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Fletcher News T h e O f f i c i a l N e w s l e tt e r f o r a l u m n i a n d f r i e n d s o f T h e F l e t c h e r S c h oo l o f L a w a n d D i p l o m a c y a t T u f t s Un i v e r s i t y .

Preparing Leaders With a Global Perspective

Fletcher News T h e O f f i c i a l N e w s l e tt e r f o r a l u m n i a n d f r i e n d s o f T h e F l e t c h e r S c h oo l o f L a w a n d D i p l o m a c y a t T u f t s Un i v e r s i t y .

Two Fletcher Reunions were held in recent months. Highlights included a Commencement Address by Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs Dr. N. Hassan Wirajuda (F’84)

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F E ATU RES Reunion Alumni Reconnect with Fletcher – 4 French Senator Jean François-Poncet at Talloires Symposium – 5 Monitor Readers Send Six Malawian Girls to School – 9 Op-ed by Xanthe Schraff

New Professor’s Domain Extends Beyond the Classroom – 10

Karrie Peterson is the new Director of Fletcher’s Ginn Library.


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Quotes of Note - 12 New Faces – 12 From the Fletcher Files – 13 Club News – 15 Thomas Schmidheiny’s generous gift will help create a new two-year International management master’s degree program in the fall of 2008.

Club Contacts – 16 Recent Publications – 17 Class Notes – 18 In Memorium – 40

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Donor Recognition – 42

Fletcher News Volume 28 Number 2 Fall 2006

PHOTOGRAPHY Ellen Callaway, Liz Hincks, Ed Malitsky Editor Leah S. Brady OFFICE OF DEVELOPMENT AND ALUMNI RELATIONS Alyssa Adreani Development Officer Kathleen Bobick Staff Assistant Leah S. Brady Coordinator of Alumni Relations Ann Carey Reunion Coordinator

Tara Lewis Associate Director Julia Motl Lowe Director of the Fletcher Fund Roger A. Milici Jr. Senior Director Michael Prenier Coordinator of The Fletcher Fund Cynthia Weymouth Administrative Assistant Special thanks to Michael Gonzalez, Elizabeth Hoffman, Julia Keller, Caroline Pronovost


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Since I last wrote in the spring, The Fletcher School has experienced a number of exciting events. In May, we celebrated Commencement, Class Day, and Reunion and heard a stirring speech by Fletcher alumnus Dr. N. Hassan Wirajuda (F’84), the Indonesian Foreign Minister. In June, attendees at Fletcher’s Fifth Annual Talloires Symposium participated in stimulating discussions on the state of the European Union, including speeches by alumni, French Senator Jean-François-Poncet (F’48), and Ambassador to the Court of St. James, Wolfgang Ischinger (F’73). A new video about the Fletcher community called “The Fletcher Connection” has been produced by the Admissions and Communications Offices. The video portrays stories from students, faculty, alumni, and staff, which reflect the unique characteristics of the School. It is currently available online at: The video will be available as a DVD in November. Professor Andrew Hess, Senior Director of Development and Alumni Relations Roger Milici, and I have recently returned from a trip to Abu Dhabi. Our visit was a chance to further explore a joint venture with the Abu Dhabi Education Council. Abu Dhabi is seeking to prepare their future leaders for a continually globalizing economy and an increasingly complex world. As a result, they have invited us to consider partnering with them in this endeavor. I will keep you informed of further developments in this exciting opportunity for the School. Our trip went on to include several days in Seoul, South Korea, where we were joined by Tufts’ President Lawrence S. Bacow. This portion of the trip included a series of appointments and a meeting of Fletcher’s Asian Advisory Group. In September, we welcomed 197 members of the Class of 2008, composed mostly of MALD students. Their average age is 27 and 41% are non-American; 53% are female, and 23% are U.S. citizens of color. The top four feeder schools were Harvard, Tufts, Cornell, and Middlebury. The top four areas

of interest for entering students are International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, International Organizations, International Security Studies, and Development Economics. Recent global events confirm that the world needs The Fletcher School more than ever. In this regard, our upcoming comprehensive fundraising campaign will target vitally important resources necessary to perpetuate Fletcher’s mission of preparing leaders with a global perspective. On a related issue, construction associated with our facility renovation plan continued in its final phases during the summer, and everyone looks forward to its completion this winter. We feel very confident that the outcome of this project, while temporarily disruptive to our campus life, will result in a facility worthy of the School’s prestige and accomplishment. In closing, please know how much I appreciate the continued support you have for The Fletcher School. I look forward to seeing you here on campus and in my travels.

