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VO LU M E 2 5



Amal: Her Name Means Hope


Megan V. Brachtl ART DIRECTOR

Margot Grisar



Karen Stroman

Amal Jadou looks and sounds like a


typical Fletcher student. At 30, she is a brainy, idealistic, politically motivated woman who has big dreams to match her big brown eyes. Indeed, a Boston Globe feature writer working on a profile of her calls her “captivating.” In addition to her doctoral studies, she often speaks at local schools, churches, and civic schools about current events, especially in the Middle East. She can’t wait to finish her Ph.D. so she can go home to teach, then eventually run for political office. But what makes Amal’s story unusual is that she happens to be a Palestinian who grew up in a refugee camp. The issues she learns about at Fletcher are not only of political interest to her, but also resonate personally. She knows what it’s like to have only limited freedom and to live in fear.


She knows firsthand about discrimination, stereotyping, and war. In an interview she recalled how at 13, while on her way to school, an Israeli settler put a gun to her head. “He decided not to kill me; I still don’t know why,” she says softly. She knows what it’s like to be harassed by soldiers at checkpoints. “Hey, you married? You want to stay with me tonight?,” were the kinds of jabs with which she had to contend. But even at an early age, Amal began to distinguish herself. She was the first Palestinian woman to appear on the first Palestinian TV show to read the news and present a political program. After a few months, the Israeli occupation force closed down the TV station for security reasons. The station was reopened in 1997, with Amal resuming her | Continues on next page

Michael Lutch, Jeanette CruzOsorio, Tufts Digital Collections and Archives OFFICE OF DEVELOPMENT AND ALUMNI RELATIONS

Roger A. Milici Jr., Director; Elizabeth W. Rowe (F’83), Associate Director; Tara Lewis, Associate Director; Julia Motl, Annual Fund Coordinator; Megan V. Brachtl, Alumni Relations Coordinator; Pamela Cotte, Reunion Coordinator; Kathleen Bobick, Staff Assistant; Cynthia Weymouth, Administrative Assistant


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but an occupied community of refugees,” she said. Continued from page 1 | on-air work interviewing ambassadors, presidents, and prime ministers from all over the world. As a teenager, she was determined, even defiant. “I took Amal continued to stand out, venturing more into political part in demonstrations, threw stones at soldiers, sewed and social activism. “[I] served in several NGOs that work Palestinian flags without my parents’ knowledge and raised on refugee issues as well as on women and children issues. I them with my brothers on electricity poles in defiance of was elected to many political and social bodies in Palestine Israeli soldiers who prohibited us from having our own flag. which gave me credibility within my society. My work to What devastated me the most during the Intifada was the establish centers for the disabled, to support children in the Israeli closure of the schools for long periods,” she wrote. Bethlehem area, taught me the Amal’s perception of Israelis— importance of being transparent. indeed, her vision of the world— Additionally, I was elected to repbroadened in the 1990s, particuresent Palestinian social, political, larly around the time of the 1993 and academic institutions in conOslo Accords signed by the ferences and meetings all over the Israelis and Palestinians on the world,” she says. White House lawn. “Through my After receiving a B.A. in English friendship with an Israeli Jewish from Bethlehem University in lawyer who worked for Palestin1995, she received her master’s in ian political prisoners, and international relations from Bir through meetings with Israelis Zeit University in 2001 and was in various capacities, I was able admitted to The Fletcher School as to see that there were Israelis who a Ph.D. student the same year. abhorred occupation as much as Recently, Amal became one of I did,” she wrote. Amal Jadou (second from right) with visitors to Aida Refugee three people [the only one from A turning point for Amal came Camp in Palestine. the United States] to receive a in 2001 when the current Intifada prestigious prize for academic excellence and leadership and fallout of the peace process triggered Amal’s decision to potential. The prize is part of the Ryoichi Sasakawa Young come to The Fletcher School. In her essay, she wrote: Leaders Fellowship Fund (SYLFF) Program, launched in “Holed up in the staircase of my house in Aida Refugee 1987 by the Nippon Foundation. Camp near Bethlehem while Israeli tanks and Apache helicopIndeed, The Fletcher School was the first of what are now ters shelled the town, and in the midst of the high roaring of 66 universities and consortia in 44 countries around the world explosions came from the background a frail voice of a news to have each received US$1 million from the SYLFF Program. broadcaster reporting an American official to say, ‘We have Yale, Princeton, Michigan, and the University at California at tried all means possible to resolve the Middle East conflict but Berkeley are among the participating universities in this counwe failed.’ This was on January 9, 2001, just a few days before try, not to mention institutions abroad in Africa, Europe, President Clinton would leave office. That comment hit me China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Israel. strongly and planted the seed of my dissertation research, for The award-winning essay Amal submitted with her applicait made me wonder whether they had really tried enough and tion reveals much about her character. It also demonstrates her whether they were paying enough attention to what was going transformation from an angry victim to a hopeful, high-spirited on on the ground during the years of the Oslo process. And if graduate student, anxious to return to her country to work for they tried enough, what led to the failure?” a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Her political interests mesh nicely with the Fletcher experiIn her essay, Amal expressed mixed feelings about growing ence. “I have always felt the need to study outside Palestine, up in a refugee camp, with which she is still struggling. “I love especially in the United States because of the important role the camp so dearly because it is part of Palestine and because the United States plays and the impact of its policies on the of the warmth of its people,” she wrote, adding, “Aida’s 3,500 region as well as its involvement in the peace process. Because inhabitants who come from 19 villages that were destroyed by of my future plans to be involved in politics, I felt the need to Israelis in 1948 are my extended family. We have shared joy, be exposed to the American experience and American policy laughs, tears, pain, sorrow, success, food, poverty, humiliation, making,” she wrote. oppression, defiance, and persistence.” Not surprisingly, Amal’s doctoral research involves analyzAt the same time, the camp continues to remain a symbol ing the peace process to identify what went wrong and devise of her people’s oppression. “It is the symbol of our uprooting policy recommendations for the United States to become more from our original homes and villages and our dispersing all involved in jump-starting the peace process. over the world. It is the symbol of our lack of stability and of A clue to her promising future may be found in her name. our non-normal existence, where we are not citizens of a state “My name ‘Amal’ means ‘hope’ in Arabic,” she says. 2 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004




reetings from medford. By the time you receive this issue of Fletcher News, academic year 2003–04 will be coming to a close, and members of the Class of 2004 will be making the long-awaited transition from student to alum. I know you will welcome our recent grads into the

alumni ranks with the camaraderie for which the Fletcher community is so well known. The official academic year may be over, but I would like to inform you of three initiatives just beginning to gain momentum at Fletcher. First, I am pleased to report that Fletcher has begun major facility renovations that will positively affect virtually all that the school does. The plan, to be carried out over the next two years, will supply the school with 15 new faculty offices, additional and improved classrooms and lecture hall space, more student meeting space, improved circulation through the facility, and an overall improved appearance of the Fletcher complex. The plan permits Fletcher to borrow the amount needed through Tufts University’s current bond authority. Our commitment is to raise at least $5 million in the next several years so that the school does not have to carry the full cost of the project as long-term debt. The second new initiative of note is GMAP II—the new, public-sector-focused version of Fletcher’s original yearlong Global Master of Arts Program, our long-distance, computer-mediated mid-career degree program. Devised to incorporate mostly U.S. and non-U.S. government officials as well as government-affiliated private sector officials, GMAP II commenced in March with a class of 30 students. In April, students gathered for their first two-week residency in Medford. The program’s midyear residency will take place in Washington, D.C., in August, and students will return to campus next March to complete their degree requirements. During the intervening months, GMAP II students (like all GMAP students) fulfill their rigorous course requirements via the Internet and CDROM after work hours and on weekends. GMAP II is the product of an agreement between The Fletcher School and the U.S.

Department of Defense to provide training in international affairs to both civilian and military government officials, primarily Americans, but it is also open to a number of officials from governments and organizations from other countries. The program was featured in an article in the Financial Times last year, and we anticipate the same success with this version of GMAP as we have had in the first four years of the original program. Finally, in light of an alarming trend showing a 30% decrease in international students applying to U.S. graduate institutions this year, we are enlisting our alumni to help counter the potential drop in our international student base. Fletcher’s offices of admissions and development and alumni relations are working together with alumni in major nonU.S. metro areas to create a network to help recruit and yield students from these regions. This year, alumni club leaders helped to contact, by phone or e-mail, recently admitted students in their local area. The goal of this initiative was to extend a friendly invitation to these admitted students to join the Fletcher community. We believe this personal contact will positively influence our overall yield statistics in the incoming class for international students and maintain or increase last year’s international student rate of 34%. We at Fletcher look forward to pursuing these three important initiatives to help us fulfill our mission of preparing leaders with a global perspective, and we appreciate and encourage your continued support and involvement in the life of the school.

Stephen W. Bosworth

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 3


PEOPLE OF COLOR IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Fletcher has long had the reputation of having a “mafia.” Regardless of which corner of the world or in which industry, Fletcher alumni are willing to help a fellow graduate or current student. Often overlooked, however, is the fact that our alumni and students of color face particular concerns and issues being minorities in international relations. The relatively small representation of people of color in this field beckons the need to pay greater attention. Recognizing this need to generate awareness of such interests and concerns, current students and alumni have initiated the Fletcher Alumni of Color Program (FACP), with the cooperation of the offices of Development and Alumni Relations, Admissions, and Career Services. The mission of this initiative is to foster a strong and

enduring community among alumni of color; further the interests, welfare, and mission of The Fletcher School; and serve as a forum to address issues of diversity. FACP is in its initial stages of development and is seeking the leadership and support of alumni to serve on its steering committee, assist in recruitment efforts, or serve as career mentors. It is open to members of the Fletcher community who identify themselves as a person of color, regardless of nationality or nation of residence, and those who have demonstrated strong commitment and interest to issues relating to persons of color. To learn more about this new program, please e-mail the Office of Development and Alumni Relations at —BELINDA CHIU (F’04)

Fletcher returns to Blakeslee House In August 2003, the eight staff members from Fletcher‘s Office of Development and Alumni Relations set up shop at 132 Curtis Street, a.k.a. Blakeslee House. The move, spurred by the need for more faculty offices in Fletcher’s Cabot building, has brought this charming house back into the Fletcher fold. Acquired by Tufts University in 1939, Blakeslee House served as the first Fletcher dormitory for women, and is located next to Wilson House, Fletcher‘s first dormitory for men.

