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GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING

A POSITIVE APPROACH A positive approach to review and expand essential grammar tools for personal, professional, and academic writing. Materials suitable for teaching or tutoring intermediate to advanced developing writers of English. Also suitable for learning independently and at own pace. Sentences and paragraphs in a variety of topics. Variety of practice with answer keys. Links to online resources.

TEN SEPARATE UNITS

TEN UNITS UNIT 1:

INTRODUCTION

UNIT 2:

CHUNKING

UNIT 3:

USE, FORM, AND FUNCTION

UNIT 4:

WORD ORDER

UNIT 5: SENTENCE VARIETY UNIT 6:

FOCUS

UNIT 7:

OTHER WAYS TO VARY SENTENCES

UNIT 8:

TOOLS TO JOIN IDEAS

UNIT 9:

ADDING AND MODIFYING IDEAS

UNIT 10: TIME, PERSPECTIVE, AND CERTAINTY

GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING Copyright © 2017 Emilia Rivas-Rivas, Ph.D. ISBN 978-0-9877589-2-7 FREE use of materials This publication or any portion thereof may only be reproduced with the express written permission of the author.

gmail: tucancita@ CANADA, 2017


WORD ORDER

GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING: UNIT 4, PART 1 OUT OF 3

SUBJECT FIRST

WORD ORDER: THE KEY GRAMMAR TOOL IN ENGLISH In English sentences, word sequence makes a big difference in meaning. Writers use word order to identify important pieces of information in each sentence. WHO bites WHO?

DOG BITES MAN.

The dog bites the man. The man bites the dog. In this unit, you will find some basic but essential information about word order in sentences. You will also find some practice with answer keys. However, word sequence in sentences is quite complex. This unit does not include everything about word order. You may want to refer to the recommended online grammars for more information on word order (see UNIT 1).

COMMON WORD ORDER Writers often choose the same word order to present elements in sentences. Children play

WHO

WHAT

with balls on the beach in summer.

HOW

WHERE

WHEN

This word order is not permanent, but it is very common. In fact, readers expect to see this word order in most sentences. This helps readers find the information they need very quickly. However, writers sometimes change the common word order because of special reasons. You can explore these special reasons in other units (see UNITS 5 & 6).

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MAN BITES DOG.

WHO BITES WHO?

SOME SENTENCE ELEMENTS In this unit, you will find information and practice on the common word order of some sentence elements. First, you will examine the two main elements in sentences: WHO (the subject) WHAT (happens) (the verb)

Then, you will review the use of other elements in sentences, particularly: HOW (in what way) WHERE (place) WHEN (time)

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SUBJECT FIRST

UNIT 4, PART 1 OUT OF 3 WORD ORDER SUBJECT FIRST

BEGIN WITH THE SUBJECT In English, the first position in the sentence gets a lot of attention. When people write or read sentences in English, the first thing they expect to see is the subject. The subject carries important information. It identifies WHO/WHAT is responsible for the action or WHO/WHAT shows a sort of condition or state. Students often walk to school. Students often feel tired.

The subject can be a person (e.g. students) a thing/animal (e.g. a house, the dog) an activity (e.g. singing). We can easily identify subjects by asking WHO (person) or WHAT (thing, animal, or activity).

WHO?

Many young people get a college education. WHO gets a college education?

A college education can be expensive. WHAT can be expensive?

Studying in a foreign country is exciting. WHAT is exciting?

OTHER WAYS TO START There are many ways to start sentences, but writers usually prefer to start with the SUBJECT in order to help readers find WHO or WHAT the story is about easily. For other ways to start sentences, see UNITS 6 & 7.

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WHAT?

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SUBJECTS:

UNIT 4, PART 1 OUT OF 3 WORD ORDER SUBJECT FIRST

CLEAR AND CLOSE TO VERBS

SUBJECTS AND VERBS: A STRONG BOND The subject has a very strong bond with the verb. This bond is so strong that the verb appears immediately after the subject or very close to it. Many young people + study in colleges. subject + verb

To show this strong bond, just like good friends, subjects and verbs always agree with each other in number (singular or plural). SUBJECTS AND VERBS AGREE.

Many young people + study in colleges. plural subject + plural verb

SUBJECT FORM Subjects can have different forms: a single word, a phrase (a group of words) or even a clause (words with a subject + verb)!

