I lived in the town which a hurrlca o« destroyed.

f) Co m plete the sent ences with the appropriate relative pronoun. The first o ne ha s been do ne for yo u.

1. T he firefighter

helped save my family was given a medal

who (w hich/who)

for hero ism. 2. The town -,:;== = 1 had lived the year before was destr oyed by a (that/wh ere)

hu rrica ne. protected him fro m the creatures o f the

3 . As he sat in the raft (w hich/w ho)

sea, the shipwrecked sailor reflected on his life. 4. The hospital

I was born was destroyed by the volcan o. [th at/in which)

5. I was asleep at the time

the ear thquak e struck. (where/when)


T H E CA LM A F TER T HE ST ORM

6. T he peo ple had to evac ua te the village whe n th e dam -;:::==_ hcld (who/that)

bac k the lake broke. 7. Snowstorms

happen ea rly in the seas on often are the mo st

(in which/w hich )

devastating because peo ple are not prepared. 8. T he shipwrecked sailor bu ilt his raft out of wood -,:;:==::;- he ha d (that/wh ere )

fou nd on the island. 9. Despite rep eated wa rnings of the possibility of an ava lanche, man y people

lived on the side of the mo untain refused to leave (which/who )

their homes. 10. The house

we had slept the night before was completel y (where/wh en)

dest royed by the hurricane.

â&#x20AC;˘

Combine each pair of sentences into one sentence by using an identifying adjective clause. The first one has been do ne for you. 1.

Ma ny homes were dama ged by t he earthguake which registered

6 .3 on t he Richt er Sca le. a. M any ho mes were damaged by the earthquake. b. T he earthqua ke registered 6.3 on the Richt er Scale.

2. a. I lived in the town. b. T he town was destroyed by a tornado .

3. a. Forest fires kill many an ima ls. b. Animals live in nationa l pa rks.

III


l1li

UN IT 4 â&#x20AC;˘

4.

_

A hurricane is a trop ical sto rm. b. A tropical sto rm has winds of at least 73 miles per hour.

3.

5.

_

a. We found the mountain climber. b. She had gotten lost during the storm.

6.

_

a. M y flight was canceled because of the sto rm. b. Th e storm dropped 32 inches of snow on the city.

7.

_

a. The avalanche occurred at night. b. Th e avalanche trapped the climbers.

8.

_

a. I spoke with a man. b. The man survived 3 8 days alone on a life raft.

9.

_

a. Th e hous e had been in Mary's family for over 200 years. b. Th e flood destroyed the ho use.

10.

_

a. The reporter was hit by lightning. b. Th e reporter wrote a sto ry ab ou t Hu rricane Andrew. 11.

_

a. The aftern oon was sunny and hot. b. Tha t afternoo n the forest fire broke out.


TH E CA L M A F T E R TH E S T O R M

1:11

B. STYLE: Descripti ve Writ i ng

o

Examine each pair of sentences and circle the sentence (a or h ) that is the most effective in describing the situation or event. Wi th a partner, discuss why you think those sentences are more descriptive .

1. a. There were ashes falling from the sky. h. A ra in of ashes was falling. 2. a. The first bright star appeared in the night sky, and it didn't move. h. Like a yellow diamond in a wine colored sky, the first star appeared, immo bile and perfect. 3. a. The water in the bay was dead calm . h. The water in the bay was not moving. 4. a. It seemed as if my body were glowing, with all the sun of t he afternoon embedded under my skin. b. I felt sunbu rned and hot after being in the sun all day.

Descriptive Writing Descr iptive writing makes the reader's senses co me alive. It makes the reade r see, smell, hear, taste, or feel wha t is be ing described . Adjectives Writers often use adjectives to add to a description. Notice how the follow ing senten ces come alive with the add ition of a de scriptive adjective. Adjectives can describe nouns, or further describe other adject ives. Description without Adjective • J

watched w ith patience.

Description with Adjective • I watched with stu bborn pat ience.

• The wind wh ipped my shirt.

• The icy wind whipped my shirt.

• The bay was calm .

• The bay was dead ca lm.


I J I UNIT 4 +

Similes A simile creates images by usin g the ph rase like a . . . to co mpare two otherwise unrela ted ideas . For examp le, Gard a Ma rq uez descr ibes the f irst star appearing in the sky: + like a yellow diamond

• like a signa l

As if, as though, an d it seems (seemed) are other ph rase s used to describe a situatio n or feeling. They are used to give the reader the same impression o r experience that the author had . • It seemed as if my body w ere glow ing, with all th e sun of the afternoo n embedded under m y skin . • Fro m m id ni ght on, my right knee began to hu rt and I felt as though

the wate r had pen etrated my bon e s. • It seemed to me, in the midst of that infinite sol itu de, in the mid st of the sea's dark murmur, that if I spotted the light o f o nly a sing le ship ,

I wo uld let o ut a ye ll that could be heard at a ny d istan ce .

e

Add adjectives to make the following sentences more interesting.

1. The fire destroyed the old house.

2. The you ng sailor couldn't sleep during his first night at sea.

3. The strong earthq uake shook the city.

4. The cows were car ried away by the tornado.

5. The flood swept away the garage.

6. The people had to spend the night sleeping on the cold floor.


TH E CA LM AFTER THE ST O R M

â&#x20AC;˘

1:1I

Complete the following sentenc es by using similes. Use as many descriptive details as possible. Share your sentences in small groups .

1. The tornado knocked down the telephone poles like

2. Wind and waves overcame our t iny boat. We felt as if we were

3. Du ring the earthquake the earth sho ok under our feet. It seemed as though

4. The forest fire burned out of control. The smell was what I remember most. It wa s as if

5. The typhoon destroyed the town completely. Hou ses were strewn across the fields like

6. The rai n was approach ing quickly. It seemed the sky

A. WRITING TOPICS

Choose one of the following topics. Write two or three paragraphs using some of the vocabulary, grammar, and style you learned in this unit.

1. In Exercise l B (Sharing Information) you ta lked about a particular time in your life. Now write an essay describing that time, the event, and how you felt. 2. Have you ever seen a natura l disaster on television or in the movies? Have you ever read a book that included a nat ura l disaster as part of the story? Write a description of the disaster you saw or read about. Explain how it affected the people or the place involved. Be as descriptive as possible.


. U N IT . . 3. H ave you ever been in a situat ion whe re yo u felt the power of nature (for example, in a heavy rainstorm, at the beach in a sto rm, in a strong winds tor m)? Describe the event and how you felt.

B. FiElDWORK

PR EPARATION 1. Wor k in a small grou p. Brainstorm a list of famous natura l disasters you can think o f from ancient times through the present day. Include ear thquakes, floods, fires, hurricanes, torn ad oes, typhoons, volcano eruptions.

2. Share your list with th e class and make a maste r list of disasters on the cha lkboard. As a class, discuss the disasters and wha t you know abo ut them. 3. In a small group, select one disaster for your gro up to research. Discuss where you will find information (for exa mp le, library book s, newspapers, the Internet ).

RESEARCH ACTI VITY

Research the natural disaster your group selected and prepare a report that includes the followi ng information: • Date of disaster • Type of disasrcr • Descript ion of disaster • Any visua ls of the disas ter (photos, drawings, paintings) • Aftermath (what happened as a result of the disas ter: for exa mple, an amazing survival story, type of help offered, a descripti on of the damages and losses)

Present your report to the class. Use as much descriptive language as you can.


A. PREDICTING look at the photograph and the title of this unit. Take some notes about the picture. What does it show? Why was this picture taken? What do you think "From Trash to Treasure" refers to? What do you think this unit will be about?

97


.

UNIT

5.

B. SHARING INFORMATION

Work with a partner. Take the Earth Quiz and discuss your answers. Check them against the answers at the bottom of the page.

Earth Quiz I. Eve ry year the United Stat es produces enoug h so lid waste to fill a line of garbage

trucks which wou ld reach

_

a. fro m N ew York to l os Angeles

b. around the world c. halfway to the moon

2. The world population has

since 1950.

a. more t han doubled

3. Close to

b. tripled

c. quad rupled

square kilometers of rain forest are destroyed

each year.

b. 100,000

a. 160,000

4.

c. 300,000

percent of the ene rgy used by businesses worldwide comes

from fossil fuels (o il, natural gas).

a.90

b. 7S

c.60

5. At the current rate of use . the world's known oil reserves will last

_ _ __ _ _ _ _ years.

b. 50

a. IOO

c. 35

6. Americans throwaway enough food every day to feed the entire population of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for one day.

a. New York City

b. Canada

c.Hawaii

Most people are surprised by the answers to the quiz. Discuss these questions in a small group. 1. What information fro m the quiz surprised you most ? 2. What informat ion did you already kno w ? How did you know about it? Answers: !.c l . a 3. a 4. a 5. ,

6. b


F R O M T II A SH TO T Il E A S URE

1:11

A . BAC KG ROUN D

Read this informa tion . More and more peop le and commun ities are changing their ha bits in order to protect the environment. O ne reason for this cha nge is tha t space in landfills is run ning out and the disposal of waste has become difficult. As a result, th e practices of recycling, reu sing, an d redu cing waste are becom ing more com monplace. In so me countr ies the technology for dispo sing of, or getting rid of, was te has actually becom e big business. Individuals have also tak en actions to red uce land fill waste ; for exa mple, people arc recycling newspa pers an d dona ting clothes to charities. In addition, some people tak e leftover food and turn it into rich garden co mpost, an excellent fertilizer for vegeta ble and flower gar dens.

Th ink about your home. How are the following items commonly disposed of? Check (v) the category that best describes the disposal method you use. Work in small groups to share your answers.

IN THETRASH

ITEM

OTHER

RECYClE/DONATE

----.;-----+-----;-.,

Newspapers ~

w_ ~

B~les

•, •, ••

,

~ - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - -- - - - - - -~ - --

. _ . __ w

,: ,, ,

,: ,, ,

(reuse, com post, burn )

_ _

.w_w

.

~- - - - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - -

:,

., , .., .

- - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - -- ----- ~ - - - - -- ------ ---- - - - ---~ -- - - - - -- --- - - - - - - - - - - ~-- - -- -- - - - - -- --- - - - - - _ .

Cans

- - - - ------- ---- --_ ._ -- ---- - ~ - - -- ----- -- - - - - - - -----} - - - -- - - - _._ - - - -- --- -- ~-- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -

: ,: ,: - --- ------ ----- --- -------_ . ~ ---------- -- - -- -- -----~ - - - --- ----- -- - - - - -- --~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,, ,, Glass , , ,, , Aluminum fo il ,, , Used computer paper

_ _

_ _

_ _ _

w

_ _________ _

_ _ _ _ _ w_ .

_ _

w

..

~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . -} - - -

~ -- - ------ - ---- .- - -- .- -.

~

~

w

~

_

Chart continues on next page.


IIIDI

U N IT 5 â&#x20AC;˘

ITEM _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.;.

IN THETRASH

.;.

OTH ER

RECYCLE/DO N ATE

;.~ ( r; eu;'~e ~,~ co m p.o s t}

bu rn)

,, ,,, ,

Leftovers (no n-meat) I â&#x20AC;˘ : ------ -- ---- - - ----- - ------- ,~ - --- - -- - --- - - --- --- -- -~--, ---- - ------ ---- --- ~, ------------- - ------ - Batter ies : : : ------ --- -- - - - - --- - - - - - - -- - ,~ - - -- - - - - - - --- -- -- -- -- -~ ----------------~-, , ---- ----- - --- - --- --- ~~ I box~

:

:

Old toys. furniture

:

:

:

- - ---- --- - -- -- - --- - -- - -- - - - ,~- -- -- - -- --- - - --- -- - ---~ , -- ---- - ---- - ----- - --- ~, --------------- ----- -

:

- ----- ------ --- -- --- -------} ----- -- --- ----- --- - - --} - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -~ , - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - --

,

Tires

:

Clothes

,,:

,

: : - --- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - -}, - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - -- - -- --}, - ---- ---- - -- - --- --- - ~, ---- -- - - - --- ----- -----

,,:

,,:

B. VOCABU LARY FOR COMPREHENSION

Write the numb er of each underlined word nex t to its definition listed at the end of the tex t. O ne job man y environmenta lists have today is to find differe nt ways (I)

to

dispo se of wast e, or tras h, rat her than th row ing it all in land fills. (2)

Many landfills are filled

to

capacity; others are limited in their use. Of all

the waste in the United States, 25 percent is on;an ic plant matter which (J}

can actua lly be recycled. So rat her than throwing ta ble scraps and other (4)

natural waste int o land fills, peop le are looking for ways to use them more productively. O ne of the ways enviro nmentalists have supp orted is composting, IS}

the process of taking plant matter, break ing it down, and turn ing it into a nutrient-rich o rganic ma terial. Micro org anisms break dow n, or (6)

(7)


FR O M TR A SH TO T R E A S U R E .

deco mpose, the plant matter with the help of sunlight and wat er. The (8)

sunlight an d water keep the material wa rm and maisr, which helps (9 )

the decom posing process. Because the mate rial, called compost, is high in nut rients, ind ividua ls as well as large-scale agricu ltura l o perations use it to

ferti lize gar dens and crops. (t o)

__ a. add somethi ng to soil to improve its qua lity

b. leftover foo d _ _ c. decay, or break down into its sma llest par ts

__ d. a place to dispose o f trash, a dum p __ c. living orga nisms seen only thro ugh a microscope

f. natural __ g. peop le who st udy o ur surrou ndings __ h. the changi ng of plant matter into organic matt er used to improve soil quality

_ _ i. vitamins, pro teins, and minerals __ j. wet

READING ONE; A. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC

The title of the article is "St . Paul Couple Give Co mposting a Worm Welco me." The title uses a pun. A pun is a playful way to use wo rds. It is for med by using words that soun d al ike or words that have more than on c mean ing. In the title of the ar ticle, th e author uses a word that sou nds like anot her word to make an expression.

Can you guess which word is the {lUn? What clue does the pun give abo ut the topic of the article?


IIID

UN IT S â&#x20AC;˘

St. Paul Couple Give Composting a Worm Welcome By Chuck Haga (from The Star Tribune)

Th ey are not pets, o f course, bu t foo tless so ld iers in the ga rbage wa rs. A co nta ine r not

5

much larger than a eat's line r box holds 1,000

2

3

4

red worms, enough to t urn a small ho usehold's ta ble scraps into rich gardening compos t. "T here 's not much to watchi ng t hem, " Mergenrhal said. "They ' re in the re, and I put on a layer of scraps an d t he stuf f disappears." T here's a fancy name for what Mergeruhal and a growing number of Twin Cities! gardeners and en vironme nta lists are do ing: vermicompo sting, fro m vermis, Latin for worm. "Verrnicomposting is like regular composting, except that you' re using microorgani sms and a co mmunity of worms to break down o rganic matter," accord ing to "The Urban/Suburba n Co mp osrer;" a 1994 book by t wo Ca nadian gardening experts. The advantage with wo rms "is that they' re fast and they excrete a nutrient-rich ma nur e (called cas tings ), which is great for plant s."

1 Twin utiej, ST. Pa ul an d Mirmeapohs, Min nesota, USA 1 k~.: ave nue

) N.D.: Xorrh Dakota , USA

â&#x20AC;˘Job" Deere: name of a tr acto r company

6

7

8

9

To an swe r the second -most-asked qu estion (after sme lls): 1'\'0, yo u can't hear the worms eat ing, even in the still of the night . M ergenrha l feeds his wo rms potato peelings, ap ple cores. car rot stu bs, bread scraps an d oth er tab le lea vings. (Banana peels sho uld be OK, acco rding to the com posnn g guide, if covered.) "Here's some cab bage leaves," Mergenthal said. l ie is not squeamish ab out working t he moist, decomposing matt er to hau l (Jut a repr esenta tive wor m or two . " It's only orga nic matt er," he said patientl y. "It's just a little more organic than most people arc used to holding." He returned a worm to its bedding and watched it tunnel in. "It's fun to dig around a little and see that the y'r e do ing their work," he said. M ergenrhal, 64 , is manager of t he book store at Luther Seminary, a few blocks from his home on Bo urne Ave.! l ie grew up o n a farm near Hillsboro , N. D.,} and he keeps model s of John Deere" tracto rs in his stud y. He used to keep a


F RO M t RA SH t o

10

II

11

13

14

15

16

17

18

lar ge garden, but back probl ems compl icated by arthritis have forced him to cut back. "I' m int erested in doing an ythin g I can t hat's sus tainable," he sa id. " I do n't use co mmercial ferti lizers, and I do n't wa nt to contribute any more th an necessary to the landfills." Last fall , he sa w a mag azine ad ver tisement: "Worms will eat your garbage, " it said, and t hat sounded like a good deal to Mergenrh a1. He o rde red 1,000 redworms for about $20.00, he said, and a wo rm bin for about $50.00. (Redworms a lso are ava ilab le fro m bai t sho ps" a nd ccmposte rs wh ose "worm co mm unities" have grown too largc.] Th e worm s, fla t a nd sh iny and a little mo re reddish t han gard en-va riety angl eworms, can reach a length of four inches. T hey reproduce well in ca ptivity if hand led properly, dou bling or trip ling in num ber in a few months. Th ey sho uldn' t be o rdered late in the year because t hey do n't t ravel we ll in wint er. Mergentha l sent for his last fall, and his colony declined by the time he sort ed the worms fro m th eir soil and started them in new bedding. "T his first time around, 1 wasn' t a very good worm man ," he sa id. " I sho uld n't have lost wor ms. I should have gained. " His worm bin is about 2 feet by 2+ feet and stands about 15 inches high. It is screened on the bottom for dr ainage. No, he said, the worms will not tt y to escape. "They don't like the light," he said. " My wife was a little leery t hat we'd ha ve th em all over t he kitchen floor, but they' re hap py where they ar e. "M ost people don 't even notice it unless you point it out, " he said. "Then they 're interested . Kids are ,very interested. Usually they want to see the worms, and 1 don't mind showing them. It's a good way to get them thinking about natural life." Mary Tkach, recycling program directo r at the

J

bait shop: shop tha t sells wo rms used for fishing

6

box elder: tree

19

20

21

22

2J

24

TRE .... S U R E

II1II

St. Paul Neighborhood Energy Consorti um, said vermicom posting " is not terr ibly popula r yet, but it's definitely growing," especially as an environ menta l teaching tool for children. Call it the ant farm for t he ' 90s. " We're also seeing apartment dwellers who do n't hav e a place to compos t outside," she said . T he Energy Conso rtium con ducts "worm wor kshops" a co uple of times a year, said Tkach, who has a worm bin in her house-in her kitchen, in fact. " It is a co nversation piece, " she said. Mergenthal said th e worms sho uld be sor ted and restar ted in fresh bedding every four months or so . " You dump the conten ts out onto a rarp and slow ly take off soil fro m the outside of the pile," he said . "The worms don 't like the light, so they go to the middle. Eventually, you have all t he wo rms in a ball. " T he wo rm casti ngs go onto the M crgen rhals' ga rden. He makes new beddi ng of chopped box eld er" lea ves and shre dded newspa per, wetted down. "Th en 1 put the worm s in and some tabl e scra ps so they have something to cat, " he said , "and 1 let 'em go back to work." Redworms, also known as man ure wo rms, aren' t as fussy as so-called higher forms, such as cats, but they do have their standa rds. T hey prefer moist bins, a temperature betw een 65 and 77 degrees and a neutral pH . When you feed them chopped orange peels or other acidic food, you shou ld provide pulverized eggshells for balance. Meat scraps would create odors and sho uldn' t be add ed to t he feed . Some months ago, wo rr ied t hat Jennings' [Mr. M crgen rha l's] worms we ren't thriving, Mary Mergent hal placed a classified ad in a newspaper to ask for ad vice. That caused quite a few worm people to surface, Jennings said. "I found one lady who really knows a lot, " he said. " I' m told she really know s wor ms."


IIID

UN I T S â&#x20AC;˘

Reading One can be divided into [iue main par ts. Be/ow are headings for each part. Nu m ber the headings in the order the)' would appear in th e reading. No te that d can be found in two places.

a. What Mergenrhal does with his compost b. Th e pub lic's reaction to vermicom posting

c.

Who Mergenrhal is, wh y he practices vermicomposting, and how he heard about vermicompos ting

d. Care , maintenance, and feeding of the wo rms c.

Definition of vermicom po sring

C. RE AD I NG FO R DETAIL S

Emily Estey tried verm icom posting but failed miserably. According to the instructions fo r vermi composting in Reading O ne. w hat did she do wrong? Read her letter to Mr. Mergenthal, circle her six mistakes. and ma ke a list of w hat she sh ould have done instead. Dear Mr. Mergenthal, I really need your help and advice. My worms seem to have all died and I can't understand why , Let me tell you what happened. First I ordered my worms during the winter, in December. When they arrived, I put them in a cardboard shoe box under my dining room table. I filled the box wlth dry newspaper and began to feed them. Every night after dinner I would give them my table scraps: salad, apples , ch icken , bread, orange peels. I worried that they were too cold and set my apartment temperature for 80 degrees. After six m onths of no luck, I deci ded to change their bedd.ing and found out sadly that t hey had a.ll died. Wha.t did I do wrong? Sin cer ely,

Emily Est ey


F R O M T R A S H T O T R E A S U RE

D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES

Work with a partner. Circle the best way to complete the following sentences. There can be more than one correct answer. Support your choices with examples from Reading One.

t . People arc hesitant to practice vermicomposting because . . . a. of the cost. b. of the smell. c. it requires a lot of wor k. 2. Vermicomposting is appea ling to apartment dwellers becaus e ... a. the worms are quie t. b. you can do you r composting indoo rs. c. it does not ta ke up much space. 3. M rs. Mergcnthal's reacti on to the wo rms was ... a. very ent husiast ic. b. somew hat hesitant. c. to tally unsupportive. 4. M r; Mergenrhal's first exper ience wit h worms was . . . a. very successful. b. moderately successful. c. a rota l failure. 5. The benefit(s) of vermicompost ing is (are ) .. . a. the resu lting compost. b. the educationa l experience for children . c. the reduction of waste in landfills.

11II


III l

UN I T 5 .

READING TWO : A. EXPANDING THE TOPIC

Work with a partner. Look at the picture, answer the questions, then read "Earthship Homes Catch Old Tires on Rebound. "

An eart bship home.

1. Do you thin k this home loo ks co mfortable? 2. Wo uld

}'OU

like to live here? W hy o r why not?

3. Th is home is very specia l. Can you guess why? 4. Why do yo u th ink it is called an "earthship" ?


F ROM T RA SH T O TR EA S U RE

l1li

Earthship Homes Catch Old Tires on Rebound By Eva Ferguson (from The Calgary Herald)

2

3

4

s

6

I 2

Th ey're called ea rrhships-c-an enviro nmentalist's d ream home made from up to 2,000 scrap tires, packed dirt, stra w and conc rete. From the outside each look s like a berm ' with a solarium in front. On the inside, it can be a luxurious mansion for everyday living or just a cozy one-room cabin wit h a great view. Hundreds have been built in th e U.S. M idwest for a wide range of hom eow ners, including enviro nmentally conscious celebrities such as Dennis Weaver 2 a nd lo w inco me earners who want homes made of cheap materials and no heating bills-thank s to solar heatin g. A han dful of eart hships are under constr uction in British Columbia [Can ada] and now a Ca lgary entre preneur is anxious to build them in Canmore, Crossfield, Exs haw [Alberta, Canada ] o r any remote ar ea whe re Albertans are willing to t ry something unique that helps the environment too. " Because th e ho mes are to ta lly self-sufficient, t hey'r e very affo rda ble, and it's a way to get rid of used tires which have been such a heada che fo r years" {said M ichael Port]. In support of reusing old tires, Alberta's ti re recycling management boa rd launched th e Recycling Industry Incentive Pro gram, which provides up to $2 per tire for projects that use scrap tires in innovative ways. To build a modest earthship, about 2,000 tires arc stacked up atop each oth er and packed with dir t, straw, and cement to mak e up t he ma in frame. An avera ge sized home takes up to 90 to

7

8

9

10

135 square meters. The front, which faces sou th for maxim um sunlight, is a so lari um made of large glass windows. Beca use the earth and rubber from the tires trap heat, heatin g is never required, even in cold climates such as Alberta's. Ultimately the tires are com pletely covered , by drywall on the inside and ea rth on the outside. Solari ums provide a great opportunity for gardens as well, allowing ow ners to gro w thei r own vegetabl es at home. Utilities like water, sewage, and electricity do not have [Q co me fro m municipal sources. Ru nning water and sewa ge sto rage is han dled through undergro und ranks. " Pho rovoltaic" lights, which sto re solar energy in th eir own batteries, provide light ing at night. But for those who ca n't be without t heir TVs or microwaves, electricit y can be insta lled. Mic hael Reyno lds, own er of Solar Sur vival Architecture, which initiated the idea and star ted successf ul con struction 10 New M ex ico, Colorado, and Idaho just a few years ago, said the hom es are becom ing pop ular in Japan, Australia, Europe, and South America. " Housing itself is difficult to come by. M any people practically have to sell their souls to buy one. But these are aff ordable because they're mad e with old automobile tires, they don 't create heating or cooling bills, and o wners can even participate in t heir construction if they like." T he to ta l price can range from 530,000 to 51 million, dependin g on size and am enities, he said.

ber m: a mound or bank of earth placed again,f The wall of a building TO provide prot ection and war mt h Denni s Weaver: an American actor

In your own words, write a brief description of an eartbship hom e on a separate piece of paper.


.UNITS . B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

You have now read two articles dealing with alternative solutions to waste reduction. Work in groups to com plete the [ollow ing chart. Write about the two solutions (verm icompos ting and earthship homes) and their impact on society: Discuss any other environmenta l program with w hich )'011 are familiar, and write about it in the last colum n. Share other programs with the class and discuss the q uestions below the chart.

IM PACT ON SOCIETY

! VERM]COMPOSTING

OTHER

EARTH$HIP HOMES

Provides compost for the ga rden.

Benefits to the ind ividua l

Reduces waste in home.

------------------_._---_ ....~--------------------~---------------- -_._-~-------------- --- ----•• •• •• Benefi ts for the • • •• • •, environment •• ••, • • •, •• -----------------------------1---------------------1---------------------1----------· , , -·-------Ease of care or upkeep : : : • • ,• , • • ,• • ,• ,• , Cost • • ,• • • ,• • • ,•, , ,• ,• •

· · ·

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ .

._ ~

·

... .

.. ..

~

. . .. .. ...

~

a

1. Which, if any, of these programs wo uld be possible to do in yo ur com munity? 2. If a program is not possible, how could it be adapted to make it work in your commun ity? 3. What are some inexpensive and easy everyday actions which individuals can do to help reduce waste?


F R O M T R A S H T O TRE A SU R E

II!I

A . EXPLORING LANGUAGE

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words given. Use a dictionary if necessary. Check your answers with a partner. The first one has been done for you.

1. innovative, innovations a. Th ere ha ve been many grea t environ menta l innovat ion5 in the last few years. b. In fact, some of the most

innovative

ideas do not come from

scientists, but from ord inary people who are concerned with the earth's future. 2. recycling, recyclable, recycle, recycled a. Every week Lisa Deering separa tes her glass and plastic and puts the m in bins in or der to

them.

b. Lisa has recently realized that man y items she once tho ught o f as only tr ash are actually

_

c. She is such a stro ng believer in the value of

that she

has volunteered to help with her town 's program. d. In Canada,

tires arc used to build houses.

3. initiation, initiated a. Many recycling efforts are b. The

by concerned citizens.

of recycling programs has helped businesses

around the wo rld deal with the large amounts of used co mp uter paper. 4. composting, compost a.

ca n be used to fertilize soil.

b. In the United Stares, many towns provide resident s wit h _ _ _ _ _ bins.


11III

UN IT 5 â&#x20AC;˘

5. repr odu ctive, repro duce a. If handled corr ectly, worms

rap idly, doubling or

tripling in numb er in a few months.

h. A cold environment ca n slow down o r sto p the worm's

_ _ __ _

cycle.

6. storage, store a. Many people

their recycla ble materials in their ba se-

ments until they bring them to local recycling center s.

b. Due to lack of to

space, man y lan dfills are already filled

ca pacity.

7. pa rtici pa tion , participa te a.i'The public's full

is necessary for an y recycling effor t

ro be successful. b. O ne reaso n the earthship s are so eco nom ical is that the owner s can _ ____ _ in their const ruction.

8. fert ile, fertilization, ferti lity a.

is necessary for successful gardening.

b. T he deforestat ion o f the rain forest is causing the once _ _ __ _ _ soil to lose its valua ble nutrients. c. In some areas the natives pra y to the gods of to

increase the size of their har vest .

l

hoping


F RO M TR A SH T O T R EA S U H

III

B. WORKING WITH WORDS

Circle the word in parentheses which best completes the sentence. Public awareness of the value of (1. innovative. recycling) materials such as plastic, paper, and glass is increasing daily in all corners of the globe . In some coun tries these efforts are being (2. initi ated, fertilized) by the local governments and in others, by individuals. Participation in these prog rams is at an all-time high. In the small tow n of Tru ro in eastern Massachusetts, fo r exa mple, space in the local (3. landfill, store) has run out; therefore, residents ha ve had to think of new wa ys to dispose of their trash . With no roo m for items such as newspapers, bot t les, and old lumber at the landfill, local residents have come up wit h many (4. participation , inn ovative) pro gra ms to recycle and/or reuse wha t was once thought of as only tr ash. For instance, yard waste such as leaves and grass wh ich used to be thrown in the landfill is now broken down an d made into (5. worms, com post ) used by local people as fert ilizer in their gard ens. In addition, (6. rep roductive, recyclable) plastics, newspapers, bottles, and cans arc sold to a recycling com pany, thereby bringing in reven ue for the town. The most popu lar local innovation, though, has been the founding of a "swap shop." This is a building to wh ich peop le bring their unwanted clothing, book s, and to ys so that others who need them can take them. Since there is so much (7. fertilization, participation ) in all the recycling programs, the dump is seen as a place to meet with friend s and neighbors and catc h up on local news. Th ere is even an annua l September evening " dump dance," where locals dance to live music and have picnics by candlelight at the dump . This has become a highlight o f the summer vacat ion season. As humankind continues to (8. reproduce, fertilize) and the pop ulation grows, recycling efforts become even more impo rtant. T hese efforts must continue so that we will soon see new (9. innova tions, fertility) and ideas concerning the use of recycled materials.


III

UN I T S â&#x20AC;˘

FOR SION A. G RAMMAR: Advisability and Obligation i n the Pa st

o

Exa mine this sentence and answer the question that follows.

â&#x20AC;˘ Emily Estey should have written to Mr. M ergenrha l sooner. \VIlat does th e senrence mean?

a. Emily wanted to wri te to M r. .M ergenthal sooner than she did. b . Emily needed to write sooner, but she didn't . Past Moda l..

Focus O N GRAMMAR See Advisability a nd Obligat ion in the Past in

To talk about act ions that we re advisable in the past, use the models should have, could have, ought to have. and might beve.

Focus on Gramma r, H igh

Intermediate.

Form of the Past Marlals

Modal

+

Have

+

Past Participle

shoul d

have have

seen

oug ht to

have

studied

might

have

changed

shou ld

not have

eaten

could

wr itten

Expressing Regret with Past Morlals Past modals ca n exp ress regret about past poss ibilities and actions not taken . l oo k at the exa mples : Situation: I did not feed my worms the right food and the y all died . Expressing regret: I ought to have been more ca reful with my worms.


f R O M TR A SH T O T R E A S U R E I I I I

Situation: I threw awa y all my bottles and cans in the trash. Expressing regret: I could have recycled the m instead. Situation: I threw mea t scrap s in my compost bin. Expressing regret: I shouldn't have been so careless. Expressing Blame with Past Modals Past med als can also express blame. The blame is based o n your opi nion 0( a situation. Look at the example: Situation : O ur governments have let big businesses pollute our air for a long time. Expressing blame : O ur governments should not have allowed big bus inesses to continue to pollute fo r so man y years. GRAMMAR TIP: We usuall y do not use ought to have in the negative. We use should not have instead.

e

Read the following situations and write sentences using the mo dals gwen.