C L A S S O F 1 9 4 7 D I S T I N G U I S H E D L E A D E R S H I P AWA R D The Fletcher Academic Convocation, September 3, 2003, was the forum for the initial presentation of the Class of 1947 Distinguished Leadership Award, established to honor annually a Fletcher graduate, selected by Fletcher‘s dean, who over a long career has advanced the ideals and purposes of the school by contributing in an outstanding manner to the craft of diplomacy and to the conduct of international relations in the public and private sector. Walter Wriston (F‘42), former chairman and CEO of Citigroup, was the first recipient of this award. Class president William Dale presented the award, praising Wriston‘s diplomacy as leader of the banking community in averting an international financial catastrophe when Mexico and others defaulted on external debt in 1982. Wriston was prevented by illness from delivering in person his convocation address,“Fletcher in the Information Age”; it was read by Fletcher‘s academic dean, Lisa Lynch. Convocation 2003 and the presentation of the first Class of 1947 Distinguished Leadership Award concluded a six-year commitment by our class to make a significant gift to Fletcher. This

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process began at our 50th reunion, September 1997, when we pledged $100,000 to be funded over the next five years leading to our 55th reunion. During our 55th reunion (at Convocation 2002), then class president Haydn Williams announced that our class had exceeded our original pledge and that we would double it. Although we ”old soldiers“ of ‘47 are fading away, 27 of us still living take pride in this first presentation of our award at Convocation 2003. It was initiated in 1997 as a gift for Fletcher and in memory of classmates and two spouses no longer with us. The Class of 1948 followed our example, having completed their 50th reunion in September 1998 with a pledge of $60,000, thanks to their class spirit and the leadership of the late Barbara Burn. It is our hope that our example will take hold, and that in time each successive 50-year class will follow our lead for a substantial 50th reunion gift for The Fletcher School. In this way, each one of us can repay, in part at least, the enormous gift of our training at Fletcher and the matchless associations each one of us shares in this proud company making its mark upon the world stage. —CHARLES P. EDWARDS (F’47)

ElBaradei Warned of “Jumping to Conclusions”on Iraq’s WMD Program Faulty Decisions “Difference Between War and Peace” TERRY ANN KNOPF

In an interview published in the latest issue of the Fletcher Forum of World Affairs [Winter 2004], Mohamed ElBaradei, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA], warned about the dangers of the United States government “jumping to conclusions” and making judgments “on the basis of assumption and innuendo” about Saddam Hussein’s weapons of mass destruction (WMD) program. “You can’t really work on the basis of assumption and innuendo. I think it’s very dangerous in the field of activities where we are in,” ElBaradei cautioned. Indeed, what is striking is that the interview, conducted by Forum editor Emma Belcher (F’04) by phone with ElBaradei from IAEA headquarters in Vienna, occurred on December 2, 2003. This was several weeks before former weapons inspector David Kay acknowledged before the Senate Armed Services Committee that “we were all wrong, probably,” about Iraq’s perceived threat and the subsequent decision by the Bush Administration to create a bipartisan commission to review U.S. intelligence operations. Without citing anyone by name, ElBaradei appeared to be criticizing the Bush Administration for a rush to judgment on Iraq’s WMD program. “[T]he international community is learning that we need not jump to conclusions,” he told the Forum. ElBaradei also warned about the potentially deadly consequences of faulty judgments. “We know that these decisions— or these conclusions—could make the difference between war and peace, and we [IAEA] are very carefully weighing every word we say,” he said. Asked why he thought Saddam was so resistant to letting in weapons inspectors in his country when it appears he didn’t have a nuclear weapons program, ElBaradei said he could only speculate. “I think they were… probably testing the waters so that if they knew they had nothing, they thought, ‘Maybe we can camouflage [the situation], and on the one hand an inspector will not find anything because we [don’t] have [any weapons], but on the other hand maybe it’s good for us to create an impression that we might still have some of these weapons to deter a prospective attack.’” Surveying the broader nuclear landscape, ElBaradei acknowledged that such weapons development in countries

like Iran and North Korea, coupled with IAEA reports that Russia, China, and Pakistan have been supplying technology that Iran used to enrich uranium, posed a growing problem. “I think, unfortunately, nuclear weapons continue to be perceived by many to be attractive: a weapon of choice,” he said. “We still have something like 30,000 warheads around the world; we still have eight countries who are de jure or de facto nuclear weapon states; we still read about new research, about developing new, small nukes that could be used as bunker busters, as low-yield nuclear weapons, and I think— in addition to all of what I have said before—we need to create a different environment…. “My fear [is] that if we continue on the road we are on right now, we will continue to have more countries acquiring nuclear weapons,” he said. “The technology is becoming more available, the know-how is becoming more available, and if we reach the point [at which] we will [fulfill] the prediction of President Kennedy that we will have 15 or 20 nuclear weapon states, I think we are then preparing a recipe for our own destruction.” To read the complete interview with Mohamed ElBaradei, visit the Forum Web site at

Two distinguished Fletcher alumni have recently made international headlines. KOSTAS KARAMANLIS (F’80), leader of the conservative New Democracy party, won Greece’s election for prime minister in early March. SHUKRI GHANEM (F’76) was promoted Shukri Ghanem (F’76) to the position of Libyan prime minister in June 2003. Director General for the Libyan Ministry of Oil when he began as a Fletcher student, Ghanem spent considerable time at OPEC in Vienna after graduation. Ghanem and IAEA director Mohamed ElBaradei will be the featured presenters at this year’s Fletcher Symposium at the Tufts European Center in Talloires, France, June 4–6.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 5




etween june 6 and 8, 2003, the Second Annual Fletcher Talloires Symposium took place in the restored buildings of the former Talloires Priory by Lake Annecy in the beautiful French Alps. The gorgeous setting, thought-provoking lectures by Professors Glennon and Henrikson, and spirited discussion among the 45 Fletcherites and guests in attendance made this a perfect follow-up to the first Talloires Symposium in 2002. Of course, with the Iraq war just beginning and international tensions high, it was also perfectly timed to have a high-quality discussion on the UN and the future of the international order. These annual weekends in Talloires have proven to be not only engaging intellectually, but also capable of strengthening the ties between diverse members of the school community. The first Fletcher Symposium in London in December 2003, together with the Talloires weekends, hold much promise for increasing the awareness of Fletcher in Europe. The Talloires Symposia—with their relaxed seminar atmosphere, with lectures and discussions rounded off by swims in the lake and fondue dinners on mountain ridges—

Tufts European Center in Talloires, France

will become a hallmark event for the Fletcher community. I can only recommend the next meeting, which will take place from June 4 to 6, 2004. There can hardly be a better way to —JAN-PHILIPP GÖRTZ (F’98) spend a weekend.

THE FIRST CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE REUNION From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has been lifted from across the Continent—the Fletcher Club of Central and Eastern Europe has been formed! September 5–7, 2003, seventeen Fletcher alums and spouses met in Hungary for a weekend of learning and fun. Participants came from Tirana, Boston, Bratislava, Budapest, Moscow, Prague, Skopje, and Vienna. The alums represented classes from the seventies, eighties, nineties, and

noughties (as the Brits say). The weekend started on Friday night with a sumptuous dinner at the Károlyi Palace in downtown Budapest. Between dinner courses, Ambassador György Habsburg discussed European Union enlargement with great expertise and humor. (Who knew that even a Habsburg has to wait at the AustrianHungarian border sometimes?) And thus the pattern for the weekend was set: an abundance of good food, alcohol, and humor. Saturday started early with a mini-tour of Pest and a private tour of Parliament. Afterward, we toured the Castle District in Buda, including Matthias Church and a de rigueur stop at Ruszwurm Kávéház for pastries. The afternoon featured a drive down to the Villány wine region and a game of Fletcher Jeopardy. Team Anna Balogh (center, front) with other participants from the Central Blakeley prevailed through European weekend, including the reunion organizer, Anita Gombos good strategy, the Jumbos Orban (F’01) (third from left).

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having led most of the game, and The Rule of Force blowing its large lead in the final round. (The question was: How would you define Al Rubin’s approach to international law in one word?) The winners got a bottle of Tokaji Aszú, the wine of Hungarian diplomacy. Upon arrival to the village of Bóly, we visited a gingerbread maker (a Hungarian folk tradition), before descending into the wine cellar, where we proceeded to sample ten (or was it twelve to fourteen?) different wines. Half the group stayed in a pensione, the other half sampled village tourism by staying with the locals. The late Sunday morning drive back to Budapest gave everyone a chance to chat some more, as did the Budapest lunch that lasted until 5:00 p.m.! Everyone had a chance to talk with each other and learn what the other was doing. We had a wonderful time together, and clearly enjoyed one another’s company. For the eight people who cancelled, you missed a fantastic time. —ANNA BALOGH (F’00)

The Future of Multilateralism MICHAEL J. GLENNON

Professor of International Law

The following article is based on Professor Glennon’s presentation to the Fletcher Club of Paris on January 13, 2004, at the offices of Pinault Printemps Redoute, Paris. Senator Jean François-Poncet (F’48) also presented his views on French-American relations at the event. As someone who has always preferred old shoes, old cars, old friends, and old French wine, let me say that it’s a pleasure to be here tonight in the capital of Old Europe…. It is a particular honor to appear with the man who is rightly referred to as the dean of the French Diplomatic corps. Fletcher, I am constantly reminded, has many accomplished alumni, but none more distinguished than Senator FrançoisPoncet, whose lifetime of devotion to improved FrenchAmerican relations has indebted us all. Twenty-three years ago, in 1981, this former master’s candidate returned to Fletcher as the foreign minister of his country. He gave a memorable address, an address that is almost eerie in its prescience and contemporary relevance. Minister FrançoisPoncet asked why it is that there are so many stereotypes in French-American relations. “Why,” he asked, “do people on both sides cling tenaciously to preconceived ideas?” “Why do these misconceptions about French-American relations persist?” I would like to take my own stab at answering that question, and I want to begin with a piece of recent history. Not long ago, as we all remember, a respected western democracy with a long history of support for international institutions launched an invasion of a major Arab state in flagrant violation of the rules of the UN Charter. The invasion was not approved by the Security Council. There was no plausible argument for self-defense. The invader had only one real ally: Great Britain. The invaders prepared their attack while going through the motions of multilateral negotiations; in fact, it was widely believed, their real interest was regime change— a regime, it was believed, that had supported terrorism. The attack triggered an avalanche of condemnation around the world. European allies were embarrassed. Third-world states complained of a new colonialism. The Arab street was up in arms. Russian influence in the Middle East grew. The attack reminded the world of the many times that that country had chosen to go it alone—of the sense of “exceptionalism” that that country seemed to think somehow placed it above the rules—of the “revolutionary calling” that is so much a part of its history. But—its leaders made no apology. They claimed that the use of force was necessary to protect vital national interests. They made clear that they would use force again if

exigent circumstances required. And, chastened by it all, they thereafter embarked upon a number of new policies that could only be described as unilateralist. The country to which I refer is not the United States; it is France. The incident is not the Iraq war; it is the 1956 invasion of Egypt, aimed at overthrowing the regime of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. I relate all this not to argue that the American invasion of Iraq was justified, but simply, instead, to suggest to you that a principal cause of French-American misunderstanding is today what it was in 1981, when Minister François-Poncet spoke at Fletcher: the inability to see the world from the other’s perspective, and the inability to remember that, ultimately, all states act from the same fundamental motives. Nowhere were these deficiencies more evident than in the UN Security Council in the weeks before the war in Iraq. Policymakers from the United States and France too often believed that only their country was right, that only their country’s solution was lawful, that only their country acted in the best interests of the international community. The truth is, as I wrote in a little piece in Foreign Affairs last spring, if French policymakers had been sitting in Washington, they probably would have acted very much as American policymakers had acted, and if American policymakers had been sitting in Paris, they probably would have acted very much as French policymakers had acted. Why is this so? Because nations act to preserve and enhance their power as a means of preserving and enhancing their security. They use their leverage in international organizations to further that objective, and when international organizations stand in the way of that objective, as we saw in 2003 and in 1956 and in 1935 when Italy invaded Ethiopia and the League of Nations collapsed, international organizations fall by the wayside. So at the level of deeper geopolitical forces that shape state conduct, very little has changed since Minister FrançoisPoncet posed this question in 1981. But because of these same forces, something else has changed, and changed very much indeed. In 1981, Minister François-Poncet told his Fletcher audience that it was essential that the United States and France “agree on a joint enterprise, a shared geopolitical design.” I believe that, in 2004, we must frankly | Continues on next page Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 7