In fact, this strong bond between the subject and the verb helps readers find the main message in the sentence. The subject and the verb are the most important elements in any sentence.

People like to learn.

Many foreign students study English

Many young people study in colleges.

at Canadian universities every year.

What the people said was true.

Generally, subjects are nouns or pronouns, but they can also be verb forms or adjective forms. People like to learn. They like to learn. Learning is important for everyone. The poor often miss out on going to college.

Sometimes, subjects are unstated (implied) or they are replaced by empty forms (e.g. it; see UNIT 6, part 5). (YOU) Go to the library every day!

CLEAR SUBJECTS Readers need to find the subject easily. If the subject is missing or unclear, readers get confused. Is expensive. WHAT is expensive? The subject is missing. Many go into debt. WHO goes into debt? The subject is not clear.

It is important to study in the library.

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FINDING SUBJECTS

UNIT 4, PART 1 OUT OF 3 WORD ORDER SUBJECT FIRST

WHO? WHAT?

FINDING SUBJECTS A student has written a paragraph about doing exercise. Find the subjects in the sentences and highlight them. Ask questions with WHO and WHAT to help you decide whether each subject is a person or a thing/animal. Some subjects may be activities (e.g. exercising). Follow the example in the first two sentences (highlighted in green). Check your answers below.

Doing exercise (what) is more than a pastime. It (what) gives me several benefits. All my problems seem to go away and I feel calm, at peace. My mind drifts off into another world. Doing exercise exposes me to a different rhythm in life. Thoughts about my job, school and my friends go on hold. In the gym, I do something completely for myself. Exercise is also a stimulator; it provides me with greater energy to work during the day, and it also makes me more aware of my surroundings. I can see problems more clearly. In fact, I can figure out difficult parts of my homework with a more open and focussed mind. Finally, exercise improves my appearance. Looking good gives me greater self-esteem. I always walk tall after my exercises. Exercising has had a very positive impact on my life.

CHECKING YOUR ANSWERS

DID YOU FIND ALL THE SUBJECTS? DID YOU IDENTIFY WHO OR WHAT? Doing exercise (what) is more than a pastime. It (what) gives me several benefits. All my problems (what) seem to go away and I (who) feel calm, at peace. My mind (what) drifts off into another world. Doing exercise (what) exposes me to a different rhythm in life. Thoughts about my job, school and my friends (what) go on hold. In the gym, I (who) do something completely for myself. Exercise (what) is also a stimulator; it (what) provides me with greater energy to work during the day, and it (what) also makes me more aware of my surroundings. I (who) can see problems more clearly. In fact, I (who) can figure out difficult parts of my homework with a more open and focussed mind. Finally, exercise (what) improves my appearance. Looking good (what) gives me greater selfesteem. I (who) always walk tall after my exercises. Exercising (what) has had a very positive impact on my life.

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DID YOU NOTICE? Subjects appear at the start of most sentences. Subjects appear close to verbs. Subjects agree with verbs in number (e.g. it + makes). Some subjects are single words (e.g. I); others are groups of words (e.g. all my problems). Subjects identify persons (e.g. I), things (e.g. my mind) or activities (e.g. exercising).

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WORD ORDER VERBS

GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING: UNIT 4, PART 2 OUT OF 3

WHAT (HAPPENS): THE VERB Readers are very interested in events. They want to know what happens in the story. The verb tells readers what happens. There may be other words that complete the verb meaning in the sentence. The children are playing in the park.

ACTION VERBS Most of the time, the verb expresses an action in the past or in the present. A planned future action is also possible. WHAT (happened)

WHAT’S HAPPENING?

The letter arrived last night. Mary gave her sister the news.

WHAT (happens)

SIDE BY SIDE AND IN AGREEMENT

They play beautiful music. Sue is taking many courses.

WHAT (is going to happen) The instructor is going to give a test.

STATE VERBS Very frequently, nothing happens. The sentence has no action, but it includes a state (or condition) concerning the people or thing/animal in the story. State verbs generally include other words, such as adjectives (e.g. sick), to complete the verb meaning. WHAT (state or condition) Joan feels sick.