1. Jack Bellingham ordered wo rms for his vermicomposrer, They were sent to his hou se in Toronto, Canada. in Januar y. M an y of the worms died befo re they reached his ho use. He e.hould not have ordered hie. worms in winte r.

(should not have)

He ought to have read t he inst ructions fo r vermicomposting more caref ully.

(ought to have)

2. Em ily Estey often fed her worms orange an d grap efruit peels, and her worms didn 't seem to do well. _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ (should not have) _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ (should have) 3. Juan Ca rlos used all new tires when he bu ilt his earrhship. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __

(could have)

_ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ (should no t have)


11II

U N IT 5 â&#x20AC;˘

4. Last year, M r. M crgenrhal threw out 300 poun ds of co mpo srable ma terials. _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ (sho uld no t have) _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _

(ought to have)

5. T he first time around , man y of Mr. Mergenthal's worms died. _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ {should not have ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (mig ht ha ve)

6. Last year, a man built an earthshi p and faced all his windo ws to the north. Hi s hou se was always co ld and his indoor garden was not very successful. _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ (sho uld no t ha ve) _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _

.

(o ught to ha ve)

Read the (ollowing situations. Write sentences exp ressing your opinion (blame o r regret) using past mo da/s. 1. America has begun to ru n ou t of landfills.

2 . Fou rteen billion pounds o f garbage were dumped in the world 's oceans last year.

3. Gas and oil costs have continued to rise because th e plan et is f unning out of fossil fuels.

4 . Rain forests have been destroyed at an alar mi ng rate.


F R OM TR A S H T O

T RE A S U RE

III

B. STYLE: Cause and Effect

o

Examine the sentences that follow and discuss the questions with the class.

• Because the earth and ru bber from the ti res tr ap heat, heati ng is never required . • The worms don 't like the light, so they go to the middle of the pile. • Since Mr. Mergenthal's wo rms weren' t thriving, Mary M ergenthal placed a classified ad in the newspaper to ask for advice. • Th e home s are totally self-sufficient; co nseq uently, they are ver y affordab le. • As a result of these homes being made with o ld automo bile tires, they are very affordable. Each sentence has two clauses: one expresses a cause; the other exp resses an effect. a. In each sentence, can you identify the cla use that expresses the ca use? b. Can you identi fy the result, Ot effect, clause? c. W hat words connect the cause and effect cla uses in each sentence?


III

U N IT S •

Cause and Effect Cause and effect sent ences exp lain w hy some thing ha ppened . The re are two cla uses in a cause and effec t sentence . One cl ause (the cause)

e xpla ins why som eth ing ha ppened . The other clause (the effect) exp lains the result of what happened . Cause: Because the earth and rubber from the tires trap heat, Effect: heating is never required.

Conjunctions and Transitions Con junctions or transition words show the relationship between the

two clau ses. These include: Words Introducing the Cause

Word s Introducing the Effect

because

as a result

since

consequently for Ihis reason

so therefore

thus

The Cause Clause The ca use is introdu ced by be cause or since . lt ca n come a t the beginning of the sentence. In this case the cla uses arc separated by a co mma (,).

• Because the earth and rubber from th e tires trap heat, hea ting is never required .

The ca use can also come at the end, in which case there is no comma . • Heating is never requi red because th e ea rth and rubber from th e tires trap heat .


F R O M T RA S H T O TREASUR E

III

The Effect Clause

The effect can be introduced by words like consequently, for this reason, therefore. Cause and effect clauses can be comb ined into one sentence by using a sem icolon (i) and a comma (,). • Newspapers are the largest com ponent of solid waste in landfills; for this reason, we need to promote newspaper recycling. They can also be two separate sentences. • Newspapers are the largest com ponent of solid waste in landfills. For this reason, we need to promote newspaper recycling. Notice the pu nctuation w ith so: • Newspapers are the largest component of solid waste in landfills, so we need to promote newspaper recycling.

e

Read the following paragraph. Underline the words that introduce the cause and effect clauses. Then, with a partner, comp lete the chart that follows.

Ho uses in the United States are very expensive; as a result, many peop le have to invest all their savings to bu y one. Thankfull y, earthship homes are affor da ble becau se they ar e mad e with old automobile tires. In addi tion, beca use they are well insu lated, they don't create high heating or coo ling bills. Furthermore, since ow ners can par ticipate in the construction, the cost is cont ro lled.

CAUSE

EFFECT

1. Houses are very expensive. 2.

_

3.

_

4.

_

Earthships are affordable.


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e

For each sentence, first identify the cause (C) and the effect (E). Th en combine the sen tences with the transition words provided. The first One has been done for you.

1. -'---- Emily or dered her worms in winter.

---..E...- T he worms all died. (so) She Qrdered t he WOOI1!? in winter.

50

th'Y all diM.

2. _ _ The ozone layer is becoming dep leted . _ _ There ace mo re cases of skin cancer every year. (therefore)

3 . _ _ The world's rain forests a re rapidly shrinking.

There will be fewer valuable medicines available. (co nsequently)

4. _ _ There are more heat waves an d cold snaps. _ _ Clima te changes from global warmi ng are making weather patterns more extreme.

(as a result )

5. _ _ Dr inking wa ter near man y lan dfill s has becom e conta minated. _ _ People have been throwing hazardous waste in la ndfills for yea rs. (because)

6. _ _ People ha ve been c utting down la rge a reas of fores ts. _ _ Many a nima l species have becom e enda ngered. (for th is reason )


fR OM TR A SH TO TREAS U RE

7. _ _ Julian didn't use fertilizer in his gard en. _ _ His plants didn't grow very well. (since)

e

Combine each set of sentences to show cause and effect. Use an appropriate transition word. Th en put the sentences together to write a paragraph on acid rain.

1. a. There are over 500 million gaso line-powered cars in the world. b. There are large amounts of dangerous gases in the air such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from car emissions.

2. a. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide accumu late in the atmosphere. b. These gases rerum to earth in the form of acid rain.

3. a. Acid rain falls frequen dy in Europe. b. In Sweden, 40,000 out of 90,000 lakes arc known to be acidified.

4. a. Acid rain is expensive to d ean up. b. Billions of dollars are spent every year repairing damages from acid ra m.

PARAGRAPH ON ACID RAIN

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fi

ON YOUR I MOWN A. W RITI N G TOPICS

Choose one of the following topics. Write two or three paragraphs using some of the vocabulary, grammar, and style you learned in this unit, 1. Write a respo nse to Emily Estey's lette r (see page 104). Tell Emily what went wrong and exp lain how she co uld have prevented her worm d isaster.

2. Imagine you are the Secretary of H ousing in the Unit ed Stat es. Write in support of the building of carthships to address low-inco me ho using needs. 3. Describe an approach the United Stat es or another co untry has tak en to solve an enviro nmental problem. Be sure to explain wha t has caused the govern ment to take th is ap proach an d whethe r you think thi s approa ch ha s been successful o r no t. 4. Overpopulation is becoming a global pro blem. Some peop le believe that governm ents sho uld help control the populat ion by offering incent ives for no t having more than one child, such as by pro viding free birth cont rol methods and abort ions. Do you th ink that famil y size sho uld be unde r go vernment control, or should this be an issue of per son al choice? Why or why not? Expla in yo ur answer.

B. FIELDWORK

PREPARATION An sw er the following questions with a partner or in small groups.

1. Wha t are some important global environmental issues? What ar e some important enviro nmental issues in your local community? 2. Of these issues, which one interests yo u the most ? 3. What do you know about th is issue ? 4. What more wo uld you like to know? 5. Where can yo u get informatio n abo ut th is issue?


FROM T RA S H T O TRE A S URE

RESEARCH ACTIVITY: World Environment al Issu es Choo se an environmental issue from your previous discussion o r select one from the list below. rain forest destruction fossil fuels globa l warming species extinction air and water pollution overpopulat ion waste disposal in the oceans waste disposal in space nuclear power urbanization

Research your topi c in one or more of the following ways: • Go to a local library and find at least three different sources of informat ion. These sources could be magazine arti cles, book s, newspapers, reference books (encyclopedias, almanacs) , o r th e Internet. • Write a letter information .

to

an envi ronmental orga nization and ask for

• Talk to a local environmental agency or gro up.

SHARING YO U R FIND INGS Write a report on your research topic. The repo rt should include a brief history of the issue, a description of the current sta tus of th e issue, and a discussion of wh at actions are being ta ken today to help resolve the issue. Share the report with your classmates.

REFERENCES The follow ing are addresses for internation al environmental gro ups. Alp Action (Acid Rain) Bellevue Foundation P.O . Box 6 1211 Geneva, 3, Switzerland Greenpeace International Kcizersgracht 176 1016 DW Amsterd am The Netherlands

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Rainfo rest Act ion Ne twork 30 1 Broad way, Suite A San Fran cisco , CA 94 133

USA World Wide Fund for Na ture (WWF) Int ern ational World Conserva tion Centre Avenu e de M om Blanc CH ·11996 Gland, Switzerland Worldwarch Instit ute 1776 M assachusetts Avenu e Washingt on, DC 20036

USA


A. PREDICTING 1. Philanthropy is a way of showing concern fo r oth er people. It is the act of giving money or property to individuals or organizations. It is also the act of volunteering-working without pay-to help needy people or worthy organizations. Look at the title of this unit . Briefly write what you think it means. 2. look at the photograph. Discuss these quest ions with a partner. Who are these people? What are they do ing? Why ar e th ey doing it?

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B. SHARING INFORMATION

T he quotations which follow represent a philosophy about philanthrop y. Read these statements and write a few sentences explaining what you think that philosophy is. Give examples to illustrate your explanation. Share your ideas with the class. "It is bett er to give than to receive." - New Testament , Acts 20:35

" Practice random acts of love and kindness." - Bumpe r st icker which is popular in the United States " He wh o bestow s his goods upon th e po or, Shall have as much again, and ten times mor e." - Bunyan, Pilgrim 's Progress. Vol. 2 The ph ilosoph y expressed in these q uotations is:

for exam p le:

I~RI N G TO READ

A . BACKGRO UND

Read the information and do the exercise that fo llows. Across the United Sta tes mo re and more organ izations-includ ing corporare, educational, religious, and gove rn menta l gro ups-are spo nsoring volunt eer program s. And more and more people are volunt eering. Peopl e volunt eer fo r man y differenr reasons: so me for political or religious reasons; so me for personal or socia l reas on s; and others simply because it's mandatory, that is, requ ired .


G IVE AND LE ARN

Read what the following people say about volunteering. Why do you think they donat e. or give. their time? Match the people with their reason(s) for volunteering. Some people may have more than one reason. Share your answers in small group s. The first one has been done for you. Reasons for Volunte ering: a. personal

c. medical research

e. mandatory

b. politica l

d. religious

f. environmental

1. Ralph Birdsong Age 42

Raised $2,000 for AIDS research in the an nu al Boston to New York AIDS bicycle ride "First of all, I'm t rying to raise money for AIDS research in memo ry of my brother. M aybe this wa y what happened to him won 't happen to others. Second , I enjoy biking and this wa y I can combi ne my hobby with a good cau se." Reasons: ---'c'-.=nd"-'.'---

_

2. Greg Dean Age 36

Do nates his time as a Boy Scout leader "I've alwa ys loved the outdoors and camping. By being a scout leader, I can do something I like and transmit my love of nature to another generation. Maybe they'll take care of it better than ou r generation has." Reason s: _

3. Ellen Bullard Age 2?

Voluntee rs in a soup kitchen for the homeless " I've alwa ys been ta ught that we should help those who are less fort unat e than we are. When Reverend Kingsford spoke at church last Sunday about all th e good work being done here, I just knew I wa nted to participate. " Reasons:

_

lID


.

UNIT 6 .

4. J ake H utch ings Age 17

Spend s three hou rs a week playin g guita r for senior citizens in a nu rsing home

" I starred wo rki ng here last year becau se it was a school req uire ment. T his year it's an extracurricular activity. I asked the director of the pro gram if I co uld come back again this year beca use I really have a good time wit h thes e people. I th ink they like to listen to my music, roo. ,. Reasons:

_

5. Marcia Panrani Age58

Spends five hours a week volu nt eer ing at a politician's headq uarters " I feel that thi s per son is th e best candida te. By voluntee ring for her, I ca n do more tha n just vote . I feel like I' m more invo lved in the whole po litical process."

Reasons:

_

B. VOCABULAR Y FOR COMPREH ENSIO N

Using the words on the left, identify the different parts of this bicycle. o The first one has been done for you. a. seat

b. fram e c. pedal d. spoke e. bra kes

f. wheel g. grips

h. tire

a

\


G IV E A N D LE A R N

e

R EA D I N G ONE;

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Work with a partner. In each set of words, two of the three words are similar in meaning to the boldface word. Cross out the word that does not belong. Use a dictionary if necessary. The first one has been done for you.

1. judgment

decision

e#ef.

opinion

2. proud

modest

p leased

content

3 . challenge

allow

test

demand

4. sat isfaction

happ iness

pleasure

miser y

5. determi ned

insistent

stubborn

uncertain

6 . proposal

suggestion

order

recommendation

7. donate

contribute

give

sell

8. admire

respect

regard

hate

9. devote

dedicate

tak e

give

10. inspire

lessen

encourage

motivate

11. battered

broken

hurt

complete

12. thrilled

ha ppy

saddened

excited

Justin lebo

A . IN TRODUCING THE T O P I C

Justin Lebo is a young boy who vol unteers his own time an d energy to help others.

Read the first two paragraphs of the story and answe r the following questions. Work with a partner and compare your answers. Then read the rest of the story. 1. What cond ition is the bicycle in? 2. Why do yo u think Justin says the bicycle is "perfect" ? 3. Wh at do you think Justin will do with the bicycle?


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Justin Lebo BY

P H I L L I P

H O O SE

(from It 's Our World, Too )

2

3

-4

5

I

S omething about the battered old bicycle at the garage sale' caught ten-year-old Ju stin Lebo's eye. What a wreck! It was like looking at a few big bones in the dust and trying to figure o ut w ha t kind of dino saur they had once belonged to. It was a B.MX bike with a twenty-inch frame. Its original color was buried beneath five or six coa ts of gunky paint. Everything- the grips , the pedals, the brakes, the seat, the spokes-was bent or brok en, twisted an d rusted. Ju sti n stood back as if he we re inspecting a pa inting for sale at an auction. Th en he made his final judgment: perfect. Justin talked the owner dow n to $6.50 and asked his mother, Diane, to help load the bike into the back of thei r car. When he got it ho me, he wheeled the junker into the garage and showed it pro udly to his father. "W ill you help me fix it up ?" he asked. J ustin 's hobby was bike racing, a passion th e two of them sha red. T heir garage barely had ro om for the car anymore . It was more like a bike sho p. Tires an d frames hung fro m hoo ks on the ceiling, an d bike wrenches dan gled fro m the walls. N ow J ustin an d his fat her cleared o ut a wo rk space in the garage and put the old junker up on a rack. Th ey poured alcoh ol on the frame and rubbed until the old paint began to yield, layer by layer. Th ey replaced the bro ken pedal , tightened down a new scat, and restored the grips. In about a week, it looked bra nd new.

garage sale: sale of used furnitu re, clothes, toys, etc. held at someone's home


G I V E AN D LEA RN

Soon he forgot about the bike. But the very next week. he bo ught another junker at a yard sale- and fixed it up. too. After a while it bot hered him that he was n't really using either bike. Then he rea lized that what he loved about the o ld bikes wasn't ridi ng them: it was the challenge of making something new and useful out o f something old and brok en. 7 Justin wo ndered what he sho uld do with them. They were just taking up space in the garage. He remembered that when he was younger. he used to live near a large brick building called the Kilbarchan Home for Boys. It was a place for boys whose parents cou ldn't care for them for one reason or another. 8 He foun d "Kilbarchan" in the pho ne book and ca lled the directo r. who said the boys would be thrilled to get tw o bicycles. The next day when Ju stin and his mother unloaded the bikes at the hom e, two boys raced out to greet them . Th ey leapt a board the bikes an d sta rted tooling a rou nd the semicircula r driveway, doing wbeelies and piro uettes. laug hing and shouting. 9 The Lebos wa tched the m for a while, then started to climb into th eir car to go home. The bo ys cried after th em. "Wait a minute! Yo u forgot your bikes!" Justin explained tha t the bikes were for them to keep. "They were so happy." J ustin remembers. " It was like they cou ldn 't believe it. It made me feel good just to see the m happy." 10 O n the way home. Justin was silent . His mother assumed he was lost in a feeling of satisfaction. But he was thinking about what wo uld happen once those bikes got wheeled inside and everybo d y saw them. How could all th ose kids decide who got the bikes? Two bikes co uld cause mor e trouble tha n they would solve. Actua lly they had n't been that hard to build. It was fun . Ma ybe he co uld do more . .. 11 "Morn," Ju stin said as they tu rned on to their street, " I've got an idea. I'm going to make a bike for every boy at Kilbarchan for Christmas ." Diane Lebo loo ked at Justin out o f the cor ner of her eye. She had rarely seen him so determined. 12 When they got home, Justin called Kilbarchun to find out how many boys lived there. There were twe nty-one. It was alr eady June. He had six months to make nineteen bikes. Th at was almost a bike a week. Ju stin called the home back to tell them of his plan. " I co uld tell they didn 't think I could do it," Justin remembers. " I knew I co uld." 13 Justin knew his best cha nce to build bikes was almost the way General Motors or Ford builds cars: in an assembl y line. He figured it would take th ree or four junkers to produce eno ugh part s to make one good bike. That meant sixt y to eighty bikes. Where would he get them? 6

1 ya~d

sale: ga rage sale

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Ga rage sales seeme d to be the only hop e. It was June, and th ere would be gar age sales all summer long. But even if he cou ld find tha t many bik es, ho w could he ever pay for them? That was hundred s of doll ar s. 15 He went to his parents with a pro po sal. "When Ju stin was yo unger, say five or six, " says his mother, "he used to give away some of his allowance' to help others in need. H is father and I wo uld donate a do llar for every dollar Justin donated. So he asked us if it cou ld be like the o ld days, if we'd match every dollar he put into buying o ld bikes. We sa id yes." 16 Ju stin and his mother spent most of J une and J uly hun ting for chea p bikes at garage sales and thrift ShO p S.4 They would haul the bikes home, and J ustin would star t stripping th em down in the yar d . 11 But by the beginn ing of August, he had man aged to make on ly ten bikes . Summer vacation was almost over, and school and hom ewo rk wou ld soo n cut into his time. Garage sa les wou ld dry up when it got co lder, and Justin was o ut of mo ney. Still he was determined to find a way. 18 At the end of Aug ust, Justin got a break . A neighbor wrote a lett er to th e local newspa per describing Ju stin 's pro ject, and an editor thought it would make a good sto ry. In her ad miring ar ticle a bout a boy who was devoting h is summer to help kids he didn't even know, she sa id J ustin needed bikes an d money, and she p rinted his home phon e number. 19 O vern ight, everything change d . "T here must have been a hund red calls," J ustin says. "People would call me up and ask me to com e over and pick up thei r old bike. Or I' d be wor king in th e gara ge, and a stat ion wa gon wou ld pull up. The dri ver wo uld leave a co uple of bikes by the cu rb. It just snowballed. " 20 T he week before Christm as Justin delivered the last of the twe nt yone bike s to Kilbarcban . On ce again, th e boys po ured ou t of the ho me and leapt a bo ard the bikes, tearing around in the snow. 21 And on ce again, the ir joy inspire d J ustin . They rem inded hi m how important bikes were to him. Wh eels meant freedom. He thought a bout how much mo re th e freedom to ride m ust mean to bo ys like these who had so little freedom in their lives. H e decided to keep on building. 22 " First I ma de eleven bikes for the chi ldre n in a foster ho rne' my mother told me ab out . T hen I mad e bike s for all the wo men in a battered women 's shelter. T hen I made ten little bikes and tricycles for childre n with AIDS. T hen I made twenty-th ree bikes for the Paterson H ousing Coalition ." 14

J allowance: money that you are given regularly â&#x20AC;˘ thrift shops : stores that sell used furniture, clothes, to ys, ctc., at a low price , foster home: a temporary home where a child is take n ca re of by someone who is not the natura l paren t


G IV E A N D LE A R N

23

24

2.5

II

In the four years since he sta rted, Justin Lebo has made between 150 and 200 bikes and given them all away. He has been careful to leave time for his homework, his friends, his coin collection, his new interest in mari ne biology, and of course his ow n bikes. Reporters and interviewers have asked Justin Lebo the same question over and over: "Why do you do it ?" The question seems to make him unco mforta ble. It's as if they want him to say what a great person he is. Their stories always make him seem like a saint, w hich he know s he isn't. "Sure it's nice o f me to mak e the bikes," he says, " because I don't have to . But I wan t to. In part, I do it for myself. I don't think you can ever really do anyth ing to help anybody else if it doesn't make you happy. "Once I overhear d a kid who got one of my bikes say, 'A bike is like a book; it opens up a whole new world.' That's how I feel, too. It made me happy to know that kid felt that wa y. That's wh y I do it. "

B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

Com plete the following statements. Share your answ ers with a partner. 1. Justin Lebo is

2. Justin is a special person because

3. His pa rents and the community have supported him by

4. Just in enjoys do ing what he docs because

_

_

_


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C. READING FO R D ETA ILS

Look at the chart. It lists some benefits that can come from doing community service. Com plete the chart with examples of how Justin Lebo benefited from his exp erience. The first one has been done for you.

J usti n spent his free t ime in the summer making bicycles fo r the children at the Kilbarchan Home f or Boys.