Continues from page 7 | admit—in France and in the United States—that we no longer have a shared geopolitical design. We do not share a joint geopolitical design because our longterm national goals are fundamentally different. France has in recent years undertaken as a central objective of its foreign policy to return the world to a multipolar configuration of power. Another former foreign minister, Hubert Vedrine, forthrightly acknowledged that this was a principal foreign policy

commitment to multilateral institutions can also serve to protect American interests in the distant future, by providing a bulwark of institutional safeguards to defend those interests when American power is no longer so preeminent…. So that is where things stand today. The United States and France are engaged in a power struggle. American policymakers have an interest in ensuring that the United States does not get locked into a situation in which it can act only with the legitimacy of the United Nations. There is no point in being a “hyperpower” if you are subject to the same constraints that limit MULTILATERALISM SOFTENS THE JAGGED Luxembourg. French policymakers, on the other hand, have an interest in maneuverEDGES OF HEGEMONIC POWER, ing the United States into a situation in AND THEREFORE IS OFTEN THE MOST EFFECTIVE which it cannot act without the approval of the United Nations—and, of course, MEANS OF PRESERVING IT. without the approval of France. I reiterate: I do not blame French statesmen for trying to cut American objective of France. “We cannot accept… a politically unipolar “hyperpower” down to size. If the situation were reversed, world,” Vedrine said, and “that is why we are fighting for a mulAmerican statesmen would be doing precisely the same. That tipolar” world. The United States, on the other hand, is commitis the real world in which we live. Pretending that that world ted to maintaining a unipolar world. The national security does not exist will not change it. “There is grave danger,” strategy statement adopted by the United States in 2002 said that Senator Henry Cabot Lodge said, “in an unshared idealism.” “[o]ur forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adverFrench policymakers might therefore ask themselves whether, saries from pursuing a military buildup in hopes of surpassing, if the situation were reversed, they would be eager to cede or equaling, the power of the United States.” It can therefore French hyperpower to France’s power competitors. No one come as no surprise that a collision occurred in the Security can be certain; perhaps France would in fact break free of the Council: America and its power competitors are committed to geopolitical forces that have governed interstate relations since incompatible long-term strategic goals. Each uses the Security Thucydides. Given France’s relations recently with third-tier Council, as well as other international institutions such as power competitors such as Spain, Poland, and the rest of NATO, as an instrument for seeking to advance that goal. When “new” Europe, I doubt it. The French project has been to narthe lever is pulled in opposite directions, the result is predictable: row the power disparity between France and the United States, paralysis. We have, I might add, continued to see these same not the disparity between France and lesser powers that might forces at play in the Security Council since the Iraq war. It has balance the power of France. turned out that the much-vaunted “legitimacy” of the United I have tried to speak frankly this evening, as is appropriate Nations has counted for little in getting other nations to pitch between friends. And we are friends. That the United States and in and help rebuild Iraq. The modest resolution adopted by the France are power competitors does not mean that they cannot be Security Council last fall has resulted in no troop contributions friends—not only friends, but allies, allies because they continue whatsoever from France—even though France will benefit to have much in common. Many of us are embarrassed by juvegreatly from the increased security in Iraq that will be essential nile efforts of some Americans to rename “French fries” or to for rebuilding that nation as stable democracy. boycott French wine…. For all we read about increased antiPart of the reason for French reluctance is no doubt continAmericanism, I can report that, in many happy days in France uing pique over what it sees as American unilateralism, not in recent months, my wife and I have always been treated with only in fighting the war but also in making the peace. There is the utmost courtesy and indeed affection. And there is no reason some validity to this concern. The United States has too often in my mind why those same sentiments cannot characterize been heavy-handed in dealing with long-standing friends and Franco-American diplomatic relations as well. As Minister allies and has too often been shortsighted in thinking that it François-Poncet said so rightly 23 years ago, “France and can get what it wants by acting alone. Prudent American poliAmerica were born of sister revolutions, they are moved by the cymakers would recognize that American power often can be same principles and sustained by the same ideals.” And so whatadvanced more effectively by working through multilateral ever our differences, the truth is that, at the deepest level, at the institutions than by going around them. Multilateralism softlevel of our national commitments to human dignity and indiens the jagged edges of hegemonic power, and therefore is vidual freedom around the planet, Vive la France still means often the most effective means of preserving it. A greater Vive les Etats-Unis—and vice versa. 8 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004

Fletcher Launches Walter B. Wriston Chair of International Business TERRY ANN KNOPF

On December 18, 2003, more than 130 Tufts and

he said. “This gift builds upon the existing partnership we Fletcher alumni, as well as leaders from the worlds of business, have with the Wristons and with Citigroup. This relationship finance, and higher education, gathered at Citigroup’s headquaralready supports an existing endowed scholarship fund ters in New York City for a ceremony to formally install known as the Citicorp-Wriston Scholars Program, which aids Laurent L. Jacque as the first holder of the Walter B. Wriston annually ‘five men or women of the highest character, Chair of International Business. integrity, scholarship, and allJacque, professor of Interaround ability at Fletcher’….We national Finance and Banking hope our partnership lasts for and director of the International many years to come.” Business Relations Program at Even in retirement, Wriston, Fletcher, delivered the inaugural now 84, remains a towering figure lecture, titled “Financial Developon Wall Street, still writing op-ed ment and the Wealth of Nations: pieces for newspapers such as The Revisiting the Emerging Capital Wall Street Journal, still sought Markets Hypothesis.” out by other business leaders and On hand for the occasion were journalists for advice. After all, he Walter Wriston (F‘42), the former headed Citigroup and its principal chairman and CEO of Citibank subsidiary, Citibank, for 17 years, [now Citigroup] in whose honor retiring in 1984 after having been the endowed chair has been named, Walter B. Wriston and Professor Laurent L. Jacque with the company for 38 years. and his wife Kathy; Under Wriston’s leadership, Citigroup chairman Sandy Weil; Tufts President Lawrence S. Citibank expanded nationwide, helped pioneer the use of autoBacow; James Stern and Nathan Gantcher, Tufts trustees chairmatic-teller-machine cards, and became a leading player in the man and former chairman, respectively; Stephen W. Bosworth, credit card business. He was also a pioneer in building a global dean of The Fletcher School; and Fletcher’s board chairman organization long before the word “globalization” came into Peter Ackerman. vogue. He had a strong commitment to recruiting women as The Wriston chair builds on Fletcher’s expanding internamanagers, which, in the view of management guru Peter tional business program and complements the Citigroup/ Drucker, was perhaps his most significant accomplishment. Wriston Scholarship Fund already in place at Fletcher, which More than just an expert on banking, Wriston is regarded supports students who are interested in international busias an authority on the financial markets, corporate America, ness and the global marketplace. The new chair grew out of and the history of Wall Street. A Reuters reporter in 2002 a $2 million gift from Walter Wriston and his wife Kathy recalled his “storied business career.” And, in a 2002 article in to endow Fletcher’s first faculty chair in the international Money magazine, CNN’s Lou Dobbs hailed him as “one of the business area. preeminent financial minds of our time.” President Bacow delivered welcoming remarks. Calling At an elegant lunch in Citigroup’s Executive Dining Room, Wriston “a global citizen,” he said: “Walter has been lauded as Wriston talked to those gathered about one of his favorite the pioneer who built a global organization long before ‘global’ themes—corporate governance in an age of financial scandal. was a buzzword. He was never afraid to take risks and to learn “Although the velocity of change in the world is fast and getfrom his experiences.” ting faster,” he said, “there is one thing that never changes, Dean Bosworth noted that a sizable contingent of Fletcher and I hope that it will always be stressed in any discussion of and Tufts alumni—about 75—currently work at Citigroup. international business and finance. That is the overriding “Fletcher is very proud to call Walter [F ‘42] one of our own,” importance of integrity.” Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 9




Fletcher alumni, friends, and dignitaries turned out at the historic Organization of American States (OAS) building in Washington, D.C., for a sold-out black-tie affair to celebrate the school’s 70th anniversary. The evening, conceived of and organized by members of the Fletcher Club of D.C., began with dinners at the offices of the American Red Cross, thanks to alumna Marsha Evans (F‘76), and at the German Ambassador‘s Residence, hosted by Wolfgang Ischinger (F‘73) and his wife, Jutta. Dessert, dancing, and a silent auction followed at the OAS. Two awards were conferred during the evening. Fletcher Overseer Elizabeth Parker Powell (F’62) received the Dean’s Medal in recognition of her tireless efforts as a devoted alumna and member of the board. Matthew Bryza (F’88) received the first Young Alumni Award from the D.C. alumni club for his early career achievements, which exemplify the Fletcher mission. The event, a fund raiser for the school, netted more than $70,000.

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This page: Matthew Bryza (F‘88) and Fletcher board member Elizabeth Parker Powell (F‘62) were recognized for their contributions to their vocational fields and to Fletcher. Opposite page: (far right, top to bottom) The Honorable Malcolm Toon (F‘37) dances with Chris Bosworth; Dean Stephen W. Bosworth, guest and Dorothy Sobol, Ph.D. (F‘66), and the Honorable Phyllis Oakley (F‘57) at the OAS; Fletcher board chairman Peter Ackerman, Ph.D. (F‘69), and former Dean John R. Galvin at the German ambassador‘s residence; gala chairman David Schwartz (F‘87) and gala committee chairpersons Gabriella Rigg (F‘97) and Noah Rubins (F‘99). (Inset, top to bottom) Gala attendee makes a bid at the silent auction; Adele Fleet Bacow and Tufts President Lawrence S. Bacow dancing at the OAS.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 11

Showstoppers: Shultz Cracks Open the Pre-9/11 Pentagon E XC E R P T E D B Y T E R RY A N N K N O P F

