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Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m Data creatted and accessed a d by a use er in the compute er is storred in file es, which h s in folders. arre then stored ysical fold der, an electroni e y many fiiles and c folder can conttain very Liike a phy m may also have su ub-folders or su ubdirecto ories. Files and folders can be crreated, copied, c m moved an nd deleted.

                         

NOTE: Th he folde ers them mselves are org ganised in a hiierarch hical ma anner sttarting at a the ro oot of th he file sy ystem. (Figure ( 1)


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m O Owners ship and Perm missions Ass the syste em is set up u to hand dle multiplle users co oncurrently, it need ds to be ab ble to conttrol ac ccess to th he file systtem for ea ach individ dual user. It also hass to be able to contrrol accesss to ussers who belong b to the t same group.

To be able to perform m these e feature es, each h file or folder has h the followiing cate egories: •

Owne er: The use er id of the user who creates a file.

Group: The gro oup to whiich the file e owner be elongs to.

Others: All of the other user u ids on n the syste em which are not th he owner of o the file or o belon ng to the group g asso ociated wiith the file e.

Figure 2 


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m By y default the t ownerr has the following permission p ns: •

Read (r) and Write W (w) permissio on for a non-executa able file

e (w) and execute (x x) permisssion for an n executab ble file. Read (r), write The group associated with w the file e has:

Read (r) perm mission for a non-exe ecutable file f

Read (r) and execute e (x) permissiion for an executablle file. The otthers grou up has:

Read (r) only permissio p n for non--executable file

Read (r) and execute e (x) permissiion for an executablle file. Directo ories have the follow wing perm missions:

Read (r): the user u can list out the contents of the dire ectory.

ables a user to create a new file f entry or o delete a and renam me files in Write (w): ena the directory..

ess (x): the e user id with w the ap ppropriate e permissiion can de escend into o the Acce dire ectory.

NOT TE: Only the ow wner of a file/fo older can n chang ge its perm missionss and on nly the super s u user or rroot can n chang ge the ownersh o hip of a file/fold der.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m To view w the owne er and gro oup of a file e/folder: •

Rightt-click on the t folderr and selec ct Propertiies from th he menu

Click on the Pe ermissionss tab. The owner o and d group off the file/fo older are displa ayed as well as the associated a d permissiions. (Figu ure 3)

Figure 3 

To o modify y the pe ermissio ons of a file/fold der: •

Modify y the check boxes ac ccordingly y to the ne ew permisssions desiired.

Click on o Close to o apply the e changes.. NOTE: To minimise the risk off comprom mising the e security o of the filess and folders, do o not mod dify the de efault file/ffolder permission se ettings unless you know wha at you are doing.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m U Using th he File Manag ger Ass a user ca an create many m filess and folde ers, a File Manager M i needed to assist the is t user to o m manage and d manipulate these files and the t file sysstem on which w it ressides. To o start usin ng the File e Managerr double-c click on an ny folder on the desk ktop. By default, the e File Manage er window w consists of a side pane p and a main view pane. (F Figure 4) L Location Bar M Menu Bar 

View w Pane 

Side Pane 

Figure 4 

o the wind dow just under u the window w tiitlebar, are e the men nu bar and the locatiion Att the top of ba ar. Th he view pa ane display ys the filess and folde ers contaiined in the e current d directory that t the usser is in. These can be dissplayed ass icons or changed c to o display them t as a listing of filenames f . Th he side pa ane contains an icon n that rep presents th he current file or current follder. The sid de pane allso contain ns informa ation abou ut the currrent file orr current ffolder.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m A hierarchic cal (tree) view v of the e file syste em on the computerr can be obtained frrom the sid de pane. (Figure 5) By y navigatin ng through this, you u can acce ess files an nd folders outside yo our home directory.

Tree Vie ew 

Figure 5 

NOTE: From the e view pan ne of the File F Manag ger, you ca an open files as well as run (laun nch) execu utable pro ograms by double clicking on the icon hem. repressenting th


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m Create a new folder f

Move e the mousse to the menu m bar at the top p (just bene eath the titlebar of the t window).

Click on File an nd then Cre eate Folde er. (Figure e 6)

Figure 6 

A new folder will ap ppear on the t view pane.