Whether the sentence includes actions or states, the verb always appears very close to the subject, usually immediately after. As you have seen before, these two sentence elements prefer to appear side by side. Lucy + is taking many courses. The new students + feel sick.

Also, as mentioned before, writers need to make sure that subjects agree in number with verbs. Lucy is taking many courses. singular subject > singular verb The new students feel sick. plural subject > plural verb

She has been quite upset. See a list of state verbs in the APPENDIX to this unit.

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WHAT HAPPENED? WRITING CLEAR VERBS

UNIT 4, PART 2 OUT OF 3 WORD ORDER VERBS

CLEAR AND COMPLETE VERBS Sometimes, writers leave out parts of the verb or use unclear verbs. When that happens, readers cannot find the event or situation easily. They get confused. Here is an example: The boys were playing in the park. They broke.

What did the boys break? In the second sentence, there is something missing. The direct object, the person (or animal/thing) affected by the verb, is missing. Many verbs (transitive verbs) are incomplete without a direct object. (See transitive vs. intransitive verbs here.) The sentence should say: The boys were playing in the park. They broke a window.

THE BOYS BROKE WHAT?

Often, writers mix up tenses. Here is an example: The boys were playing in the yard. They break a window.

When did the accident happen? In this case, the reader is confused by the sudden change in tense in the story. The sentence should say: The boys were playing in the yard. They broke a window.

VERBS need to be clear for readers. See UNIT 10. WHAT HAPPENED?

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VERBS AND OBJECTS

UNIT 4, PART 2 OUT OF 3 WORD ORDER VERBS

LOOKING FOR WHAT HAPPENS In the following paragraph, the writer includes ideas related to homestay accommodations. Find WHAT (happens) in each sentence. Highlight the whole WHAT (happens), including the verb and the words that complete its meaning (objects or adjectives). Underline the verbs. Follow the example. Look at the ANSWER KEY below.

THEY BROUGHT SOME FLOWERS.

A STRONG MARRIAGE: VERB+OBJECT When the verb affects a direct object (transitive verbs), the verb and the object must always appear together. In fact, as in a strong marriage, if anything comes between the verb and the direct object, there is conflict. Communication breaks down. They brought + some flowers. They brought quickly some flowers. They brought with them some flowers.

ONE EXCEPTION There is only one exception to this strong relationship between the verb and its object. When writers include the benefactor (the indirect object), they sometimes put it between the verb and the direct object. Mary

subject

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gave

verb

John

indirect object

a kiss.

direct object

Many foreign students prefer homestay accommodations when they study abroad. Students can easily see. Homestay families provided a lot of support. While students can practice their developing English, they can also get many insights into the new culture. Homestay family members show often good examples of the new customs. Also, homestay parents usually explain strange situations to newcomers. Having host parents can be very comforting when students feel lonely. PROBLEMS Even though we can find the verbs in this paragraph quite easily, there are problems in three sentences. These problems make comprehension difficult in some places. Look at the paragraph again and find the confusing parts. Look at the ANSWER KEY below.

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UNIT 4, PART 2 OUT OF 3 WHAT (HAPPENS): THE VERB

ANSWER KEY

Many foreign students prefer homestay accommodations when they study abroad. Students can easily see1.

THREE PROBLEMS 1.

In this sentence, the (direct) object is missing. The meaning is incomplete. What can the students see? Perhaps the writer wants to say: Students can easily see the benefits.

2.

This sentence should not be in the past tense. This is confusing for readers because they think that something specific happened. The sentence should say: Homestay families provide a lot of support. The present tense helps readers to see that this situation happens all the time.

3.

The writer has made a mistake. Nothing can come between the verb (show) and the direct object (good examples). The writer should say: Homestay family members often show good examples of the new customs.

Homestay families provided a lot of 2

support . While students can practice their developing English, they can also get many insights into the new culture. Homestay family members show often good 3

examples of the new customs . Also, homestay parents usually explain strange situations to newcomers. Having host parents can be very comforting when students feel lonely.

DID YOU NOTICE?