Encourages you to use yo ur free t ime construc t ive ly

~~~- -- - --- - - --- ----- - -- - -- - -- --- -- - -- --- - -- --

•• •• self-esteem •• ,,•• ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - ---------------------------------- -------•• Open s people 's eyes to the great vari, ,,• ety of people in need ,, ,, Gives a sense of satisfaction and bu ilds

~

__ . _ .

4_L_.

One successful com m unity serv ice

_

!

experience leads to performing other

,: ,,: ,, - -- - -- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - -- - - - -- ~ Hel ps you to find out wh o you are, ,, ,, w hat your interests are, and w hat you ,, are good at .

services

L..

.......:

D. READING BETW EEN THE LINE S

Read each question and the three possible answers. Circle the answer which you feel is most correct. Refer to the reading to support your answer. Discuss your answers with a partner.


G I VE AN D LE A R N

1. Which of the following state ments best describes justin's reaction to the first bike he saw at the gar age sale? a. He knew immediately that the bike co uld be fixed up and used by someone who needed a bike. b. He wasn't exactly sure what he wou ld do with the bike after he fixed it up. c. He knew he wan ted to fix up the bike. 2. Which of the following sta tements best describes why Justin enjoyed fixing the first two bikes? a. He liked riding them. b. He liked taking them apart and putt ing them back together. c. He liked saving th e bikes fro m being thr own away an d giving them a second life. 3. Wh ich of the following statements best describes what j ustin was thinking about on his way home fro m the Kilbarchan Home for Boys? a. He knew he had to fix up enough bikes for all the children. b. He was satisfied with his work and felt very pro ud of himself. c. He was pleased that the boys enjoyed the bikes so much. 4. Which of the following statements best describes the director of the Kilbarchan Home's reaction to j ustin's plan of making each boy a bicycle? a. He was pleased and knew Justin had the determination to complete his plan . b. He thought that Justin was an incredib ly genero us child. c. He was shoc ked and didn 't really believe Justin cou ld do it. 5. Which of the follow ing events helped Justin most with his bike acq uisitions? a. His parents' agreement to help him with money. b. The newsp aper article w ritte n about his p roject. c. The fact that it was summer and there were many yard sales.

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6. Which of the foll owing statements best describes j ustin's motiva tion for continuing to bu ild and give away bikes ? a. H e loves bicycles and wants other people to ha ve the opportunity to see how wo nderful they arc . b . H e loves th e cha llenge of repairing an d restoring bicycles that would otherwise be thrown away.

c. H e loves the sat isfaction of do ing things for ot her people. 7. Whi ch of the following statements best describes Justin Lebo ? a. He is a yo ung man with a wi de ran ge of interests an d hobbies. b. H e is a you ng man whose inte rests arc centered on bike rac ing a nd repair, c. H e is a young man wh o is continually cha nging his interests and

hobbies. 8. Which of the followi ng reas ons descri bes why J ustin Lebo do es wh at he does ? a. H is pa rents ha ve encou raged him to help others . b. It mak es him happ y to help others. c. Help ing orhers is man datory at his school.

READING TWO: Mandatory Volunteering A. EXPAN D ING TH E TOPIC

M any educational organizations (including th e Department of Ed ucation ) in the United States believe that studen ts sho uld be req uired to devote a certa in nu mbe r of hours out side classroom time to comm unity serv ice in order to grad uate. Sup porters of ma ndatory volunteering believe that the school's role should no t only include prepa ring children to be academica lly success ful, but also help them to be responsi ble citizens and active part icipants in their commun ities. H owever, ma ndatory volunteering has no t received una nimous support. Th ose opposed to the requ ireme nt believe that th e term


G I Vf A ND LE AR N

III

"manda to ry volunteering" is an oxymoron, a contradiction of words; they believe that volunteering means something you do of your own free will. It is not someth ing that is forced on yo u.

Before you read the two editorials abou t man datory volunteering, write a short answer to the following question. Do you believe mandato ry voluntee ring is a good idea? Why or wh y not ?

Some Take the Time Gladly By Mensah Dean (from The Washing ton Times )

1

3

4

5

Mandato ry volunreering made many members of Maryland' s high school class of ' 97 grum ble with indignation. Fut ure seniors , however, pro bably won't be as resistant now t hat the program has been brok en in. Some, like John Maloney, a lready ha ve com pleted the ir required hours of approved com munity serv ice. T he Bowie H igh School sophomore' earned his hou rs in eighth grade! by volu ntee ring two nights a week at the LarkinChase Nursing and Restorative Center in Bowie. He played shuffleboard, ca rds, and other games with t he senio r cit izens. He also helped plan parties for the m an d visited their rooms to keep them com pany. Joh n, fifteen, is not finished volunteering. O nce a week he videotapes anima ls at the Prince George Counr y an ima l shelter in Forest ville. His foota ge is sho wn on the Bowie public access television channel in hopes of findin g ho mes for the an imals. "Vo lunteering is better t han just sitti ng around," says John, "and I like anima ls; I don't wanr to see them put to sleep.!"

6

7

8

9

10

He's not the only volun teer in his family. His sister, Melissa, an eighth grade r, has co mpleted her ho urs also volunteeri ng at Larkin-Chase. " It is a goo d idea to have kids go out int o the community, but it's frustrating to have to write essays abo ut th e work, " she said . " It makes you feel like you're doing it fo r the requirement an d not for yoursel f." T he high school's service learn ing office, run by Beth Ansley, provides information on organizations seeking volunteers so that stu denrs will have an easier time fulfilling thei r hours . " It's ridiculous that people are op posing the requirements," sa id Amy Ro use, wh o this summer has worked at the Ronald Mc Do nald House" and has helped to rebuild a chu rch in Clinton. " $0 man y peopl e wo n't do the service unless it's mandato ry," Rouse said , "but once they start doing it, they'll really like it and hopefully it will beco me a part of t heir lives- like it has become a part o f mine."

sophomore: a stude nt in the second year of high school (o r college} eighth grade: T he U.S. pu blic schoo l system begins with kinde rgarten and then con tinues with grades 1-12. A studen t in eighth grade wo uld be a pprox imatel y rhirreen or fourteen years of age. l put to sleep: killed in a humane way â&#x20AC;˘ R"'Ul ld McDo1Ulld Houses a residence, usually near a hospital , for the family of childre n who req uire a lot of time in the hospital because of serio us illness I

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Mandatory Volunteering for High School Diploma Not a Good Idea (From The Sun Sentinel)

Re proposals for mandatory service hours in order to graduate from high school: I a m a n active participant in the high school service program, and cha irperson of a tutoring program run

2

primarily by high school students such as myself. Volunteering is a personal choice and an extracurricular activity such as the debate team or school-sponsored spo rts. M andator y volu nteering is no t a good idea. First, many students do volunteer, and most do it with full force. By the time a volunteering student

3

4

becomes a senior;' that student could earn as many as 1000+ service hours. If an entering freshman " is to ld that he or she must volunte er for a pre-set number of hours, the student might become resentful, complete the required hours, and never volunteer again. The volunteered hours

1

would end up being less than the hours being volunteered now. Many students do not have the time to volunteer. School goes from a set starting time to a sec ending time. If the student's busy after-school schedule does not allow for extracurricular' acti vities, that is the student's own business. With the exception of homework, there is noth ing tha t a student is req uired to do after school hours . Fina lly, mandatory volunteering is an oxymoron. If students are required to volunteer it is no longer volunteering. T he performed service becomes one more thing to do in order to graduate fro m high school. The quality of wo rk can suffer greatly. If a student enjoys volun teering, he or she will volunteer wit hout having to be told.

senior: a stud ent in the last year of high school student in the first year of high schoo l ex tracu rricular: o utside of th e school requirement

> freshman : a J

Summarize the opinions in the editorials. Write them in the chart and share your summaries with the class.

FO R MAN DATO RY VO LUNTEE RING

1. 2.

3.

_ _

_

AGAINST M AN DATO RY VO LUNTEERING

1.

_

2.

_

3.

_ Chart continues on next page.


G I VE

4.

_

AN D l E A R N

4.

_ _

5.

_

5.

6.

_

6.

III

_

B. LINKI NG REA DINGS ON E A ND TWO

Imagine you are Just in Lebo and your school has just initiated a mandatory volunteering requirement. How would you react? Would you be for or against mandatory volunteering? H ow would your personal ex perience influence your reaction? Write a letter to the edito r of your local paper ex pressing your opinion either for or against the requirement. Be sure to use your experience to support your position.

Justi" Lebo To the Editor: I would like to ex press my opinion on the school's recent decision to adopt mandato ry volunteering .

Sincerely,

J ustin Lebo


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U N IT 6 â&#x20AC;˘

~ It"It'~,!cro ~~ ~ I A . EXPLORING LANGUAGE

How do you thin k these people wo uld answer the questions addressed to them ? Read the questio ns and write their answers, using the w ords given. You may need to change the form of the words (fo r ex am ple, devote to devo ted, or determine to determination}, Share your responses w ith a partner. The first one has been done fo r yo u. 1. To Diane Lebo. Your son Justin is qu ite remarkab le, isn't he? devote

determin e

proud

"Yes, he is. I've never seen Ju stin so determined and devoted to a project before. I am very proud of him."

2. To J ustin Lebo . After fixing the first bike, did you ever th ink you wou ld end up repairing and donating over 150 mo re? paSSIOn

cha llenge

sno wball

3. To the director o f the Kilbarchan School for Boys. What did you think when Justin first to ld you he wa s planning on build ing a bicycle for every boy at Kilbarchan? thrilled

pr oposal

mana ge


G IVE AN D

LEARN

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4. To a Kilbarchan boy. How d id you feel when you ro de one of Justin's bikes? hope

inspire

adm ire

5. To a student who supports mandatory volunteering. Why do you support man datory voluntee ring ? fulfilling

donate

volunteer

6. To a student who is opposed to mandatory volunteering. Wh y are you opposed to mandatory volunteering? ridiculou s

indignant

oppose

8. WORKING WITH WORDS : Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb consists of two or three wo rds. This co mbination of words often has a meaning that is very d ifferent from the meaning of its parts.

Work in a small group . Read the sentences and circle the best explanation for each underlin ed phrasal verb.


a

UNIT 6 .

1. Pro ponents of ma ndatory voluntee ring say volunteer ing for a co mmunity service is time bett er spent th an sitt ing around all day watch ing television or playi ng com puter games . sit around a. do no thing special b. sit wit h friends in a circle

c. not take part in so mething 2. Little bo ys and girls love made.

to

tear aro und on bicycles tha t Ju stin Lebo

tear around a. play so hard you rip your clo thes b . move quickly in all directions c. destro y things 3. Stu dents who have lots of free time like or In ca rs.

to

tool around town on bikes

tool around a. play wi th hammers, scr ewdrive rs, and other to ols

h. ter rori ze a place in a vehicle c. tak e a ride in or on a vehicle 4. At first , J ustin could no t figure out what to do with his two bikes. figure o ut a. resol ve a pro blem

h. mak e a plan c. tak e part in

5. J ustin had so many bikes th at he had to clear out his basement and sta rt building them there. clear out a. mak e room on a ta ble b. clean a small area c. emp ty an area or space


G IV E AN D LE A R N

6. When the students found out the new gra duation requirements, they were furious . find out a. create something b. discover something lost c. learn about a new fact

7. Justin Lebo ta lked the bicycle ow ner down $3.00. talk down a. discuss a situation

b. speak disrespectfu lly to someone c. persuade someone to red uce a price

8. People fear tha t if stu dents do not do comm unity service, they will end up being uncaring and unsympat hetic individuals. end up a. complete a project b. finish in a certain way c. stop somet hing 9. When people donate old clot hes to a community center, the center sta ff will often come to the ho use and pick up the donations. pick up a. sta rt to increase b. clean something c. collect someth ing 10. Justin was afraid that th e garage sales wou ld dr y up by the end of the summer. dry up a. be dull and uninteresting b. slowly co me to an end c. become useless

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III

UNIT (, •

SKillS FOR EXPRESSION A. GRAMMAR: Tag Ques tions

o

Examine these sentences and discuss the questions that follow with a partner:

• Justin Lebo is a philanthrop ist, isn' t he? • Ju stin Lebo doesn't sell his bikes, does he? • H e and his fath er fixed bikes, didn 't they? 3.

T here ar e two parts

to

a tag qu esti on. What are they?

b. What are th e tags in these questions?

c. When the verb in the stat ement is affi rmat ive, what is the verb in the tag part? What ha ppens to the tag w hen the verb in th e statement is negative? Tag Questions Focus ON GRAMMAR

Tag questions are like yes/no questions. They are often used to check

See Tag Questions in Focus

information or ask for agreement. They usuall y mean, " Isn' t the state-

on Grammar, H igh Intermediate.

ment I' ve just made true ? Aren't I right?" Tag questions are answered in the same way as yes/no questions. • He is a philanthropist, isn't he ?

Yes, he is./No, he isn't.

Affirmative and Negative Forms Tag q uest ions a re made up of two parts: a statement an d the tag. If the verb in the statement is affirmative, the verb in the tag is negative. If the ve rb in the statem ent is negative, the verb in the tag is affirmative. The negative ve rb in the tag is a lways a co ntractio n. • Justin is young, isn't he? • Justin isn't old , is he?


GI V E A N D lE ARN

Subject Agreement The subjec t of the tag agrees with the subject of the stateme nt. The subject in the lag is always a subject pronoun. • Mandatory volunteering is ridiculous , isn't it ? • Many students are volunteers, aren't the y? • Justin doesn't have to volunteer, does he ? Verb Agreement The verb in the tag is the same tense as the verb in the statement and agrees with the statement verb in number and person . The verb in the tag is always a form of be or an auxili ary verb. Statement

Tag

1. be (main verb)

be

• Volu nteering wasn't a requ irement, 2. be (auxiliary) • You were going to vo lunteer last week, 3. have (auxiliary verb) • Justin has fixed more than 200 bikes, 4. Modal (auxili ary) • You will help us with the project, • They can't graduate until they volunteer, 5. Other verbs (main verb) • Justin's mother helped him collect bikes, 6. have (main verb) • You have some free time to volunteer,

was it? be weren't you? have hasn't he? Modal won't you? can they? do didn't she ? do don't you?

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U N IT 6 â&#x20AC;˘

8

Match the tags with the follo wing stateme nts. The first one has been do ne for you.

STATEM ENTS 1. Nea rly all civilizations have practiced some form of philanthro py, I 2. Pr ivate dona tions helped establish ch urches, hospita ls, libra ries, and un iversities,

TAG a. isn't it ? b . will yo u?

c. sho uld they ?

d. don ' t th ey?

.

.,

e. 1S It .

f. didn 't they ? 3. M any co rporations give money to supp ort the arts, _ 4. Volunteering in soup kitchens can really make a difference,

g. wouldn't you? h. can't it?

i. hadn't she ? j. ha ve they?

5. Some peo ple ha ven't reacted well to the idea of forc ing community serv ice, _

6. M andatory volunteerism is an oxymoro n, _ 7. You won't fo rget to ta ke food to the homeless shelter, _

8. M andatory volunteer ing isn' t a good idea, _ 9. Students shou ldn' t have to do mandat or y vol un teering, 10 . You have a good feeling a bo ut yours elf a nd others when you vo lunteer, _

11. You would like to do something like Justin is doing, 12. By C hristmas, she ha d baked over 1,000 cookies for ch ildren in foster ca re, _

k. do n' t you? I. ha ven 't th ey?


G IV E A N D LE A RN

â&#x20AC;˘

III

Some of the followi ng tag questions have grammat ical errors. Find the errors and make the necessary corrections. No t all the sentences have errors. The first one has been done for you. didn't

1. Justin Lebo fixed three bicycles yester day, doe~B't he? 2. John is not finished voluntee ring, is John ? 3. Corporati ons have been don ating more and more to the needy, hasn't she? 4. It's ridiculous for people to oppose the requirements, is not it ? 5. Students shouldn't be forced to do volunteer wor k, shouldn't they? 6. Stu dents who volunteer will be more likely to attend four-year colleges, wo n't they? 7. Students who volunteer in high school will continue to volunteer throughout their lives, aren't they? 8. People's reaction to mandatory volunteering is mixed, isn't it ? 9. The bikes weren't that hard to build, didn't they? 10. Justin used to give away some of his allowance to help others in need, didn't he?

B. STYLE : Pun c t ua ti on

o

Examine the punctuation in the sentences on page 146 and discuss the questions that follow with a partner.


III

UN IT 6

• I like animals; I don't want to see them p ut to sleep. • Ju stin stood back as if he were inspecting a paint ing for sa le at an auction and then mad e his fina l judgme nt : perfect . • Everything- th e grips, the pedals, th e brakes, the seat, th e spokes- was bent or broken, twisted and ru sted. a. In which sentence does the pu nctua tion set off a list of extra infor m ati on? b. In wh ich sente nce does the p unct uation sepa ra te two closely related sta tements? c. In which sentence does the p unct uation set o ff a wo rd w hich ident ifies and clarifies other words that co me before it ? d. Can you nam e th e different types of punctuation in these sentences?

Punctuation The Semicolo n A sem ico lon looks like th is Use a semico lon to

• co nnect two independe nt cla uses w ith very close ly related ide as. A bike is like a book; it opens up a whole new world .

The Colon A co lon loo ks like this Use a colon to • illustrate o r give further informatio n about a noun o r noun phrase. Justin knew his best ch a nce to build bikes was almost the way Ge ne ra l Motors o r Ford build s cars: in an asse mbly line. • introduce a quotatio n. This is a mo re fo rma l wa y to introd uce q uotatio ns than the use of a co mma (,). Rep o rters a nd interviewers have asked Justin Lebo the same questi on over and over : "Why do you do it?"


G IVE A N D LEA R N

The Dash A dash looks like this Use a dash to • set off extra information, especially if the information has a series of commas. Everything-the grips, the peda ls, the brakes-was broken. • indicate a sudde n brea k in thought or parenthetical information. Vol unteering for community service-whether it be mandatory or not- is a great way to get stude nts involved in society. • emphasize or summarize a thought. Hopefully it will beco me a part of their lives-like it has become a part of mine .

e

Look at the following pairs of sentences. Circle the letter of the sentence in each pair that correctly uses colons, semicolons, and dashes. Review the explanations in the chart and ex plain the use of punctuation in each sentence. The first one has been done for you.

l .@Justin stood back as if he were inspecting a paint ing for sale at an au ct ion . Then he mad e his final judgment : perfect. b. Justin stoo d back as if he were inspecting a painting for sale at an auctio n. Then he mad e his fina l judgment-perfect. The colon is used to give further info rmation about a noun or noun phrase.

2. a. All of Lev's work-which is a lot- has been focused on the homeless. b. All of Lev's wor k: w hich is a lot , has been focused on the homeless.

3. a. In order to fix th e bicycles, Justin Lebo needed to have lot s of spare parts; chains, peda ls, seats , and cab les. b. In order to fix the bicycles, Ju stin Lebo needed to have lots of spare parts: chains, pedals, seats, and cables.

III


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U N I T f,

â&#x20AC;˘

4 . a. T here are ma ny types of community service-work ing in soup kitchens, working in nursing hom es, working at homeless shelre rswhich high scho ol studen ts can cho ose to do . b. There are many types of community serv ice; working in sou p kitchens, working in nu rsing homes, working at homeless shelters ; wh ich high school stu dents can choose to do .

5. a. M ost vo lunteers at some time ask thems elves the same question"Why is it important for me to do th is?" b. M ost vol unteers at so me time as k th emselves the same qu estion : "Why is it importa nt for me to do th is ?"

6. a. Volunteering is becoming more and more important in th e college ap plication process: man y co lleges look mo re favo ra bly on students who have volu nteered in high scho ol. b. Volunt eering is becom ing more and more imp ortant in rhe college appl icarion process ; man y co lleges look m ore favora bly on students who have volunteered in high school.

e Add the correct punctuation to this paragraph. Use a colon (:), semicolon [t}, or dash (-). The first one has been done for you. I began volunteering at the age of fourteen. At the tim e, there wa s no ma ndatory volu nteering requi rement _;_ voluntee ring was a (I)

pers on al choice based on my ow n inrercst. My interests cente red on helpi ng children _ _ espec ially ch ild ren with specia l needs. Ar ou r (2)

scho ol we ha d a special needs classroom wit h a nu mbe r of special needs children. Twice a week I would work as the teac her 's helper. Throu gh th e work I did , I realized two things _ _ I was ha ppiest when I vol unteered, (3)

and I was goo d at helpin g special needs st udents. I am no w mu ch older, have a college degree in special educa tion, and still do vol untee r wor k at a comm unity cente r for tro ub led teenagers . I guess I wo uld say that the voluntee r work I did at age fourteen cha nged my life _ _ forever. (4)


G IVE A N D L EA RN

11II

A. WRITING TO PI C S

Choose one of the following topics and write two or three paragraphs about it. Try to use the ideas, vocabulary, gram mar, and style from this unit in your writing. 1. Imagine you are responsible for setting up a community service program in your city. What kind of program wo uld you sta rt ? Who would it serve? Would there be volunteers? Who would the voluntee rs be? What would you hope to accomplish? Be as specific as poss ible.

2. In your opinio n, what are the pro s and cons o f mandato ry volun teering in high scho ol ? Describe both sides of th e issue. 3. Many large co rporations are invo lved in p hilant hropic work. They often say that they want to give somethi ng back to the people and com munity that have supported them and thei r products. Their mon ey an d efforts do much good; however, skeptics would say that they are really just look ing for a " tax break " and/or a cheap way to buy goodwill (good publicity for the company). What is your opinio n on corporate philanthropy? Give examples to support your opi nio n. 4. There are many different ways to pr actice "random acts of love and kind ness." Write about some of these ways and why you think people perform these acts.

B. FI ELDWORK

PREPARATION As a class, brainstorm a list of community centers or comm unity work being done in you r area, or list types of community centers yo u have heard abo ut. Discuss the type of services these centers offer: serving food, offering shelter, meeting medical or educational needs, helping repair ho mes, cleaning up the neigh borhood, or others.


III

U N IT f:> •

RESEARCH ACTIVITY In small gro ups, research one of the centers or community proj ect s. Individually, or in groups, go to a cent er or project headquar ters and gather in formation to compl ete the cha rt below. If there is not a center or pro ject near you, go to the libra ry an d find info rmation about act ivities in another ar ea. Combi ne your informat ion and prepare a report of yo ur findings for the class . Use the cha rt to organize yo ur repo rt and take no tes on the report s of your classmates. Name of center or project

History of center: When was it started? Who started it? Why? ,

,

I

,, ,, ,,, ,, ,, ,

-- ------- -- ----- - ------ ------ - -------- - --~, ------ --- -- - --- - --;--I - -- --- -- - ------~---------I ------- -.--------------, -.--

Type of people the center helps

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J

, I ,

I , ,

,

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, I I

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t , , ,

I , I I

, , , I

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¥ --- - -- ---- ----- ··-------- ------ ------ ---r------------ --- - -- ~ -- ~ -- ---- -- ~ --- -- ~ _r ~ --- --- ~ -- - -- - -- - -~ --- - --- -- - -- ~ -- --- ~

Type of people who work in the center: Are there vo lunteers? How man y? Who are they ?

: :, : :

, ,

: :I : :

, I

: :, : : , ,

: :, : :

, ,

------·--- - ---- ~--- ~-- ~ -- ~ ~ -- -- ~ --- ~ -- --- r -- --- ------ - --.---~---------- -- -- ----_r ~ ~- ---~ ~-- --- ~- ~ ~-~-- ~ ~ --

Funding for the center: How does the center pa y for its act ivities? How is it funded?

: : ,

: : I

: : ,

: :

1

:

:

:

,:

: ,,

,,:

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..-.--.------


APPROACHING THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING look at the graph. It shows test scores from a recent International Science/Math Study. The math test was given to 500,000 students in forty-one countries. The test compared academic performance among the participating countries. The average score was 513. The graph shows the results of seven countries. Working in small groups, study the results and answer the questions. 1. What countries are among the top five? Where did the United States place? 2. What are your reactions to the test results? 3. Why do you think the students from the top countries scored so well? 151


1m

UN IT 7 .

B. SHARING INFORMATION

According to research, some of the factors listed be/ow contribute to a student's success, and som e do not. Check (.I) each factor you believe contributed to the success of the top scoring coun tries in the International Science/Math Stud)'. Discuss yo ur opinions with the class. Th en, compare you r opinions with the answers at the bottom of the page.

Students in the to p scoring count ries: 1. spend more time on homework.

2. spend less time watching television.

3. have easy access to computers and books in the home. 4. have better trained and qualified teachers.

5. spend more time in class. 6. have more challenging coursework (curricula). 7. spend Jess time playing with friends after school. 8. have smaller class sizes.

Answers: 3, 4, and 6.


.- -

H OM I N G I N O N ED U C ATION

11II

RIN G REA D A. BACKGROUND

Read this information and do the exercise that follows on page 154.

T he ter m home schooling or home tuition, as it is called in England, means educating ch ildren at home or in places ot her than a (1) mainst ream setting such as a public or private school. There are man y reasons wh y parents choose home schooling for their childre n. Some parents are dissa tisfied with the quality of education in the public schools . Oth ers do nor want their children to have to worry about (2 ) "peer pressure," or socia l pressure from friends. Th ey say it may interfere with the child's studies. These parents fear this type o f pressure will lead to negative behav ior such as smok ing, drinking alcohol, an d taking drugs. (3 ) Bullying an d harassing fro m ot her students is another concern. Still oth er parent s choose this type of educati on for religious reasons. Whate ver the reasons ma y be, it is evident that more and mo re children are being taken out of mainstream schools every year. As a result, man y questions ha ve (4) emerged, enco uraging the debate over home schooling versus pu blic schoo ling. Wha t th en is th e fut ure of education? Will this (5) marginal model of schooling replace traditi onal schools and conve ntional methods? Will computers and the Internet replace our classrooms and teachers? Will p ublic schools be a (6) thing of the past ? As the debate over home schoo ling versus public schooling cont inues, so do the questions ab out wha t home schoolers arc studying at home. How can parents (7) ensu re tha t their children are prepared aca demically for college? H ow arc home schoole rs (8) assessed to make sure they are getti ng the basics, the same ed ucational sta ndards that mai nstream students must ha ve? Finally, there are quest ions regard ing the children's emotional development. Are they too (9 ) isolated fro m their peers? Arc they (10) missing Qut on the social benefits of being in a large class room of their peers? As with any (11) debatab le issue, the answers to these questions are neit her simple no r one-sided.


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UN IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

Complete these sentences. 1. T he main reasons for home school ing are

2. Peop le are worr ied a bout home schoo ling becau se

_

3. I might (or I might not ) teach a child at home beca use

B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION

Look at the underlined wor ds in the backgro und reading on page 153. Write the number of each word beside its synonym be/ow. The first one has been do ne for you. _ ,_, _ a. controversial, questionable

_ _ g. social demands from your

"gro up" _ _ h. developed, arisen _ _ c. guarantee _ _ d. losing an opportunity for e. uncomm on or unconventional

_ _ h. something tha t is no t used anymore or is obsolete I.

tested, evaluated

_ _ I. threateni ng, teasing

_ _ k. traditional, conventiona l f. sepa ra ted or secluded from


HOM I NG I N ON ED U C ATIO N "

Teaching at Home Hits ~~~==;;..:.N ew High with Internet INTRODUCING THE TOPIC

Read the title of the article and the first paragraph. Then write three questions which you would like the article to answer. Use the question words given .

1. W here? 2. Ho w ?

_

~

3. Why?

_

Teaching at Home Hits New High with Internet; As Schools Fight for a Future 15,000 FamiliesJoin the Trend Towards Teaching Children at Home By Dorothy Lepkows ka (from The Evening Standard )

2

Record numbers of childre n are being ta ken ou t of scho ol an d educated by their parents at home. Up to 100 ch ildren a mont h nati onally are leaving the cla ssroo m because of their parents' d isillusionment with t he education system. Around 15,000 fam ilies are now teach ing their youngs ters at home, a rise of 50 per cent from last year, according to latest figures. Th e popu larity of home tu ition has tr adition ally been blamed on the rigid ity of the exa minat ion system, parents being unable to get their ch ildren into t he school of their choice, and dissatis faction

3

wit h teach ing methods. Some parents also pr efer to keep their children at home because of bullying and a lack of discipline in schools. Academ ics now claim, howeve r, that a signi ficant proportion of families educating at hom e do so because they feel that the concept of institutionalised educat ion is a thing of the past. They believe that schoo ls co uld be obsolete within 20 years as parents tu rn instead to media technology, such as the Internet, to ed ucate their children. Under the law, pa rent s must ensure their ch ildren are educated, wheth er at school or at


. U N IT

7 .

4

5

home. It is the responsibility of local au tho rities to safeguard their sch oolin g. Professor Roland M eighan, a senior lecturer in ed ucation at Nottingham University, said parent s were fed up with the constrictions of the existing education system. He said : ' Schools have becom e an outdated conce pt fro m the da ys of the town crier;' wh en information was scarce and a central figure was needed to impart knowledge. Parents are now co ming to the co nclusion t hat education is moving on, and they do not want their ch ildren to be stifled by conventional methods.' Professor Meighan said many aca demics now tho ught schools as we know them cou ld beco me o bsolete within 20 years. Instead, children will be caught at home using t he Int ernet, co mp uters, and video. He said: 'The schools of the futu re will be small pockets of chi ldren, shari ng equipment in each ot hers' hom es, with teache rs tak ing on a new role as advisers, sorting through the available information.' T he future of institutionalise d schooling was recently called into question by Sir Chris topher Ball, t he director of learn ing at the Royal Society of Arts. H e predicted the education system of the future would include a glo bal curricu lum and a worldwide qualifications! system. He said; 'Some existi ng marginal models of schoo ling will move into the mainst ream--community schools and home schooli ng, for example. No doubt, other mo dels as yet unseen will emerge.'

How O pting Out Brings O-Level Success at 13 (;

Leslie Bar son is already ru nning a pr ototype of the type of school educationalists predict will educa te ch ildren in the future. Based partly at a comm unity centr e in Brent and partly in family hom es, th e O therwise Club is comprised of some 35 families aro und nort h Londo n. Professional teachers are brought in where necessary to help with more specialised subjects, but for the most part parents and chi ldren wor k together on projects such as study of the Greeks and the American

7

Civ il War, reading up on even ts, making costumes, an d learning how people used to live. Parents opting out of school claim t he flexibility of home learning means some childre n sit one of two GCES3 by the age of 13 . M s Barson's ow n child ren, Luis, age 12, and 7-year-old Lilly, have never attended school. She pa ys around ÂŁ2,000 a year for pr ivate tutors to help in specialised areas. She set up the O therwise Clu b six years ago wit h just a handful of you ngsters. She said: 'The whol e idea of edu cat ing children should be to develop their self-confidence. O ur children do not see adults as disciplinarians.' Her son agrees. Luis, who is currently teaching himself mat h, said: ' I like the freedom to learn things tha t interest me, particularly music . I don't feel I am missing out on anything by not being at school because I am a member of various clu bs and have friends who attend normal school.'

The ' Da nger' of Isolating Children 8

Ho me schooling co uld a ffect children's relat ionships with their peers and other ad ults becau se of pro longed periods spent with their parents, educationalists have claimed. M ost academics concede that education will in the future be increasingly centred aro und the home, and fear children coul d become isolated and wit hdrawn. Pro fessor M icha el Barber, of London University's Institute of Education, said pu pils cou ld spend half t heir time at school an d ha lf at hom e as a compromise. He said hom e tuition wo uld play an increasingly significant role in educating children in the comi ng years . ' I believe very strongly that children need to have th e experience of school,' he added. 'There is the quality control issue of ensuring pupils arc taught the basics and assessed. Ch ildren also need to spend time with their peers to learn the r ules of wo rk in a democra tic society and learn to deal with relat ionshi ps with ad ults ot her tha n their parents .' M argaret Rudland, head teac her of Godolphin and Latymcr Schoo l, Hammersmith , said children needed to experience the 'cough and tumble" of peer associations.