Stephen W. Bosworth

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 3 

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Alumni Hear From Noted Speakers and Experience Life at Fletcher Today Two Fletcher Reunions were held in recent months: a May Reunion for the classes of 2001, 1996, 1991, 1986, 1981, 1976, 1971, 1966, and 1961; and a September Reunion for the class of 1956 (celebrating their 50th reunion) through the class of 1937. Both celebrations were very successful, with record numbers of alumni returning to campus (100+ in May and 37 in September) from all parts of the world. Alumni from Maine to Florida attended, while others traveled from as far as Paris, Belgium, Madrid, Australia, & Nigeria. Among events alumni enjoyed were the Annual Fletcher Alumni and Student Clambake, faculty lectures by Professor William Moomaw and Professor Jeswald Salacuse, lunch with Dean Stephen W. Bosworth and Tufts President Lawrence S. Bacow, a tour of Fletcher’s facilities, and Student panels. Other highlights included Fletcher Class Day Alumni Greeting by Hans Binnendijk, (F’70, F’71, F’72); Class Day Address by Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs Dr. N. Hassan Wirajuda (F’84); and Convocation Addresses by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, The Honorable C. David Welch (F’77), and Dr. Janet Norwood (F’46), recipient of this year’s Class of 1947 Distinguished Leadership Award. Everyone at the School looks forward to welcoming classes celebrating Reunion this year back to campus 18-20 May 2007. For more:

Fall Reunion: Alumni celebrating a reunion of 50 or more years


His Excellency Dr. N. Hassan Wirajuda (F’84), Foreign Minister of Indonesia, delivered the The Fletcher School 2006 Class Day Address.

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French Senator Jean François-Poncet at Fletcher’s Fifth Annual Talloires Symposium French Senator and Fletcher alumnus Jean François-Poncet (F’48) addressed fellow alumni and friends of Fletcher at the Fifth Annual Talloires Symposium, 2–4 June. He and fellow keynote speaker His Excellency Wolfgang Ischinger (F’73), Ambassador to the Court of St. James, spoke to the symposium’s theme: The Future of the European Union. Senator François-Poncet’s remarks appear here “Dear Dean Bosworth, Mr Ambassador, Dear friends from Fletcher : I want to thank Dean Bosworth for his kind invitation that gives me the pleasure of participating in one of Fletcher’s great yearly events. An event that brings back old and fond memories of times long gone by. Fletcher, in my time, was a young and modest institution, but it already had an excellent name. I know that since these days it has blossomed into one of America’s most prestigious and respected institutions. Dean Bosworth has every reason to be proud of the School’s remarkable achievements. He asked me to talk to you about the developments in the European Union since the French and Dutch electorates turned down the European Constitutional Treaty—a surprising and very troubling vote indeed. Both countries were among the six founding members of the European Community. It was France that launched it in 1950 along with Germany. Both countries have jointly started almost all the initiatives to which the Community owes its accomplishments and it was a former French president, Giscard d’Estaing, who chaired the Convention that drafted the Treaty. How and why could the French electorate reject a landmark text that owed so much to French endeavours, and what comes next? I cannot help thinking of one of Ms. Thatcher’s fiery remarks at a dinner banquet in New York. It must have been 12 years ago. I was a member of the Chase Manhattan International Board, which hosted every year a big formal dinner for the New York financial community. Margaret Thatcher was the after dinner speaker on that occasion and she lashed out furiously against the European Union for a full half an hour. In the course of her philippic, she, all of a sudden, came to France: “and the problem with the French,” she said. She stopped for a while, probably thinking of the harshest words she could find and then went on. “The problem with the French is… that they are French,” which was probably for her the ultimate indignity. After the dinner, I went up to her and asked “I am French, what do you suggest I do about it?” She laughed and we left.