AN EXCEPTION A FEW THINGS ABOUT THE VERBS Most verbs have extra words to complete the meaning. Only one sentence has a verb by itself: They study abroad. The word abroad is not really part of WHAT (happens) since it tells WHERE students study. WHERE is an additional element in sentences. See PART 3 in this unit. Some direct objects are very long (e.g. many insights into the new culture). The writer added words to the object noun insights in order to make things clear for the reader. Subjects and verbs show agreement in number. Plural subjects have plural verbs, e.g., Many foreign students prefer homestay accommodations. The writer has done a good job!

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One sentence has a direct object and an indirect object. Homestay parents usually explain strange situations (direct object) to newcomers (indirect object).

The verb explain is an exception to the general rule. Unlike other similar verbs (e.g. She told me the answer), the indirect object cannot follow the verb explain directly. It has to appear at the end with the word to. She explained me the answer. She explained the answer to me.

Exceptions make the rule!

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WORD ORDER

GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING: UNIT 4, PART 3 OUT OF 3

OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS

OTHER ELEMENTS: HOW, WHERE, WHEN To tell their stories, writers first choose WHO (or WHAT) and WHAT HAPPENED. The children were playing.

But readers want to know more about the situation. They want to know HOW things happened, WHERE things happened, and WHEN things happened. When writers add more information to their sentences, readers can understand the situation better. The children were playing with their parents in the park after school.

ADDING TO VERBS: ADVERBIALS Since the extra elements add details about what happens (the verb), they are often called adverbials.

AT THE END, IN THAT ORDER Readers expect to see HOW, WHERE, WHEN at the end of sentences, in that order. Ruth walks by herself in the park at night.

HOW

WHERE

WHEN

SHORTER BEFORE LONGER

WHERE WAS THIS HAPPENING?

MORE SPECIFIC FIRST When adding similar information (e.g. about WHERE), writers prefer to put more specific information first. Ruth met him

at a party

in Victoria.

MORE SPECIFIC

NOT TOO MANY AT THE END Writers often put WHERE or WHEN at the beginning of sentences to avoid too many pieces of information at the end. Today, Ruth walked by herself in the park.

WHEN When writers add two or three pieces of similar information (e.g. all about WHEN), shorter ones go before longer ones. Ruth called yesterday after the meeting.

SHORTER

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LONGER

Writers put information at the start of sentences for other reasons. See UNIT 6, PART 2: FRONTING.

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OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS: ADDING OTHER ADVERBIALS

UNIT 4, PART 3 OUT OF 3 OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS

OTHER ADVERBIALS TO ADD DETAILS Writers often add a variety of details about what happens. Apart from HOW, WHERE, and WHEN, writers may use other adverbials to add details such as WHY (e.g. because I was sick), HOW FREQUENTLY (e.g. usually), HOW STRONGLY (e.g. really), and HOW SURE (e.g. probably). See common adverbial functions below.

ADVERBIALS TO CHANGE THE STORY By adding more adverbial information, writers often add drama to the stories and help readers see different situations.

WHY DID SHE WALK BY HERSELF?

The following sentences suggest the beginning of two different stories. Today, Ruth walked her dog by herself in the park. (Ruth usually walks with someone. She changed her routine today.)

Today, Ruth walked her dog by herself in the park because she needed to think. (Ruth seems to have a problem today. She walked in the park to think about it.)

Adding even one adverbial can make a big difference to the story. Ruth cried uncontrollably.

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RUTH CRIED UNCONTROLLABLY.

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MORE ABOUT ADVERBIALS

UNIT 4, PART 3 OUT OF 3 OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS

COMMON ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS When adverbials add information to the verb, they have the same adjunctive function. However, it is useful to group these adverbials according to the type of information they add to the sentence. MANNER: e.g. quickly PLACE: e.g. on the wall FREQUENCY: e.g. every morning TIME: e.g. at noon PURPOSE: e.g. to lose weight HE PLAYS TENNIS TO BE HEALTHY.

CONDITION: e.g. if it’s not too expensive REASON: e.g. e.g. since he enjoys movies CONCESSION: e.g. despite her wealth

ADVERBIAL FORMS There are many forms to express adverbial information. Very often, writers use single words (e.g. yesterday). Many of those single words are adverbs (e.g. usual +ly), though quite often they are nouns (e.g. today). Yesterday, he played tennis reluctantly.

Writers also use adverbial phrases (e.g. every morning, to be healthy). To be healthy, he plays tennis.

Very frequently, adverbials look like prepositional phrases. He plays tennis in the park.