town crier: in the past, a person emplo r ed by a tow n to make pub lic ann o uncements--usually by sho ut ing in the streets 1 qualificlltions: completion of necessary requirements fo r graduation 1 sit one of tw o GeEs : take one of two stand ard ized rests " "rough and tumble ~ : hard or demandi ng aspects 1


HOMIN G IN ON f D U C A T I ON

III

B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

Which of the following sentences are the main ideas of the text and which are supporting details? Mark each sentence as eithe r main idea (M I) or supporting detail (SD ). The first one has been done for )' OU. ~ 1. Home schooling is increasing in popularity.

_ _ 2. Aro und 15,00 0 families now ed uca te their children at home. _ _ 3. Many parents arc unhap py wit h the traditional schoo ls. 4. Some educators believe tr aditional schools will not exist in the futu re. _ _ 5. Some people thin k the Internet an d mod ern technology will replace the teacher and the classrooms of tod ay.

_ _ 6. Sir Christopher Ball believes futu re educational systems will include a worldw ide qu alificat ion s system. _ _ 7. Some people believe isolati ng home schoolers from their peers can be dan gero us. _ _ 8. H ome schooling may affect childre n's socia lization skills because they spend too much time alone .

C. READING FOR DETAILS

In each set, circle the two choices that accurately complete the sentence. Then discuss your answers with a partner. 1. It was reported that in England

a. ab out 15,000 students were taken out of school. b. no more tha n 100 children per month ate being tak en out of school. c. more th an 100 ch ildren per month are being tak en o ut o f school.


IIlI

U N IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

2. Academics who support hom e scho oling believe a. institutionalized education is still important. b. schools could be o bsolete in 20 years. c. media and the Internet will become increas ingly impo rtant in education. 3. Sir Christopher Ball, director of learning at the Royal Society of Arts, predicts educatio n systems in the future will a. have a global curriculum. b. include more home schoo ling and co mmun ity schools. c. have a qualifications system based only on co mmunity needs. 4. In the Otherwise Club

a. students develop self-confidence. b. teachers are bro ught in to teach ma ny of the main subjects. c. students atten d var ious clubs an d have friend s in normal schools. 5. Some educational ists believe home schooli ng can affect students' relationships with their peers because 3.

the stude nts spend long periods of time with their parents .

b. the studentstlives are centere d around their homes. c. the stude nts study for many long ho urs.

D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES

How do you think the followi ng issues are dealt with in a traditional school and in a home school? Comp lete the chart. Refer to the reading for help. Discuss your answers with a partner. An example has been done for you.


H O M I N G I N O N ED U C A T I O N

HO ME SCHOOL

TRADI TIONAL SCHOOL

social ization skills

___ _____________________________ teaching methods/mat erials

~ - - - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - -

!,

M

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Students don't have to worry about this because they study at home. -

,, ,,, ,,, -

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

,, ,, ,, ,,

-

__ _

~

__________________ __ ______ __ _

-

peer pressure and bullying

-

ISS UES

IIiII

~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - ~ - - M

!,

,, , , ,, ----------------------- --- -- ---- ,,~---- - - - -- -- --- - -- - - ------ - ----~------------- - - -- -- ----- -- - -- -, ,, role of teachers/role of ,, ,, parents , , , -- - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - - - - - --- - - , ,, self-discipline and , , ,, , motivation ,, ,, , , ,,

·

·· ··

- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - -- - - - - - - -- --- - - - - - - - -- --- - -student interest in learning

!, ,,, ,,

l

READING TWO:

The Fun They Had

A. EXPAND ING THE TOPIC

The following story was written by Isaac Asimov in 195 1. It addresses th e question of comp uterized ho me schoo ling. At that time th is type of home school ing was regarded as science fiction.

Read the first th ree paragraphs of the sto ry. Then write a short answer to the following questions. What do you think was one of Isaac Asimov's fears about the future of book s? Do you think we are headed in the direction he feared?


11IIII

UN I T 7 â&#x20AC;˘

The Fun They Had BY

I S AA C

AS I M O V

(from Earth Is Room Enough )

2

J

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

II

12

I

1

M argie even wrote about it that nigh t in her dia ry. On the page headed M ay 17,2 157, she w rote, "Today Tommy fou nd a real book !" It was a very old book . M ar gie's gra nd father once said that when he was a little boy his gran dfat her told him tha t th ere was a time when all stories were p rinted on paper. They turned the pages, which were yellow and crinkly,' and it was awfully funny to read words th at stood still instea d of mov ing th e wa y th at they were supposed ((}-{)n a screen, you know. And then , when they had tu rned bac k to the pa ge before, it had the screen wo rds on it that it had had when they read it the firs! time. " Gee, " said Tomm y, "what a waste. When yo u're through with the book, you just thro w it away, I guess. Ou r television screen mu st have had a million books on it an d it's good for plenty mo re. I wo uldn't throw it away." " Same with mine," said M ar gie. She wa s eleven and hadn't seen as many books as Tommy ha d. H e w as thirteen. She said, " Where did you find it ?" " In my house." H e pointed without looking, becau se he was busy readi ng. " In the attic." "What's it about ?" "School." M argie was scornful. " Schoo l? Wh at 's there to write about scho ol ? I hate school." M argie had always ha ted school, but now she hat ed it more than ever. T he mechan ical reacher- had been giving her test after test in geography and she had been do ing worse an d wor se until her mother ha d shaken her head sorrowfully and sent for the County Inspecto r. He was a round little man with a red face and a whole box of tools with dials and w ires. H e smiled at M ar gie and gave her an app le, then took the teacher apa rt. M argie hoped he wouldn 't know ho w to put it togeth er agai n, but he knew how all right, and after an hou r or so, there it was aga in, large and square and ugly, with a big scr een on w hich all the lessons were shown and the questions were asked . T hat

crinkly: dri ed out mech anical teacher: a co mputer


H O M I N G I N ON ED UC A T I O N

13

14

15 16

17

18

19 20

21 22

23 24 25

26

27

28

29

11IIII

wasn't so bad. The part Margie hated most was the slot! where she had to put homewo rk and test papers. She always had to write th em out in a punc h code they made her learn when she was six years old, and the mechanical teacher calculated the mark " in no time. The Inspecto r had smiled after he was finished and patted Ma rgie's head. He said to her mother, " It's not the little girl's fault, M rs. Jones. I think the geography sector was geared a little roo quick. Those things happe n sometimes. I've slowed it up to a ten-year level. Actua lly, the over-all pat tern o f her progress is qui te satisfactory." And he patted Ma rgie's head aga in. Margie was d isap pointed. She had been hoping they wo uld take the teac her away altogether. Th ey had once taken Tommy's teacher away for nearly a month because the history secto r had blan ked o ut' com pletely. So she said to Tommy, " Why wo uld anyone write abo ut school ?" Tommy looked at her with very superior eyes. " Beca use it's not our kind of school, stupid . T his is the old kind of schoo l that they had hundreds and hundreds of years ago." He adde d loftily, pronouncing the wor d very carefully, "Centu ries ago." M argie was hur t. "Well, I don't know wh at kind of schoo l they had all that time ago." She read the book over his shou lder for a while, the n said, "Anyway, they had a teacher." "Sure they had a teacher, but it wasn't a regular teacher. It was a man ." "A man ? How co uld a man be a teacher?" "Well, he just told the boys and girls things and gave them homework and asked them questions." "A man isn't smart enough." "Sure he is. My father knows as much as my teacher." " He can't. A man can't know as much as a teacher." "He knows almos t as much, I betcha." Margie wasn't prepa red to dispute that. She said, " I wouldn't want a strange man in my house to teach me." Tommy screamed with laugh ter. " You don't know much, Margie. The teac hers didn't live in the house. They had a special buildin g and all the kids went there." "And all the kids learned the same th ing?" "Sure, if they were the same age." " But my mother says a teacher has to be adjusted to fit t he mind of each boy and girl it teaches and tha t each kid has to be taught differently."

, , lot: a n open ing â&#x20AC;˘ mark: a grade j blank ed out: erased , I betcba: I' ll bet you. I'm sure.


. U N IT

7 .

30

31 32

33

34 35

36

37

38

39

40

4. 42

"Just t he same they didn 't do it that way then. If yo u don't like it, you don't ha ve to read the book." "I didn't sa y I did n't like it," Margie said quickly. She wanted to read about those fun ny schools . They weren't even half-finished when Margie's mother called, "Margie! School!" M argie looked up . "N ot yet, Mama." "Now!" said Mrs. Jon es. "A nd it's probab ly time for Tommy, roo ." M ar gie said to To mmy, " Can I read the book some more w ith you after school?" "May be," he said non chalantly. H e walked away whistl ing, the dusty old book tucked beneath his arm. Margie went into the schoolroom. It was r ight next to her bedroom and the mecha nical teacher was on and waiting for her. It was alwa ys on at the sam e time every da y except Satu rda y and Sunday, because her mother said little girls learned better if they learned at regu lar ho urs. T he screen was lit up, an d it said: "Today's arith metic lesson is on the addition of proper frac tions. Please insert yesterday's ho mewo rk in the pro per slot. " Margie did so with a sigh. She was thinking about the old schools they had when her grandfather's gra ndfather was a litt le boy. All the kids from the whole neighborhood came , laughing and sho uting in the schoolya rd, sitting together in the schoolroom, go ing ho me together at the end of the day. T hey learned th e same things, so they co uld help one another on the hom ework and tal k abou t it. And the teachers were peop le . . . Th e mechanical teacher was flashing on the screen: "Whe n we add the fract ions 1/2 and 1/4 - " Margie was think ing ab out how the kids mu st have loved it in the old days . She was thinking of the fun they ha d .

The School Museum: "They had a special building."


H O M I N G I N ON ED U C AT I O N

III

In what way is the home schooling described by Asimov different from and similar to the home schooling described in Reading On e? Complete the chart with a partner. TEACH ING AT HOME HI TS NEW HIGH WI TH INTE RNET

THE FUN THEY HAD

1. Is there a teacher? If

yes, what kind of teacher is he/she? --------------------------------~------------------------------~--------------------------------

,: ,: : ,: ,,, ,,, , •• •• , --------------------------------r-----------------------------,-------------------------------3. Who dete rmines what ,: ,: 2. Whe re does the "school" take place?

·

the students learn and at what pace they learn ?

: ,: ,:

: ,: ,:

: ! :

:

-------------------------------- f-------- - ----- - - --- -- ----- ---- ~----- ------------ ----- ----------

4. Who monitors the progress of the students?

·,,, ,

____________ ____________ ________ L

5. When and whe re do students socia lize with friends?

,, ,, ,, ,,, ,,

!

.,,, :

J

,,, ,,, ,, ,, ,,

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - -- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . _ ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ .

6. How do the students feel about home school compared to traditional schoo l?

_

__ ._-------


11II

UN IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

Discuss these qu estions in small groups. A fter your discussion , choose one qu estion and write your ow n answer in a paragraph on a separate piece of paper.

1. M ar gie says th at kid s had fun in the old days . Do yo u agree? W hy or why not ?

2. Do you believe th at schools today ar e headed in the direction of the home scho oling described in "The Fun Th ey H ad " ? If yes, how? If no, why not ? 3. What do yo u thi nk arc the biggest adv antages of home schoo ling? What do you think are the biggest pro blem s facing home-schooled stu dents? What solutions can you think of for th e problems? 4. How would ho me scho oling or traditiona l schoo ling meet the three requi rements fo r educat iona l success (the answers to the quiz) menrion ed on page 152 in Sharing Information ?

REVIEWING I LANGUAGE A. EXPLORING VOCABULARY

How do you think these people would answer the questions asked to them ? Read the question and write their answer, using the words given. You may need to change the form of the wor ds (for examp le, ou tdate to outdated). Share your respo nses with a partner. The first one has been done for you ,


H O M I N G I N ON E D U C A T I O N

1. To Professor Meighan . What do you think will happen to schoo ls in the next twent y years? obsolete

outdatc

"I believe that

constrict

stifle

present~day sc hools

will become obsolete and

outdated. Schoo ls these days const rict t he students' f reedom and stifle their creativity."

2. To Luis Barson, home schooler. What do yo u like about hom e schooling? freedom

peer pressure

bull ying

self-confidence

3. To Leslie Barson, ho me school ers' mother. Why are you so unhap py with traditio nal schools? disillusion ed

disappoint ed

teaching methods

rigidity

4. To Pro fessor M ichael Bar ber. What concerns do yo u have about home scho oling? isolation

withdrawal

peers

relation ships

5. To Margie, from "The Fun They Had." What do you th ink about twentieth-century schools? doubtful

surprised

cunou s

lonely

lID


. U N IT 7. B. WORKING WITH WORDS:

American and British Spelling

Read ing O ne comes from a British newspaper. M any words are spelled differentl y than in American English . In the late 1700 5, Noa h Webster pu blished a book called The American Spelling Book. In th is book he attempted to sim plify British spelling by dro pping the " u" in words like colour and harbour. In other cha nges, centre became center, traveller became trav eler. Unfortuna tely, Webster was nor cons istent . Words like glamour and acre never cha nged from their British spelling. In addition, ma ny words have both an accepted British and American spelling, such as gray/grey and ax/axe .

Look at the following words. Som e of the words are spelled in British English. O thers are spelled in A m erican English. Write the A m erican or British equivalents. Use you r di ctionary if necessary. D iscuss the spelling with your classmates . Do you see any patt erns?

AMERICAN SPELLIN G

BRITISH SPELLIN G

,, ,

spe cial ise

!

epeclallze

-------------------------------------------------------,--------------------------------------------------------------institutiona lised

:

--- --- - ------------- -- ------ ------- -- --- ---------------~---------------------------._---- -- --- -- ---- --- --- --------- ----

: behavio r

-------------------------------------------------------1--------------------------------------------------------------: ho nor ------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------

..!

cance led

-------------------------------------------------------,---------------------------------------------------------------

--_:~~~:~~~~----------------------------------------~-------------------------------------------------------------lea rnt :

-------------------------------------------------------{--------------------------------------------------------------neighbour

:

-------------------------------------------------------~----- --- - -- - -- - -- - ----- - - -- --- --------- --------------- --------

med iaeva l

,:

---------------------------------- - -------------- - - -- - -~----------------- ---------------- --------------- --- ---- -- - - -- -

!

spelled

-------------------------------------------------------,--------------------------------------------------------------memo nse

:

-------------------------------------------------------~---_.---------------------------------------------------------: equa ling

, --------------------------------------------------- ----~------------------------------------------------------ --- -- -smelt

,:


H OMI N G I N O N E DU C ATION "

SKILLS FOR EXPRESSION A. GRAMMAR: Direct and Indirect Speech

o

Examine the following sets of sentences and discuss the questi ons that follow with a partner. Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

• Professor Roland M eighan said, "Schools have becom e an outdated concept. "

• Profess or Ro lan d M eighan sa id that schools had become an outdated conc ept.

• Professor Meighan said , "Schools will beco me obso lete. "

• Pro fessor Meigha n said th at schools wo uld become obsolete .

• H e said, "I believe childre n need experience. "

• H e said that he believed children needed experience.

a. Wha t are the differences in punctua tion between direc t and indirect speech? b. What ot her differences are there bet ween direct and indirec t speech? Whic h words are different ? Ca n yo u explain ho w they change?

Direcf and Indirect Speech Focus ON GRAMMAR See Direct and Indirect Speech: Tense Changes in Focus on Grammar, IUgh Interm ediate.

Speech (and writing) can be repo rted in two ways: Direct speech (also called quoted speech) reports the speaker's exact words. Indirect speech (also called reported speech) reports what the speaker said without using the exact words.


III

UN IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

Punctuation For direct speech, put quotation marks before and afte r the wor ds you are quoti ng. U se a co mm a to separate the words in quotation marks from the repo rti ng verbs suc h as say, tell, report .

For indirect speech, you do not need any specia l pun ctuat ion.

Verb Changes For ind irect speec h, when the report ing verb is in the past tense (said, told, reported ), the verbs in side the q uot at ion m arks c hange. Here are some examples:

Direct Speech

Indirect Spee ch

do/does <simple present)

did (simple pa st)

am/is/are doin g (present progressive )

did <simple past)

-. -.

has/have done

will (mo dal)

had don e (past pe rfect) had been doin g (past perfect

was/were doin g (past progressive)

(present perfect)

was/were doin g (past progressive)

-.

progressive)

had don e (past perfect)

would (pas t mod a l)

ca n

co uld

(mod al)

(past m od al)

ma y (mod al)

might (past mo da l)


H OMIN G I N ON ED U CA TIO N

Time and location Changes For indirect speech, time and locatio n phras es may c ha nge to keep the speaker's original mea ning. Here are some examples: Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

now

->

then /at that time

tomorrow

->

the next (following) day

ago

-,

before/earlier

here

->

there

this

->

that

Pronouns and Possessives For indirect speech , prono uns and possessives change to kee p the spea ker's original mea ning. He re a re some examples:

8

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Mrs. Barson said, "I . . "

Mrs. Ba rson said she .. .

Mrs. Barson said, "Our children . . ."

Mrs. Barson said their children .. .

Read the first sentence in each set and circle the letter of the direct speech that is being reported. Th e first one has been done for you .

1. She sa id th a t she learned more outside of scho ol than she did in school . a. " 1 have learned more o ut side of school th an I ha ve in scho ol." b. "I had lea rned more outside of school than I did in school. " @ "1 lea rn more outside of scho ol than I do in scho ol." 2 . She repo rte d th at Luis had never a tten ded school. a. "Luis has never atten ded scho ol ." b. " Luis never atte nds scho ol." c. " Luis may never a ttend school ."

III


11II

UN IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

3. H e said that in or der to succeed in life, he had to do well in school and follow all the rules. a. "In order to succeed in life, I will have to do well in school a nd follow all the rules." b . " In or der to succeed in life, r have all the rules."

to

do well in school an d follow

c. " In order to succeed in life, I ha ve had to do well in school a nd follow all th e r ules." 4. Professor Michael Ba rber to ld us tha t pupil s would spend half their tim e at school and ha lf at home. a. " Pu pils spen d half their time at school an d half at hom e."

b. " Pupils spent half their time at school and half at hom e." c. "Pupils will spend hal f their time a t school a nd half at home." 5. M argaret Rudlan d sa id that students at her school felt th at they might benefit from so me ho me schooling.

a. "St udents at my school feel tha t they benefited fro m some home schooling." b. "Students at my school feel that they may benefit fro m some home schooling." c. "Stu dents at my scho ol feel t hat they will benefit fro m some home schooling." 6. Pro fessor M eighan reported that many students were studying at home. a. "M any student s are study ing at home." b. " Many stu dents studied at home." c. "Many students had been stu dying at hom e." 7. M argie said th at they had n't had time to think about the book . a. " We do n't have time to think abo ut the book." b. "We didn 't have time to think ab out the book ." c. "We may not have time to th ink about the boo k."


H O M I N G I N ON ED UCATION

â&#x20AC;˘

III

Change the following direct speech to indirect speech. Rem emb er to keep the speaker's original meaning. Th e first one has been do ne for you. 1. Tommy said, " My father knows as much as my teacher." Tommy e;a id hie; fa ther knew ae much as hie; teacher.

2. Th e inspec tor tol d Margie's mo rher, "I think the geograp hy sector was a little too difficult."

3. H e added, " I've slowed it up to a ten-year level."

4. Tommy said, "This is the old kind of scho ol that they had hundreds and hundreds of years ago."

5. M argie told Tommy, "My morhcr says a reacher has to be adjusted to fit the mind of each boy and girl it teaches."

6. Tommy told M argie, "Yo u can read the book with me again tomorrow."

B. STYLE: Concessions

o

Read the letter on page 172 and discuss the questions that follow with a partner.


. U N lT 7. " Inadequately prepa red

parents" and "wea k curricula" ore two of fhe mcin concerns critics have of home schooling. As a ho me schooled stude nt,

I would like to address these concerns. During my third and fourth

grade years I was toke n out of

school to be taught by my mother. When I was put hack in school at the begi nning of fifth

grode, I wos ot the heod of my class. Although my mother wos not a trai ned tea cher, she was not only able to keep up with the materia l, but also enjoyed

learning and exploring the material with me. M oreover,

despite the foct thot traditional

school teachers ore highly q ua lified, it seems they waste a lo t of time d isciplining studen ts ro ther tha n a ctua lly teaching them .

Critics say that ho me schoole rs hove a we ak curriculum . This issue is true of public schools as we ll. I was actually taken out of pub lic school because the curricula did not chall enge me. In additio n,

I woul d like to point out that even though home schoole rs are not under the ri gid curricu la of trad itional schools, they often spend more time on the subjects or topics tha t really interest them. Because of this, children can actually learn more than what the curriculum requires. Further-more, for many home schoolers. learning is not confi ned just to the home . In fact , lea rning takes place everywhere and ell the time: a t museums, during family vocations-twelve months a year! This may exp lain why home-taught students a re doi ng 25 percent bet ter than the state's pub lic school average. In conclusion , I bel ieve our educa tional system must rise to the high est level that it can so that we students remai n in school and remain interested in learnin g. When that fina lly happens, may be we won't need to be home schoole d . By the way, I'm at home aga in.

- Max Andrew Jacobs, Grade 11 Amarillo, Texas

1. Which of t he two types of schooling described in the letter does the writ er prefer? 2. Wh at two concerns about home schooling does the writer address? 3. How doe s the write r defend these concerns-by pr esent ing only his opinion, or by ack now ledging the side of the traditional scho ols and then pr esenting his own opinion? 4. Which opinion do the words although, even though, and despite the fact introduce-do they introduce the opinion o f the tradi tio nal scho ol or the home school?


HOM I NG I N O N fD U CA T I ON "

Concessions In expressing you r opinion (or position), it is im portant to support your opinio n but, at the same time, recognize and describe the opposing o pinio n (or pos ition ). Adm itting sim ilarities an d differences in contrasti ng poi nts of view can make you r argumen t stronger.

Concession Clau ses The following w ords are used to co ncede (acknow ledge) sim ilarities

or differences betwee n two co ntrasting ideas . Note that these words do not introduce a complete thought. They introduce de pende nt clauses. They need the ma in clause to co mplete the sentence. The main clause usually de scribe s the point that is more important. although

in spite of th e fact that

th ou gh

despite the fact that

even tho ugh

â&#x20AC;˘ Although my moth er was not a trained teache r, she was ab le to keep up with the mate rial. Opposing position: Only trained teachers should teach ch ildren. Writer 's opinion: She wasn't trained, but she had no problems keeping up w ith the mate rial. â&#x20AC;˘ Ellen though home schoolers are not under the rigid curricula of

trad itio nal schools, they often spend mo re time on the subjects o r topics that really interest them. Opposing position: Children lea rn more unde r the controlled curricula of traditional schoo ls. Writer's opi nion: Home schoclers learn more because they ca n spe nd more time on the topics that interest them.


III

U N IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

Punctuation When the sentence begins with the depende nt cla use, a comma separates it from the main clause. â&#x20AC;˘ Although my mother was not a trained teacher, she was ab le to keep up with the mater ial. Wh en the dependent cla use comes after the main clause, there is no comma .

â&#x20AC;˘ M y mother was a ble to kee p up wi th the mater ial although she was

not a trained teacher.

e

Combine the sentences. Use the words in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.

t. Supporters of home schooling say tha t the children ha ve eno ugh soc ial contact. Crit ics say child ren shoul d be in a schoo l setting surrounded by peers. (even though ) Supporters of home schooli n':l say that t he children have e nQ u~ h

soc ial contact even thou~h they a re not in a sc hoo! settiniJ su rrounded by peers. 2. Critics maintain that there is no way to assess hom e schoolers. Supporters of home scho oling say that they are following a sta ndard curricu lum. (though)

3. Critics question wheth er home schoolers are being taught the basics. H om e scho olers are ga ining in numbers every year. (although)


H O M I N G I N O N E D U C ATI O N

4. Critics worry that traditional school students do not take school seriously. Many successful students graduate from traditional schools every year. (in spite of th e fact tha t )

5. Home schooling is appa rently very successful. Many people still believe in the benefits o f traditional schooling. (despite the fact that )

. . The educational issues highlighted in this exercise have been addressed throughout this unit. For each issue. think abou t the positio n of home schooling and traditional schooling. Write a sentence that expresses your opinion while showing concession to the other position. Use the concession words below. The first one has been done for you . altho ugh

even though

though

despite the fact t hat

in spite of the fact that

1. peer pr essure, b ullying, socialize A lthQu~h

stud ent s in traditional schools experience more peer pres-

sure and bUllyint2 , t hey also learn howto socia lize with t heir peers.

2. teaching met hods

3. curric ulum

4. teacher quali fications

1:11


1:11

UN IT

7 â&#x20AC;˘

5. students' self-discipline and self-mo tiva tion

6. stude nts' interest in learning

A. WRITING TOPICS

Choose one of the following topics. Write two or three paragraphs that express your opinion on the topic. Use the grammar, vocabulary, and style that you have learned in this unit. 1. Do you thi nk home schooling is a good idea ? Why or why not? 2. Do you believe that tea cher s a re the cr itica l fac to r in a stude nt's success? Why or why not? 3. Do you believe th a t peer pressu re wea kens a student's a bility to learn? Why or why not? 4 . O f t he three requirement s identified by the quiz in Sha ring Inform ation on page 152, which do you believe is the most importa nt to a stu dent's success? Why ? Are th ere oth er req uirem ents you feel arc m ore importa nt?


H O MI N G IN ON E D UC .... Tl O N .

B. FIELDWORK: Researching Home Schooling

PREPARATION In small groups, prepare a list of qu estions you wo uld like to answer in doing resear ch about home schooli ng.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY Research a home school organization through your local library or the Internet (k eywords: home schools. home schooling ).

SHARING YOUR FI NDINGS Sha re your researc h with you r group. Combine your information an d prepa re a group repo rt to present to the class. Your report sho uld follow this basic outli ne: Part I: Introd uct ion • A brief intr od uction to yo ur topic (home schooling) • An explanation of wh at info rma tion you were looking for (your origina l qu estions) • An explanation of where and how yo u found yo ur info rmat ion Part II: Results • T he information you collected and the answers to yo ur que stions Parr III: Conclusions • Fina l conclusions and opinion s you have abo ut hom e schooling

REFERENCES T he followi ng are ad dresses you can usc for inform at ion about hom e schools. Organizations in th e United States American H omeschool Association P.O . Box 3142 Palmer, AK 9964 5 tel. (509) 486-2477 AHAonline@aol.com


III

UN IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘

Home Education M agazine

P.O . Box 1083 Tonasket, WA 988 55 http: //ww w.home-ed-press.com

Nati onal Homeschool Association P.O . Box 290 H artland, M I 4 835 3

http://www.a/umni.ca /tech.edu/-casner/nha .htm /

International O rganizations Australia Alternati ve Education Reso urce Grou p el7 Bartlett St. Mo ora bbin, VIC 3 189 Au stralia

tel. (03) 553 -4720 Canada On tario Federation of Teaching Parent s

83 Fife Rd. Guel ph, Ontario , N IH 6X9

Canada

England Education O therw ise 36 Kinross Rd. Leamingto n Spa, Warw ickshire, CV32 7EF

En glan d tel. (0926) 8868 28 Germany

Rhein Main Hom eschoolers c/o AAFES PSC 05, Box 2 134 APO AE 09057 Germa ny

tel. 0 11-49-6150-14788 (international number) 06 150-14788 (in Germany) Japan O therw ise Japan P.O. Kuga yama Sugina mi-ku Tokyo, Japan

rel. 81 3-333 1-6554 iab025 2 1@ni{)'serve.or.jp


APPROACHING THE TOPIC A . PREDICTING

,

â&#x20AC;˘ Take five minutes to write your answers to these quest ions. Then share your answers with a partner. Neil Armstrong and " Buzz" Ald rin were the first people to wa lk on the moon. During that first walk, Neil Armstrong said, "This is on e sma ll step for man and one giant leap for mankind." W ha t did he mean ? Look at the title. What do you think it refers to ? How have we come a lon g way ?

179


IIIIIUNlT

8.

B. SHARING INFORMATION

o

Read this letter written in 1961 by an elementary school child to President John 1-: Kennedy. Then work with a partner and answer the questions. New MC)lj lC'o April 13, 1961

L A S C" UGCS,

OUt." M,.. Kc""cJl' My Glus l>.I:\J I woulJ like lou t o rlt.iSC He h.,.cs Oh I.o,.i", AI...1 rl>.eir., a."J c:.i1!r.rds + Ii"luor. bccl>.UH we Wltt."t to

,<t

Soh--f:

roehts

on. tl.1I! """00,," befor e tJ.II! Russilo."'s 7ct t o tke ,,",001\ A",d pll.i"t .!It. I-lit.tnh--c r + sieklc.1 We w.!It.",t to ,rut n.1I! Ru ssi/!l. ... s wit" Goffu. o:.ookiu + s A",d wie J..cs. Your (riCh.! .

Mid.ti l Seot t TLirJ What do you think the feeling of the America n peop le was toward the Russians and the Soviet Union at the time the letter was written? How does the lett er show th is feeling? What does the child's letter tell you about life in the United States in the 1960s?

. . Wha t do you k now about the history of space exploration? Answer these questions in a small group.

1. When did the first man go up in space? What country was he from? 2. When did the first woman go up in space? What country was she from ? 3. 'When was the first moon walk? What country were the astronauts from ? 4. When did the Russians and Americans shake hands in space for the first time? 5. What is th e name of the Russian space station in whic h bot h Russians and Americans have lived and wo rked recently? 6. What other facts do you know about the history of space exp loration?

I

hammer and 5ickle: symbo ls on the flag of the former Soviet Union


W E 'V E COME A L O N G

WAY

III

A. BACKGROUND

Study the time line. Then answer the questions that follow.

Time Line of Significant Space Pioneers in Space History April 12, 1961

Feb ru ar y 20, 1962

Astronauts: Frank Borman, James

First manned spaceflight. Cosmonaut: Yuri Gagarin. Country: Soviet U ni on First Am erican in orbit.

Lovell, and William Anders.

Country: Un ited States July 20 , 1969

First walk on the moo n.

Astronaut:John G lenn

Astronauts: Neil Armstrong and

June 16, 196 3

First woman in space. Cosmonaut: Valentina tereshkova. Country: Soviet U n io n

" Buzz" Aldrin . Country: U nited States

March 18 , 1965

First soecewalk. Cosmonaut: Alexi Leonove. Country: Soviet U nio n

June 3, 1965

FirstAmeric an spacewalk .

Ma y 25 , 1973

Kerwin, and Paul W eitz.

Country: U nited States July 17, 1975

First t ime Am erica ns and Russians shake hands in space. Apoll o-Soyuz Test Project

1986

Mir space station launched . Country: Soviet Union

1995

First Am erica n astronau t joins Mir

Apr il 19 97

First joi nt U.s .-Russian spacewaJk

Astronaut: Edward W hite March 16, 1966

First dock ing in space.

Aslronauts: Neil Armstrong and David Scott. Country: Un ited States December 21, 1968

First m ission to escape from the Earth's grav ity by travelin g to the moon and back.

First vis it to Sky lab.

Astronauts: CharlesConrad, Joseph

1. The relations between Russia and the United States have changed

dram atically over the yea rs. Ho w does the time line reflect these cha nges? 2. Do you think the race to conq uer space (the "space race" ) of the 1960s and 1970s between the former Soviet Union and the United States was beneficial to scientific advancement ? If so, how? 3. Do you th ink the present-day cooperation on space station Mi r encourages bot h scientific discovery and peacetime relations between Russia and the United States? If so, how? 4. Do you think the space station Mi r influences our life on earth? If so, how ?


III!I UNIT 8. B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPR EH ENSION

Read each sentence . Look at the underlined words . Th en answer these questions. Circle the letter of the word or phrase that best completes each senten ce. The first one has been done for you.

t . Whe n Yuri Gaga rin was in spac e, up and do wn no longer ex isted . H e wa tched as pens, noteboo k, and other ob jects m agically drifted in front of him. Wh at d id the pens, no tebook, and other objects do ? They in front of him.

@ floarcd b. gathered c. disapp eare d 2 . Yuri Gagarin was a wid e路c)'ed boy, curiously watching his parents' world change qu ickly. Wh at kind of boy was he? He wa s

_

a. naive and inquisitive b. nor sleepy

c. a child whose eyes were placed widely apart 3. H is fam ily fora ged foo d from the fields, look ing for anyt hing they co uld eat. Wh at did his fam ily do ? T hey

food.

a. planted h. cooked c. searched for 4. You ng Yuri Gagarin crammed day and night, in school and at ho me, so that on e day he would pass his exams to become a pilo t. What did Yuri do day and night ? H e a. ate a lot b. st udied hard c. worked hard

_

_


WE 'VE C O M E A LO NG WAY