In a recent article called “Nine Reasons Why We Never Sent Our Special Operations Forces After al Qaeda Before 9/11,” which appeared in The Weekly Standard on Jan. 26, 2004, Richard H. Shultz Jr., director of the International Security Studies program at The Fletcher School, argued there were a series of institutional, organizational, and intellectual constraints—“showstoppers”—that prevented the U.S. defense and intelligence agencies from taking offensive measures to challenge Al Qaeda during the Clinton administration. Moreover, he argued, the constraints still exist in the current Bush administration. Much of his findings and conclusions were based on original research and interviews he conducted as a Pentagon consultant over the past year and a half. Unfortunately, space considerations make it impossible to reprint his entire article and all nine reasons or “showstoppers.” However, we thought you might enjoy reading a brief excerpt from his article, which is reprinted with permission from The Weekly Standard. As terrorist attacks escalated in the 1990s, White House rhetoric intensified. President Clinton met each successive outrage with a vow to punish the perpetrators. After the Cole bombing in 2000, for example, he pledged to “find out who is responsible and hold them accountable.” And to prove he was serious, he issued an increasingly tough series of Presidential Decision Directives. The United States would “deter and preempt… individuals who perpetrate or plan to perpetrate such acts,” said Directive 39, in June 1995. Offensive measures would be used against foreign terrorists posing a threat to America, said Directive 62, in May 1998. Joint Staff contingency plans were revised to provide for offensive and preemptive options. And after al Qaeda’s bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, President Clinton signed a secret “finding” authorizing lethal covert operations against bin Laden. These initiatives led to the planning of several operations. Several plans have been identified in newspaper accounts since 9/11. For example, “snatch operations” in Afghanistan were planned to seize bin Laden and his senior lieutenants. After the 1998 embassy bombings, options for killing bin Laden were 12 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004

entertained, including a gunship assault on his compound in Afghanistan. [Special Operations Forces] assaults on al Qaeda’s Afghan training camps were also planned. And preemptive strikes against al Qaeda cells outside Afghanistan were planned, in North Africa and the Arabian Gulf. Then in May 1999, the White House decided to press the Taliban to end its support of bin Laden. The Counterterrorism and Security Group recommended supporting the Northern Alliance. These examples, among others, depict an increasingly aggressive, lethal, and preemptive counterterrorist policy. But not one of these operations—all authorized by President Clinton—was ever executed. From my interviews with [key civilian and military officials, serving and retired, who qualify as counterterrorism experts in the later 1980s and 1990s], I distilled [a series of] mutually reinforcing, self-imposed constraints that kept the special mission units sidelined, even as al Qaeda struck at American targets around the globe and trumpeted its intention to do more of the same. These showstoppers formed an impenetrable phalanx ensuring that all high-level policy discussions, tough new presidential directives, revised contingency plans, and actual dress rehearsals for missions would come to nothing. TERRORISM AS CRIME

During the second half of the 1980s, terrorism came to be defined by the U.S. government as a crime, and terrorists as criminals to be prosecuted. ”Patterns of Global Terrorism,” a report issued by the State Department every year since 1989, sets forth guidance about responding to terrorism. Year after year prior to 9/11, a key passage said it was U.S. policy to “treat terrorists as criminals, pursue them aggressively, and apply the rule of law.” Even now, when President Bush has

defined the situation as a war on terrorism, “Patterns of Global Terrorism,” says U.S. policy, are to “bring terrorists to justice for their crimes.” Criminalization had a profound impact on the Pentagon, said General Schoomaker. It came to see terrorism as “not up to the standard of our definition of war, and therefore not worthy of our attention.” In other words, militaries fight other militaries. “And because it’s not war,” he added, “and we don’t act like we’re at war, many of the Defense Department’s tools are off the table.” The Pentagon’s senior leadership made little if any effort to argue against designating terrorism as a crime, Schoomaker added derisively. “If you declare terrorism a criminal activity, you take from Defense any statutory authority to be the leader in responding,” a long-serving [Pentagon] department official [said]. Whenever the White House proposed using SOF against terrorists, it found itself facing “a band of lawyers at Justice defending their turf.” They would assert, said this old hand at special operations, that the Pentagon lacked authority to use force—and “lawyers in the Defense Department would concur.

where terrorists trained and planned—Afghanistan, Lebanon, Sudan, Yemen—remained off-limits. Those were not areas where the Defense Department intended to fight. A very senior SOF officer who had served on the Joint Staff in the 1990s told me that more than once he heard terrorist strikes characterized as “a small price to pay for being a superpower.” N O L E G A L AU T H O R I T Y

August 1998 was a watershed for the White House. The embassy bombings led to the reexamination of preemptive military options. President Clinton proposed using elite SOF counterterrorism units to attack bin Laden, his lieutenants, and al Qaeda’s infrastructure. Also considered was unconventional warfare, a core SOF mission very different from counterterrorism. The Special Operations Command’s “Special Operations in Peace and War” defines unconventional warfare as “military and paramilitary operations conducted by indigenous or surrogate forces who are organized, trained, equipped, and directed by an external source.” For the White House, this meant assisting movements

“RUMSFELD MIGHT THINK WE’RE AT WAR WITH TERRORISM,” OBSERVED ONE FORMER GENERAL, “BUT I’LL BET HE ALSO THINKS HE’S AT WAR WITH THE PENTAGON. THE REAL WAR’S HAPPENING RIGHT THERE IN HIS BUILDING. IT’S A WAR OF THE CULTURE. HE CAN’T GO TO WAR BECAUSE HE CAN’T GET HIS ORGANIZATION UP FOR IT.” They argued that we have no statutory authority because this is essentially a criminal matter.” In effect, the central tool for combating terrorism would not be military force. Extradition was the instrument of choice. This reduced the Pentagon’s role to providing transportation for the Justice Department.

like the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan. Both the Special Operations Command’s counterterrorism units and Special Forces training for and executing unconventional warfare operate clandestinely. But because such operations are secret, the question arose in the 1990s whether the department had the legal authority to execute them.


Since terrorism had been classified as crime, few Pentagon officials were willing to call it a clear and present danger to the United States—much less grounds for war. Any attempt to describe terrorism in those terms ran into a stone wall. Even after bin Laden declared war on America in a 1998 fatwa, and bombed U.S. embassies to show his followers that he meant business in exhorting them to “abide by Allah’s order by killing Americans… anywhere, anytime, and wherever possible,” the Pentagon still resisted calling terrorism war. It wasn’t alone. A CIA assessment of the fatwa acknowledged that if a government had issued such a decree, one would have had to consider it a declaration of war, but in al Qaeda’s case it was only propaganda. Of course, Washington continued to try to arrest those who had carried out these [terrorist] acts. But the places


The mainstream military often dismisses special operations as too risky. To employ SOF requires open-minded political and military leadership willing to balance risks against potential gains. Supple judgment was in short supply in the Pentagon in the 1990s. The other side of the risk-aversion coin is policymakers’ demand for fail-safe options. A general who served in the Special Operations Command in the 1990s encountered “tremendous pressure to do something,” he said, but at the same time, the requirement was for “perfect operations, no casualties, no failure.” There were some “great opportunities” to strike at al Qaeda, “but you couldn’t take any risk in doing so. You couldn’t have a POW, you couldn’t lose a man. You couldn’t have anybody hurt.” It was Catch-22. Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 13

Water, Water Everywhere Six-school collaboration fuels new graduate program at Tufts M A R J O R I E H O WA R D

It’s a bright, cold winter day, and sun streams into a conference room at the School of Veterinary Medicine in Grafton. Some 20 people from six different Tufts schools—physicians, engineers, veterinarians, professors, researchers, clinicians, a priest—are seated around a long table. An easel is at the front of the room, and pages are filled with scrawls, arrows, ideas. The members of the group have taken an entire day from their busy schedules to meet and talk about one topic: water. The room crackles as ideas are traded back and forth: How is climate change affecting water supply? Does the incidence of water-borne disease increase after a heavy rain that overflows sewers and contaminates surface water? Can sensors be developed to determine if a water supply system has been tampered with? Why do the major religions have so many rituals involving water, such as baptism or the ritual bath used in Judaism? How can countries on the opposite side of the same river resolve their conflicts and share water? The group comprises the faculty for a new interdisciplinary graduate-degree program called Water: Systems, Science and Society (WSSS) that will start in the fall with some 30 students. The program is a partnership among six schools and grew out of a challenge issued by Tufts President Lawrence S. Bacow to the Graduate Education Council two years ago. Bacow asked the newly created group to come up with a program that would unite the three Tufts campuses. He asked members to find a common interest that could be studied from different perspectives and bring a multidisciplinary approach to research. E-MAILS AND ELECTRICIT Y

The idea to study water came from Beatrice Rogers, academic dean and professor at the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy. She knew that Paul Kirshen, a research professor of civil and environmental engineering, studied water, so she gave him a call, and they set up a meeting. “We e-mailed everyone we knew at Tufts who studied water in some regard and told them to bring their friends,” Rogers recalled. “Some 25 people showed up at our first meeting, and the electricity was amazing. There was enormous energy and people throwing ideas out and jumping up and adding things on the board.” What Rogers and Kirshen discovered was that they had chosen a topic that could unite people who study climate change with those who are learning about famine in Africa, 14 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004

with engineers who study William Moomaw hydrology and veterinarians who study animal health. Religion, agriculture, household behavior, medicine, international relations—all can involve the study of water through their own particular prism. “Water is fundamental to our survival as human beings,” said Kirshen, who is codirector of WSSS with Rogers. “Water also has a very important spiritual role in peoples’ lives as well as in the major religions. People want to be around water. It’s prime real estate. They are drawn to water around the world.” Early on, the group made the decision that the program would not create a new Ph.D. program. Instead, students will earn a doctoral or master’s degree in an already-existing graduate-degree program but specialize in water. The hope is that the students will then become part of the new community of water specialists at Tufts and participate in seminars, workshops, internships, and research. In addition to fulfilling the requirements of their department’s doctoral or master’s-degree programs, students will be required to take such core courses as water resources planning and policy; the biological aspects of water, health, and nutrition; systems analysis; and water science and engineering. Graduates of the program are expected to work for the government, do academic research, become consultants, or work for nonprofit organizations. T I M E LY A N D I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A RY

“It’s an extraordinary program,” said Provost Jamshed Bharucha, who was instrumental in helping to develop the program. “It really is a subject that is truly interdisciplinary and timely because water is a limited resource.” There are more than 30 faculty members who will serve as teachers and advisors to WSSS students, including Bacow, whose research area is environmental economics and policy; Fletcher’s William Moomaw, whose research area is environmental policy and negotiations; the Fares Center‘s Leila Fawaz, who studies interstate dispute in the Middle East; and Peter Walker, director of the Feinstein International Famine Center.

Netherlands Notes S . G . B O R G E R S O N ( F ’ 0 3 ) , J . C . P E R R Y, G . R . W E I T Z ( F ’ 0 3 ) , AND E. HIDALGO NORIEGA (F’98)

Four Fletcher “Neptunes”—one recent Ph.D., two graduating students, and one professor—visited the Netherlands in March 2003 to explore the Dutch oceanic experience, both for its intrinsic value and for how it might relate to other cultures and societies. In our six days and 800 miles of travel, we covered the compact geographical core of oceanic Netherlands (Holland and Zeeland), visiting museums, water control projects, bookstores, and harbors, interviewing curators, professors and teachers, students, clerks, engineers, and businessmen, collecting information wherever we could, even in casual conversation. WAT E R