And, quite frequently, writers use adverbial clauses (e.g. because she was sick). A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. He plays tennis if he has time.

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CONTRAST: e.g. although he loves her PROBABILITY: e.g. certainly

ADVERBIAL ORDER As you have seen, adjunctive adverbials commonly appear at the end of sentences. She left because she was sick.

However, adverbials often appear at the beginning of sentences (see FRONTING in UNIT 6, PART 2). Because she was sick, she left.

Frequency adverbials (e.g. often) and probability adverbials (e.g. surely) usually appear before verbs (as in this sentence). However, they generally appear after the verb be (e.g. They are probably coming.). Adverbial order can be quite tricky. You can easily find more information about this online.

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OTHER ADVERBIAL FUNCTIONS

UNIT 4, PART 3 OUT OF 3 OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS

SENTENCE ADVERBIALS Very often, writers want to include their feelings or attitude about the story. They can use sentence adverbials (disjunctive adverbials), which generally appear at the beginning of sentences (see UNIT 7). Unfortunately, they stopped playing because it was raining.

UNFORTUNATELY, IT WAS RAINING.

In these cases, writers give their opinion about what happened. The writers’ opinions do not change the situation in the story in any way.

JOINING IDEAS WITH ADVERBIALS

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBIALS Writers often use more than one clause or one sentence to tell their stories. They join their ideas into paragraphs. Conjunctive adverbials are very useful to join ideas. Most of the time, writers put conjunctive adverbials at the beginning of the next clause. The tennis match started on time. However, the young players had to stop because it began to rain. THEY PLAYED OUTSIDE. HOWEVER, IT BEGAN TO RAIN.

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Writers use conjunctive adverbials very often. See UNITS 5, 6, 7 & 8 for more information on conjunctive adverbials and other connectors.

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USING HOW WHERE WHEN

UNIT 4, PART 3 OUT OF 3 OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS

UNSCRAMBLING SENTENCES Unscramble the groups of words below using HOW, WHEN, and WHERE at the end of sentences. Use capital letters at the start and periods at the end of each sentence. Follow the example. See ANSWERS below. travelled, the new students, last weekend, with their teachers The new students travelled with their teachers last weekend. 1.

by himself, Tom, in winter, likes travelling

2.

alone, likes to travel, nobody, when it is dark

3.

all year round, enjoy travelling, my parents,

TOM LIKES TRAVELLING BY HIMSELF IN WINTER.

by train, in British Columbia 4.

in groups, in the mountains, Canadians, prefer to hike

5.

through the Internet, before they leave home,

MORE PRACTICE

should make reservations, travellers

For more practice, use the suggested sites below:

1.

Tom likes travelling by himself in winter.

2.

Nobody likes to travel alone when it is dark.

3.

My parents enjoy travelling by train in British

ENGLISH GRAMMAR ONLINE

Columbia all year round.

LINGOLIA

4.

Canadians prefer to hike in groups in the mountains.

5.

Travellers should make reservations through the

STUDY ZONE WORKSHEET WORKS

Internet before they leave home.

MORE INFORMATION HOW, WHERE, WHEN IN PARAGRAPHS To practice using HOW, WHERE, and WHEN in paragraphs, do the fill-in exercise at the end of this unit (ANSWER KEY included).

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For more information on adverbials that add information (adjuncts), look here.

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ACTION OR STATE?

GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING: UNIT 4, APPENDIX

MOSTLY ACTION Most verbs are action verbs. That means some activity is happening, either physically or mentally. Here are some examples: I meet a lot of people when I ski. I can develop my skills. Music unites people. Tai Chi can prevent chronic diseases. Three years ago, I started piano lessons. Learning English gives me confidence. I can swim four different styles.

THEY DANCED ALL NIGHT.

SOME STATE

BE COOL!

Some verbs express state. They show a state or condition that a person (thing/animal) experiences.

BE is the most common linking verb. Like other linking verbs, BE is usually followed by adjectives.

State verbs are usually followed by adjectives (e.g. sick).

The doctors were efficient.

Here are some examples:

The test wasn’t hard.

He looks great. The cake tastes sweet. They sound excited. The children remained quiet. In emergencies, you should stay calm.

Nobody is perfect.