5. Gagar in swept through the difficult cosmo naut training program, completing it wit hout any problems. How did he do in the tra ining program ? He

through it.

a. went quickly b. suffered c. was a janito r 6. T he crew of the spaceship checked everything twice. Who checked the spaceship? The

did.

a. officers b. wor kers c. row ers 7. Technicians helped Gagarin through the hatch of the spacecraft . Where did he go ? He went th rough the

of the spacecraft.

a. helmet b. wind ow c. small doo r 8. On the ground, the people watched as the spaceship was launched into the sky. What did the people see? They saw the spaceship space.

into

a. sent up b. introd uced to c. held back 9. The acceleration generated a force of six times normal gravity. What did the acceleration do? It normal gravity. a. killed

b. produced c. ma inta ined

a fo rce of six times

IIlII


III

UNIT 8 â&#x20AC;˘

10. When Yuri Gaga rin jum ped out of the spacecraft, he deployed his personal pa rachute and fell to ear th. Wh a t did he do ? lie

his pa rac hute .

a. put away b. lined up c. put mro use 11. T he ringing of the telephone awakened Alan Shepard from a deep

slumber. Where was he? H e was in a deep

_

a. pi le of wood b. sleep

c. hole

REAOING I

ONE:

First in Space

A. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC

Read the first paragraph of the story and answer the questions below. Then read the rest of the story. 1. The person discussed in this par agr a ph is Yuri Gagarin . Where is he? 2. What is he think ing about? Wh y do you th ink he is thinking about this?


WE ' V E C O ME A L O NG W AY

First in Space BY

A LAN

S HE PA R D

AN D

DEKE

S LA Y TON

(Adapted from Moon Shot)

2

3

4

5

I 1

F or a long time he drifted between sleep and wakefulness. It had been that way thro ugho ut the night. Floating between memories as if the soun ds drifted through the wa lls of his room. Strange, he cou ldn't tell if the sounds were from the past memories or the present, but he accepted the on es that reminded him of his father. A car penter, a skilled cra ftsman who had worked hard to make so special their wood en home in the village of Klushino, near Smolensk of the western Soviet Union . Harsher memories intruded. Great guns firing, shells exploding. Earth-shaking rumble of German tanks moving through his hometown. He was a wide-eyed boy then, watching his parent s' world coming apa rt as they fell under enemy occupation. They o beyed the Nazis, and whenever possible they forage d food from the fields and the scattered wreckage of their village. Another sound grew louder, and he seized it in his dream state. Airpla ne engines. At first on ly German. Then other planes cam e by with red sta rs on their wings, and there was terr ible fighting and the tanks that pushed into Klushino were Russian . As quickly as that war' ended, you ng Yuri A. Gagarin crammed da y and night, in scho ol and at home, so that on e day he wou ld qu alify to become a pilot in the Red Air Force." They moved to the larger town of C zhatsk. Yuri completed school, completed special cou rses, and in 1955 enter ed the Air Force. Two years later he wo n the co veted wings o f a jet fight er pilot. He had become an expe rt para chutist as well. For two years he served in operational units and then, in 1959, he volunteered for an exciting new program. Cosmonaut! He swept through the rigorous training, excelling in everything he d id. O n April S, 1961 , only four days before this night of dreams, his com mander gave him the news. " You will be the first to travel through space." Unreal. It all seemed unreal. Bur it was tr ue. And his close friend , Germ an Stepa novich Titov, would be his backup. Today was the day. His door opened.

that war: World War II Red Air Force: Soviet Unio n Air Force

III


D UNIT

8 .

Sleep an d dream s vanished. H e met with Tirov, technicians, doctors, engineers, the po litical commissa r.' Ever ything mo ved smoo thly th ro ugh break fast, final medical checks. Sensor s were attached to his body before he donned the pressure suit and heavy helmet. f ully protected fro m space, his teammates helped him into th e bright orange flight suit that would aid the recovery crews in spotting him after 1a unc hing. 7 Sunrise wa s still to come as he arrive d at the laun ch pa d. H e sto od qu ietl y for several min utes, studying th e enormo us 55-6 ICBM 4 tha t wo uld send him into orbit. No warhead atop the big rocket . It had been rep laced with the Swallow, the Vosto k spacecraft of more tha n five to ns. e Gagarin sto od on a ramp pa rtway up th e sta irs to the elevator. H e turned to the select gro up who wo uld witn ess th e moment t hat wo uld sepa rate the pa st fro m the future. He spoke clea rly to those me n: 9 "T he whole of my life seems to be con dense d into this one wonde rful moment, " he began. Hi s audience sto od silentl y transfixed. "Every thing that I have been, everything that I ha ve done, wa s for this, " Gagarin ad ded. Yielding to the emotion of th e mo ment, he lowered his head, rega ined control. 10 H e looked up again, smiling. " Of cour se I' m ha ppy," he sa id , his voice st ro nger. "Who wo uld no t be? To take pa rt in new discoveries, to be the first to enter the co smos, to eng age in a single-handed d uel with nature .. ." H is smile broadened . "Could anyone dream of more?" II His words spoken, he waved farewell and entered the elevator to t he to p of the support to wer. There he climbed a short ladder to the platform alongside his Vostok spacecraft. Techni cians and his clo se backup team assisted him thro ugh th e hatch . They secured his ha rness to th e specially designed seat. Gagarin nodded, signaling he was read y. The hatch closed an d was sealed . 12 M oscow time: 9:0 7 A.M . America slept, un aware of Gagar in's jubilant cry from his ascending fire m achine. " Off we go!" he cried aloud, bringing smiles an d grins to the crews in the launch contro l. u Th ro ugh the increasing g-loads,' Gagarin maint ained stea dy reports. He was you ng and muscu lar, and he a bso rbed the accelera tion pu nishment eas ily. Wit h the strap-on booste rs jettisoned" an d the mai n core engines bu rn ing, rhe acceleration generate d a force o f six times nor mal gra vit y. 14 T he mir acle was at ha nd . A human being was falling around the earth at 17,500 miles an hour. Gagarin in Swallow had entered orbit 6

l commi$$a ~: official title of a government leader in the USSR â&#x20AC;˘ ICB M : intercontinenta l ba llistic missile 5 g-loads: force cau sed by acceleration of gravity ' ;ettison: throw th ings overboard to lighten the aircraft


WE 'VE C O M f

A LO NG

WAY"

with a low point abo ve earth of 112.4 miles, soa ring as high as 203 miles before starting down again. IS He felt as if he were a stranger in his own bod y. He was not sitt ing o r lying do wn. Up and dow n no lo nger existed. He was suspended in physical limbo, kept fro m floa ting about loosely o nly by th e harn ess strapping him to his contoured couch. Abo ut him the magic of weightlessness appea red in th e form of papers, a pencil, his notebook, and othe r objects drifting, responding to the gentle tugs of air from his life support system. 16 He had circled the globe in eighty-nine minutes. 17 He had plunged across East Africa and now began his return to earth, flying backward. 18 Thi rteen thousand feet above the ground he separated from the ejection seat and deployed his personal parachute. He breathed in deeply the fresh spring air. What a marvelous ride down! 19 On the ground, two start led peasants and their cow working in a field watched as a man wearing a bright o range suit, topped with a white helmet, drifted out of the sky. The man hit the gro und running. He tumbled, rolled over, and immediately regained his feet to gather his par achute. Gagari n unhooked the parach ute harness and looked up to see a woman and a girl sta ring at him. 20 " Ha ve yo u come from o uter space?" asked the asto nished woman . 21 " Yes, yes, would you believe it?" Gagarin answered with a wide grin. '" certai nly have."

T he shrill ringing penetrated the fog of his sleep-annoying, persistent. For a moment Alan Shepard remained confused, extricating himself from deep slumber. Only for the moment. Then he reached for the clamor ing telephone in his motel room. n "W hat ?" he bar ked into the phone. 24 The voice at the other end of the call was soft, polite. Considerate. "Comma nder Shepard?" 25 "Uh-huh. Yeah, th is is Shepa rd." 26 "Ha ve you heard?" 27 He was shar ply atten tive now. He didn't like tho se words. "Hea rd what ?" he asked cautiously. 28 "The Russians have put a man in orb it." 29 T he phone almost slipped from Shepard's hand . He sat quietly another few moments to brush away the last fog of sleep from his mind. Then his disbelief found voice. " Yo u've got to be kidding." 30 Shepard managed a courteo us response, thanked the man, and replaced the phon e in its cradle. A single phrase kept repeating itself over and over again in his mind: 31 I could have been up there three weeks ago . . . 22


.

UN IT

8.

B. READING FOR MAI N ID EAS

Put the following main ideas in the correct sequence according to the story, numbering from 1 to 6. When you have finished, check your sequencing by look ing back at the story. _ _ Gagarin goes up in space and ma kes space history. _ _ American astr ona ut Alan Shepar d is notified about Gagarin 's flight .

_ _ As a young man, Gagarin wor ked and stud ied very hard. _ _ Before going up in space, there were extensive preparations and cerem o nies. _ _ Gagari n was chose n to go on the space mission and be th e first man 10 space .

_ _ As a child, Gagarin Jived through times of wa r and hunger.

C. READING FOR DETAILS

Circle the word which best completes the sentence. Compare your answers w ith your classmates', 1. Gagar in 's fat her w as a skilled

a. mechan ic

b. engineer

c. craftsman

2. Gagarin was a child du ring a. the Vietnam War

b. World War 11

3. Gaga rin became a cosmonaut the Air Force. a.

SIX

b. four

c. two

_

_ c. World War I years after entering


Wf'VE CO M E A LONG W AY

4. Gagarin learned he was to go into space flight. a. four days

b. four wee ks

befo re his

c. four months

5. As Gagarin spo ke to the audience, they were a. crymg

b. clapping

b. 15,500

miles an ho ur.

c. 17,500

7. H e circled the globe in a. eight

b. ninety-eight

_

c. quie tly listening

6. Gag arin sped around the earth at a. 12,500

11III

minutes. c. eighty-nine

8. He parachute d back down to earth and landed in a(n) a. field

b. ocean

c. forest

9. Alan Shepard was a. ha ppy

b. in disbelief

when he heard the news . c. relieved

D . READI N G BETW EE N TH E LIN ES

The sto ry in Reading On e begins and ends with two different men awaken ing to two very different days. H ow do you think the two ast ronauts, Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepa rd, felt when they first woke up on the morni ng of April 12, 1961 ?

Write a paragraph for their personal journals expressing their feelings. The first line of each paragraph has been written for you.


III

UN IT 8 •

/'

Juri Gasarin Aoril12 1961

" '\

I couldn't. believe it when I WOK' " n t.h ;. mcrnlna

ALA N SHEPARD Aori112, 1961 I co uld n't believe it when I woke up

t hle

m om jn~.

-, -,

n I

~

IR E A D I N G T W <5 : Pink Socks a nd jello A, EXPANDI NG THE TOP IC

Shannon Lucid was the first American wom an astronaut to stay on the Russian space stat ion M ir imir means " peace") . She remained in space with two Russia n cosmonauts for six months (188 days), setting a new women's record for most co nsecutive days in space. N ot onl y was Shannon Lucid aw ay from her hom e and family for six month s, her crew mates, Yuri and Yuri, were no t from the United Sta tes.

Imagine you were in Shannon 's situation and answer the questions be/ow with a partner. Th en read the fetter on page 191 that Shannon wrote

while in space. • Wha t wo uld you do to overcome feelings of isolat ion and lo neliness? • What would you bring with you to help w ith the isolati on ? [Remember; room on space station Mi r is very limited. )


WE'V E C O M E A lO NG WA Y

IIlI

By Shannon Lucid

ink Socks and lelia Sund ay, May 19, 1996 Dear Everybod yl! 1 Here it is, another Sunday on Mir!!! And how, you might ask, do I know that it's Sunday? Easy!!! I have on my pink socks and Yuri, Yuri, and I have just finished sharing a bag of j ello tl! 2 When light follows darkness every fort yfive min utes, it is important that I have simple ways of marking the passage of time. The pink socks were found on STS-76 1 and Kevin, th e comma nder, said that they were obviously put on as a surp rise for me, so I took them with me over to M ir and decided to wear them on Sundays. 3 And the l elia ? It is the greatest improvement in space flight since my first flight over ten years ago. When I fo und out that the re was a refrigerator on board Mir; I asked the I

2

4

5

foo d folks at JSC2 if they could put l elia in a drink bag. Once aboard Mir, we cou ld just add hot water, put the bag in the refrigerator and, later, have a great treat. Well, the foo d folks did just that and sent a variety of flavors with me to try out, We tr ied the j ello first as a special treat for Easter. It was so great that we decided the Mir 2 1NASN 2 crew tradition wou ld be to share a bag of Jello every Sunda y night. (Every once in a wh ile, Yuri will come up to me and say, " Isn't today Sunday?" and I will say, " No, it's not. No j ello to night!!!" ) There have been a lot of changes here on M ir since I arrived. And no , the cha nges were not because I am heret l! The first big change was the ar rival of Priroda, the final segme nt' that is to be added to Mir. This segment is called Priroda

STS: Space Transporta tion System, a shuttle vehicle to take crew to Mir }SC: Sta r City cosmonau t training center in Russia

J NAS A: National Aerona utics and Space Adm inistra tion (U,S,) • segmen t: a section

Co re m odule : Mi, ', « n" al compartment ha,a maximum diameter of 13.5 foct and a length of 43.3 I«t. It has a kitchen. exerei", bike and pri .." ct<w cabi",.

5TATION

kva nt 2: U:mta,n, life' ,u pport

CO I-rTROL

<~uipm< nt ••ola r

array' and a new bathroom, which replaced one in the coro mod" l, . it ha' • privacy cun "n and a ,uclI on to ile, .

CONSOLES

Sp e~ tr: Lucid slept in thi, 43·ioot .long mod " le, apan irom rhe coomo" au". It', used fot atmo, phoric re"'arch and monito ring background radiation.

Spac e

shullie


lIB

6

UN IT 8 â&#x20AC;˘

because that 's the Ru ssian wo rd for natu re and there are sensors on th e outside of the segme nt to study the Earth. T he U.S. science eq uipme nt is located inside th is segme nt. T he othe r big cha nge, although it is not perman ent, was the arrival of Progress, the resupply vehicle. Usually about every six weeks one is sent to M ir with foo d, equi pment, clorhes-c-everything that, on Earth, you would have to go to the store and buy in or der to live. Because it had deployed solar batteries, it wa s easier to spot w hile app roaching the station than Priroda had

9

been. 7

8

I saw it first. T here were big thunderstor ms out in the Atla ntic, with a brilliant display of light ning like visual porn pom s.! The cit ies were strung out like Christmas lights along th e coast- and there was Progress like a bright morning star skimmi ng along the to p!!! Suddenly, its brightness increased dram at ically an d Yur i sa id, "The engine just fired. " Soon , it was close enough so that we could see the deployed solar arr ays . To me, it loo ked like some alien insect head ed straig ht toward us. All of a sudden I really did feel like I was in a "cosmic outp ost '" anx iously awai ting suppli es-and really ho ping that my family did remem ber to send me some books and can dy!!! Soon after it do cke d, the three of us began o pen ing th e hatch. When Yuri opened a sma ll valve to eq ualize the pressu re, we co uld smell the air th at was in Progress. Yuri said, "Smell th e fresh foo d ." I will admit it was a fruit sme ll, but I th ought it smelled more like the first ti me you op en

10

II

your refrigera tor after a two-week vac ation only to disco ver you ha d forgotten to clean out the vegeta ble com pa rtment. T he first things we to ok out were our perso nal pac kages and , yes, 1 quickly pecked in to see if my family had re membered the bo oks and candy I'd requested. O f co urse they had. T hen we sta rted to unpack. We found the fresh foo d and sto pped r ight there for lunch. We had fresh to ma toes and onions; I never have had such a good lunch. For the next wee k we ha d fresh tomatoes three times a day. It was a sad meal when we at e the last on es!!! After our impromptu lunc h, we too k the rest of the afte rnoon off, looking at our mail that wa s in the packages and enjoying th e app les and oranges tha t were also on board . Yuri commented that for the first time all six of th e docking ports were now occupied- a Guinness Book " record ! Like I sa id, I ha d a wonderful bag of new books on Progress. My dau ght ers ha d han dselected each on e, so I kn ew I'd enjoy rhem. I picked out on e an d rapidly read it. I came to the last page and the hero , wh o was being ch ased by an ang ry mob, esca ped by stepping throu gh a mir ror. T he end. Co nt inued in Volume Two. And was there Volum e Two in my book bag? No. Co uld I da sh ou t to the bookstore? No. Talk a bout a feeling of total isola tion and fr usrration l!l! You wo uld never believe that grow n children co uld tota lly frustrate you with their go od intentions whi le you were in low ear th orbit, bur let me tell you, they certa inly can. Suddenly, August and home seem a lo ng way away!!!! Sha nnon

J po m-poms : big bright balls ..outpoSI: a basic fort or encampment for soldiers used during the time when the western United States was first being explored; these forts were located very far away from civilization 7 Guinn e,$ Boo k: a hoo k which lists world record s

Write short answers to the (ollowing questions.

1. Why was the ar riva l of Progress so important to rhe crew of M ir? 2. Wh at did Progress have o n it that helped the crew with isol ation, boredom, and loneliness?


WE 'V E COM E A l O N G

WAY

III

B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

How has space exploration and travel changed since Yuri Gagarin's first space fiight ? Com plete the chart. Com pare Yuri Gagarin's and Shann on Lu cid's space missions. Use examples from the readings to sup port your ideas. When you have finished, write a paragraph wh ich sum marizes the chart and ex presses these changes. Be sure to include your examples. Discuss your paragraph with a partne r.

SHAN NON LUCID' S M ISSION

YURJ GAGAR IN'S MISSION

Objective or goal of the mission

, ,,: ,,, , ,,, ,

,: ,,, ,, ,, ,,

: I :

: I :

--- - ---- ------------------~-~~- ~r - ----- ~ - - ~ - - ~-~-- ~ -- ~-- .------~------- .-----------------------

Length of the mission

----- ------------------------ ---r--------------------- - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~

Number of people on the • • mISSIon

,, , ,,,

,, ,,, ,

: :'

,:

--------_._-------------- ----- -- ~--_._------ -------- _ .------_. ~ ~._------------ ~------_. _- ~- -----

Nat ionality of the people

.mvo Ive d

____________________ ___ •

Physical conditions of the spaceshi p

,, ,, ,,

L_~

:

__

~

_~ ~

__

~_~

__

~

__

~_

~

__

,,, , ,, ~ ~ _ ~

~~

:

!, ,,, ,,,

~ -

~

- -

~

- -

~

- - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - -

~ - ~

~ - - - - -


III

UN IT 6 â&#x20AC;˘

A. EXPLORING LANGUAG E: Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing means to restate an idea using different wor ds, while keeping th e meaning the same.

Read the pairs of sentences. Decide if the second sentence paraphrases the first sentence. In other words, decide if the two sentences have simila r meaning. Circle similar or different. If different, explain why. The first one has been done for you. 1. a. For two years Gagarin served in op erational units and then, in 1959, he volunteered for an excit ing new program .

b. lt was a thrilling day fo r Gagarin in 1959 whe n, after two years, he was chosen for an exciting new program.

similar

@fere~

If different, why? Sentence a sa ys he volunteered. Sentence b says he wa5 chosen .

2. a. After our imprompt u lunch, we took the rest of the aftern oo n off. b. We rested fo r the remaining part of the afternoon after our scheduled lunch. similar

different

If different, why ?

3. a. Gagarin swept thro ugh the rigo rous training, excelling in everything he did. b. Although the tr aining wa s demanding, Gagarin d id extremely well. similar

different

If different, why?


W ~ 'V f CO M ~

A l ON G WA Y

4. a. He turned to the select grou p who would witness the moment that separated the past from the future. b. He faced the elite group that would see history being made. similar

different

If d ifferent, why?

5. a. America slept, unaware of Gagarin's jubilant cry fro m his ascending fire machine. b. Americans were not awa re o f Gagarin's space flight or his intense feelings of joy. similar

different

If different, why?

6. a. " Have you come from outer space?" asked the asto nished wom an . b. T he wo man was shocked when she asked if he had come from outside, similar

different

If different , why?

7. a. It (the j ello] was so great that we decided the crew tr adition wo uld be to share a bag of jello every Sunday night. b. The crew's idea of sha ring a bag of lelia every Sunday night was excellent. similar

different

If different, why?

8. a. Sensors were attached to his bod y before he do nned the pressure suit and heavy helmet. b. After sensors had been attached to his body, he took off the pressure suit an d heavy helmet. similar d ifferent If different , why?

III


.

UNIT S. B. WO RKI NG WITH WORDS: Phrasal Verbs

A phrasa l verb consists of tw o or three wo rds wh ich, when used to gether, ha ve a different mean ing from the mea nings of th e indivi dual pans.

Work with a partner. Try to guess the meaning of each phrasal verb in tbe following sentences. Circle the letter of the phrase or word with the sam e meaning as the underlined word. Use you r dictionary if necessary. Th e first one has been don e for )'OU. 1. H e wa s a wide-eyed bo y then, watching his parents' wo rld coming a part as they fell un der enem y occ upa tion. a. fough t against

@ werc dominated by c. lived under the ground 2. "To tak e pa rt in new discoveries, to be th e first to enter the cos mos, to engage in a single-ha nded du el wit h nature . . ." Hi s smile broadened . a. sepa ra te fro m b. do so mething alone

c. participate

In

3. "00 we 1m! " he cried aloud, bringin g smiles and grins to the crews in th e la unch control. a. depa rt b. explod e c. continue

4. Wh en I found out that th ere was a ref rigera tor on board Mir, I asked the food folks at ] SC if they could put ] ello in a dri nk bag . a. disco vered b. detected c. believed

5. Well, th e food folks did just that and sent a variety of flavors with me to frr out. a. atte mp t

b. put on c. test


W { 'V E CO M E A l O N G WAY

lEI

6. Every once in a while, Yur i will come up to me and say, " Isn' t today Sunday?" a. awa ken b. appro ach c. Imagine 7. I thought it smelled more like the first time you open your refrigerator after a two-week vacation only to disco ver you had forgot ten to clean .Q..l!J; the vegeta ble com partment. a. po lish b. take all the money from c. empty 8. After our impr ompt u lunch, we .tQQk the rest of the afternoon cli. a. stopped working b. undressed c. flew for a period of time

o

Examine these sentences and discuss the questions that follow with a partner. • NASA called off the space flight launch because of bad weat her.

• M any astronauts dropped out of the training program. • Yuri Gagarin ofte n thought back on h is first flight in space. a. W hat is the verb in each sentence? b. Wh at is the d ifference between call and call off ? c. What is the difference between .d..mp and drop out ? d. What is the difference between think an d think back on?


IIIII

U NIT 8 •

Phrasal Verb s Focus ON GRAMMAR See Phrasal Verbs in Focus on

A phrasal verb consists of two or three words put together to make one verb . Phrasal verbs are often used in informal English.

Grammar, High Intermediate.

Form of Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs (also ca lled tw o -part or two-word verbs) comb ine a verb with a particle to form a new meaning.

V ERB

+

PARTICL E

=

talk

+

over

=

discuss

look

+

over

=

examine

give

+

up

=

qu it

MEANING

Some phrasal ve rbs (a lso ca lled three-part or three-wo rd verbs) combine w ith a preposit ion to form a new meaning.

+ PREPOSITIO N

=

come up

+

with

=

imagine

think back

+

on

=

remember

PHRASAL VERB

MEANING

Meaning of Phrasal Verbs

The words in a phrasa l verb are usua lly common ones, but the ir meani ng c ha nges w he n the w o rds are used toge the r to make a phrasal verb. Therefore it is not alwa ys possible to guess the mean ing of the verb from its individual parts. call off

=

can cel

drop out of

=

qu it

Some phrasal verbs can have more than one mean ing. • She took off her space suit. = • She took off at 7:00

A .M.

• She took the day off.

She remo ved her space suit.

=

She departed at 7:00

=

She didn't work that day.

A.M.

I

J


W E' V E C O M E A L O NG

WAY "

Some verbs can be combined with several different particles or prepositions. Each co mbination creates a phrasal verb w ith a different meaning. • She came up with a plan.

= She developed a plan.

• She came up to me.

= She approac hed me.

• She came out with a new book. = She published a new book.

e

Work in small groups. Read each sentence and write the word or phrase that has the same meaning as the underlined phrasal verb. The first one has been done for you.

1. invented

regained consciousness

approached

a. Th e director of the program came u p to Shan no n Lucid to ask her some qu estion s.

a pproach ed

b. After month s of testing, the Russian space scientists came up with a space suit that wo rks better than an y in histo ry.

_

c. Alan Shepard fainted because of lack of oxygen, but with the doctor's help he came to in a few min utes. 2. disassemble

parti cipate

_

dominate

a. A successful space flight is a grou p effor t. Everyone must take parr in all aspects of the pro ject.

_

b. If there is a mechanical problem, the technicians will have to ta ke the engine ~. _ c. The race to the moon would take oyer th e space program of the 1960s after Gagarin's successful space flight. 3. review

continue

_

leave

a. Without adequate funding fro m the government, the space program wo uldn 't have been able to gQ.Qll.

_

b. Alan Shepard decided to gQ,.,Qff to visit his mother before his first space flight . _ c. Being an astronaut is not easy. You have to go over all the informa tion necessar y for your flight many times.

_


.UN IT

8 .

oJ. br eak

be domin ated b y

lose speed

a. The Americans didn't wa nt to fall behind in the space race with the Russians du ring th e cold war.

_

b. If the new space shuttle pilot is a goo d leade r, the entire crew will fall under his influe nce.

_

c. If the spacecraft is not adequa tely co nstr ucted, it will fall apan du ring reentry into the atmosphere. 5. departed

not work

_

removed

a. After co mpleting a space journey, it is customary for the astronauts to ta.k.c. a few days !!ft.

_

b. On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin took off in the first mann ed space caps ule. _ c. When Yuri Gagarin landed, he took off his parachute harness and looked up to see a woman and a girl staring at him.

e

_

Rewrite the paragraphs. Use a phras al verb from Exercise 2 above in place of the underlined verbs. Be sure to use th e correct tense in th e phrasal verb .

1. Moments before Shannon Lucid depa rted on her first space mission, a reporter approac hed her and asked what her thoughts were. She replied that she was extre mely proud to narticipate in such an impor tan t project. A few seconds passed. and she added with a quick smile that what she was really hoping was that the spaceship wo uld not .bmlk during lifto ff! 2. Did you know th at man y of the prod ucts we use every da y are the result o f technology designed specifically for space flight ? For example, scientists invented Velcro as a way to att ach things easily and securely in ant igravity situations. The or ange-flavored Tang and other powde red drinks that dominated the juice ma rket in the 1960s were also designed specifically fo r space travel. Therefore, we ca n say that by using these products, we are all participa ting in [he space experience. Hopefully, scientists will continue creati ng new products tha t benefit us all.


WE ' VE C O ME A L O N G W AY

II1II

B. STYLE : Chronological Ord er- Expr es sing Time

o

Examine these sentences and discuss the questions with a partner.

• Th e crew of Mir ha d qu ite a smelly surprise whe n they opened Progress. • As soon as Shepard heard about became depresse d .

Ga ~a r i n 's

successful spac e flight , he

• A year and a ha lf after Gag.arin's fligh t, John Glenn was launched into

orbit. • Gaga rin felt won derful while he was in spa ce. • We w ill ha ve to spend more money on space research before we can even think abou t living on other p lanets. • During the time they are in space, crew mem bers do valuable scientific research . a. Each of th ese sente nces ta lks about two events and the time relationship betw een the events . In the first sentence, the two events (had a smelly surprise and opened Progress ) happened at the same time. Which other sentences describe tw o events happ ening at the same time? b. In which sentence does one action tak e place immediately after another action? c. Wh at ar e the time relation ships in th e remaining sentences ?

Expressing Time: Adverbial Time Clauses Whe n describing two even ts in a single sentence, you may have to use words that ind icate to the reader how the events relate to each other chrono logica ll y. A single sentence made up of an adve rbial time clause (dependent clause) and a main clause (independe nt clau se) is an effect ive way to do this.


B UNIT

8 .

Time Word s with Dependent Clauses A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It need s an inde pen dent clause or main clause to comp lete it. The followi ng time wor ds a re commonly used to introduce de pendent clauses.

before/after

d uring (the time)

while

as soo n as

when

since/ until

• Before Sha nno n l ucid became a n astronaut, she trai ned exte nsively. (dependent clause )

(independent clause)

Time Clauses and Verb Te nse The relationship of the verb te nses in the two cla use s is very important. The tenses listed be low show th is relationship. The tenses can a lso be in the progressive or perfect form.

[F THE VERB [N THE MA[N CLAUSE IS,

THE VERB [N THE T[ME CLAUSE IS,

present

-+

present

futu re

-+

present

past

-+

past

imperative

-+

present

• Astronauts train fo r many months before they go into space. • Shannon Luc id will not be ab le to write ab ou t her mission unti l she has more time. • Alan Shepard (had) tr ained for ma ny mo nths before he went into space. • Use the rad io to ca ll NASA as soon as you have a problem.


W E ' VE C O M E "

L O N G W" Y

Pun ctua tio n The adverbial time clause (the dependent clau se) ca n com e at the beg inning or at the end of the indepen dent (the main) clause. When the sentence begins with a dependent clause, a comma sepa rates it from the main clau se. â&#x20AC;˘ Before Shannon Lucid becam e a n astronaut. she had extensive training. When a dependent clause comes after the main cla use, no comma is needed . â&#x20AC;˘ Sha nnon l ucid had extensive tra ining before she becam e an astronaut

e

Think about the information in Readings One and Two. Then combine each pair of sentences be/ow to make one sentence. Use one of the boldface time wo rds. The first one has been done for )'ou.

1. after/during th e tim e a. T he war ended. b. Gaga rin we nt to school.

After t he war ended. Gaaarin went to eohocl.

2. wh ile/after a. Yuri completed special co urs es and ent ered the Air Force.

b. H e became a fighter pilot.

3. as soon as/while a. Lucid asked for j ello. b. She discovered there was a refrige ra tor on bo a rd M ir,

4. after/while a. The three astro na uts opened the ha tch. b. Progress dock ed on Mi r.

5. before/aft er a. Lucid a rrive d wit h d ifferent food , b. Th e cos mo na uts ha d never eaten j cllo.

EIII


11II

U N IT 8 •

6. as soo n aslbefore a. T he astronauts sta rted to op en the hatch to Progress. b. Th ey smelled the food.

7. after/ d uring the time a. The Russians and American s were enemies. b. T he space progra ms began.

8. unt il/wh en a. The cold war ended. b. There was not a lot of cooperation in space exp lo ra tion .

. . Choo se the correct time clause to complete the sentences. Pay attention to verb tenses. The first one has been done for you.

1. After Progress arrives, t he c rew will have f resh food. a. the crew will have fresh food . b. the crew had fresh food. 2. Shan non Lucid told the Russians,

_ ;;::;:;-::;_ _---,--;_ --;a. "Whe n you will open th e hatch b. "When you open the hat ch

• be careful."

3. Satellites circle the earth a. wh ile we are sleeping. b. while we were sleeping. 4.

• pharmaceutical com panies use the information to develop new prod ucts. a. As soon as space research provided new medical information b. As soon as space researc h provides new medical information

5.

, space exploration was extremely important. a. Dur ing the time the Russians and American s arc enemies b. D uring the time the Russians and Americans were enemies

6. People hadn 't thought living on other planets was possible a. before astronauts landed on the moon. b. before astrona uts land on the moon .


WE 'VE CO ME

.... tON G W .... y

III

I I ~~路~OURI A. WRITI NG TOPICS

Choose one of the following topics and write two or three paragraphs abo ut it. Try to use the ideas, vocabulary, gramma r. and style from this unit in your writing. 1. Some peop le believe tha t compet ition between two comp anies is good because it pushes them to create better and better products. Others

believe co operation is the best way. This can be said for the space programs as well. Dur ing the 1960s, space exploration was well funded and moving ahead at great speed. What were th e benefit s of competition d uring the space race in the 1960s? Wh at are the benefits of cooperation at th e present t ime? 2. Look at the time line on page 181. H ow do these important space events reflect th e movement from co mpetition to cooperation between the United States and Russia ? Describe the movement toward cooperatio n over time. Use exam ples fro m the time line. 3. In the beginni ng of space exploration, the relation ship betw een man and nature was "m an against nature": We were tr ying to co nquer space. No wadays, this feeling can be expressed mo re as " man studying nature" : We are tr ying not only to protect nature (for exam ple, by studying the ear th from space ), but to use nature to help us (for exa mpie, through medical research on Mir ). Wh y do yo u think this relationship has changed? What do you think the future will bring? 4. There have always been peop le who are critic al of the space programs. Some say that the tremendous amount o f money used for space exploration could be better used right here on earth. Some argue that we arc polluting space wit h satellites and space ga rbage . And others have mad e even more critical assessmen ts of space pro jects. How do you feel ab out space exploration? If possi ble, use examples fro m the unit to support your opinions.


.

UNIT 8 .

B. FIELDWORK

PREPARATION In small gro ups, make a list of past and present space programs an d space-related activities (satellite co mmunication, scientific explora tion, erc.]. Discuss what you know abo ut these programs. Incl ude, for example, names of sponsoring countries, da tes, ob jectives of the programs, and people involved. Share you r information with the class . You may wa nt to write the information on the board. T hen, in small gro up s, choose a prog ram tha t interests your group. Brainstorm a list of places yo u can get informa tion ab out this prog ra m.

RESEARC H ACT IVITY Research the space program your grou p selected . Include inform ation abo ut the histo ry of the program, its objectives, and its results . Discus s your research with your gro up. Combine the group's research and wr ite a group report. Present th e rep ort to the class.


APPROACHING THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING it