Type in th he name off the new folder. (Fiigure 7)

Figure 7 7 


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m To cop py a file orr folder:

Click on the file e/folder in n the view pane to se elect it. Selec ct Edit and d then Cop py from the e menu ba ar at the to op. (Figure e 8)

-

-

Figgure 8 

n up the fo older in wh hich you want w to cop py the file//folder to.. Open Selec ct Edit and d then Pastte from th he menu bar at the top. t (Figurre 9)

-

Figure 9 

Allternativelly, right cllick on the e file icon and selec ct “Copy File”. Open n the folde er where you y w want the copy to be e placed. Right clic ck on the folder ico on and se elect “Paste Files in nto Fo older”. NOTE: To copy more than one file or fold N der at a tim me, selectt multiple files/folde f ers by holding down the CONTROL L key while clicking on the file es or folde ers.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m M Moving Files and a Folders Moving a fille or folde er is differe ent from copying c in that a cop py of the ffile/folder is not mad de, i.e e. only one e copy of the file/folder existss, and the file/folder f r is transfe erred from m one folde er to o another. To mov ve a file orr folder:

-

Click on o the file in the view w pane to select it. Select Edit and the t cut fro om the me enu bar at the top. (F Figure 10))

Figure e 10 

-

Open up u the fold der in whic ch you wa ant to mov ve the file to t and the en select Edit E and th he Paste files f from the menu u bar at the e top. (Figure 11)

Figurre 11 

To mo ove more than t one file f or folde er at a tim me, select m multiple fiiles/folderrs by hollding down the CON NTROL key y while clic cking on th he files or folders.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m R Renami ng File es and Folders F s Files and d folderss can be e renameed accorrding to o the use er’s pre eference e. To rename a file: -

Click on n the file in n the view pane to select it. Select Edit E and th hen renam me from the menu ba ar at the to op. (Figure e 12)

Figgure 12 

-

Type in the new name. n (Figure 13)

Figure  13 

-

Alternattely you ca an also rig ght-click on o the file and a then select s “Rename”.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m D Deleting g Files and Fo olders When files or W o folders are delete ed, they are sent to the Trash h, from wh hich they can c be sa alvage aga ain. To dele ete a file or folder:

-

Click on o the file in the view w pane to select it.

-

Select Edit and then t Move e to Trash from the menu bar at the top p. (Figure 14) 1

Figure 14  F

Allternately you can se elect the file f and then use the e DELETE key on the e keyboard d to delete e th he file. Thiss has the same s effec ct as abov ve of movin ng the file e to the Tra ash folderr.

NOTE: To o delete more m than one file orr folder at a time, se elect multiiple files/fold ders by holding dow wn the CON NTROL key y while clic cking on the files or folderrs.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m The Trassh Can Th he Trash ic con in the lower righ ht hand co orner of th he desktop p containss files and folders w which have been dele eted using g the File Manager M or o an application run n from the e desktop. To sa alvage a de eleted file from the Trash: T -

Double e click on the t trash can c icon on o the desk ktop. (Figu ure 15)

Figu ure 15 

-

Find th he file you want to salvage s Move the t file to another fo older outsside of the e wastebassket.

Th he Trash can get full quite quiickly. It is important i t to empty y it regularrly. To em mpty the trash: t

-

Right click c on th he Trash ca an icon.

-

Select “Empty Trash”. (Fig gure 16)

Figure 16  N NOTE: Once e a file or fo older is dele eted from the t trash, itt cannot be e recovered d again.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m U Using a Text Editor Ve ery often it is necessary n y to use e the com mputer to t inputt some text t or to t m modify the data in n a text file. A sim mple textt editor can c be ussed to do o this. Th he Ed dubuntu system comes in nstalled with w a te ext editorr called G Gedit. NOTE: A text N t file here h refe ers to a fiile which h contain ns pure te ext p printing c character rs only. Some S typ pes of file es e.g. th hose crea ated by a w word processor, while w app pearing to t be tex xt-only ac ctually co ontains o other non nprinting g charactters and hence h arre not pu ure text files. To Start Ge edit:

- Select Accessories and then Tex xt Editorr from the Applica ations Menu. e 17) (Figure

Figgure 17 


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m Affter Gedit has starte ed, you can n immedia ately type in text intto the main edit win ndow. (F Figure 18) The T mouse e is also ussed extensively in Gedit, G to move m aroun nd the doc cument as w as to perform ed well diting func ctions. M Menu Bar  Functional Menu Baar 

Main Window 

Figurre 18 

In nputting Text Te ext can be entered by b simply typing t into o the main n gedit win ndow. By default the text willl w wrap to the e next line when it re eaches the e border of o the editiing windo ow.