BE can also be followed by a noun or a prepositional phrase. The woman is an immigrant. My parents are at home.

She went crazy. State verbs are usually called linking verbs. They link the subject and its condition. He turned white. He + white. The flowers smell nice.

He is in love.

The flowers + nice.

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MORE ABOUT VERBS

UNIT 4, APPENDIX ACTION AND STATE VERBS

COMMON STATE VERBS Some state verbs are used very frequently. Here is a short list. feel confident seem shy look great stay calm keep cool

HE FEELS DEPRESSED.

CAUSATIVE VERBS: A SPECIAL CLASS Some verbs are neither action nor state. They DID YOU NOTICE? CAUSE someone to do something (cause an action) or feel something (feel a state). He made me fall down. The letter made him happy.

taste sweet smell nice sound excited remain quiet grow old go crazy turn white become ill fall silent

PREFERENCE AND KNOWLEDGE Some state verbs express preference for something or knowledge of something. Here is a short list. enjoy swimming love surfing like playing prefer to do yoga want to walk

know his name recognize her face believe you understand them imagine the story

HAVE A HEART! The verb have is in a special category by itself. Have expresses the state of ownership. We own things/animals. We can also “own” someone.

Here is a short list of causative verbs.

She has a family. I have a Canadian flag.

They drove me crazy. We painted the wall red. She patted the baby dry. The police rendered him useless.

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HOW, WHEN, WHERE (UNIT 4, PART 3) In the paragraph below, all the gaps are related to HOW WHEN WHERE at the end of sentences. Read the paragraph. It may help to identify different types of travellers. Using the hints, fill in the gaps with the words or groups of words listed below. Check your answers on the next page. all over the world, alone, among people of far away regions, as soon as they can, at home, easily, far away from home, for a short while, for long periods of time, for many years, in foreign places, in the summer months, in their everyday environment, into this category, on foot, on their own, patiently, quietly, to cheap destinations, to several places, to their countries, to their dream destination, until they can go somewhere special, until they have a lot of money, whenever they can, whenever they wish to leave, with a pack on their backs, with little money to spend

Travelling Travelling has become a very popular pastime [ WHERE ]. People often save money [ WHEN ] in order to go [ WHERE ], such as Machu Pichu or Niagara Falls. Even though saving money means making a lot of sacrifices, people are happy to stay [ HOW ] [ WHERE ][ WHEN ]. Other people prefer to travel [ WHERE ][ WHEN ]. Young people fall [ HOW ] [ WHERE ]. They may not have the patience to wait [ HOW ] [ WHERE ] [ WHEN ]. Instead, they may work [ WHEN ][ WHEN ] and then travel [ HOW ][ WHERE ][ WHEN ]. There is, however, another group of travellers. These can be called longtime travellers because they stay [ WHERE ] [ WHEN ]. In fact, these hardy travellers love to spend many months [ WHERE ]. Then, they travel [ HOW ] [ HOW ][ WHEN ]. Some never go back [ WHERE ]. They are happier [ HOW ] [ HOW ][ WHERE ]. GTFW Š ERR 2017

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ANSWERS Check your answers with the paragraph below. Your answers may be slightly different from the ones given.

Travelling Travelling has become a very popular pastime all over the world. People often save money for many years in order to go to their dream destination, such as Machu Pichu or Niagara Falls. Even though saving money means making a lot of sacrifices, people are happy to stay patiently in their everyday environment until they can go somewhere special. Other people prefer to travel to several places whenever they can. Young people fall easily into this category. They may not have the patience to wait quietly at home until they have a lot of money. Instead, they may work for a short while in the summer months and then travel with little money to spend to cheap destinations as soon as they can. There is, however, another group of travellers. These can be called longtime travellers because they stay in foreign places for long periods of time. In fact, these hardy travellers love to spend many months among people of far away regions. Then, they travel alone on foot whenever they wish to leave. Some never go back to their countries. They are happier on their own with a pack on their backs far away from home.

EXTRA PRACTICE For extra practice, write a similar paragraph about different types of places to visit while travelling. Try to include HOW, WHEN, and WHERE at the end of sentences.

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UNIT 4 WORD ORDER  

UNIT 4 in GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING

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UNIT 4 in GRAMMAR TOOLS FOR WRITING

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