Look at the photographs and read the information about each person. Answer these questions with a partner. 1. What do these people have in common? 2. What personal history do you think they share? 3. Look at the title of the unit. What does "the grass is always greener" mean to you?

20 7


. U N I T '} .

B. SHARING INFOR MATION

\Vo rk in groups. Brainstorm a list of reasons w h)' people immigrate. Think about economic. political, and personal reasons. Write as many reasons as you can in the chart, and share your reasons with the class. If yo u wish. share any personal experiences ) 'OU have had.

ECONOMIC REASONS

POLITICAL REASONS

PERSONAL REASO>JS


T H E G RASS I S AL WAYS G R EE N E R .

PREPARING TO READ A . BAC KGROUND

Read the information and comp lete the exe rcise that follows. The story yo u are about to read is from the novel Lucy by Jamaica Kincaid. As a young woman Jamaica Kincaid left her hom e in Antigua to come to New York. She was o nly sixteen years old when she came to the United States to work in the hom e o f an American family as a nan ny, taking care of the children. After working at several domest ic jobs, ' in and around New York, Kincaid entered college and eventually began writing for the New Yorker magazine. She became a highly successful and respected author. She has writte n man y short sto ries about her native island and her fam ily. Imagine you are sixteen years old and ha ve left your home o n a tro pical island . This is your first time away from the island and your family. You ar rive in New York in the wintertime. Wha t kinds of problems do you th ink you wiII face? Write down some ideas. For example, think abo ut the differences you wiII find in the foo d, climate, and living conditions. Share your ideas with a partn er.

B. VOCA BULAR Y FOR CO M PRE H EN SI O N

Work with a partner. Read the sentences. Each underlined word has two meanings. Circle the meaning of the wo rd as it is used in the sentence. This is the m eaning of the word as it is used in Reading One.

1. 1.kmts. with one's enemies usually never end peacefully. a. fights or contests between two opponents b. periods of time spent in a particular way

1

domestic ;ob: a job in which you work in a home cleaning, cooking. or taking ca re uf children


II1II

UN IT

9 â&#x20AC;˘

2. N ew York City is filled with many wonderful spectacles such as the World Trade Cent er, the Statue of Liberty, and the Empire State Build ing . a. things tha t ar c rema rkable or impressive h . eyeg lasses

3. I was no lon ger in a tropical zone and I felt cold inside and out, th e first tim e such a sensation had come o ver me. a. big event ca using great publi c excitem ent

b. feeling or emot ion 4 . We sat o n th e hank and watched th e sunset whil e eating our picnic. a. money-lending an d savings institution b. side of a ri ver 5. Agatha Christie's bo oks have sold millions o f copi es around the world because her sto ries always hav e great clms.. a. pieces of land

b. act ions or events 6. After living a bro ad for m an y months, she began to long for her mother's cooking. a. relatively great dista nce b . desire or yea rn for 7. The child became bo red and started to twist in his ch air during the long movie. a. dance by mo ving his hips b. wri ggle or squirm 8. T he Statue of Liberty is probably the most famou s _ City.

in New York

a. ab ility to see b. spectacle or view 9. H e was in a sta te of ra ge after his airline tickets and tra velers checks were stolen . a. ang er b. popu lar trend or fad


T HE G R A S S I S A LWA YS G R EE N E R

~iiiiii=~

l1li

Poor Visito r

A . INTRODUCING T HE T O P I C

Read the first paragraph of the story on page 2 12 and write short answers to the questions below.

1. Wh ich wo rds from the paragra ph tell you abo ut Lucy's emotions on her first day in New York? H ow does she feel ? 2. What do you think will happen ? What do you think the au thor will describe in the rest of the story:

Share what you have written with a partner: Then read the rest of the story.


III

U N IT ':I â&#x20AC;˘

Poor Visitor BY

J AM A IC A

KI N CA ID

(fr om Lucy )

It

2

3

was my first day. I had come the night before, a gray-black and co ld night before-as it was to he in the midd le of Ja nuar y, tho ugh I didn't know tha t at the time-and I co uld not see anything clearly on the way in from the airp ort, even though there were lights everywhere. As we drove along, someo ne would single o ur' to me a famo us building, an important street, a park, a bridge, that when built was thought to be a specta cle. In a daydream I used to have, all these places were po ints of happi ness to me; all these places were lifeboats to my small drown ing sou l, for I wo uld imagi ne myself entering and leaving them, and just tha r---emering and leaving over and over aga in-wou ld see me thro ugh a bad feeling I did not have a name for. I only knew it felt a litt le like sadness but heavier t han that. No w tha t I saw these places, they looked o rdina ry, dirty, wo rn down by so man y people entering and leaving them in real life, and it occurr ed to me that I co uld not be the only person in the worl d for whom they were a fixtu re of fantasy. It was no t my first bout with the disappointment of reality and it would no t be my last. The undergarments that I wore we re all new, bought for my journey, and as I sat in the ca r, twist ing this way and tha t to get a goo d view of the sights before me, I was reminded of how uncomfortable the new can mak e you feel. I got in an elevator, something I had never do ne befor e, and then I was in an apartm ent and seated at a ta ble eating food just tak en from a refrigerator. In the place I had just come from, I alwa ys lived in a hou se, and my house did not have a refrigerato r in it. Everything I was experiencing- the ride in the elevator, being in an apartment, eating day-old food tha t had been sto red in a refrigera tor- was such a good idea that I could imagine I would grow used to it and like it very much, but at first it was all so new that I had to smile with my mouth turned down at the co rners. I slept soun dly th at night , but it was n' t because I was happ y and co mfortable-quite the opposite; it was because I didn 't want to take in anyt hing else. That mo rning, the morning of my first day, the morning that followed my first night, was a sunny morning. It was not the sort of bright-yellow sun maki ng everyth ing curl at the edges, almost in fright , that I was used to, but a pale-yellow sun, as if the sun had grown

, single out: po int out, show


T H E GR A S S I S ALWAY S GRUNER

4

5

weak from trying too hard to shine; but still it was sunny, and that was nice and made me miss my hom e less. And so, seeing the sun, I got up and put on a dress, a gay dress that I wou ld wear if I were at home and setting out for a day in the country. It was all w rong. The sun was shining but the air was cold. It was the middle of January, after all. But I did not know that the sun co uld shine and the air remain cold; no one had ever to ld me. What a feeling that was! How can I explain? Someth ing I had always known- the way I knew my skin was the color bro wn of a nut ru bbed repeatedly with a soft d ot h, or the way I knew my own name-someth ing I took completely for granted, "the sun is shining, the air is warm," wa s not so. I was no longer in a tro pical zone, and this realization now entered my life like a flow of water dividing formerly dry and solid gro und, creating tw o banks, one of which was my past-so familiar and predictable that even my unhap piness then made me happy now just to thi nk of itthe other my future, a gray blank, an overcast seascape on which rain was falling and no boats were in sight. I was no longer in a tropical zone and I felt cold inside and out, the first time such a sensation had come over me. In books I had rea d-from time to time, wh en the plo t ca lled for it- someone wo uld suffer from homesickness . A person wou ld leave a not so very nice situation and go somewhere else, somewhere a lot better, and th en long to go back where it was not very nice. Ho w impat ient I wo uld become with such a perso n, for I wou ld feel that I was in a not so nice situation myself, and how I wanted to go somewhere else. But now I, too, felt tha t I wanted to be back where 1 came from . I understood it, I knew where I stoo d there. If I had to dr aw a picture of my future the n, it wo uld have been a large gray patch surrounded by black, blac ker, blackest. What a surprise th is was to me, that I longed to be back in the place that I came from , that I longed to sleep in a bed I had outgrown, that I longed to be with the peo ple whose smallest, most natura l gesture wou ld call up in me such a rage th at I longed to see them all dead at my feet. Oh, I had imagined that with my one swift act-leaving ho me and coming to this new place-that I cou ld leave behind me, as if it were an old gar ment never to be worn again, my sad tho ughts, my sad feelings, and my discontent with life in general as it presented itself to me. In the past, the thought of being in my present situa tion had been a comfort, but now I did not even have t his to look forward to, and so I lay down on my bed and dreamt I was eati ng a bowl of pink mullet and green figs cooked in coconut milk, and it had been cooked by my gra ndmother, wh ich was why the taste of it pleased me so, for she was the person I liked best in the wo rld and those were the things I liked best to eat also.

III


11II

U N IT 9 .

B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

Read each sentence and write T if it is true or F if it is false. If it is false, correct the sentence. _ _ 1. Lucy feels very comfo rta ble in the new country.

_ _ 2 . Lucy find s everything very much the same as she expected and very similar to her ow n co untry.

_ _ 3. Lucy is unsure of her future.

_ _ 4. Lucy was a happy young girl in her native co untry.

_ _ 5. Lucy is surprised tha t she is homesick.

_ _ 6. Lucy's d reams became reality in the new cou nt ry.

C. READING FOR DETAilS

Imagine that Lucy wro te the following letter to her grandmother. In it she describes her new life in the United States. There are, however, eight factua l errors in what she writes. Read the letter, think back to the reading, and underline any incorrect information that Lucy has given her grandmother. Be prepared to ex plain the incorrect info rmation by referring to the story. Discuss your findings with a partner.


TH E G R A S S I S A L W A YS

GR E E N ER

Dear Grandmother, I had a wonderfu l trip, The weather was warm and sunny, and

! loved traveling by boat. Driving through the city, I saw many of the famous sights t hat I had dreamt about before my trip. They were beautiful! The apartment building where I am staying has an elevator, As you know, ! had never seen one before, much less been in one! It 's great not to have to walk up the stairs. The apartment is furnished and it has a brand

new refrigerator, just like the one we have at home. After a good night's sleep, I awoke to another bright, sunny day. I put on a pretty summer dress. It was just t he right thing. Despite the warm weather, I felt a feeling of homesickness coming over me, It's hard to explain why this wou ld happen, but it did. Perhaps it has to do with the insecurity I feel about my future. if you had told me before I left that ! would miss my life back home, I wouldn't have believed you. Nevertheless, that is what has happened. Don't worry about

me, I'll be fine. I'll write again as soon as I have more to tell you.

Love, Lucy P.S. ! enjoyed eating the pink muliet and green figs that you cooked for me to eat on my trip. It made me feel less homesick.

III


&iii

U N IT 9 â&#x20AC;˘

D. READIN G BETW EEN TH E LINES

Work with a partner. Read th e fo llowing sentences fro m " Poor Visito r" and ans wer the question s. Sha re your answers with th e class. 1. In a da ydream I used to ha ve, all these places were point s of happ iness to me, all these places were lifeboats to my sma ll drowning SQul.

What does Lucy mean by "lifeboats to my small drowning sou!"?

2. t was reminded of how uncomfortable the new ca n make

) 'OU

feel.

What does Lucy mean by this?

3. But a t first it wa s all so new tha t J had to smile with my mouth turned down at the corners.

\Vby does Lucy smile with her mouth tu rned down?

4. But now I, too, felt that I wa nte d to be back where I came from. I understood it, I knew where 1 stood there.

Wh y does Lu cy want to be back in her native country?

5. Oh , I had imagined th ar wir h my one swift Act leav ing home an d coming to this new place-that I could leave behind me, as if it were a n old ga rment neve r to be worn aga in, my sad thoughts, my sad feelings, a nd my discontent with life in genera l as it presented itself to me.

What does Lu cy realize about herself and he r feelings?


T H E GRASS I S A LWA YS G R EEN E R

a

READING TWO: Nostalgia' A. EXPA N D I N G TH E TOPIC

The following poem was written by a Puerto Rican poet who describes his nostalgia for his homeland. Before you read the poem, answer the following question . Share your answer with a classmate. Wh at th ings abo ut your native co unt ry do you (or wo uld you) miss if you are (or were ] in another country?

Nostalgia BY

1

V I RG IL IO

D A vIL A

1

"Mamma, Borinqu en- calls me, this co untry is no t mine, Borinqu en is p ure flame and here I am dying of the cold."

2

In search of a better future I left the native home, and estab lished my store in the middle of New York. What I see around me is a sad pa norama ;' and my spirit calls out, wo unded by much nostalgia, for the ret urn to the hom e nest, Mamma, Borinq uen calls me!

3

Where will I find here like in my aiolto' land a dish of chicken and rice, a cup of good coffee?

( 1 8 6 9 - 1 9 4 31

nostalgia: longing for the past

Borinquen: the na me the people of Puerto Rico use when referr ing to their homelan d; the Borinquc n Ind ians. o r Bor jq uefios, were the original inhabi tants of Puerto Rico 3 panorama: view. scene. sight â&#x20AC;˘ eriollo: Spanish American 2


II

U N IT ., .

Where, oh where will I see radiant in their attire th e girls, rich in vigo r, whose gla nces beda zzle. " Here eyes do no r beda zzle, this country is no t mine!

.. If I listen

to a song here of those I lea rn ed at home, or a danza" by Tavarez, C ampos, or Duena Colon, my sens itive heart is mo re enflamed with patrioti c love ,

and a herald" that faithful proclaims th is holy feeling th e wail " Borinq uen is pure flam e! " co mes to m y ears.

s In my land, what beauty! In th e hardest winter not a (fee is seen bare, no t a vale" without gree n . T he flower rules th e garden, the river meanders tal ka tive, the bird in the shadowy wood sings his a rbitrary song, and here . . . T he snow is a shro ud ," here I am dying of the co ld. j bedazz le: impress, enchant â&#x20AC;˘ dania. dance music from the nineteent h centu ry , herald: messenger I vale: valley , shroud: covering or burial garment

Answer the following questions. What does Virgilio Da vila miss about his native co unt ry? Arc th ese thin gs simi lar to or different from the things yo u sa id you miss (or would miss )?


THE G R A S S I S A LW A Y S GR EEN E R

II

B. LINKING READINGS ON E AND TWO

Think of at least four similar themes or topics described in both" Poor Visitor" and "Nostalgia." Write them in the chart. Give exam ples of each theme. Discuss your answers with a partner. The first theme is done for you.

,

THEME

EXAM PLE FROM " PO O R VISITOR" : EXAMPLE FROM " NOSTALG IA"

1. weat her

---- ------ - -- ---------------- ----- ---- -~ - - -- --------- --------- ------- -- - ---- ---~- --------------- --- -- - -- - --- -- - - -- --- -

2.

: ,,: ,'' ,, ,'' , ,' , ,' - - --- --- --- -- - --- - - - --- - -- - - - - -- - -- ---- r---- - --- --------- -- - --- - -- ------ -- - - -- -~ - -- - -- --- - --- -- - -- - --- -- - - -- - -- - -- - --3. ,,: ,,: ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

---------------------------------------r---------------------------------------,,-------------------------------------4. ,,: ,,: , ,

, ,,, ,, ,

,,, ,, ,

.


.

UNIT 9 .

REVIEWING LANGUAGE A . EXPLO RI N G VO CAB U LARY : Compound Wo rd s

Compound words are formed by combining two sepa rate words. Recognizin g two separate words with in one word can help you guess the new mean ing of the compound noun, verb, or ad jective. For example, the compound nou n hom ework is formed fro m th e words home an d w ork . Homework is work that you do at home. Footpath is for med fro m the words foot and path . A footpath is a path that is onl y used by people on foot, not by motor vehicles or bicycles. Work with a partner. For each wo rd, find the two wo rds that mak e the compound word. Discuss the meaning. Add )'our own example using one of the words that mak e up the com pound wor d. Use you r dictionary if necessary. The first one has been done for you.

COMPOUN D WO RD

YOUR EXAMPLE

SECOND WORD

FIRST WORD

••, ••, 1. lifeboat life boat :, lifeti me , ---------------------------} - --- - -- --- - - --- - - - -- - -~, - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~-, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2. unde rgarment : : : , ---------- ----------- ------}--- - -- -- - -- - - -- -- - - - - -~, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~-, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , 3. homesi ckness •, • •,, - ----------- ----------- - - -- r-- - -- --- -- ---------· --~·· -· - ---- - - ---- - -----1------------------- ---,, 4. daydream ,, , --------------- ------------~ ----- - - - -- - --- - - - - - -- -~ - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,, 5. overcast ,, , - --- --- -- - -- - - - - - - -- - ---------------------------~- ------ ---- ---- -------~ --- - - - -- - - - -- - - - -- - - -~ , ,, 6. outgrown , , , , • • • , , 7. gra nd mother •, • ,• ,

· ·· ·

__ ___ ___ __ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _

·· ·· ··· · · ~

. .. ... ... .. .. .. L

~

_


T H E GRASS

I S A LWA YS

G R EEN ER

mil

B. WORKING WITH WORDS: Sentence Completion

Use compound words from Part A on page 220 to com plete the sentences.

1. Some people think that by mov ing to a new cou ntry they can discard their problems like clothes they have

_

2. Our second day in the new co untry was a dark and sto rmy day. The sky was _ 3. I miss my

very much; she wou ld alw ays cook my

favorite food. 4. Many immigrants often

abo ut their native country and

their lives there. 5. The ship was sinki ng rapidly, and the passengers were hurrying to get into the

(s).

6. Ma ny people consider

to

be a normal part of ada pta-

tion to a new coun try or cultu re. 7. People from warm climates are often unprepared for the cold winters in New York. To keep warm they sho uld always wea r severa l layers of _ _ _ __ _ (s) under their clothes.


.

U N I T 'l

.

IsKill S

FOR EXPRESSION

-

A. G RAM MA R: Pas t Pe rf e c t

o

Examine the foll owing sentences, and discuss the qu estion s with a part ner. • By the time Lucy ar rived in New York, she had alread y imagined what New York would look like. • Lucy had just pm: on her summer dress when she rea lized it was cold outs ide. • Before Lucy moved to N ew York, she had longed to go there. 3.

In the first sentence, d id Lucy arrive in New York first, o r did she im agine what Ne w York looked like first?

b. In the second sentence, d id Lucy realize it was cold outsid e before she pur on her summer dress? c. In th e third sentence, which ha ppened first-lucy's move to N ew Yor k, or her longing to go there?

d. What helped you decide the order of events in these sentences?

Past Perfect Focus ON GRAMMAR See Past Perfect in Focus o n

The past perfect form of a verb is used to show that something happened before a specific time or event in the past.

Gramm ar, High Intermediate.

Form of the Past Perfect The past pe rfect is for med with had + past particip le. • l ucy had never been in an elevator before.


T HE G RASS I S A l WA 'r'S

G R E ENE R

Past Perfect and a Spe cific Time or Event in th e Past To show that something happened before a specific time in the past, use the past perfect with by + a ce rtain time in the past. • By the next mornin g, Lu cy had beco me very homesick.

Past Perfect with Two Past Events When talking about two events that happened in the past, use the past perfect to show the event that happened first (the earlier event). The simple past is often used to show the second event. In other words, the event in the past perfect happened before the event in the simple past. Time word s such as after and as soon as are used to introduce the first eve nt (past perfect). • As soon as she had put on her summer dress, she had a strange sensation.

Before and by the time are used to introduc e the second event (simple past). • Lu cy had lived with her grandmother before she moved to New York . (First she lived with her grandmother. Then she moved to New York .) When can be used to introduce either the first or the second event. Notice the difference.

• l ucy had put on her dress when she realized the weather was co ld. (First she put on her dress. Then she rea lized the weather was cold .) • Lucy put on her dress when she realized the weather was cold . (First she realized the weather was cold. Then she put on her dress.)

III


mil

U N IT 9 •

Already, Neller, and Ever

These words are ofte n used with the past perfect to emphasize the event th at happened first. • Lucy had never eaten food from a refri gerator before then .

• No one had ever told lucy that the sun could shine and the a ir rema in co ld. GRAMMAR TIP : As in all sentences wi th two clauses, w hen the sentence begins

with a dependent clause (the claus e beginning with a time word), a comma separates it from the main cl ause. When the sentence begins with the main clau se,

e

Each of the following sentences talks about two events which happened in the past. Which event happened first? Write 1 for the first event and 2 for the second event. The first one has been done for you.

1. By the time Lucy arrived in New York , she had alrea dy imagined what New York would look like.

_2_ Lucy arr ived in New York. --l- Lucy imagined what New York looked like. 2. Befor e Virgilio Davila estab lished his sto re in New York, he had lived in Puerto Rico. Davila established his store in New York. Da vila lived in Puerto Rico. 3. The immigra nts had already seen the Sta tue of Liberty when the spectacle of Ellis Islan d came into view. _ _ The immigrant s saw the Stat ue of Liberty. Ellis Island came into view. 4. Davila had never felt so alone before he mo ved to New York. Davila moved to New York. Davila never felt so alone.


THE G RA SS IS AL WA YS GR HN E R

ED

5. After Lucy had woken up, she put on a gay summer dress. _ _ Lucy wok e up. _ _ Lucy put on a gay summer dress. 6. The immigrants had never studied a second language before the y moved to the new co untry. _ _ The immigrants never studied a second language . _ _ The immigrants moved to a new country. 7. By the time Davila established his store in New York, he had grown very nostalgic for his homeland . _ _ Davila was nostalgic for his homeland. Davila established his store in New York. 8. As soon as j ama ica Kincaid had moved fro m Antigua to New York, she needed to find a job and a place to stay. _ _ j amaica Kincaid mo ved from Antigua to New York. _ _ She needed to find a job and a place to sta y.

e

Study the tim e line of Jamaica Kincaid's life. Use the time line to complete th e sentences that follow. Use the past perfect or the simp le past as necessary. The first one has been don e for you.

JAMAICA 19 49 1965 1966 1969 19 73 1974 1976

KINCAID'S

bo rn as Elaine Potte r Richardso n in SI. Johns, Antigua left West Indies worked at domestic jobs in Nev> York City was a coll ege student published first magazine a rticle (Ingenue magazine) and cha nged name to Jamaica Kincaid published story in the Village Voice newspaper wor ked as a staff write r at the N ew Yorker magazin e

LIFE

1979

married Allen Shawn , son of New Yo rker publishe r

1983

pu blished first sho rt story co llect ion

1985

mov ed to Benn ington , Vermo nt, with husband

19 B!!

pub lished a long essay, A Small Place

199U

published Lucy

1996

published Au tobiography ofM y Mother

199 7

publishe d My Broth er

1. After Elaine Potter Richardson had changed her nam e to j amaica Kincaid, she published a story in t he Village Voice


. U N IT ') . 2. Ja maica Kinca id had moved to Ben nin gton, Verm ont , ~

3. As soon as -rshe fou nd a do mestic jo b in New York.

_

4. By the time she pu blished Lucy,

_

5. By 198 3,

6. Wheo

_

_

7. She had already

8. She had

=

_

_

8. STYLE : Comparisons and Contrasts

o

Examine the paragraph, and answer the questions with a partner.

Lucy faces man y cha nges upon her arrival in N ew York Ci ty. First she is str uck with t he change in clima te. H er native climate is warm a nd the sun is bri lliant, while New Yor k in January is very co ld and the su n is lifeless. H er living conditi ons a re different, too. In Ne w York she lives in an apartment buildi ng. In coo tr ast, she lived in a ho use in her na tive country. In a ddition, she finds herself eating food that has just been ta ken from the refrigera tor, whereas she alwa ys ate her gra ndmother's fres hly cooked mea ls in her ho mela nd. T he most im port a nt aspec t of her life rema ins th e same, tho ugh; Lucy faces ma ny differe nt problem s and issues in New York in th e same way she did in Antig ua. She has learned tha t she ca nno t lea ve her tro ubles beh ind like cloches she has outgro wn.

1. Look at the underli ned words. Which wor ds int ro duce thing s that are similar? Which words int ro duce things tha t arc differe nt ? 2. Fo ur to pics are co m pa red a nd co ntrasted in th is pa ragraph. What are they?


T H E G RAS S I S A L W A Y S G R E EN E R

Comparisons and Contrasts Comparisons point out things that are similar. Contrasts point out things that are different.

Subo rdinat ing Conjunctio ns Subordinating conjunctions are used to contrast the ideas in two clauses. They join the independent (main) clause to the dependent clause being co ntrasted . The subo rdinating conju nctions include while and whereas. Note that these words do not introduce a complete though t. They introduce dependent clauses. They need the independent clause to complete the sentence or idea. The ma in clause usua lly describes the point that is being emphasized or is more important. â&#x20AC;˘ Her native climate is warm and the sun is brilliant, while New York in January is very co ld and the sun is lifeless. More emphasis: The weather in her native country is wa rm. Less emphasis: The weather in New Yo rk is col d . â&#x20AC;˘ Where as the sun in New York is lifeless, the sun in her native country is brilliant. Less emphasis: The sun in New York is life less. More emphasis: The su n in her native cou ntry is brilliant.

Punctu ation See the Gra mmar Ti p on page 224. The same punctuation rules apply for depend ent and inde pendent clauses .

Transition Words Transition words show the relation between two inde pendent clauses (two sentences ). Transition words for com parisons include: similarly in the same way likewise

Transition words for cont rasts include: in contrast on the othe r hand howe ver

III


D UNIT

'I .

Tw o indepe ndent clauses can be comb ined in one sentence by using

a semico lon (;l and a co mma (,): â&#x20AC;˘ In New Yo rk she lives in an apartme nt build ing; howeve r, she lived in a house in her nati ve country.

The two independe nt clauses can a lso be written as sepa rate sentences: â&#x20AC;˘ In New York she lives in an apartment bui lding. However, she

lived in a house in her native country. The two independent clauses can a lso be combi ned as a simple sentence with in the same war or in contrast to:

â&#x20AC;˘ lucy came to New York in search of a better future in the same way Davila did.

e

Combine the following pairs of sentences to make comparisons and contrasts. Use the bold face words given. The first one has been done for you,

1. likewise a. Lucy feels homesick . b. Virgilio Da vila feels no stalgic. Lucy feels homes ick; likewise, Davila f eels nosta lgic.

2. in the same wa y a. Davila dislikes harsh winter with its bare trees. h. Lucy dislikes the pale winter sun.

3. similarly a. Lucy misses her gra nd mo the r's ho me coo king . h . Davila misses his country's native food.

4. on the other hand a. Davila opened his own store in New Yo rk . b . Lucy worked for a family as a nan ny.


T H E G R ASS

I S A LWA YS

GR EE N E R

III

5. in contrast a. Lucy is a yo ung woma n. b. Davila is an older man.

6. while a. "Poor Visitor " was writ te n in the last half of the twe ntieth cent ury. b. "Nostalgia" was written in th e first half of the twentieth cent ury.

7. whereas a. Davila misses his cultu re. b. Lucy misses her family.

8. however a. Ja maica Kincaid was born in Antigua. b. Davila was born in Puerto Rico.

o

Write a short paragraph either com paring or contrasting Davila's life in Puerto Rico and his new life in New York . Use appropriate conjunction and transition w ords. Write your paragraph on a separate piece of paper.

I lg~~OUR I A. WRITING TOPICS

Choose one of the following topics. Write two or three paragraphs using some of the vocabulary, grammar, and style you learned in this unit.

1. Co mpare similar them es in "Poor Visitor" and " Nostalgia." Use specific examples from the two readings. Refer to the chart in Exercise 48 on page 219 for po ssible themes to discuss.


IIDI

UN IT 9 â&#x20AC;˘

2 . H ave yo u ever left yo ur homelan d to live in another co untry? Wh at were yo ur feelings about yo ur homeland wh en you first arrived in the new co untry? What feelings did yo u have a fter being aw ay for a while? Did you experience any bouts of nosta lgia? If so. what did you do to overcome the sensation?

3. Living in another language mea ns growing another self, and it cakes time for (hat ot her self co becom e familiar. - Allistair Reed Discuss the meaning of this quote and how it applies to you and your expe riences. Has studying English changed yo ur life? If yes, ho w has English changed your life? Wh at is different about you now, as oppose d to before you kn ew English? Are these positive or negarive changes?

8. FIELDWORK : Immigrants' Stories

PREPARATION In small gro ups, bra instorm a list of famous immigrants . Write as much information as yo u know about them- fo r exa mple, occupa tion, co untry of or igin, co unt ry of immigration.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY Choose an immigrant you would like to know more about. Choose someone fro m the Predictin g exercise at the beginn ing of t he unit or from t he brainsto rming list in your Fieldwor k preparation. Research this person at the libra ry or thro ugh the Internet, and write a shorr report. Present your report to rhe class.


APPROACHING THE TOPIC A. PREDICTING Work with a partner. Read the cartoon and answer the questions that follow. 1. How do you think the character in the cartoon feels about technology? 2. Are these feelings similar to or different from yo ur own feelings about technology? Explain your answer. 3. look at the title of the unit. What do you think "t ake it or leave it"

means? What would be the consequen ces of your taking-or leavingtec hnology?

231


E I I I U N IT I O+

B. SHARI NG INFORMATION

H ow has technology made our lives easier? What technology is considered necessary, an d what technology is considered a lux ury?

L ook at the following chart and check (.I) wh ether you feel the tecbnoiogy is a necessity or a luxury. Add any technology you feel is missing from the list. Wh en you are finished, compare your opinions in small groups . NECESSITY

TEC HN OlOGY

l UXURY

••• •• •• electricity ,• ---------------------------------, -----------------------------, -------------------------------. , running water : : , -- - -- - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - ~, - - - - - -- -- - - - - - -- - ---- - - - ------- ---- -- - -- _._-- - - - - --- - - - - - - - - - - - ~-

..

automatic dishwashe r

:

:

wash ing machine

,:

,:

------------------- -------------- ~ - -- - -- - - - - -- ----------------- ~-- -- --------------------------_.

, ,, lights that go on automatically ,, , ,, whe n you enter a room and go , ,, ,,, off when you leave , ---------------------------------,-----------------------------,------------------------------_ . air con dition ing ,: ,: , - -- --- -------------- --------------------- - -- -- -------- --- - - - - - - ~,. _ - - - -- - - --- - ---------- - -- - - - ~- --- ------ --- - - ----- _._ -- - -- - - - - -~ - -- ----- ---------------- -----~- -_._---- -------- - -- -- - -- - - - - - - -

·

vacuum cleaner

:

. :

-------------- -- --- ------------- - ~- --- -- - -- - -- - -- -------------- ~-- - - - -- - ------------------ -_. __ .

·· , •,, ··•• ---------------------------------,----------------------------,-------------------------------• a TV in every room

:

:

-- - - - - - - - -- -- - - -- _. _ - - - - - -- ------ ~-- --- -- - - - - - - - - - _ . _ -- -- - - - - -- ~-- - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -- - -- -- ---------

,: co mputers : - -- - -- - -- ---- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - ~--- - - --- - - -- - - -- --- - ------- --- -CD playe r : : -------------------- ------------- ~-- --- -- - -- ----------------- -- ~-- - - - ------------------------- --

automatic garage-door opener

automatic sprink lers for a lawn

:

:

------------------ -- ----------- - - ~- - - - - - - - - -- --- ----- --- - - - - - - - ~- _ . - - - --- --------- -- -- --- -------

• • : • • -------------------------- -------,------------------------ ----,-------------------------------Internet access :• :• ---------------------------------~-------------------- --------~-----------------_ ._ ._-- -- --- -•• ••• • --- -- - - - - - - -- -- - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - ~- -- - -- - - - -- - _. _--- - ---- -- - _. _--• ,,• • ,,• , microwave oven

:

. ..

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - _. _ -- - ~- - - - -- - - - -- - -- - -- ----------- - ,- --- -- --- ------------------- ----


T AKE IT OR LE A V E IT

l1li

IP R E P A R I N G TO READ A . BACKGROUND

Read the info rmation and complete the exercise that follows. Bill Gates is the owner of Microsoft? Corporation and one of the wea lthi est people in the United States. He has built a stat e-of-the-a rt home near Seat tle, Washington. Hi s home inco rporates "Sma rt H ome" techno logies. A Smart Home is a home tha t has many mechanical or electr onic conveniences, many co ntro lled by co mputers that help make life easier an d ofte n save energy. Th e pictur e below illustrates some Smart Home technologies. Try to guess w hat each mechan ical or electronic device does in each room, and write a few sentences describing it. Check your answers with the answers at the bot tom of the page.

Smart H ome: The hou se of tomorrow won't just shelte r you and your family. It will ta ke care of you.

Ans wer,: Ring the doo rbell. Your picture appear, on the TV screen, and the TV remot e control opens the door. Open the garage door by re mote control: the Motion sensors tom on the lights. Usc the telephone to tum on the stove or oven.


l1li

U N IT 1 0 .

B. VOCABULAR Y FOR COMPREHENSION

Work with a partner. Complete the sentences with wo rds from the list. If necessary, use you r dictionary. con sole

image browsing visua l recognition unobtrusive remote control ostentatious

database

interface information highway monitor network 1. Some peopl e arc

w ith thei r technology; they like to

ha ve all the lat est technology just to imp ress their frien ds. 2. Some techno logy is very ob vious, like dishw ashers and washing mac hines. Other technology is

, like automatic lighting

and house alarms; it is not noticeable. 3. It might be pos sible in the future to have a camera system with

_ _ _ _ _ _ capabilities tha t cou ld identi fy hou se guests just from their photographs.

4. Today it isn't necessary to touch the television to change the channel. You can change channels from a distance by using a 5. The screen of a computer is called a

_

_

6. One of the most unusual electr onic featu res in Bill Gates's hou se is a ___ ____ , or computer storage place, of more tha n a million still images, including pho tographs and rep roducti ons of paintings. 7. T he

is not really a ro ad or street at al l. It is a term that