M Marking T Text Th he mouse may be ussed to marrk a block of text by y clicking on o the beg ginning of the block and dragging th he mouse to the end d of the block before releasing it. (Figurre 19)

Figgure 19   


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m D Deleting g Text Te ext can be b delete ed one ch haracter at a time e by mov ving the m mouse to o the ch haracter in questtion and using u the e DELETE E and BA ACKSPACE keys.

- The DE ELETE key will delete the characte er on which the cursor is resting r o on (the cu urrent cu ursor possition). ACKSPAC CE key wiill delete the charracter just before e the currrent - The BA cursor position n. If there is a lot of text t to be e deleted d, a more e efficien nt way to o delete text t is to o m mark it firrst and th hen press the DELETE key y on the keyboard k d.

C Copy, Cu ut and Paste Te ext can be b edited d by mark king it firrst and th hen selec cting Cutt, or Copy from th he bu uttons on n the fun nction me enu bar.

- Cutting g will ressult in the marked d text be eing copied into a storage e buffer and the en delete ed from the t editing windo ow. ng will result in ju ust a copy y of the text t bein ng copied d into the e storage e - Copyin buffer without the dele etion of the origin nal text. Th he text cut/copie ed in this way can n then be e pasted into i anotther partt of the do ocumentt by moving the mouse m to o the desired loca ation and d selectin ng the Pa aste buttton at the top. Anothe er way off invoking g these functionss is to clic ck on the e Edit option on o the to op menu bar and selecting either Cut or Co opy and the en Paste.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m U Undo Affter perfforming an a editin ng functio on, e.g. deleting d a block o of text, yo ou can un ndo the action a by y left clic cking on the t Undo o button on the fu unction menu m ba ar.

he Undo function n can also o be invo oked usin ng the Ed dit menu selection on the Th to op menu bar.

Saving Text T Th he text ty yped in can c be sa aved by le eft clicking on the Save b button on n the fu unction menu m buttton.

ecting file e and the en save as a from the top menu m bar. (Figure 20) Or by sele

Figure 20 

elect the e folder you y wantt to save the file in and en nter the n name of the t file to Se sa ave.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m Find and d Repla ace Th he Find button b ca an be use ed to loca ate a tex xt string. By defau ult this se earch is no ot case sensitive s and will also loca ate the te ext if it iss part of a word. These de efault op ptions can be changed fro om the Fiind dialog.

he Replace butto on can be e used to locate a text striing and rreplacing g it with Th an nother. Again A the e default options of non-c case senssitive and d matchiing part off a word can be changed. c

he Find and a Repla ace functtions can n also be perform med using g the Sea arch men nu Th frrom the top t menu u bar. (Fiigure 21)

Figurre 21 


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m O Opening g a File e Yo ou can ed dit a textt docume ent alrea ady saved d on the system b by openin ng it. Fro om th he main menu m at the top choose c F and then open File n. (Figure e 22)

Figure 22 

O left clicck on th Or he Open button on the Function F n menu b bar.


Edubuntu u User Manual Ve er. 20.13     

Chapter 3 3: Files and Folde ers 

© Copyright Bla ack Apple Consultting. 2013 

Ed dubun ntu: T Fiile Sy The ystem m P Prefere nces Prreferences can be set by choosing g Edit and then Preferenc ces from the top m menu bar.. (Figure 23)

Figure 23 3 

Th he Preferrences yo ou can se et includ de the fon nt, colour and point size to t be use ed, ta ab spacin ng, auto wrapping w g, and au uto inden nting. (Figure 24))

Figu ure 24   

Edubuntu Chapter 3-Files and Folders  

Edubuntu is a grassroots movement, we aim to get Ubuntu into schools, homes and communities and make it easy for users to install and mainta...

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