If we were to choose one word to sum up the Netherlands, we thought it might be water. But perhaps “wet” might be more descriptive than water, both in the sense of ocean as source, avenue, arena, cultural metaphor, and in a figurative sense relating to alcohol. The Dutch were pioneers in distilling liquor; their enthusiasm for its consumption would seem to be an historical constant. The Netherlands, placed between land and water, is locked into a continuing struggle for survival against the sea even now, as the land sinks and the sea rises. Sixty-five percent of the nation is now shielded by dikes. But the Dutch are also alert to the possibilities the sea presents for fishing and trade. Thus the Dutch have both fought the sea and embraced it. We were impressed by the power of water and the awesome degree of control the Dutch have come to exercise over it. The Netherlands is a “hydraulic society” (but not by sociologist Karl Wittfogel’s definition). Here water control seems to have promoted cooperation without encouraging authoritarianism, perhaps because of the geography of the challenge. Wittfogel wrote about north China and other ancient riverine cultures where a wide riverine plain made flood prevention on a large scale essential. This was purely defensive; the objective was to preserve space. The Netherlands, with its marsh and dunes, formed a more complex environment. Water control was local and small-scale, defensive but also creative. Making space became the objective. The result is a purposeful landscape with a Mondrian geometry, and you realize that wherever you stand and walk, you are likely to be below sea level. In the Netherlands, water, in motion, seems to offer escape from landbound isolation and poverty. The windmill is everywhere, both in its antique form and in its contemporary metal-

lic shape grouped into wind farms for the generating of electricity. In preindustrial times the Dutch applied wind power for pumping water but also for such tasks as sawing timber. Thus wind power spawned the preindustrial shipyard. In the Dutch tradition, there seems a clear linkage within hydraulic engineering, from windmills to sluices, dry docks, offshore oil platforms, and the great Delta Works flood barrier. The Delta Works is one of the largest construction projects in world history and has been called the “8th wonder of the world,” a nice illustration of Dutch innovation as well as tradition in civil engineering. In essence, the Delta Works is a vast complex of dams and locks, steel gates, and towering sluice caissons forming a storm surge barrier attempting to control the nation’s saltwater frontier. The Dutch believe it reduces flood risk from once in 80 years to once in 4,000. The project was 25 years in the making and Professor George Embree (F‘56) remarked that it was built in response to the loss of empire after World War II, as the Dutch struggled to find a new sense of national purpose. In the course of construction, plans were modified to accommodate a new realization of the ecological cost of the planned solid dam. Instead, the Dutch built an open barrier that can control water flows but at the same time preserve the local ecosystem, with its many rare plants and animals. Subsequently, Delta Works engineers helped build the new Hong Kong airport, and in a world increasingly conscious of the dangers of global warming, this innovative engineering may prove to be highly useful in many places. THE CIT Y

Our trip demonstrated the small distances among major cities in the Netherlands. The nation has been highly urbanized since early modern times and is now one of the world’s most densely populated nations. Amsterdam is built on herring bones, they say, to which we might add broken clay pipes, buttons and fish hooks, nails, pewter spoons, and cloth shoes. The city sprang up in early medieval times and illustrates the Dutch capacity to turn adversity to advantage. The catastrophic flooding of the Zuider Zee area made Amsterdam a sheltered seaport with ready access to the North Sea. Thus the city could grow from 50,000 people in 1600 to 200,000 in 1650. This “temple of trade,” a place without palaces, plazas, or parks, became the nation’s largest city | Continues on next page Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 15

The presence and use of water is central to life in the Netherlands, and examples of ways the Dutch harness their natural resources abound. This story‘s authors are pictured in center photo below: (left to right) E. Hidalgo Noriega, J. C. Perry, S. G. Borgerson, and G. R. Weitz.

where people were free to pursue wealth, and the merchant became the new hero. It was a place of freedom; refugee Jews would call Amsterdam “the Jerusalem of the West.” It became a place of prosperity where even the working class could eat eggs, butter, cheese, and fresh greens to accompany their salt herring and beer. And a spirit of egalitarianism or at least meritocracy prevailed so that Voltaire could say of Amsterdam: “Here, nobody stands in the street to see a prince ride by.” The city is still a port, handling traditional commodities such as coffee, sugar, timber, and half the world’s cacao, although Amsterdamers are scarcely aware of this happening. Fish auctions now take place online, on the Internet while the catch is still at sea. Herring does not appear on restaurant menus. As a resource, the ocean seems more important now for its natural gas. The Dutch put the first oil rig in the North Sea in 1961. Rotterdam is the second city of the Netherlands. Flattened by the Luftwaffe in May 1940, it had the benefit of a fresh start after the war. The world’s largest seaport now proudly calls itself “main port and brain port,” a superport for the supership. Rotterdam enjoys a deep channel ten miles to Europort and the open sea, the tidy spaces along the banks crowded with fuel storage tanks, refineries, drydocks, piers, and warehouses illustrating the Dutch genius for planning and organization. Rotterdam serves as Europe’s fuel pump, not just for oil and gas, but also

Continues from page 15 |

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for vitamins. Importing fruit juice concentrate from Brazil, the world’s largest producer, the Dutch blend, pack, and ship it to consumers. We note that the Dutch now, as before, concentrate on process, not product. They are the quintessential middlemen, highly dependent both on supplier and customer. Europort is remote from where people live. Because big ships require big ports, shipping is remote from popular view. And the whole process has become highly automated, directly involving very few people. The nineteenth-century age of steam began this separation because steam power required fewer people to run bigger ships. Today children no longer see ships. Barges yes, but not seagoing vessels. (Nor do they see cows, despite the fact that the Netherlands is the world’s third-largest agricultural exporter and the dairy industry is part of that.) The Dutch like to think that Rotterdam is part of a new role for the Netherlands as a comprehensive transport center. But Schipol, a world-class airport, built below sea level on the bed of a former lake, is now developed to the maximum, and any expansion is stymied by resistence to noise pollution. And our Dutch friends complain of transport inefficiencies, of roads subject to traffic jams, of disrupted and undependable train service. The nation needs high-speed rail but environmentalists are fighting it. An intense struggle between environmentalism and the economy across a wide variety of activities seems to characterize the Netherlands today. CO M M E R C E A N D T H E G O L D E N AG E

In our investigation of the seventeenth-century Golden Age when the Netherlands was the richest part of Europe and active globally, we noted three characteristics of Dutch success: technology, commercial skills, and an acceptance, even embrace, of social, ethnic, and cultural diversity. Dutch ships were extraordinarily cheap to build and to operate. The Dutch developed Europe’s leading armaments industry, standardizing weapons and munitions, and selling even to their Spanish enemies. Despite politics, the Dutch simply went about their business. Joost Schokkenbroek, curator at the Scheepvaart Museum, suggested that Dutch opportunism was analogous to the American military-industrial complex selling weapons to Iraq and then going to war against it. Dutch commerce began with the sale of herring caught in the North Sea, spread to the Baltic for buying timber and wheat, to the Mediterranean for salt, olive oil, and wine, and to far Asia for acquiring spices and luxury textiles. With government encouragement, merchants formed the East India Company (VOC), the largest trading and transport organization in the world, in which even carpenters, preachers, and professors could be shareholders. Limited liability encouraged risk taking. Since the Dutch produced little themselves to sell, theirs was an economy of buying, holding, and selling. They were adept at waiting for the tide of good prices, and

their business was aided by the relative cheapness of capital. Whaling, the Baltic trade, and herring fisheries were characterized by small, highly competitive companies and this stimulated innovation and improvement. For the Dutch, acquiring territory and proselytizing Christianity were always secondary to trade. Mercury took precedence over Mars. M A R I N E A R TS

We were struck by how many Dutch paintings, regardless of subject, have an oceanic dimension. Beside landscapes with sea or river in the background and ships sailing therein, other paintings frequently carry maritime references. A portrait might depict a window in the background showing ships on the North Sea; a subject might be leaning on a globe or holding a map, with nautical instruments lying on a table beside him. Still-lifes might show a plate of herring as well as a bowl of fruit. And the museum itself is located on the banks of a canal, with a watery view from the giftshop window. In Holland marine painting emerged shortly before 1600 and became a preeminent expression of oceanic culture. Painting on a wide variety of themes was then popular. Artists produced literally millions of canvases. Butchers and cobblers hung them in their shops. Ordinary people lined the walls of their homes from floor to ceiling with art. Perhaps seamen and ships showed a collective identity for the nation when little else did in the republic of Seven Provinces. Dutch marine art peaked simultaneously with the Dutch economy (1620–1680) but continued its presence in the fabric of Dutch life, expressed in painted tiles, prints, sculpture, tapestries, book illustrations, globes, and weather vanes. We saw a large office building closely resembling a ship and a museum of science and technology built in the shape of a ship emerging from the water. REINVENTION

Like New England, the Netherlands, lacking the requisite natural resources, was bypassed by the industrial revolution and it lost its economic leadership to others. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were a time of quiet, of decay, the pessimist might say. But the Dutch have exhibited a remarkable capacity for reinvention and could we say that they are entering a “platinum age”? A recent article in the Financial Times characterizes the Dutch as dealing wisely with paradox: “they are a monarchy but behave like republicans; they are thrifty yet generous, blunt but caring, protesting yet tolerant. Above all they encourage the long-term view.” Dutch trade and finance continue to flourish. The Netherlands is a great complex of money, goods, and information, handled with precision, speed, and trust. Dutch society seems to continue to be ahead on social issues. The oceanic experience, although less pervasive than it was in the past, continues to be critical to the economy and society, and offers an inspiring example to others.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 17


Daniel Patrick Moynihan (F’49) On March 26, 2003, Fletcher, the U.S., and indeed the world lost a distinguished American senator, scholar, and diplomat. Described as “the nation’s best thinker among politicians since Lincoln and its best politician among thinkers since Jefferson” (Almanac of American Politics), Moynihan was known for his strong character and independent thinking. A year since his death, Fletcher News remembers this one-of-a-kind leader with stories submitted by his Fletcher classmates and colleagues. I have very many (memories) of a warm

friendship that began when Moynihan was a student across the street at Tufts and has extended for fifty-six years. I have…a picture that he gave me back when I visited him in the Nixon White House. It showed (Harry) Haldeman and (John) Ehrlichman sitting at one end of the table in the Fish Room and Moyn standing at the other as a sort of odd man out. He wrote on the picture: “To Brew, who would understand the feeling.” …In 1949, there was a planned visit to the UN by a substantial group of us, including Moynihan. On our evening out in New York he was our escort and guide to great jazz and great food. As the evening drew to a close, he invited us to his place in Hell’s Kitchen. He took us into this terrible and decrepit bar on the second floor of which was his home. As he opened the door to the place, he said, “Welcome, sit where you please; here on the right is the Rainbow Room and on the left is the Pump Room.” The spirit and grace of that gesture taught me that I knew a truly extraordinary person—a great democrat, small and large “D”, and a great American. —BREWSTER C. DENNY, PH.D. (F’48)

stances during the Congo “events” of 1961, Pat, who was the U.S. representative to the UN, sent me words of encouragement. Pat and I were on opposite ends of the domestic political spectrum while at Fletcher, which made for lively debate as we drank beer together. Since then we both moved toward the center or to a more pragmatic approach to many issues. —THE HONORABLE LEWIS HOFFACKER (F’49)


You may or may not be aware that when Ambassador Moynihan was posted to New Delhi, he was very much involved in restructuring the American Embassy School (AES) there. It is one of the leading international schools in the world, a wonderful institution with grades K through 12, open not only to children of members of the Foreign Service and other members of the U.S. diplomatic mission but to children of other Americans resident in New Delhi, children of other foreign diplomats, and children of resident representatives of various NGOs. The sterling reputation of AES is thanks in no small part to the inspiration and imagination of Ambassador Moynihan.

[Moynihan] came to give a talk at U. of Chicago, where I was a sophomore, right after being recalled as U.S. ambassador to India. Typically, he thought of getting fired as everybody else’s problem, not his… His account of his firing: He was negotiating a treaty regarding usage of Diego Garcia, and of course it was tough going for several months mainly due to Indians wanting to play the USSR card to extract the best deal from the U.S.… Things came to a head when M pushed for a close but the Indians still wanted to bargain and again reminded M for the umpteenth time they hold the balance of power in the Indian Ocean. To which M replied, “You know, if we really wanted to, we could name it the Sea of Madagascar tomorrow.” As the laughter in the room died down, M pleaded with mock innocence, “C’mon, it was an Irish joke!” The quote was leaked to the press and next morning the local headline was “U.S. Ambassador Insults India!” It was quiet for a few days | Continues on page 35


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Long before I came to Fletcher, I was an avid admirer of Ambassador Moynihan while he served as U.S. representative to the UN….One particularly vivid memory was the way he embraced Ambassador Chaim Herzog of Israel following the ignominious vote in the General Assembly which branded Zionism as a form of racism. His defiant words still ring clear: “The United States…does not acknowledge, it will not abide by, it will never acquiesce in this infamous act.” In 1991, the resolution was rescinded.