refers to informa rion available thro ugh the infrastruct ure of the Internet, pho ne lines, satellites, and/or e-ma il. 8. A

is a place where people keep a computer screen, tele-

vision, or stereo. It is often designed to hide the electronic device by making it look like a piece of furniture.


TAkE I T OR LEAVE IT

9. Another term for the Internet is

III

,which refers to the

way in which the Internet is interconn ected with computers around the wo rld. Actua lly, "net" in Intern et comes from this word. 10. The

refers to the way in which a person con nects

with a com puter. Computer programs are designed to make this connect ion " user friendly," 11. Another term for look ing at pictures on the Internet is

_ _ _ _ _ _ . With this technology you can see an y painting or photograph you want, all in the comfort of your own home, without hav ing to go to a library or bookstore.

READING I ONE : Inside the House A . I N T R O D U C I N G THE TOPIC

Write a short answer to the following questions. Share your answer wi th a partner. What kind of a "d ream" hou se would you want ? Where wou ld it be located ? What kind of techn ology wou ld you have in the house?

Bill Gates's dr eam house.


III

U N I T 10 â&#x20AC;˘

Inside the House BY

B ILL

G AT E S

(fro m The Road Ahead )

I

began thinking about building a new ho use in the lat e 19805. I wanted craftsman ship but nothing ostent atious. I wanted a ho use th at would accommo da te sop histicated, changing technology, but in an unobtru sive way tha t made it clear t hat technol ogy was the servant, not th e master, 2 I found some property on the shore of Lake Washington within an easy commuting distance of M icro soft. Living space will be a bout average for a large hou se. T he family living room will be about fo urteen by tw ent y-eight feet, including an area fo r watching television o r listening to music. And there w ill be co zy spaces for one o r two peopl e, althou gh there will also be a reception hall to enterta in one hun dred comfo rtably for di nner. 3 fi rst thing, as you co me in, you' ll be presented with an electronic pin to clip on your clo th es. This pin will tell the ho me who and where you ar e, and the house wi ll use th is information to try to meet and even anticipate your need s- all as unobtrusively as possible. Someda y instead o f need ing the pin , it might be pos sible to have a camera system with visual-recognition ca pa bilities, but that's beyon d current tech no logy. When it's da rk outside, the pin will ca use a moving zone of light to accompany yo u through the house. Unoccupied rooms w ill be unlit. As yo u wa lk do wn a hallway, you might not notice the lights ahea d of you gradually coming up to full br ight ness and the lights behi nd you fading. M usic will mo ve with you, too. It will seem to be everyw here , although, in fact, ot her peo ple in the hou se will be hearing entirely d ifferent music or no thing at all. A movie or the news or a pho ne call wi ll be ab le to follow you around the house, too. If you get a pho ne ca ll, only the ha nds et nearest yo u wi ll ring . 4 You won' t be co nfro nt ed by' the technology, bu t it w ill be readily and eas ily available. H and- held remote co ntrols an d discreetly visible consoles in each room will pu t you in cha rge of your immediate enviro nm ent and of th e house's ente rtainment system. You'll use th e co ntrols to tell the mo nito rs in a ro om to beco me visible and w hat to display. You' ll be abl e to choose from among th ousan ds of pictures, recordings, mo vies, and television programs, and you' ll have all sor ts of options ava ilable fo r selectin g information. s If you' re planning to visit Hon g Kong soon, you might ask the screen in your room to show you pictures of th e city. It w ill seem to 1

be confronted by: have to deal with; be forced

to

meet


T A K E IT O R LE A VE

IT

you as if the p hotographs are d isplayed everywhere, alth ough act ually the images will materia lize on the wa lls of rooms just before you walk in and van ish after you leave. If you and I are enjoyi ng different things and one of us walks into a ro om where the other is sitting, the house might contin ue the audio and visual imager y for the perso n who was in the ro om first, or it might change to programming both of us like. 6 I will be the first home user for one of the mo st unusual electro nic feat ures in my house. The product is a database of mo re than a million still images, includi ng pho tographs and reprod uctions of paintings . If you are a guest, you' ll be able to call up portraits of p residents, p ictures of sunsets, airpla nes, skiing in the Andes, a ra re French stamp, the Beatles in 1965, or reprod uction s of H igh Rena issan ce paintings, on screens thro ugho ut the ho use. 7 I believe quality images will be in great demand on the information highway. This vision that the public will find image-browsing worthwhile is obv iously unpro ven. I think the right interface will make it appealing to a lot of people. a A decade fro m now, access to the millions of images and all the other ente rta inment opportunities I' ve descri bed will be availabl e in ma ny homes and will certa inly be more impressive than those I'll have wh en I move into my house. My house will just be gett ing some of the services a little sooner. 9 One of the many fears exp ressed about the info rmatio n highway is that it will reduce the time peop le spend socializ ing. Some worry that homes will become such cozy entertainment providers that we' ll never leave them, and that, safe in our private sanctua ries, we'll become isolated. I don 't th ink that 's going to happen. As behaviorists keep remind ing us, we' re social animals. We will have the option of staying home more because th e highway will create so ma ny new options fo r home- based ente rtainmen t, for communication-both personal and professi onal-and for employment. Although the mix of activities will cha nge, I think people will decide to spend almost as much time out of their homes. 10 Th e highway will not only make it eas ier to keep up with distant friends, it will also en able us to find new compan ions. Friendships formed across the network will lead naturally to getti ng together in person. This alone will make life more interesting. Suppose you want to reach someo ne to play bridge wit h. The information highway will let you find ca rd players with the right skill level an d ava ilability in your neighbor hood, or in ot her cities or nations. 11 I enjoy expe rimenti ng, and I know some of my concepts for the house will work out better than others. Maybe I'll decide to conceal the monito rs behind conventional wall art or throw the electro nic pins into the tr ash . Or maybe I'll grow accustomed to the systems in the ho use, or even fond of them, and wonder how I got along wit hout them. Th at 's my hope .

III


I ! I I U N I T 1 0+

8. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

" Inside the House " can be divided into three main ideas. What due s the reading say about each idea? Circle the Jetter of the sentence tha t gives the best summary. 1. Description of the house a. Even though the house is larger than an average house, Bill Gates docs not want it to feel cold or unfriendly. b. Bill Gates designed the ho use to accommodate one h undred people. 2. Description of the technology in the house a. Th e technology is designed to be impressive and complex.

b. The technology is designed to be easy to usc and energy efficient. 3. Ana lysis of the techno logy a. Th e information highwa y is a necessa ry part of everyone's life. b. Altho ugh the information highway has both positive and negative aspects, it is basica lly a positive techno logy.

C. READING FOR DETAILS

Th e following exercise is based on an outline of Reading One. An outline is the skeleton of a text, show ing the main ideas, supporting deta ils, and examples. O utlines are useful when taki ng notes from texts o r when organ izing an essay. Some people prefer very specific outlines showing all the details, while ot hers prefer a more genera l outline without including the specific details. This is an exam ple of a detailed outline.

Complete the outline with the missing information: main ideas, supporting ideas, and examples from the text. You may need to look back at the reading while you are working. W hen you have completed the outline, compare your work with a classmate 's.


T A K E IT O R H A VE

MAIN IDEA I. Began thinking ab ou t home in the late 1980 s SUPPORT A. Style preferences EXAMPLE 1. _ EXAMPt E 2. not ostentatious SUPPORT B. M ust acco mmoda te sophisticated and cha nging technology EXAMPLE 1. not ob trusive EXAMPLE 2. funct ions as serva nt, no t maste r II. Selected the pe rfect prop erty

A. Location 1. _ - - 2. easy co mmut ing distan ce B. Living space-average size

1. living ro om a. sIze = b. area for

_

or

_

2. other cozy spaces for one or two people

3.

_ a. accommodates o ne hundred

Ill .

controls the home environment A. Tells the hom e

and

_

B. H ouse uses pin information to meet you r needs 1.

follows you

2.

follows yo u

3.

follows you

IV. Other readily and easily availab le tech nology A. H and-held remotes and conso les in each roo m

1. contr ols tell monitor s: a. _

b.

_

B. Visua l displays 1. large choice a. thousands o f pictu res b. _

c.

_

IT

III


. U N IT

10 .

d. telev ision prog rams e. many option s for selecting infor mation 2. house ca n control visual di splays a. material ize w hen you

and van ish when you

b. house can change programming depend ing on

_

V. H ome has a stare-of-the-art database A. First ho meowner to ha ve it B. Database has mo re tha n

_

1. incl udes photographs 2. includes _ C. Guests can call up anythi ng they like 1. _

2. pictures of su nsets 3 . skiing in the Andes, etc. VI. Fut ure ava ilability of quality images A. O n the informa tion highway B. lo homes

VII. Fears a bo ut

_

A. Red uce the time people spend socializing 1. homes will become too cozy and self-contained 2. people w ill beco me

_

B. Not in agreement 1. people are social an imals 2. highway on ly p rovides more ente rta inment and options a. _

b. c.

_ _

3. peo ple w ill decide to spend as muc h time out of their homes VIII. Benefits of th e information highway A. Makes it easier to: 1. ma intain

2. find

_

_

_


T AKE

I T O R LE A VE

IT

1m

B. Makes life mo re interesting

1. people will meet in person 2. meet peop le with comm on interests IX. Conclusion: Experimenti ng and the future A. Bill Gate s enjoys experimenting and may decide to: 1. _ 2.

_

B. Hopes

1. may like everything 2. won der how

_

D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES

Th e following statemen ts can be inferred from the reading. Find an example from the reading that would suppo rt each inference.

1. Technology should make life easier; it should not take over your life. Exampl e: 2. A large hom e can be intimate. Exam ple: 3. Homes shou ld have energy-saving devices. Exampl e: 4. A home sho uld make guests feel comforta ble by providing entertainment. Exam ple: 5. Th e information highway allow s people to be in the comfort of their ho me but , at the same time, stay connected to the world. Example: 6. The design of a home shou ld be current but also allow for cha nges over time. Example:


·

UNIT

to .

READING TWO: Thoreau's Home A. EXPAN D I N G T HE TOPIC

In 1845, the Amer ican philosopher H enry Dav id T horea u moved to the woods of M assachusetts. He ~~"'-­ . ~- chose to live a life th at reflected his "c.,~­ philosophy: Live life in th e simplest Thoreau's hom e of ways . H e did not believe lux uries or co mfor ts were necessary; in fact, he felt they actually stopped hum an prog ress.

Before you read "Thoreau's Home, " write a few sentences to answer the following qu estion. Share you r ideas with a partner. What wa ys can you th ink of by which technology may actu ally sto p or interfere with human progress?

Thoreau's Home BY

2

H E N R Y DAV ID T HO REAU (Edited, from Walden )

N car th e end of March 184 5, I borrowed an axe an d went down to the woods by Walden Pon d ' nearest to where I intended to bu ild my house, and began to cut down some ta ll arrowy whi te pines, still in their youth, for tim ber.' . . . It was a pleasant hillside w here I wo rked, covered wi th pine woods, through which I looked ou t on th e po nd, and a small open field in the woods wh ere pi nes and hick ories were springing Up.3The ice on the pond was not yet dissolved, though the re were some ope n spaces, and it was all da rk colored and saturated with water.... So I wen t on for some da ys cutt ing and hew ing timber, and also studs an d rafters," all with my na rrow axe, not having man y communicable or schola r-Iike tho ughts, singing to myself ,

Walden Pond: pond located in l incoln, Ma ssachusetts timber: wood used fo r building or making things J springing up: grow ing • studs and rafters; beams and pieces of wood tha t form rhe structu re of a fmilding

1 1


T AKE

I T O R LE A V E I T .

Men say they know many things; But lot they have taken wingsThe arts and sciences, And a thousand appliances; The wind that blows Is all anybody knows. 3

4

5

My days in the woods we re not very long ones; yet I usually carried my dinner of bread an d butter, and read the newspaper in which it was w rap ped, at noon, sitt ing amid the green pine bo ughs which I had cut off, and to my bread was imp arted some of their fragrance, for my ha nds were covere d with a thick coat of pitch.' . .. Before winter I built a chimney, and shingled the sides of my house, which were imperviou s t0 6 rain. . .. I have thus a tight shingled an d plastered house, ten feet wide by fifteen feet long, and eight- feet posts, with a garret" and a closet, a large window on each side, two trap doors, one door at each end, and a br ick firep lace opposite. T he exact cost of my house, paying the usual pr ice for such mat erials as I used, but not cou nting the wor k, all of which was done by myself, was as follows ; and I give the derails beca use very few are able to tell exactly wha t th eir ho uses cost, and fewer still, if any, the sepa rate co st of the various materials which compose them: Boards $8.03 t Refuse shingles for roof and sides 4.00 Laths 1.25 Two second-hand windows with glass 2043 One thousand old bricks 4.00 Two casks of lime 2040 Hair 0.31 Mantle-tree iron 0. 15 Nai ls 3.90 Hinges and screws 0.14 Latch 0.10 Chalk 0.0 1 Tra nsportation lAO In all

6

Pitch: a pine sap imp"vious to: pro tected against

7

garret: a small t OOm in the to p of a house

J

Mostly shanty boards.

That was high. More than I needed.

I carried a good part on my back.

$28.12+

Write short answers to these questions. Work in a small group and compa re answ ers. Why do you think Thoreau wanted to build his OWft hou se? Was building his own home more satisfying than having it built? If so, in what ways?


D UNtT

10 .

B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TW O

Work with a partner. One of you imagines you are Bill Gat es, and the other Henry David Th oreau. Imagine you could write to each other and ask each other questions. What questions wo uld you ask? For example: How big is yo ur house? What luxuries do yo u have in yo ur house? Write five questions you would ask. Exchange yo ur ques tions with your partner, and write an answer to each qu estion based on your understanding of Readings O ne and Two .

A . EXPLORING LAN GUAGE : W or d For ms

Work with a partner and identify the w ords in the left-hand colum n as nou ns, verbs, or adjectives. W rite the words under the correct heading. Th en try to comp lete the chart with the other forms of the words. Sometimes the words have more than one noun , verb, or adjective fo rm. Sometimes the words do not hav e all of the fo rms. Use a dictionary if necessary. The first one has been done for you.


III

T A K E IT O R LE AVE IT

VERB

NOUN

WORD

,, ,,

avai lability

I

ava ilabil ity

:

!

x

ava ilable

, , , ---------------------------~----------------------~_.-_._---------------~---------------------be haviorist :, :, ,: , , , ---------------------------~----------------------r---------------------~--------------.-.-----

brightness

:

:

:

communicable

:

:L

:

, :

!'

I

I

conventional

___________________________ }

:,

J

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

___________________________ }

~

---------------------------~----------------------~---------------------~---------------------, , ,

_

:

e ntertainme nt

:

:

:

friendship

,:

,:

:'

!

:

:

_._._----------------------~._--------------------~---------------------~----------------------, , '

,

,

---------------------------~----------------------r---------------------~-----------------------

information

___________________________ ,

~----------------------L---

'

'

.

,

~------------.-.-.-----

mate rialize

:

!

:

ostentatious

,:

:

,:

_. __ ._---------------------~----------------------~---------------------~---------------------, ' , ' '

,

---------------------------r----------------------~---------------------,-----------------------

,

te levision : : : _._._----------------------~----------------_._---~------------------_._~----------------------, ' , visible/visua l ,: ,: ,:

B. WORKING WITH WORDS

Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of the wor ds given. If necessary, refer to the word forms in Part A above. The first one has been do ne for you.

1. vision

entertainment

a. The monito rs in Bill Gates's home will not be _ _ -",,,,-,,,,-_ vis ible _ until you turn them on. b. Bill Gates believes tha t one of the goa ls of technology is to


m

U N I T 1 11 +

c.

, ho wever, is not the on ly goal of technology; improving th e quality o f life is also important. for the futu re of techn o logy.

d. Bill Gat es has many

c. The use of

-recognition cameras is one of Bill

Gat es's furure plan s.

f. H e suggests some very

uses of th e infor mation

highway.

2. com mu nicat ion

inform ation

a. On e of the advantages of the information high wa y is that it allows peopl e to

with co-wor kers witho ut actua lly tr av-

eling to th e office.

b. Personal computers, modems, e-mail, and fax machines have increase d th e speed of

dramatically.

c. Unfortu nately, not all th e

available over the

Internet is cor rect. and usefu l, hut

d. Some of the da ta and facts are other informat io n is just not true.

e. Because Bill Gates's house wa s out of the ord inar y, it was necessary for him to

th e architects and builders exactly

what he wa nted. 3. friendship

mat erial

a. Bill Gat es feels th at the information highway can be used to foster

b. Some o f Thoreau 's contemporaries felt that he wa s no t _ _ _ __ _ _

because he often kepr to himsel f.

c. In a Sma rt Home yo ur favorite pictures will

on

th e walls of th e rooms just befo re you wal k in. d. Thoreau used man y reused

wh en bu ilding his

home; this was part of his belief in living econom ically and simply. e. Thoreau rejected the

wo rld.


T A K E IT O R H A V E IT

III

S FOR ESSION Progr e ssi ve

o Read the (allowing paragraph, and discuss the questions that {allow with a partner.

As tech nology adva nces, our lives will be cha nging day by day. In the fut ure mo re and more people will be bujlding sma rt homes like Bill Gat es's. People in gene ral are go ing tQ be using technology more an d more in their everyday lives. We will be using the information highway for a wide ran ge of activities such as ban king, sho pping, studying, and teleco mmuting. O ur children certa inly won' t be Iiying as we live; they will have man y more electr onic conveniences, but also some inco nveniences. For example, toda y if we have a co mplaint or suggestion about some p roduct or service, we are usually ab le to make it to a "l ive" person. In the fut ure o ur' children may not have this option. Th ey pro bably wo n't be com pla ining to a person, but to a machine. Although technological adv ances ate designed to improve the quality of life, you will be talking about the "g ood old days" when life was simpler, just as your par ents did before you. Technology may cha nge our lifestyle, but not our human narure. As the French say, the more things change, the more they stay the same! a. Is the paragraph describing pas t, present , O r future events? b. Is the focus of the paragrap h on the events themselves or on the fact that the events are ongoing? Future Progre ssive Focus ON GRAMMAR See Future Progressive Tense in Focus on Grammar: High Intermediate.

The future progressive tense is used to talk about actions that will be in progress at a specific time in the future . It is also used to emphasize the ongoing nature of the action.


m l U N IT 1 0 +

Form of th e Future Progressive The future progressive is fo rmed w ith

will (n ot) + b e + base for m + jng OR

be (not) going to + be + base form + ing • To mo rrow at 4 :00 , I will be ta lking to friends in Colo mb ia by e-mail.

• I won 't be sending faxe s at that time. • I'm go ing 10 be usin g the computer a ll d ay.

As with all progressive tense s, the future progressive is not usually used w ith non-acti on (stative) verbs. • Bill Gates will be in New York at 6:00 P.M. tomorrow.

(NOT wifl be being)

Future Progre ssive with Time Clauses If there is a time clau se in the se ntence, the time cla use is in the present tense, not the future.

• After he finishes, he'll be flying to Spain .

. . Com plete the following paragraph. Use the future progressive when possible. The first one has been done for you. Matt O lsen is a very busy man. Every da y he has a full schedule. Tomor ro w, for exam ple, befo re he even eats breakfast, he'll be communicating

with associa tes in France on the information

1. (co mmun icate)

highway. At 9:00

A....L

he

with Mic rosoft 2. (meet)

development eng ineers. At 9:45 he

, -;:::;;-

out a

3. (try)

new version of "Windows 2001. " Fro m 10:30 to 11:00 he _ _ ---,;-;:c::;:;;:;of. (d ictate )

Iett ers to his secreta ry. After he


TA kE I T OR LE A V E I T

to his wife on the phone, he

_ __ ..,..,"'-,---

-,--,-,,

5. [ralk]

_

6. (eat)

lunch with his plant man ager. After lunch, he and his staff the visual recognition capa bilities of the new

_ __ ....... ",=

-o=

4:45 he

_ __,,=,-

back in his office. Before he

8. (be)

din ner, he

-;;;-;::=

to his Japanese

I t. {have)

Remember not to call him after 10:00

P. ~L

,,-===__

__-.-;-;:=;-_ _ . He certa inly _ _ 12. (sleep)

â&#x20AC;˘

beca use he 13. (n or wai r)

for your call.

Imagine the following scenario:

Ms. Allison Joan Smith, a high school histor y teacher, has been reading all of Henr y David Th oreau 's writing recently. She has decided to take a year off from her teaching job and tr y to follow in Thor eau's footsteps. She will recreate some of his famous trips and projects. Look at the tentati ve calendar she has planned fo r next year.

Plans for Ned Year Go on winter ca mping excurs ion in wester n Massachusetts

Visit Wait Whit man's home in New York

Build full-size model of ca bin at Wa lden Pond

of Ca pe Cod and

MAY IUNE (Continue to) build Live in model of full-size model of Walden Pond cabin

JULY

AUGUST

Travel by boat on the Concord River

Study tra nscendent alist philosophy

cabin at Walden Pond

Wa lk t he beaches wr ite a bout exper iences

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NO VEMBER

DECEMBER

Take ra ilroad from Concord, Massachusetts. to Bangor. Maine

Live in t he backwoods of Maine

Travel by boat on the Merr imac k River

Write about experiences fo llowing the footsteps of H. D. Thoreau

Ell


11II

U NI T 1 0 â&#x20AC;˘

After con tacting all the people and places in volved in her plan, Allison was forced to make som e changes in her schedule. The calendar below shows her final plans fo r next year.

Use the info rmation in both calendars, and complete the sentences that follow. Be careful- the information given in each sentence is according to her tentative plans. In many cases, these plans have been changed. Check the revised calendar carefully, and complete the sentences app ropriately. Use the future progressive. The first one has been don e for you.

Revised Plans for Next Year

-JANUARY

FE

Visit Walt YJhitman's home in NewYort:

Go on winte r campintJ excureicn in western Mass achw:>etts

MAY

UNE

Build fu ll-s ize model of cabin at Walden Pond

UlY

(Continue to) build full- size model of ca bin at Walden Pond

AUGUST

live in model of Walden Pond ca bin

Wa ik the beaches of Ca pe Cod and write about experiences

Travel by boat on the Concord River

Take railroad fr om Concord, Massachuset t s, to Ba ngor, Maine

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

live in the back-

Travel by boat on the Merrim ack River

Study t ranscendenta list philosophy

Write about experiences following the footsteps of H. D. Thorea u

woods of Ma ine

1. In January, Allison won't be going on a wint er cam ping excursio n in (go I winter cam ping excur sion}

western Massachusetts. She willj?e Yi p iti n ~ Wa lt Whitman'p home in New York.

2, In February, Allison (visit I Walt Whitma n's ho me in X ew Yo rk)

,I 3 , In March, Allison (build I model of cabi n)

,I

I


TAKE IT OR LEA VE IT

4. In April, Allison -","'= === = "" (walk I beaches of Cape Cod)

III

_

5. In Ma y, Allison (build I model of cab in)

6. In Jun e, Allison (live I model of Walden Pond cab in)

7. In Ju ly, Allison

========::;(travel I boar on Concord River}

8. In August, Allison

-;-::========== (study I transcendentalist philosop hy )

_ _

9. In September, Allison = ;c-;= = = = = = :;-;= = = = - - - -(take I railroad from Concord, Mas sachuserrs)

10. In Octo ber, Allison ..,,----,,---,-- --.--<7,..,.--,------------(live I backwood s of Maine)

11. In November, Allison -;;;:::;o,,-;:==v.:== oc=- - -- - -- (travel I boat on Merrimack River )

12. In December, Allison (write I experiences}


IIIII U N lT 1 0 +

o

Work with a partner. Examine the following outline from part of "Inside the House," and discuss the questions that follow. I. Fears about the information highway A. Reduce the time peop le spend socializing 1. homes will become to o cozy and self-contained 2. people will become isolated B. Not in ag reement 1. peopl e are social animals 2. highway only provides more entertainm ent and comm unication opt ions a. personal b. professional c. emp loyment 3. people will decide to spend as mu ch time out of their hom es II. Benefits of the information highwa y A. M akes it easier to: 1. mai ntain dista nt relation ships 2. find new companions B. Makes life more interesting 1. people will meet in person 2. meet people with common inte rests

3.

Wha t are the mai n ideas discussed ?

b. What letters or numbe rs represent supporting sentences of the main ideas ? c. Wh at letters or numbers repres ent examples of th ese supporting ideas? d. What letters or numbers give more information ab out the examples? e. Find the paragraph in Reading O ne th at describes fear s ab out the information highway. H ow does the ou tline reflect th is paragra ph?


TA K E IT O R LEA V E IT

Outlines An outli ne helps you organize your notes or ideas before you begin to write. It helps you see the order in which you will talk about the ma in ideas, and it gu ides you in selecting details and examples to support those ideas. An outline shows you where to add more deta ils, give more exam ples, or change the order of the main po ints. Preparing and following an out line is a useful pre-w riting activity. The Str uctu re of an O utline An outline is usually written in the follow ing way : I. Main idea (can also be written as a topic sentence) (indent)

A. Supporting detail 1 (always relates to the topic sen tence)

(indent)

1. exa mple (exemplifies the suppo rting detail) 2. example a. further examp le (exemplifies the example) b. further exam ple

B. Supporting deta il 2 (supports the topic sentence) 1. exam ple (exemplifies the supporting detail) a. further exam ple (exemplifies the example) 2. exam ple a. further exampl e (exemplifies the example) b. further example It is not necessary to write your ideas in co mplete sentences, although some peo ple like to write the main idea as a topic sente nce. Some out lines are quite simple: They list on ly the main ideas (I, II) and a few supporting details (A, B). Some out lines are more detailed: They include many ideas (I, II, II, IV), details (A, B, C, Dj, examp les (1 , 2, 3, 4), and further explana tions (a, b. c, d).

III


III

UN I T 10 .

8

R ead the last paragraph and chart of "Thoreau's Home. " and complete the outline w ith appropriate details. I. Th e house is efficien t in size and econo mical. A. Size an d descriprion . 1. rcn feet wide by fifteen feet long 2.

3. garret and closet 4.

_ _

5. two trap doors

6.

_

7. brick firep lace

B. Economical construc tion 1. work do ne himself

2. total cost $28. 12+

. . Read the following paragraph and write it in outline form . Bill Ga tes and H enr y David Thoreau represent very different philosophies and ap proaches to life. On the one hand , Bill Gat es emb races technology as a necessary and essentia l tool for th e advancement of humankind . For example, he believes that tech nology has enha nced our lives and ena bled people to live longer and better lives. T horeau, on the other hand , believed that technology could actu ally stop the advancement of humank ind. He believed that techno logy tak es us aw ay fro m living tr uth fully. In ot her wo rds, technology stops us fro m enjoy ing the sim ple pleasur es such as read ing a book or walking in the woods.

o

Writ e a complete th ree-paragraph essay following the outline below. Be sure to include a top ic sentence, supporting sentences, supp orting details, and concluding statement. (See Unit 1, pages 21 and 22 , and Unit 2, pages 4 7 and 4 8, for review.) I. T here are man y wonderful th ings technology ha s done fo r us. A. Sciences 1. bett er health care 2. healthier food preservation B. Co mmunication 1. worldwide 2. nat ionw ide C. Comfo rts 1. television 2. computers


TA K E IT O il: L EA VE IT

III

II. There arc also many negative sides to technology. A. Acid rain from cars and industry 1. affects 45 percent of lakes in Sweden 2. costs millions of dollar s to repair damage B. Interp ersonal relations 1. loss o f face-to-face conta ct 2. trad itional writing skills decline as e-mail becomes more common III. We need to pro duce "sma rt technology" that makes our lives better witho ut damaging th e environ ment. A. Research gro ups 1. prod uce useful research and smarr technology 2. maintain funding for innova tive techno logy B. Educate our citizens 1. start in elementary schools 2. encourage young people to think about the difference between wasteful and dangero us technology and sma rt technology

A. WRITING TO PIC S

Write about one of the following topics. First make an outline. Try to use the vocabulary, grammar, and ideas you learned in this unit.

1. Thor eau wrote, "O ur life is frittered away by detaiL An honest man has hard ly need to count more than his ten fingers, or in extreme cases he may add his ten toes, and lump the rest. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity!" Th oreau felt that we need only a simple life without modern comforts an d technology to app reciate the world around us. Do you agree or d isagree? Explain your answer. 2. Imagine you have to eliminate five technological devices from your life. Wh at wou ld they be? What, if anything, wou ld you replace them with? How wo uld yo ur life be different?


11II

UN IT 1 0 •

3. Technology is necessary to make peop le live longer and better. It would be impossible to live without technology. Do you agree or disagree? Expl ain yo ur answer. 4. When is techno logy a luxury? Does the definition of a luxury change over time? Whe n is tech no logy a necessity? In other words, are some things that would have been thou ght of as luxuries ten, twenty, or one hundred years ago, now co nsidered necessit ies of life? Ex plain yo ur answer.

8. FiElDWORK

PREPARATION

Think about the role technology has had in your own life. What technological devices and machines do you have now that did not exist when you were younger ? H as technology changed the quality of your life? Complete the followi ng cha rr. Wh en you ar c finished, sha re it with a partner. An example has been done for you.

WHAT I USED AS A CHILD OR YO U NG PERSO N

HOW IT HAS CHANG ED THE Q UALITY OF MY LIFE

WHAT HAS REPLACED IT

·,

, , --- -- - -- --- --- -- - -- --------------~------------------ -- --------~---------- ----- - -- ------ ------books, library

,:

: ,:

Internet

, ,:

I'm able to get information : f aster and more easily. ,: Saves a lot of time!

, ,, ,,, , ,, , - - - - - - - - - - - - _. __ ._------------.- -- --- --- -- --- - -- - -- - -- -- - - - - - - - ~,,- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ,, ,,, ,, ,, ,, ,, , , ,, ------------------ --------------- ~- - - - ------- ---------------,, ------- -------_. __ .------- --~----•• •• •• •• •, •, •• ••

- -- -- - --- -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -~,----- ---------- ------- -------~------------ -- - ---- -- - - - ------,

,,, ,,, ,

I~


T AKE I T O R L EAV E IT

IS

RES EA RC H AC TIV I TY

You will interview an older person (for example, a teacher from another generation ) abou t the changes he or she has seen in technology duri ng his o r her lifetime. Follow these four steps. 1. Decide where you will go and who you will talk to.

2. Prepar e a list of questions you would like to ask. For example: • In your opinion, wha t is the most significant technological advance in your lifetime? Why do you think so? • What technological advance has affected you most personally? How has it changed your life? Add at least three more questions.

• •

• 3. Cond uct the interview. 4. Write a report based o n your interview. Present it to the class.


,

ANSWER KEY U NIT 1 â&#x20AC;˘

UN TR U TH AND CONS EQUENC E S lB . SHARI NG INFORMATIO N I. a 2. b 3. Suggested answer: People are only interested in shocking o r bad news. 4. Suggested answer: T he news we receive is controlled by news directors. 2 B. VOCABULARY FO R C OM PREHENS ION Suggested answers: Vocabulary Wo rds

Print Med ia

Repo rters Affiliates Anchors Celebriti es Columnists Corres pon de nts Editors H eroes High-profile personalities Journ alists Maga zines Movie sta rs Networks Senators Tabloids

Peo ple in Tele vision

.'

.'

.' .' .' .'

.' .'

.'

.'

.' .'

4A. EXPAND ING THE TOP IC Suggested answers to follow-up q uestio ns (page 12 ) After the bombing 1. H e cannot work. 2. He cannot visit friends . 3. He doesn't go out. H e can't wal k the dog witho ut being follo wed. 4. Reporters have ta ken all privacy from him.

5A. EXP LORING LAN G UAGE : Id ioms

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. .' .'

.' .'

.' .' .'

3. b 4. b

c a

b

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

b

c b a

b

5 8 . W O RKI N G W IT H WORDS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

c. a. f. d. h. e.

Shelby Coffey Gen nifer Flowers Richa rd Jew ell or e. Rosa Lopez Peter Jenn ings repo rter of the m inister's story Rosa Lo pez

6A . GRAMMA R: Pa s si v e Voi c e

o a. The common grammar structure in passive sen tences is be + past participle (by + agent). This structure is different from t he structure of the ac tive voice . b. the m inister, Ro sa Lopez, Richard Jewell c. a hitchhiker, cameras and reporters, people d. t he min ister, Rosa Lopez , Richard jewel. T he wo rds in the subject posi tion in th e passive sent ences do not perform the action.

3 C. READIN G FOR DETAILS

1. case of the retired minister 2. politicians

3. Gennifcr Flowers 4. Oliver Sipple, Rosa Lopez

3D. READ ING BETWEEN THE LINES 1. disagrees 2. disagrees 3. disagrees

a b

.'

3 8. READ ING FOR MA IN I D EA S 1. a 2. a

the News

4. disagrees 5. agrees 6. agrees

S

2. 3. 4. 5.

was broadcast, or was broadcasted was justified did not return were fo und 259


. . AN SWER KEY

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

e

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

decided was read pointed w as deflected were qu esti oned fled was interviewed by th e fBI was shot w a s co nvic ted by the medi a wa s married was w ritt en by Peter Jennings was fo und guilty

&8. STYLE: Topic Sentences a. N ew s is everyw here. b. Ne ws is everywhere. It serves man y d ifferent functio ns. c. All sen tences re la te to th e ideas in the to pic sentence.

3C. READING FOR DETAILS Type of Prog ram

Argu mcnrs in Favo r

Teen Cou rt

1. A way to teach teens before they become ser iou s cr iminals 2. Reduc es the n umber of ca ses in a very full lega l system 3. It has p rove n to be