Pat and I were classmates and friends

during the 1948–49 academic year at Fletcher. We maintained contact intermittently during the next half century…When I, as U.S. consul in Katanga, was under difficult circum-

Senator Moynihan had not left along with most of the senators, all the press, and most of the audience. He asked a question and noted that he agreed with the points made by a “fellow Fletcherite.”

In the mid-’90s, as the last in a long list of witnesses before the Senate Finance Committee, I testified in favor of normalizing relations between the United States and Vietnam. I happily noticed that


FACULT Y Sandra E. Black and Lisa M. Lynch. “What’s Driving the New Economy: Understanding the Benefits of Workplace Innovation.” The Economics Journal (February 2004).

Bud Duvall. Cambridge University Press (forthcoming, 2004). —“US-UN relations after Iraq: the end of the world (order) as we know it?” European Journal of International Law (forthcoming, 2004).

Sandra E. Black, Lisa M. Lynch, and Anya Krivelyova.“How Workers Fare When Employers Innovate.” Industrial Relations (The Effect of New Work Practices on Workers, special edition) (January 2004): 44–67.

Michael Klein, Scott Schuh and Robert Triest. “Job Creation, Job Destruction and the Real Exchange Rate.” Journal of International Economics 59, no. 2 (March 2003). — “Work and Play: International Evidence of Gender Equality in Employment and Sports.” Journal of Sports Economics (forthcoming, 2004).

Bruce Everett (F’70).“Iraq doesn’t have to become a cliché of oilwealth excess.” Christian Science Monitor, 16 September 2003. Michael Glennon. United Nations: Time for a New “Inquiry”? 5 International Law Forum du droit international, 283–287 (2003). — “Sometimes a Great Notion.” Woodrow Wilson Quarterly (Fall 2003). — “Why the Security Council Failed.” Foreign Affairs (May/June 2003). Reprinted in American Foreign Policy: Cases and Choices, edited by James F. Hoge Jr. and Gideon Rose, Foreign Affairs Books, 2003. Anthony Gribe and Laurent Jacque.“Les jours de l’euro sont-ils comptés?” Le Monde, 15 January 2004. Alan K. Henrikson.“Paradise and Power? A Fulbright Perspective.” Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations 18, no. 4 (October 2003): 431–49. —“Why the United States and Europe See the World Differently: An Atlanticist’s Rejoinder to the Kagan Thesis.” EUSA Review (European Union Studies Association) 16, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 1, 3–10. Ian Johnstone.“The Power of Interpretive Communities.” In Power and Global Governance, edited by Michael Barnett and

Lisa M. Lynch.“Comment on ‘Inequality in America: What Role for Human Capital Policies?’ by James J. Heckman.” In Human Capital Policies, edited by Benjamin Friedman. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. Adil Najam.“The Human Dimensions of Environmental Insecurity.” In Green Planet Blues: Environmental Politics from Stockholm to Johannesburg, edited by Ken Conca and Geoffrey Dabelko. Boulder: Westview Press, 2004. — “The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization.” Global Governance 9, no. 3 (2003): 367–384. — “Get rid of all nuclear arms.” USA Today; 19 February 2004. Alan Wachman (F’84).“Yiguo, liangzhi (one country, two systems).” In Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, edited by Edward Davis. Routledge (forthcoming, 2004). —Review of Taiwan: A Political History, by Denny Roy. Journal of Asian Studies (forthcoming, 2004). ALUMNI Zachary Abuza (F’94). Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.

Richard Allen, Salvatore SchiavoCampo, Thomas Columkill Garrity (F’98). Assessing and Reforming Public Financial Management: A New Approach. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, November 2003. Tomohisa Hattori (F’83).“The Moral Politics of Foreign Aid.” Review of International Studies 29, no. 2 (April 2003): 229–247. Kent Jones (F’79). Who’s Afraid of the WTO? New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. William Miles (F’80).“Mid-Life Crisis, Kibbutz Style.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 21 (2003): 82–100. — “The Nazi Holocaust and the Rwandan Genocide. The politics of comparison.” Journal of Genocide Research 5 (2003): 131–135. Kingsley Moghalu (F’92).“The Other War: Fighting Global Pandemics.” Global Viewpoint. The Los Angeles Times Syndicate International, 27 May 2003. — “Charles Taylor: A Date with Justice.” World Press Review (September/October 2003). Ngan Thuy Nguyen (F’96). “Grandmother.” In Another Day in Paradise: Front Line Stories from International Aid Workers, edited by Carol Bergman. London: Earthscan, 2003. Yulia Sinyagina-Woodruff (F’02). “Russia, Sovereign Default, Reputation and Access to Capital Markets.” Europe-Asia Studies 55, no. 4 (2003): 521–551. Skye Stephenson (F’83). The Spanish-speaking South Americans: Bridging Hemispheres. Intercultural Press, 2003. Rachmat Sukartiko (F’52). “Individual Diplomacy: Is It Feasible?” Image (March 2003): 29.

J. Alexander Thier (F’01). “Attacking Democracy From the Bench.” The New York Times, 26 January 2004. Richard Wise (GMAP’01) and John J. Whyte.“Resisting the ‘siren song’ in the interests of your client.” Boston Business Journal (October 10–16, 2003): 34. STUDENTS AND FELLOWS Karen Coppock (F’96 and Ph.D. candidate) and Colin Maclay. “Electronic Commerce Initiatives: A Regional Approach.” Info 5, no. 2. (2003): 17–23. Erin English (F’04).“Make nuclear proliferation a punishable crime.” Christian Science Monitor, 26 February 2004. James Holmes (F’98 and Ph.D. candidate). Police Power: Theodore Roosevelt, American Diplomacy, and World Order. Dulles, Va.: Brassey’s (forthcoming, 2004). — “Mahan, a ‘Place in the Sun,’ and Germany’s Quest for Sea Power.” Comparative Strategy 23 (forthcoming, 2004). — “A Lesson from Boyd: Unconventional Thinking Is the Key to Success in Iraq.” Navy Times, 3 November 2003. Ijlal Naqvi (F’04).“The disastrous 58(2)(b).” Daily Times (Pakistan), 2 January 2004. Christopher R. Tunnard (F’85 and Ph.D. candidate).“From StateControlled Media to the ‘Anarchy’ of the Internet: The Changing Influence of Communications and Information in Serbia in the 1990s.” Journal of Southeast European and Black Sea Studies (July 2003). Taleh Ziyadov and Elin E. Suleymanov (F’04).“Turkey and the Caucasus at the Edge of EU and NATO Enlargement.” Turkish Policy Quarterly 2, no. 4 (Winter 2003).

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 19



Assistant Professor of International Law IAN JOHNSTONE is currently looking into “deliberative legitimacy” in international organizations. Building on recent work he has done on the power of “interpretive communities” to set the parameters of legal discourse, even in political bodies like the Security Council of the United Nations (“Security Council deliberations: the power of the better argument,” 14(3) European Journal of International Law 437 [2003]), he is now trying to connect that idea to the literature on deliberative democracy, whose core principle is the notion that decisions must be backed by good arguments. “The implication for international organizations is that a gauge of the legitimacy of decision making in the organizations is the quality of deliberations that precede and follow the decisions,” he says. According to Johnstone, the subject is important because complaints about the “democratic deficit” in international organizations tend to focus on the composition and voting rules of powerful bodies like the UN Security Council, EU Council of Ministers, World Bank, and IMF. “Looking at the ‘deliberative deficit’ suggests avenues for reform of these institutions that may be more politically feasible than changing composition and voting rules, yet could be as important,” says Johnstone. “It also suggests avenues for further research on the legitimacy of international institutions, as well as the role of law and legal discourse in those institutions.”

book, we show that labor markets in the U.S. are characterized by a lot of creation and destruction of jobs, so-called ‘churning,’” says Klein. “International competition is one source of job destruction, but only one of many. International competition is also one of the sources of job creation, however, a point that is often missed in the media since job destruction is better press. Protectionism is not a good response to job destruction since international competition may not be a source of that destruction and, even more to the point, we should help people, not industries, and the focus should be on retraining and education, along with providing a social safety net. Protectionism only raises costs to sectors other than those being protected, and hurts consumers.” Another research topic of Klein’s is the effect of open capital accounts (“that is, the ability of people in a country to move money offshore, and to borrow from abroad”) on economic performance. Klein indicates that this, too, is a very controversial topic. “Even economists who are in favor of free trade, like Jagdish Bhagwati at Columbia, are not in favor of free capital account transactions. In my work, I show that capital account transactions do, in fact, promote growth, but only for countries that have good-quality institutions and government.” For this study, Klein developed a theoretical model and then tested it using data from 1976 to 1995 for a panel of over 70 countries. “The results show that countries with good institutions benefit from open capital accounts, but countries without good institutions do not,” says Klein.


Professor of International Economics MICHAEL KLEIN recently completed a book on the topic of the effect of international competition on manufacturing jobs in the United States. The book, Job Creation, Job Destruction, and International Competition, published by the Upjohn Insitute, was coauthored by Scott Schuh and Bob Triest, both of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. “In this 20 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004

LISA LYNCH, academic dean and William L. Clayton Professor of International Economics Affairs, has been working with Sandra Black at UCLA on a multiyear project that examines the productivity, wage, and employment outcomes associated with workplace innovation. With funding from the National Science Foundation, and using a longitudinal survey of U.S. firms that Lynch codevel-

oped with the U.S. Census Bureau, the two economists have examined the impact of workplace innovation on productivity and how this may explain part of the so-called “New Economy” phenomenon in the United States (see Black and Lynch entry, Recent Publications, p. 19. In addition, they have looked at how workers are affected (both in terms of wages and employment) when firms innovate. As part of this focus on workers, Lynch and Black have also examined the role of unions in facilitating workplace innovation and in turn higher productivity. “There is still considerable experimentation by firms in workplace design and organization so our work helps to document what is working and not across a large and representative sample of U.S. employers,” says Lynch, who was recently appointed as a Class C director for the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. “Much of the previous work on workplace innovation has focused on specific industries or firms and so it has been hard to generalize to the economy as a whole. Understanding what is driving the historically high productivity growth we have seen in the U.S. since that second half of the 1990s is important in terms of predicting its sustainability and the ability of other countries to replicate this growth. We are currently examining the adoption process of companies of workplace innovation and how this is related to their investments in new technology. “Our audience is employers, unions, public policymakers and scholars…. There is also considerable interest by those trying to understand the productivity miracle of the U.S. There is widespread agreement that investments in new technology helped spark the productivity growth surge we saw in the latter half of the 1990s. However, we argue that workplace innovation also played a significant role in this growth and this suggests that productivity growth may be sustainable even when investments in new technology slow down.”