successful

1. c 2. b

1. Cr ime rates have fallen 2. Mcsrla rge cit ies have th em 3 . Keeps kids safe

1. It's wronj pun ish al teens 2. Curfews get in the wa y of after-school jo bs 3. Curfew s violat e th e right to peacef ul assem bly

Parent al Law s

l. Forces pa ren ts to become involve d 2. Crime ra te ha s droppe d 3 . M inor o ffende rs do n't feel free to mo ve on to mo re serin us crimes

1. Too muc h go ver nment interfer ence 2. You sho uldn 't be pun ished for so meon e else's crimes 3. It's unco nstitutional

3. b 4. c

Suggested ans wers 2 . The way we receive the news has changed over th e years. 3. Th e pub lic has the right to know when a public figure, such as the president, is un faithful. 4. Reading, like exercise, requires discipline and hard work .

UNIT 2 â&#x20AC;˘ CRIME AND PUNISHMENT 2B . VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION

L 2. 3. 4. 5.

a b b c a

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

b b a c a

3B . READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

3. 4

c. 5

b. 3

ÂŁ. 2

c. 7

g. t

d. 6

'0

Teen Cu rfews

o 8

Argum ent s Against 1. Few first -time offende~ a re likel y to beco me serious crimina ls 2, T here is no proo f that it changes tee ns' beh avio r ], Some tee ns a dmit to a cr ime they did not comm a 10 order to sta y out of adu lt cou rt

SA . EXPLORING LANGUAGE

1. 2. 3. 4.

a a b b

S. a

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

a a b a

a

58. WORKING WITH WORDS 1. parent class/teen pun ishm ent by tra ditiona l co urts 2. 3. 4. 5.

lash ing/dea th pena lties m urder/m isdemea no rs spra y gra ffiti/punishments fo r parents jail time/teen court punishments 6. riot ing/cri mes of theft 7. steal ing/co r poral pun ishme nts 6A. GRAMMAR: Gerunds and Infinitives 1. decreasi ng (crime) 2. wal king 3. breaki ng 4. Gerund s are formed by adding ing to the base form of t he verb. 5. to be 6. offenders; to perform 7. to try

o


ANS W E R K E Y

8. to obey 9. Th e infinitive is fo rmed by usi ng to and the base form of the verb.

e be.. 5.3. tohaving res ist d. e. f. g.

4. 4. 2. 6.

to perform

to perform shoplifting to obey h. 4. to live 1. 3. ru nn ing t. 4. t o establish

o Suggeste d answers

2. The teenager's pa rents failed to supervise him. 3. Th e boy admitte d shoplifti ng. 4. It was wrong to punish the boy. s. The judge sentenced the parents to participate in a course on effective parenting. 6. Th e teen was afraid of going to [ail. 7. A co mmunity ca n choose many w ays to protect its cit izens. 8. The pa rent was supposed to hear t hat her son had been involved in a crime. 9. The teen apologized for stea ling the car. 10. The teenager denied writing the graffiti on the wall.

&8 . STYLE : The Three -Pa-t Pa r agraph

o 1. teen curfew in o ur tow n 2. the many problems 3. sentences 2- 5 4. sentences 6-7

e 2.1. cb

UN IT 3 â&#x20AC;˘ DYING fOR THE IR BELIEF S 2B . VO CABULARY fOR COMPREHENSION Medical Legal System Vocab ulary Vocabula ry heal commit a crime shed weight convict suffe r go to court jud ge ailment stand trial am bulance autopsy accuser co nseque nce a tto rney dia betes consequence phys ician felony manslaughter practiti oner stomachache practitioner prosecutor listless sunken eyes 3B. READING fOR MAIN IDEAS

Suggested ans wers. 1. diabetes. 2 . she had gone to the doctor. 3. they did not seek conventional medica l help. 4. they believe the H erm ansons di d not hurt their daughter. 5. patents' freedom of religion a nd a ch ild's r ight to grow up healthy. 3 C. READING FOR DETAILS

1. T 2. F 3. F

4. T 5. T 6. F

3 D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES I. c 6.a

3. b

2. d, e

7. b

4. a

3. c 4. f S. d, e

8. d, e 9. d 10. b

o 2. Furthermore, in other countries t hese laws seem to work . 3. J uvenile crime was not an issue when I was growmg up. 4. We are all citizens of planet Earth and mus t learn to get a long.

o Answers will vary.

III

4A. EXPANDING THE TOPIC

Suggested answers to follow -u p questions (page 65 ) 1. A very serious fo rm of art hritis. 2. H e wanted to fight the disease. 3. If negative emotions bri ng nega tive cha nges to the body, positive em otio ns should bring positive changes. Laughter has a positive therapeutic value.


11II

AN SW E R KE Y

S. If Futch had been a Christian Scientist, he w ouldn't hav e given his da ughter drugs . 6. If the teacher hadn't noticed th at someth ing w as wrong, she wouldn't have called Amy's pa rents. 7. If Cousins had liked his doctor's tre atme nt plan, he wou ldn't ha ve develop ed his own la ugh t hera py tre atment.

4. Watching funny movies and reading funny books. 5. H e wa s able to overcom e his disea se. 4B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

Suggested answers 1. Similarities: Both No rman Cousins's laugh thera py a nd Christian Scientists' therapy th rough prayer believe the min d plays a n essen rial part in heali ng. They both believe tha t conve ntional med icine is not the only answer. Differences: Norman Cousins believes that both con ventional therap y and laugh t herap y work well toget her. In cont rast, the Ch ristian Scientists believe th at using pr ayer is suff icient. T hey sometimes refuse con vention al therapy. 2. Answe rs w ill va ry.

&B . STYLE: Opinion Essays

o

SA. EXPLORING LANGUAGE

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

0 7. 0 S 8. S IJ 9. S 0 10. 5 511.0

58. WORKING WITH WORDS : Analogies

2. a 3. c 4. c

7. b

o a. TI P

e

b. TfT c. T /F

2. F/F 3. TfT 4. TfT 5. TfT

Answers will va ry.

5. b 6. c

GA. GRAMMAR : Past Unreal Condit ionals

e

e

Suggest ed ans we rs a. The Hermanso ns sho uld not have been convicted. b. H er backgro und gives exa mples to support her opinio n. c. She uses her own medica l experience a nd the med ical treatment o f her own children. d. H er concl usion is that trea tment should be left to th e individua l; it is a constitutional right. Child ren die under conventiona l medical tr ea tment, too, and no on e brings tho se pa rents to court.

6. FfT 7. FfT 8. F/F

Possible a nswers 2. If Ja mes C. Wil so n had gone to a homeopathic do ctor, he might not ha ve had prob lems. 3. If Cousins hadn't read extensively a bout alterna tive medicine, he might not have turned to alte rna t ive treatments. 4. Cou sins might not have gotten bette r if he hadn't rried la ugh th era py.

UNIT 4 â&#x20AC;˘ TH E CA LM A FTE R TH E ST O RM 2B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION 2 . pat ience

7. str aight

3. hope

8. divert

4. thick 5. da rk 6. glowing

9. inevita ble 10. searc h 11. blink

3B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS After Dar k Emotional State Physical State so dark , can' t see the terrori zed felt more alone in the dark palm of his hand cold, wet desperate still not hungry or t hirsty feels his body in a realm that belongs to sea creatures


ANSW ER KEY

Early the Following Morning Physical State Emotional State has had no sleep still hoping to see a plane cold was more intense still desperate body glowed with afternoon sun embedded under his skin knee hurts water is penetrating his bones 3C. READING FOR DETAILS

Suggested answers 1. He was afraid he woul dn't see a rescue plane. 2. He felt mote alon e and he was afr aid of th e sea creat ures. 3. He learned to sit in (t he basket of ) the life raft, not on th e gunwale. 4 . He would be closer to the sea creatures. 5. He co nstantl y looked at his wa tch. 6. Because time passed rea lly slowly. 7. His main concern was spotting a ship. 3D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES Answers will vary.

sea: immense, icy, infinit e, red, stubborn, tranquil, vast, endless, dark , abandoned, dense city : immense, doomed, glowing, icy, tra nq uil, stubb orn, vast, end less, dark, aban do ned patience: immense, infinite, stubborn, tranquil, vast, endless w ind : icy, strong, st ubborn , tranquil sky: glowing, immense, red, infinite, vast, endless, dark 5B. WORKING WITH WORDS: Synonyms

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 .

4B. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO Possible answers 1. M an is helpless against narure. 2. The atmosphere becomes quiet and time seems to move slowly. 3. People's reaction s seem to change fro m one of shock and panic to one of resignation and acceptance of what has happ ened. 4. The people have nothing left. Suddenly, their lives ha ve changed completely with one act of nature. They have lost co ntrol of their lives. T here is a calm acceptance of doom. 5A. EXPLORING LANGUAGE Suggested answers lon eliness: immense, infinite, endless

stowed hold out stuff fling cu nn ing

co ntrivances doomed pan ic-str icken hemmed in

6A. GRAMMAR: Identifying Adjecttve Clauses

o a. (A woman ) who wept, (a man) who wa s excited, (a person) who was pan ic-stricken h. That yo u can't stop checking (it) c. (The afternoon ) when I searche d the horiz on for airpl an es d. Who , that, whenlnouns or noun phrases

4A , EXPANDING THE TOPIC

Possible answers to follow-u p ques tions (page 85 ) 1. Some of the damages were: telephone and telegra ph systems disrupted; wat er mains burst; collapsed and smashed buildings 2. The re were no crowds, no shou ting or yelling, no hysteria, no disord er.

..

e

2. where 3. which 4. in which 5. when 6. tha t

e

7. 8. 9. 10.

which that who where

Suggested ans wers 2. I lived in the town which was destroyed by a tornado. 3. For est fires kill man y an ima ls t hat live in nation al park s. 4. A hurrican e is a tropical storm which has winds of at least 73 miles per hour. 5. We fou nd the mou nt ain climber who had gotten lost during the sto rm. 6. :\i y flight was can celed because of th e storm that dropped 32 inches of snow on the city. 7. The avalanche which tra pped the climbers occurred at night.


III

ANSW E R K E Y

8. I spoke with a man who survived 38 days alone on a life raft. 9. Th e hou se which t he flood destro yed had been in Mary's famil y for over 200 yea rs. 10. Th e reporter who wro te a sto ry abour Hurricane Andrew was hit by light ning. 11. Th e afternoon when th e for est fire broke out w as sunny a nd hot.

6 A. STY LE: D e s cripti v e Writin g 3. a 2. b 4. a

o 1. b

o Answers will vary.

e

Answers will var y.

4 . "1 would give them ... chicken ... orange pee!s." /Mea t scraps shouldn't be added because they create odors. She should have added eggshells to balance the acid in the orange peels. 5. " I set my apartment ... for 80 degrees." IShe should have kept the apartment between 65-77 degrees. 6. "After six months .. . 1 decided to change their bedding." /T he worms should be sorted a nd resta rted in fresh bedding every four months. 3 D . RE AD IN G BETWEEN T H E LIN ES

1. b 2. b, c

3. b 4. c

5. a, b, c

4B . LI NK I N G READ INGS O N E AND TWO

FR OM TRAS H TO TREA SURE

Suggested an swers vermiImpact on

Earehship

Society

compostin g

H omes

2 B. VOC ABULARY FOR COM PREHENS IO N a. 10 f. 3 b. 4 g. 1 c. 8 h. 5 d. 2 i. 6 c. 7 j. 9

Benefits to the individua l

Provides com pos t for garde n. Redu ces wa ste in home.

They can be less expe nsive than convenrional hom es. O wner can participat e in building.

Answers will vary.

Benefits to th e environment

It prov ides compos t and lessens waste in public lan dfills.

They reuse ot herwise useless rires. There are fewer trees cur dow n th an wit h conventiona l home buil ding.

Answers will vary.

It' s easy and economical.

Answe rs will vary.

U NIT 5 â&#x20AC;˘

3A . I N T RO D U C I N G T HE TOPIC

Th e pun is the word worm. The co mmon expression is a warm welcom e, not a worm welcome. Th e pun suggests a link become composting and worms; it suggest s th at the St. Paul coupl e may hav e given worms a warm welcome.

3 B. REA DIN G FOR MA IN IDE AS a. 5 d. 4 or 2 b. 3 c. 1

Ease of care or It's easy ro maintain. It 's up keep clean and quiet, COSl

It's ver y cheap,

c, 2 3C. READIN G FOR DE TA IL S 1. " I ordered w orms during th e w int er."!\XTorms don't trav el well in winter, She should have ordered them a t a different time of year. 2. " 1 pu t th em in a cardboard shoebox."ffhere should be a scree n at the bottom for drainage. 3. "I filled the box with dry newspaper."ffhey prefer moist bins.

Answers will The y a re chea per to va ry. build a nd hea r than co nvenrional hom es.

SA . EX PLORIN G LA N G U AG E

2. a. recycle b. rec yclable c. recycling d. rec ycled

Other Program s


AN S W E R KE'I'

3. a. initiated b. in itiation 4. a. compo st b. compost ing 5. a. repr oduce b. rep roductive 6. a. store b. sto rage 7. a. participation b. participate 8. a. fert ilizat ion b. fert ile c. fert ility

• • • •

recycli ng initiated landfi ll innovat ive compost

6. 7. 8. 9.

The w orms don't like t he light Since Mr. Mergenthal's worms weren't thriving The hom es are to tally self-s ufficient As a resu lt o f these homes being made w ith ol d automob ile t ires

b. Effect Cla uses • H eating is never requ ired • $0 they go to the middle of the pile • Mary M crgent hal placed a classified ad in the newspaper to ask for advice • Th ey are very affordable • T hey ar e very affor da ble

5 8 . WORKING WIT H WO R05

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ell

recyclable pa rticipation repro duce innovat ions

£tA . GRAMMAR : Ad v ersit y a n d Ob ligation in th e Pa st

Ob

c. because, so, since, consequently, as a result

8

as a res ult, because, beca use, since Effect

Ca use 1. Houses a re very expensive.

Ma ny peopl e have to invest aU their savings.

2 . Th ey are ma de with old

Earthship homes are affo rda ble.

auto mob ile t ires. 3. Th ey are well insulated .

They do n't create high heating or cooling bills.

8

2. Emily shouldn't ha ve fed her wo rms just oran ge an d grapefruit peels. She sho uld hav e added eggshells to their diet. 3. J ua n Ca rlo s co uld ha ve used old t ires to bui ld his carthship. He should not ha ve built it wit h new t ires. 4. H e shou ldn't ha ve thrown all those co mpostable materials away. H e o ught to have com posted th em. 5. Mr. Mergenthal sho uldn't ha ve ordered t hem lat e in t he year (in the w inter ). H e might hav e tak en better care of them. 6. H e shouldn't ha ve faced all the wi nd ows north. H e ought to have faced the w indows so uth.

e Answers will vary. £t B. STY LE : Caus e a n d Effe ct o a. Ca use Clauses • Because the earth an d ru bber from the tires trap heat

4. Own ers can participate in

Th e cost is controlled .

the construction .

o l.GE 3. G E

4. FJC

5. FJC

6. C1E

The ozo ne la yer is becoming deple ted; therefore, there a re more cases of skin cancer each yea r. The worl d's rainforests arc rapi dly shrink ing; consequently, there will be fewe r val ua ble med icines a vailab le. Climate changes from globa l warming are ma king weather patterns more extreme; as a res ult, there a re more heat waves an d co ld sna ps. Because people have been throw ing haza rdous wa ste in land fills fo r yea rs, drinking water near ma ny lan dfills has become co ntaminated. People have been cutting down large areas of forests; for t his reason, ma ny animal species ha ve becom e end angered.


III

A N SW E R KEY

7. 0E

Since J ulia n didn't use fertilizer in his garden , his pla nes didn 't grow very well.

o Answers will var y.

Benefits

Exa mples

Gives a sense of . . .

After he built the fIrST bikes for the Kilbarchin boys, he felr very good knowing th at they loved the bikes.

Opens people's eyes . . .

He built hikes for all kinds of people

in need : women in women's shelter; people with .AIDS, and people in a hOUSing p roject.

U NIT & â&#x20AC;˘ G I VE AND LE A R N

One successful .. .

zÂŤ .

Helps you find out .

BACKGROU ND

2. f and a 3. d and a

2B. VOCABULARY FOR COMP REHENS ION g

a

H e fou nd out he could take on a big pro ject and complete it. He foun d out

he was good at rebuil ding bikes.

4. e and a 5. b and a

o

He con tinued to build bikes after the Kilba rchin pro ject.

\

e

3 D . READ INC BETWEEN TH E LINES 1. b 5. b 2. c 6. a 3. a 7. a 4. c 8. b 4A . EXPANDINC THE TOP IC Suggested answers for the follow- up chart (page 136)

d

f

modest e 2.3. allow

4. 5. 6. 7.

misery

uncertain order

8. hate 9. tak e 10. lessen 11. complete 12. saddened

For Mandatory Volunteer ing

Against Mandatory Volunteering

1. Constructive wa y to spe nd time .

I. Volunteering is a pe rsona l

2. A way to support your interests .

2. It's an extracurricular activity (pe rsonal choice ).

3. Gets kids involved in t he community.

3. Many students alrea dy volunteer.

4. Some people would no t kno w ho w great an ex perienc e volu nt eering is unless it were req uired .

4. Studen ts may become resentfu l and never volunteer aga in.

ch oice.

5. Many students don't hav e time . 6. It's an oxymoron.

sell

38 . READING FOR MA IN IDEAS

48. lI N KI N C READ INCS ONE A ND TWO Answers w ill vary.

Suggested answers follow. 1. a young boy who likes to work on bikes and give them away. 2. he donates his time and energy to other peopl e.

5A . EX PLO RI N C LANCUACE Ans wers will vary.

3. giving him bikes to fix up and money to buy them. 4. it makes him feel good. 3C. REA D I NG FOR DETAilS Suggested answers.

5 8 . WOR KINC W IT H WORDS: Phras e Ve rb s

1. a

0

2. b 3. c 4. a 5. c

6. c 7. c 8. b 9. c to. b


A N SWE R kEY

6A . GRAMMAR: Tag Question s a. the statement a nd the ta g b . isn't he, does he, didn 't they c. The ver b is negativ e. Th e verb is positive ,

o e

1. 1 2. f

7. b 8. e

3. d 4. h

9. c 10. k 11. g 12.

5. j 6. a

0

2. 3. 4. 5.

is he haven't they isn't it shoul d they

7. won't t hey

8. 9. were the y 10.

6A . STY LE: Punc tuation a. t he t hird sentence b . the first sentence c. t he second sentence d. semicolon, colon, dash

o

2. a. The das h sets off extra information. 3. b. The colon illustr ates or gives further information a bo ut a no un phrase.

4. a. Th e dash intr od uces parenth etical information .

5. b. T he colon introduces a quotat ion . 6. b. T he semicolon connects tw o closely related ind ependent clau ses.

0

2. 3. 4.

3. Answers will va ry. 2B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHEN510N a. 11 g. 2 b. 4 h. 6 c. 7 r. 8 d. 10 3 k, 1 e. 5 f. 9

,.

6.

e

â&#x20AC;˘

(dash) (colon) (dash]

U N IT 7 â&#x20AC;˘ H O M I N G I N O N EDU CA TION

2A. BACKGROUN D

Suggested answers 1. quality of education, freed om from peer press ure, freedom from ha rassment and bullying fro m other children . 2. of ina dequate prepa ration for college, inadequate assessment, em otio na l development

3B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS 1. .\11 5. SO 2. SO 6. SO 3. MI 7. M I 4. MI 8. SO

3C. READING FOR DETA ILS 1. a , b 4. a, c 2. b, c 3. a, b

5. a, b

3D . READING BETWEEN THE LINES

Answers will vary. Possible answers. Issues peer pr essure and bullymg

T rad itio nal Sc hool H o m e Scho o l Lots o f peer p resStudents don't ha ve sure and bullying. to worry about this beca use they study a t home. Ch ildren socia lize soc iali?ation skills Cou ld be a probwith lots of othe r lem-cchildren may ch ildren at school- hav e limited o pporsocializatio n skills tunities to social ize are not an issue. with other children. teaching Teacher decides on Studen ts and parents methods/materials methods a nd materi - decide together on als. Teacher teaches. methods and materials-allows more freedom. ro le of te achers, role Teachers are the Pa rents are the of pa rents author ity and arc in teachers. Pa rents a re contro l. Pare nts directly involved. have small role at schoo l. self-discipline and Students do not Motivatio n comes have to be as selfmotiv ation from the student. disciplined as home Students must be very self-disciplined. schoolers. M otiva tio n comes from students' interest in teacher's materials and methods. Limited to what (he Srude nrs can ma ke student inte rest in lea rning teache r provides an d the learn ing as interwhat th e student is est ing as he/she interested in. wan ts because the student is directly involved.


l1li

A NS W ER I(E\'

4A . EXPANDI NG TH E TOPI C

o 2. T he inspector told M a rgie's mother (t hat ) he

Suggested a nswers to follow-u p charr Teachin$ 011 Home Hils New High with Inlernet

1. The reacber can be

The Fun They Had

3.

The teacher is a com pu ter.

parents. com munity

4.

peopl e, speci al tutoo. ... 2.

a.

At home. in a commun ity cen ter, "II around. Tile pa rents and ~uOOnls .

l authorilin and •• loca pa rents. S. At comm un ity ce nters and d ubs. after and d uring schoo l hou rs. They like it a lot .

,.

Al nome.

5.

The computer and inspector.

Pa rents. computer, and jn ~.

6.

With ne ighbors . after school time, during breaks.

They don 't like it.

48 . LI NKI N G READI NGS O NE AND TW O

&8 . STY LE: Co n c ess io ns

o

Answers will vary. SA . EXPLORI NG V OCA BU LA RY

Answers wi ll vary. 5 8. W O RKING WI TH WO RDS:

Amer ican and Brit is h Spe lli ng Brit ish Spe lli ng Am erican Spelli ng special ize spec ia lise insrirutionalize d inst it utionalised beh avior behaviour honor hon our can celed can celled conn ect ion co nnexion learned lea rn t neighbo r neighbour medieval mediaeval spelled spell memorize memorise equaling eq ualling smelled smelt &A . G RAMMAR: Direc t an d Indir ect Spee ch

o a. Direct speec h has commas and qu ota tion

mar ks. b. Th e verb tense an d pronou ns change in indirect speech. That is added.

e

2. a 3. b 4. c

thought the geograp hy sector had been a little roo difficult. H e added (that) he'd slowed it up to a ten-yea r level. Tommy said that was the old kind of school tha t they had had hundreds an d hun dreds of yea rs before. M a rgie rold To mmy (that) her mother sa id a teacher had to be adj usted to fit the mind of each boy an d girl it ta ught . Tommy told Ma rgie (t ha t) she could read the book with him again the next da y.

1. H ome schooling 2. Inadequately pre pa red pa rents and weak curricula 3. By acknowledgi ng the side of tr ad ition al schools. a nd then presenti ng his own opinion 4 . The op inion of trad itional schools

o Suggested ans wers

o

2. Though c ritics maintain t here is no wa y to assess hom e schoolcrs, su ppo rters o f hom e schooling say t hat t hey a re following a stan da rd cur ricul um . 3 . Although critics question whether home schoole rs a re being taught the ba sics, home scboo lers a re gaining in num bers every yea r. 4. Crit ics worry that t radit ion al school students do not ta ke school serio usly in spite of the fact t hat many successful students graduate fro m traditional schools every yea r. 5. H ome schoo ling is ap pa rentl y very successful despite th e fact that many people still believe in the benefits of traditional schooling. Answers will var y.

U NIT 8 • WE 'VE C O M E A LO N G WAY

18 . SH A RI N G INFORMATION

e

1. 196 1, Soviet Union 2. 1963, Soviet Union 3. 1969, United Stat es of America

5. b 6. a

4. 1975 5. ~nR

7. h

6. Answ ers wi ll va ry.


A N S W E R K E'r'

2A . BACKGROUND Answers wi ll vary.

SA. EXPLORING LANGUAGE: Paraphrasing

2B. VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION 2. a 7. c 3. c 8. a 4. b 9. b 5. a 10. c

6. b

ll. b

38. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS

5 6

2 . di fferenr-a n imp romptu lunch is not pla nned; a scheduled lunch is planned 3. similar 4. simi lar 5. similar 6. different-outer space and outside a re d iffer ent 7. different- in sentence a the Jello is exce llent , in sentence b the idea is excellent 8. di ffercnt-donned means put on, the opposite of took off 58. WORKING WITH WORDS: Phrasal Verbs

2 4 3

2. c 3. a 4. a 5. c

I

3C. READING FOR DETAilS

1. c

2. b 3. b

â&#x20AC;˘

4. a 5. c

7. c 8. a

6. c

9. b

6A. GRAMMAR: Phrased Verbs

o

3D . READING BETWEEN THE LINES Answers will vary. 4A. EXPANDING THE TOPIC

Suggested answers to follo w-up que stions (page 192 )

e

1. It was their link to the outside worl d. It bro ught news and supplies. 2. Books, fresh foo d, and candy 48. LINKING READINGS ONE AND TWO

Sc ie nti fic expe ri ments

89 minutes

6 mon ths (Shannon Lucid)

Number of peop le on t he mission

One

T hree

Nati onality of the people involved

Soviet

American and Russian

Physical conditions

Very small

l arger living spaces w ith kitchen , sleep ing quarters, and bath

l ength of the

of the spaceship

c. 2. a. b. c. 3. a.

4. a. b. c. 5. a. b. c.

the mission Since 19f16 (Mir)

m issio n

1. b. invented

c.

Yuri Gagarin's Shanno n Lucid's M ission Mission Ente r into o rbit

a. called off, dropped out, thought back on b . .c.all means shout or cr y; ~ means canc el c. I2r..m1 means to fall or let fall; dro p out means to quit d. Th ink means to believe or reaso n; th ink back QU means to reme mbe r

b.

Suggested an swers Ob jective o r goal of

6. b 7. c 8. a

o

regai ned consciousness participate disassemble domina te con tin ue leave review loose speed be domi nated by break no t work departed removed

1. departed-took off a pproached-c-cam e up to participat e-tak e part in brea k- fall apart


III

A N SWE R KE Y

2. invenred-ccamc up with dom inated-took over participating-ra king pa rt in contin ue-e-go on

6 8. STYLE: Chr on ol o g ic al OrderExpr e ssin g Tim e a. "The crew of ....l iT had qu ite a smelly surprise when they opened Progress," "Gagarin felr won derful while he was in space," an d "during the time they are in space, crew members do valuab le scient ific resea rch." b. "As soon as Shepard heard about Gagarin's successful space flight, he beca me dep ressed." c. One event takes place before or afte r another.

o

8

o

2. After Yuri (had ) co mpleted specia l co urses an d entered the Air Force. he became a fighter pilot. 3. As soon as Lucid discovered there was a refrigerator on hoard, she asked for j ello. 4. The three astro nauts opened the hatch after Progress (had) docked on ~ti r. 5. Before Lucid arrived with different food, the cosmona uts had never eaten j ello . 6. As soo n as the astronauts started to open the hatch to Progress, they smelled th e food. 7. Dur ing the time the Russians and Americans were enemies, th e space programs bega n. 8. Until the cold war (had) ended, th ere was not a lot of coo pera tion in space exploration.

2. b 3. a 4. b

5. b 6. a

UNIT 9 .

THE GRA SS I S A LW AYS G REE N ER

2B . VOC ABU LARY FOR COMPREHENS ION L a 6.b 2. a 7. b 3. b 8. b 4. b 9. a

5. b

3B . READI NG FOR MA IN ID EAS Suggested answers 1. F. Lucy was uncomfortable with the newness. She wanted to go back to where she came from. 2. F. She was disappo inted by the reality, ordina riness, dirt iness of New York. Everything was new: th e elevator, the food , the clima te. 3. T. 4 . F. Lucy felt she lived in a "not so nice" situation and want ed to go somewhere else. She was genera lly sad an d discon tent wit h life.

5. T. 6. F. Her dreams turned into the disappointme nt of rea lity. She suffered fro m homesickness. 3C. READI N G FO R DETAILS

Suggested answers 1. Th e weat her was not warm and sunny; it was cold and grey. 2. She didn't t ravel by boa t; she traveled by plane. 3. She didn't thi nk the sights were beau tiful; she thought they looked o rdinary, dirty, and worn down. 4. She didn't han a refrigerator in Ant igua. 5. Th e sun was not bright; it wa s pale yellow. 6. The dr ess was not right; it wa s not warm enou gh. 7. Th e weath er was not warm; it was cold. 8. She didn't eat pink mullet and green figs; she only tho ught about eating them.

3C. RE ADI NG BETWEE N THE LINES Suggested answers 1. T hings she thought about to make her happy. 2. New thin gs can make you co nfused and feel out of place. 3. Because she's confu sed by or doesn't understand all the new t hings. 4. Because in her own co untr y, she knew what to expect and what was expected of her. 5. She can't run away from her feelings or yo ur pro blems. 4 A. EXPANDI NG THE TO PI C Answers to follow-up questions (page 218) will vary.


AN SW E R K EY

48. LINKING READINGS ONE A ND TWO

e

Suggested answe rs Example from

Theme

Exa mple fro m "Poor Visito r"

1. weather

Everything is cold

He's dying of the

a nd gray. The sun isn't warm.

co ld.

2. food

She always ate he r

He lo ngs for a dish

grandm other's coo king .

o f chic ken and ric e

3. search for a bette r Lucy was un ha ppy in her nat ive land life and th ought she co uld improve her life in America.

4. homesic knes s 5. New Yor k is no!

what they expected

"Nostalgia"

and a good cu p of co ffee.

. o

I ll' c ame to New York.

He misses his

family .

co untry.

Eve rything looks ord inary, dirty, and

Wh at he set's aro un d him is a sad

worn down .

pan ora ma .

e

SA. EXPLORIN G VO CABULARY :

Co m po u n d Word s Yo ur

Compo und

Hrst

Word

Wo rd

Example

under

Second Word garme nt

3. hom esicknes s

hom e

sickness

homework

4. d ayd ream

day

dre am

daylight

5. o vercast

o ve r

cast

downcast

6. o utgrown

o ur

grown

ove rgrown

7. grand mothe r

gran d

mo ther

grandfather

2 . unde rgarment

(Possihle a nswl' rs) u nderg ro und

5 8. WORKI NG WITH WORDS : Sentence Completion

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

outgrown overcast gra ndm other daydream lifeboat homesick ness undergarment

6A . GRAMMAR : Past Perfect

o a.

She imagined wha t New York loo ked like first. b. N o, she pu t on her summer dr ess first. c. H er longing to go there happened first. d. The verb tenses and the time words (by the time, when before).

2/1 1/2 2/ 1 1/2

6. 1/2 7. 1/2 8. 1/2

Answers will var y.

68 . STYLE : Comparisons and Contrasls

establ ish his store in

She misses her

2. 3. 4. 5.

l1li

1. In th e sam e way introduces things t hat arc simi lar. Wh ile, in contrast, and whereas int roduce thi ngs that arc different. 2. T he topics are: weather, living conditions, food, and problems. Suggested answers 2. Davila d islikes harsh win ter with its bare trees in the same way Lucy dislikes the pale winter sun. 3. Lucy misses her grandmother's home cooking. Simila rly, Davila misses his country's nati ve food. 4. Davila opened his own store in New York; on the other hand, Lucy worked for a family as a nanny. 5. Lucy is a young wo man; in con tra st, Davila is an old er man. 6. While " Poor Visitor" was writt en in the last half of the twentieth century, " Nostalgia " was written in th e first half of the twentieth century. 7. Davila misses his culture whereas Lucy misses her fam ily. 8. Jamaica Kincaid was born in Antigua; however, Davila was born in Puerto Rico.

o Answers will vary. UNIT 10 â&#x20AC;˘ TAK E IT OR LEAVE IT

28 . VOCABULARY FOR COMPREHENSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ostentatious unob trusive visual recognition remote co ntrol mon itor database information highway


EIII

A NS W E R K E Y

8. console 9. network to. inte rfa ce t 1. image browsing

3B. READING FOR MAIN IDEAS I. â&#x20AC;˘

2. b 3. b 3C. READI NG FOR DETAILS I. Began th ink ing about ho me in the late 19805 A. Sty le preferences 1. cra ftsma nship 2. no t os te ntat io us B. M UH acco mmo da te sophi sticated a nd changing technology 1. no t o btrusive 2. functio ns as serva nt. not master II. Select ed th e perfect property A. Loca tion 1. shore o f La ke Wash joe;to D 2. easy co mmut ing distance B. Living space-s-ave rage size. 1. living room a. size = 14 )( 28 feet b. areas for wa tch ing teler isioD or liste nin g to music 2. other co zy spaces for o ne o r two people 3. laree recepti on haJJ a. accomm oda tes one hun d red 111. Electr o nic pin co nt rols the hom e enviro nment A. Tells the ho me ~ a nd wh er e yo u a re n. House uses pin information to meet yo ur needs 1. .lUilir foll ows yo u 2. ~ follows yOll 3. mo yie or new s or pho ne call fo llows yo u IV. O th er readi ly a nd easily a vailab le technology A. Ha nd-held remotes and co nsoles in each room I . co nt ro ls tell mon itors: a. to beco me visible b. what to displa)' B. Visua l disp lays t . la rge choice a. tho usan ds o f pict ures b. reco rdings

<.=

d. television pro gr am s

e. many o ptio ns for select ing info rma tion 2. ho use can co ntrol visua l di spla ys a. ma terialize when you mIa: an d vanish when you leave rooms b. house can change pr ogram m ing dependi ng o n who is in tb e room V. H o me ha s a stat e-of-the-a rt da ta ba se A. First ho meo....'OCf to have it B. Data base has more than 1 mjlljon Hill 1. includes pho tographs 2. includ es a rt rep rody ctio ns C. Guests can call up anything they like 1. portra its of president s 2. pict ur es of suns ets 3. skiing in th e An des, etc .

ima~

VI. Futu re ava ila bility of qu al ity images A. On the information highw ay 8. In ho mes in the furore VII. Fea rs about the info rma tio n hil: bway A. Reduce the time peo ple s(X-'OJ socializing 1. hom es will become too cozy an d selfco nta ined 2. people will become iso la ted B. Not in agreement 1. people arc social a nimals 2. highway only pro vides mo re entertainment and communication o ptions a. personal b. professio na l c. emplo yme nt 3. people will decide to spend as much rime o ut of their homes VIII. Benefits of t he infor mation highw ay A. Makes it easier to: 1. ma intain distant relatiooships 2. find new co mpanjo ns B. M akes life more interesting 1. peo ple w ill meet in petson 2. meet people with common interests

IX. Conclusion: Expe rimenting a nd the future A. Bill Gates enjoys experimenting and may decide to t . coDctal mon iwrs 2. throw away pjns B. Hopes 1. ma y like everything 2. wo nder how he eDt along without jt


A NSW f lt KE Y

3D. READING BETWEEN THE LINES

e

Suggested answers 1. han d-held remotes an d discreet consoles 2. cozy spaces for one or two peopl e 3. automat ic lighting 4. personalized music and a large data base of Images 5. you can keep up with friends an d form new relat ionships 6. Bill Gates is flexible a bou t chang ing his plans if somet hing doesn't work out or if some thing need s to be mod ified

SA . EXPLORING LANGUAGE: Word Forms

Noun behavi or brightness communication convent ion enterta inme nt frien dsh ip infor mat ion material ostentation television VIS IOn

Verb behav e bright en com mu nicate X entert ain befriend info rm materia lize X televise visua lize

9. 10. 11. 12.

13.

o

Adj ective X bright communicable convent ional entert aining friend ly info rma t ive

material oste ntatious televised visual/visible

58. WORKING WITH WORDS

1. b. entert ain c. entertainme nt d. visions e. visual f. ente rtaining 2. a. comm unicate b. communication c. informat ion d. informat ive e. inform 3. a. friendships b. friendly c. materialize d. materials e. mate ria l GA. GRAMMAR: Future Progressive

o a. future events

b. the fact t hat events arc ongoing

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

III

he'll be meet ing he'll be trying he'll be dicta ting t alks he' ll be eati ng will be testin g he' ll be cats he'll be talking he'll be havi ng he'll be sleeping won't be wa iting

2. In February, Allison wo n't be visiting Walt Whitm an's hom e in New York. She'll be go ing on a winter cam ping excursion. 3. In March, Allison will be bu ilding a model of the ca bin at Walden Pond . 4. In April, Allison won 't be wal king the beaches of Ca pe Cod. She' ll be bu ilding the ca bin. 5. In May, Allison won't be building the ca bin. She' ll be living in it. 6. In J une, Allison won 't be living in the model of Wald en Pond ca bin. She' ll be walking the beaches of Ca pe Cod and w riting abo ut her expenences. 7. In July, Allison will be trav eling by boar on the Concord R iver. 8. In August, Allison won't be studyi ng transcendenta list philosophy. She' ll be taking the rai lroad fro m Concord to M aine. 9. In Septe mber, Allison won't he ta king the railroad from Co nco rd, M assach usett s. She'll be living in the back woo ds of M aine. 10. In O cto ber, Allison wo n't be living in the backwoods of M aine. She' ll be traveling by boa t on the M err imack River. 11. In Novembe r, Allison won 't be traveling by bo ar on the M errimack River. She'll be studying t ranscend entalist philosophy. 12. In December, Allison will be w riting ab out her experiences.

68 . STYLE : Outlining

o

a. fears a bo ut the information highway, benefits of the information highway b. A, B c. 1, 2 d. a, b, c e. The outline presents all the information in the paragrap h in t he same order.


III 8

AN SW E R K EY

2. eight-feet posts 4. larg e window on each side

6. one door at each end

o

Suggeste d o utline

1. Bill Gates's and Henry David Thoreau's philosophies on techn ology A. Bill Ga tes: Technology is necessa ry 1. essential for ad vancement of mankind a. enhances our lives

h. enables us to live longer and better lives

B. H enry Da vid Thorea u: Technology is unnecessary 1. stops ad vancement of manki nd a. takes us away from living truthfully b. stops us from enjoying the simple pleasu res in life

o Answe rs will vary.


Northstar high intermediate focus reading and writing