Quotes of Note D I P LO M AC Y A N D P O L I T I C S

Associate Professor of International Negotiation and Diplomacy ADIL NAJAM is the research director for a major project being done by IISD and ICTSD in Geneva on a “Southern Agenda for Trade and Environment Negotiation,” which involves six regional workshops with senior government negotiators and experts from developing countries (three have already been held in Senegal, Chile, and Sri Lanka) and extensive interviews with trade negotiators in Geneva. He has also been writing a series of papers on evaluating the last ten years of global environmental negotiations and the role and evolving interests of developing countries in these negotiations. “In particular I have focused on negotiations dealing with climate change and with trade and environment,” says Najam.

Alan Wachman

During his sabbatical, Associate Professor of International Politics ALAN WACHMAN (F’84) has been working on a book project pertaining to the evolution of attitudes in the leadership of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) toward territorial integrity, with a focus on Taiwan. “My work explores the deceptively difficult question: why Taiwan? That is, since 1949 what has impelled the PRC leadership to seek sovereignty over the island and why have the PRC’s rationales for sovereignty over Taiwan not been applied to other territories that

might just as easily be the object of irredentist claims?” says Wachman. “From its emergence at the moment the PRC was established on October 1, 1949, this enduring question and the controversy it engendered has had potentially perilous consequences for the stability of the western Pacific. Although a fragile calm has generally prevailed in relations across the Taiwan Strait, the fragility is ordinarily depicted as if it could easily give way to sudden and, perhaps, consuming violence. If it does, the United States is certain to be drawn in even more deeply and Japan, too, can expect to be implicated. My principal objective is to expose the contingent nature of the PRC’s stated rationale for territorial integrity. That is, to demonstrate that the PRC’s rhetoric about Taiwan should not be accepted at face value. What the PRC leadership has said and the official pronouncements about Taiwan may not reveal the deeper reasons why the leadership of the PRC sees sovereignty over the island as such a vital matter.” Wachman continues, “Secondarily, because the stated rationale for sovereignty has evolved in the past century, my work will suggest the international and domestic conditions that have caused the PRC to adjust its argument for sovereignty. “[T]he book is intended primarily for policy analysts, policymakers, and scholars, as a reflection of the aims of the editors of the Asian Security Series. For that readership, understanding more about the gap between what the PRC has said in the past half century and what its actions suggests it really means may offer greater insight about the PRC’s flexibility, and the limits of that flexibility, regarding the issue of Taiwan’s status. That, in turn, may help to refine and guide U.S. policy toward the PRC and Taiwan in a way that contributes, rather than erodes, stability.”

“What this suggests is that a military policy—although forceful and useful in some cases, like Afghanistan—is not a recipe for getting rid of terrorism.” Antonia Chayes, “Al Qaeda’s changing threat to U.S.,” Christian Science Monitor, 26 February 2004, on reports that regional terror networks continue to pose a serious threat to the U.S.

“We have a huge leap forward in people responding negatively about American foreign policy as a result of the things that are shown on TV and in the way they are reported and visually enhanced.” Andrew Hess, “Al Hurra joins battle for news, hearts, and minds,” Christian Science Monitor, 24 February 2004.

“Are we really surprised that the rest of the world rolls its eyes when we pontificate about the dangers of nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction in general—as when Bush referred to them as ‘the greatest threat to humanity today?‘” Adil Najam, “Get rid of all nuclear arms,” USA Today (op-ed), 19 February 2004.

“The UN has learned two things from Iraq: that it’s difficult to do its job if its mandate is unclear, and to be wary of being used by the U.S. as providing a fig leaf of international legitimacy to its operations.” Hurst Hannum, “U.S. seeks global aid for Iraq,” Christian Science Monitor, 21 January 2004.

“In the Middle East, the family is a fortress against the rest of the society and a massive obstacle to democratic politics and economic efficiency.” Lawrence Harrison, “Rebuilding Iraq Is Nothing a Few Middle-Class Guys Couldn’t Solve,” The New York Times, 21 December 2003.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 21


of International Environmental Policy William Moomaw. Jamil Dandany hosted the event, which was organized with the help of David Hwa and other members of the Houston Tufts Alliance.

ATLANTA Wendy Gutierrez (F’96) Club leader Wendy Gutierrez hosted a potluck dinner in April. She encourages newcomers to the Atlanta area to get in touch.

KOSOVO Fiona Evans (F’00)

BANGKOK Kusuma Snitwongse (F’57) If you are in Bangkok and would like to get in touch with other alumni, please contact Kusuma Snitwongse. BEIJING Stephane Grand (F’98) Mosud Mannan (F’89) Stephane Grand and Mosud Mannan encourage alumni in the region to get in touch with them. BERLIN Jan-Philipp Görtz (F’98) Newly arrived Jan-Philipp Görtz asks anyone in the Berlin area to please get in touch with him. He and several alumni in the area are beginning to plan club activities. Don’t miss out! BOSTON Erika de la Rosa (F’00) The Fletcher Club of Boston hosted its second annual holiday party at the Union Oyster House in December. On February 25, a panel of Boston-based alumni spoke to current students at Fletcher as part of the first alumnistudent networking event in Boston. The event drew more than 150 students and two dozen alumni. If you’re in Boston but not receiving news of club events, send an e-mail to club president Erika de la Rosa.

22 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004

Members of the new Kosovo club at a winter get-together.

BRUSSELS Katrina Destree (F’95) katrinadestree@

GREECE Marilena Griva (F’ 02)

The Brussels club hosted a reception as part of the first Fletcher European Career Trip in January at the Royal Windsor Hotel, with the generous help of Craig Owens (GMAP ’01). Visitors to Brussels, please contact Katrina Destree.

Thomas Varvitsiotis (F’ 99)

For the latest news on alumni activities in Budapest and around Central Europe, please contact Anita Orban.

The Fletcher Club of Greece invites all Fletcher alumni to join the new electronic community of Now that Kostas Karamanlis (F’ 82) has won the election for prime minister, the club is eager to host an event to greet him before the Olympics. If you are in Greece and would like to connect with other Fletcher alumni, please contact Marilena Griva or Thomas Varvitsiotis.

CHICAGO H. Jürgen Hess (F’86)

HONG KONG Tara Holeman (F’97)

Alumni in the Chicagoland area, and visitors to the area, are encouraged to contact Jürgen Hess.

Dean Bosworth visited Hong Kong in March and met many Fletcher and Tufts alumni at symposia held on March 19 and 21. Please contact Tara Holeman if you are interested in connecting with alumni in Hong Kong.

BUDAPEST Anita Orban (F’01)

CHILE Andres Montero (F’85) German Olave (F’97) If you are in Chile, please be in touch with Andres Montero or German Olave.

HOUSTON Jamil Al Dandany (F’87) jamil.dandany@aramcoservices. com David Hwa (F’77) Fletcher and Tufts alumni gathered at the offices of Aramco Services on Thursday, February 19, for a presentation by Professor

Fletcher has a new club in Kosovo! Alumni in the area are asked to please get in touch with Fiona Evans. LONDON Andrea Wilczynski (F’98) The Fletcher Club of London is being revived, so if you are in London, please be in touch with Andrea Wilczynski. The first Fletcher Symposium in London was held in December, followed by an alumni-student reception as part of Fletcher first European Career Trip in January. Don’t miss out on the next club event! MALAYSIA Shah Azmi (F’86) Please contact Shah Azmi if you are interested in assisting or participating in alumni activities in Malaysia. MIAMI Daniel Ades (F’03) If you are in the Miami area, please get in touch with Daniel Ades, as he organizes activities for alumni. MIDDLE EAST Walid Chamoun (F ‘00) Though the past months have been a bit slow for the Middle East Alumni Association, great strides have been made toward organizing a forum for Fletcherites interested in the Middle East. We hope to use this opportunity to bring many Fletcher colleagues from the Arab world, Israel,

Iran, and Turkey together. If you wish to become a member or be informed of the upcoming event, please e-mail Walid Chamoun. NAIROBI Anne Angwenyi (F’02) anne_angwenyi@alumni.tufts. edu Vivian Chao (F’02) Anne Angwenyi and Vivian Chao are starting to plan activities for alumni in Nairobi. If you are in the area, please get in touch with them. NEW YORK Philip Aquilino (F’96) E-mail: Web site: The Fletcher Club of New York is busier than ever organizing intellectual and social events for alumni of all ages. The club’s holiday party, hosted by the Hungarian representative to the UN at the Hungarian Mission, boasted nothing less than dinner and wine-tasting, folk dancing, and a visit by NY Governor Pataki. Their membership drive is on, so please pay your dues and get involved! OREGON Susan Williams (F’00) Michael Zwirn (F’01) Alumni living in and passing through the Portland area are encouraged to get in touch with Susan Williams or Michael Zwirn, and to join the club’s Yahoo group at fletcheroregon@ PARIS Julien Naginski (F’93) Angela de Santiago (F’91)

The Fletcher Alumni Club of Paris hosted a discussion on the future of multilateralism and the role of the United Nations and the European Union in collective security and collective political issues on January 13, 2004. The speakers were His Excellency Jean François-Poncet (F’48), former French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Michael J. Glennon, Fletcher professor of international law, and the evening finished with a cocktail reception. If you are in Paris, don’t miss out on the next club event! Contact Julien Naginski or Angela de Santiago. PHILADELPHIA Ernest Wright Jr. (F’94) Please contact Ernest Wright if you are interested in contacting alumni in Phillie. PHILIPPINES Nicole Sayres (F’00) If you are in the Philippines and would like to get in touch with other Fletcher alumni, please contact Nicole Sayres. SAN FRANCISCO Liz Kerton (F’98) E-mail: fletcher-west-SFBA@yahoo The SF Bay club helped host an evening reception with Dean Bosworth on February 18 at the Asia Foundation. Board member Paul Slawson (F’60) treated attendees to wines brought from his Napa vineyard. For more information on upcoming club activities, please contact Liz Kerton. SÃO PAULO Paulo Bilyk (F’92) If you are in Brazil and would like to get in touch with other Fletcher alumni, please contact Paulo Bilyk.

SEAT TLE Julie Bennion (F’01)

SWITZERLAND Mauricio Cysne (F’93)

Alumni living in or passing through Seattle are encouraged to get in touch with Julie Bennion.

The Fletcher Club of Switzerland encourages all recent arrivals and visitors to be in touch with club president Mauricio Cysne. The club has two active branches in Geneva and Zurich.

SEOUL Eun Ha Chang (F’01) Junsik Ahn (F’00) The Seoul Club have hosted a number of important events over the past few months. Last May, they held a spring reunion for alumni and students ranging from the Class of 1960 to the Class of 2005. On November 17, 2003, about 25 club members gathered together at the Allen Hall, Yonsei University, to celebrate the school’s 70th anniversary. Participants included Dean and Mrs. Bosworth, H.E. Quintero Guillermo (Venezuelan Ambassador to Korea), Professor Dal Choong Kim, Dr. Dong Hoon Choi, and many others. Thanks to Dr. Dong Hoon Choi’s skillful diplomacy, the dinner was sponsored by JP Morgan Chase Korea Branch. At this meaningful event, the Fletcher Korea Club was delighted to present a pledge of US$50,000 for the Fletcher’s Korea Chair and Studies Club.The club has raised US $7,900 from individual members’ donations. Club president Chung Won Kang also worked very hard to contact several Korean companies, and LGCaltex decided to donate US $20,000. We are hoping that more companies will join the drive. SINGAPORE Syetarn “Creek” Hansakul (F’88) If you are in or traveling to Singapore, please contact Creek Hansakul.

TAIPEI Taipei club leaders Paul Hsu (F’65) and Chao-yang Lu (F’97) have both recently relocated to other regions. Alumni in Taipei should contact megan.brachtl@ for information on alumni activities in the area. TOKYO Mariko Noda(F’90) Despite the short notice, eight alumni got together at the Rainbow Lounge of the Imperial Hotel and talked about GMAP (Global Master of Arts Program), the Japanese economy, and the North Korean issue with Dean Bosworth and his wife during their trip to Tokyo in the fall. The Tokyo club is organizing a spring reunion, so please join us! WASHINGTON, D.C. T. Colum Garrity (F’98) E-mail: Web site: The D.C. club raised the bar for alumni-organized events in October with the Fletcher 70th Anniversary Gala. In preparation for the big night, the club offered dance lessons and monthly happy hours.To prevent post-gala blues, club members helped organize a Halloween party, hosted by Liz Vazquez (F’96), and a holiday party, hosted by the Charles and Putnam Mundy Ebinger (F’72, F’72). In February, the annual career trip brought students and alumni together for an evening reception at the residence of the Philippine ambassador.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 23


ELDA BARDSLEY (F’48) died on March

6, 2003, in Chevy Chase, MD. She is survived by her daughter Kathryn Lynn. No further information was available at the time of publication.

the Sahel region. After retiring in 1998, Louise became a travel consultant, specializing in trips to Asia. She leaves her husband, Herbert Werlin; stepdaughter; father, and sister.

PAUL H. PRATT (F’50) died of cancer on


February 16, 2004, in Arlington, VA. Paul was born and raised in Madisonville, KY, and served in the U.S. Army before attending Ohio University. After graduating with a B.A. in history, Paul earned his M.A. at Fletcher. He joined the CIA in 1953, but left in 1959 to begin work at the Manufacturers Alliance/MAPI, where he remained until retirement 33 years later. An avid amateur Greek classics scholar, Paul dedicated his time after retirement to his two granddaughters, studying history, and serving as a volunteer tutor. Paul leaves his wife, Athina Pratt, two children, a daughter-in-law, a son-in-law, and two granddaughters.

of brain cancer on May 18, 2003, in New York City. An active alumna of both Wellesley College, where she received her B.A. in 1963, and The Fletcher School, where she earned an M.A., Susan worked at Citibank for two decades. She was named a vice president of the bank in 1977 and played a major role in the restructuring of Latin American debt in the early ’80s. In 1985 she became senior vice president of Drexel Burnham Lambert. Susan is survived by her husband, Philip J. Bergan, and two sons.


(F’55) died on January 15, 2003, in Dover, DE, at the age of 70. A graduate of Bowdoin College, Theophilus earned an M.A.L.D. and Ph.D. from The Fletcher School. He was considered a foremost authority in international relations, and wrote over 125 books and articles on the subjects of law and foreign policy. Among many positions he held during his lifetime, Theophilus served as vice president of Howard University and vice president and academic dean of Delaware State College. He is survived by his wife of 47 years, Sarah Louise Evans McKinney, three daughters, a son, and four granddaughters. LOUISE HILLSON WERLIN (F’62) passed

away last year. Louise was born in Brooklyn, and spent most of her life in the Washington area. A graduate of Wellesley College, she received her M.A. from Fletcher before spending her career as a country development officer for USAID. Her special expertise was in coordinating drought relief efforts for 34 FLETCHER NEWS Spring 2004


died July 31, 2003, from liver cancer. Robert grew up in Philadelphia, and received his B.A. from Hampton Institute (now Hampton University). He attended Fletcher with the help of a fellowship from the Chase Manhattan Bank. After spending three years in the U.S. Army, he earned his J.D. at the University of Virginia Law School in 1976. Among his professional relationships was a two-year partnership to establish a law firm with four African American lawyers as principals, a first in the Richmond community. At the time of his illness, he was an equity partner with the law firm of Rutter, Walsh, Mills and Rutter, and a frequent presenter at legal education programs on disability issues. He is survived by his wife, Linda Davenport Macbeth; his father; a sister; five children; and six grandchildren. GREGORY A. FLYNN (F’73) died on

November 7, 2003, in Washington, D.C. An associate professor of international affairs at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service at the time of his death, Greg was born in Portland,

OR. He graduated from Washington University in St. Louis and was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Munich in Germany. He received an M.A.L.D. and Ph.D. at Fletcher. A lecturer, researcher, writer, and editor on issues relating to Europe and security, Greg joined the Georgetown faculty in 1991. He is survived by his wife, Outi Flynn, and his father. JOHN DAWSON (F’75) died of pancreatic

cancer on August 1, 2003, in Long Island, New York. U.S. ambassador to Peru at the time of his death, John had spent most of his childhood in Latin America. He studied economics and Latin America at the University of Michigan, where he earned a B.A. with honors in 1973. He graduated with his M.A.L.D. from Fletcher before taking early assignments with the U.S. Mission to the UN in New York and the U.S. Mission to the OECD in Paris. During his long career in the U.S. foreign service, Dawson served as the State Department’s director of the Office of Mexican Affairs, and as deputy chief of mission at the U.S. embassy in San Salvador. ELEANOR SANTOS (F’82) died in July 2003. No further information was available at the time of publication. NICHOLAS W. KIRK (F’85) died on

February 13, 2003. No further information was available at the time of publication. BERNARD “BEN” NJOVENS (F’91) died in an accident on July 16, 2003. Born in Nigeria, Ben received his B.A. in communications from the University of Yaounde in 1983. He earned his M.A. at Fletcher and spent much of his subsequent career at the World Bank. He also worked as a staff writer for the Cameroon Tribune and as chief of Political and Economic Affairs Service for the Cameroon Ministry of Information and Culture. Ben leaves his wife, Gwendolyne, and two children.

Remembering a Friend: IN MEMORY OF MOYNIHAN

until he returned to Delhi and the s*** really hit the fan, as the Indian government stoked the fire with glee, organizing protests and demanding his resignation. When the push came from Super K [Henry Kissinger], M gladly jumped. I think it was because of this experience that he soon wrote the now-famous Commentary article urging a much more assertive U.S. posture and not being defensive about its values and role in the world. This got President Nixon’s attention, which led him to the UN. Among other things, Moynihan was also one of the founding fathers of neoconservatives in the 1970s when conservatives were in full retreat. He would have fully approved of the Bush administration’s War on Terror.…He should have been at the UN dealing with the French, Germans, and Belgians recently. That would have been the best show in town.

Continued from page 18 |


I was an officer in the political section of

the American embassy in London in the early 1970s, when Pat Moynihan was U.S. ambassador to India. He used to visit London very frequently. One morning he appeared in my office and asked if I was free for lunch. Flattered, I accepted. For two hours we crawled London pubs talking and drinking far more than we were eating, and during that time I doubt that I got in more than half a dozen sentences. Pat had interesting theories on everything. He pointed out the separate drinking sections in pubs intended to suit different classes of Englishman. His most intriguing theory was that the English had been a carefree, class-free society until they conquered India. There they learned about class structures and were never the same afterward! Some pubs, he claimed, had as many as 18 different sections for different classes of clients to use. But then I remembered that Pat was very much Irish. Pat will be fondly remembered. —GEORGE B. LAMBRAKIS, PH.D. (F’69)

Chris Cady DANIEL PRESTON (F’05)

Christopher Cady, a first-year student from Millis, MA, was tragically killed in a skiing accident in December 2003. Though he spent only a short time at Fletcher, he left a lasting impression on his friends and classmates. Dan Preston is one such friend.

Chris Cady

Shortly after Chris’s death, I was asked to write about Chris for the people who did not get a chance to know him. Having had a couple of months now to reflect and write this article, I have had time to realize some lessons Chris taught me in the short time we knew each other. Chris was not one to take life or time for granted. He was a generous and humble person who had the unique ability to light up a room, and could brighten up your day unlike anyone I have ever known. He was an outgoing, fun-loving person, but not one who would go out of his way to boast for immediate recognition. He made friends slowly and at a natural pace as people became involved in aspects of his life. He was a very bright and passionate person who accomplished significant feats in his short life, with great potential to do so much for the world. I looked up to him especially for his priorities in life, which changed me indefinitely. If I were to pick one thing that most affected me, it would be Chris’s enthusiasm not to waste a moment, especially with his time at Fletcher, where there are so many special people. As a result, I have decided that my priority here at Fletcher is to build relationships, help others, and learn from my peers. I guess class work will gladly fall into a distant second. But, I will no longer put off a conversation until later. I will attempt to make more personal relationships with my classmates and not just know names, faces, and bios, but who people are. I will go to events and look to meet someone new each time. And in the end, I will walk across the stage in May 2005 with a group of people that will be indivisible for the rest of our careers. Let us remember that we are here at Fletcher for more than just academics, a professional network, and credentials. We are here to form relationships that will last a lifetime. We are here to interact to hopefully come up with ways to make the world a better place. When we’re locked away in our rooms putting that extra mile into our M.A.L.D. theses, let’s not forget about what makes Fletcher unique—our classmates. When we are at an alumni networking event on a career trip, let’s not forget that this is also a great time to get to know our peers. If anything, let us realize that Fletcher is much more than getting that A or scoring the best job. People make this place tick and this is what we came here for. Now let’s make the most the most of it and make Chris proud by not wasting this opportunity.

Spring 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 35




FALL REUNION 2004 Members of the class of 1954 will be celebrating their 50th Reunion on September 8–10. All alumni who graduated between 1934 and 1954 are also invited. For more information on the schedule of events, visit www.fletcher. To register, please e-mail or call Pamela Cotte, reunion coordinator, at 617.627.4833.

I think maybe [Saddam “Hussein] wanted to create the impression that they still [had] weapons of mass destruction, maybe to scare the U.S. and others who he thought might wage a war against him.

ANNUAL GIVING Fletcher‘s fiscal year ends on June 30. Please help us to fulfill our mission of preparing leaders with a global perspective by making a contribution to The Fletcher Fund today. Visit www. fletcher. tufts. edu/alumni or call 617.627.3086 for information on how to make a gift. Thank you!

In the Winter 2004 issue, The Fletcher Forum presented foreign policy platforms from candidates Clark, Dean, Edwards, Gephardt, Kerry, Lieberman, Moseley Braun, and Sharpton, and the pressing problems of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction...

FY 2004 Goal Achievement through March 2004

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—DR. MOHAMMED ELBARADEI Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in an interview.

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The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors‘ own and do not necessarily represent those of The Fletcher School. Fletcher News welcomes letters on topics covered in this newsletter. The editor reserves the right to edit for space and style. Please send letters to Fletcher News, Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 160 Packard Avenue, Medford, MA 02155; fax 617.627.3659; or e-mail TUFTS UNIVERSIT Y OFFICE OF PUBLICATIONS 6894 5/04

Fletcher News - Spring 2004  

Fletcher News publication from Spring 2004 without Class Notes. Cover Story: Amal Jadou, PhD Candidate

Fletcher News - Spring 2004  

Fletcher News publication from Spring 2004 without Class Notes. Cover Story: Amal Jadou, PhD Candidate