Since the French “no” vote I have come to think she probably had a point. France’s “no” vote is explainable, but unforgivably stupid. Dear friends, it is difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate where the European Union stands today after France’s “no” vote and where it may be heading tomorrow without saying a word of the road that led to the Constitution, of the main clauses of the Treaty, and of the reasons why it was rejected. Having done that as briefly as possible, I shall turn to the situation today and to some of the possible scenarios for tomorrow. Why did the EU need a Constitution, and why was the proposed text rejected? I have to briefly come back for a minute to three fundamental changes ushered in by the end of the Cold War that fundamentally altered the European landscape. First, the disappearance of the Soviet threat, calling into question NATO’s reason to exist. Second, the reunification of Germany, creating, in the heart of Europe, an industrial, financial, and political heavyweight, standing taller than England, Italy, or France. Third, the emergence in Central and Eastern Europe of a dozen independent, democratic states, longing to join the prosperous and stable European Union, as well as NATO. We are still living with the impact of theses changes: An impact on Europe’s defence: The withdrawal of 80% of America’s troops from Europe and NATO’s intervention in Afghanistan are the latest signs of a transformation, which also includes the gradual setting up of an autonomous European military capacity. An impact on Europe’s integration: Germany, anxious to dispel the apprehension its reunification could cause, agreed to merge the Deutschmark, by far the strongest currency in Europe, into the European Monetary System, arguably the most important step forward in Europe’s integration since the Rome Treaty. An impact on Europe’s enlargement: The EU could not allow a “rich countries’ curtain” to replace the “iron curtain.” The


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reasons to welcome the new East European democracies into the EU were compelling: a common history, a shared Christian and cultural heritage, an overriding interest in the political stabilisation and economic development of Eastern Europe. The logic of enlargement outweighed its drawbacks. The main drawback was [the creation of] a vastly enlarged and diverse Union; very difficult to manage, unable to govern itself, to decide and act. The institutions had been set up for a community of six. They could not possibly accommodate 25 members, soon to become 30, as different in size and weight as Germany, with 80 million people, is from Malta with its 300,000 inhabitants. The institutions had to be reformed, the rules changed. Everyone agreed in principle, but nothing happened.… Why? Because countries could not agree on the substance of the reforms. Classical diplomacy failed. That is why governments finally entrusted the task of drafting a treaty to a Convention of 104 members chaired by a former French President, Giscard d’Estaing, [which] was not an intergovernmental body. That is why governments had to approve the draft text proposed to them. The treaty was signed in the fall of 2004. Although it does not upset the Union’s existing institutional balance, it contains the following half dozen crucial innovations. First. The text distributes the powers between the Union and the national states, something none of the preceding treaties had attempted to do. Two. It extends the practice of qualified majority voting to a greatly increased number of areas and thus limits the issues on which a national veto can be invoked. A qualified majority has to assemble 65% of the states and represent 55% of the Union’s population. This is meant to satisfy both large and small states and to solve the long standing and sometimes bitter dispute that opposes them. Three. The Constitution extends the term of the President of the European Council of heads of state or government, from six months to a renewable period of two and a half years. This raises the status of the president, who becomes the recognized figurehead of the Community and as such a full-fledged actor on the world scene. Four. The Constitution creates a Minister of Foreign Affairs, who, at the same time, is appointed Vice Chairman of the European Commission and as such oversees the Commission’s international activities, in particular its sizable third world aid program. Five. The Constitution greatly extends the legislative and budgetary powers of the European parliament. Six. It authorizes a limited number of countries to integrate specific sectors faster than the rest of the Union. The European Monetary System set up by 12 states is typical of such an approach, called “variable geometry” in Brussels speak. Why was the Constitution rejected? Does it contain serious flaws, obvious shortcomings? The answer is no. It does not. But


referenda are tricky animals. In our experience, voters don’t answer the question put to them, they react to the government or to the president who asks the question. If they are unpopular, if they have failed to answer the voters’ economic and social needs, the voters are inclined to say “no,” whatever the question. In other words, the “no” vote was as much a reflection of a national crisis as the expression of a European crisis. The unpopularity of President Chirac and the inability of the government to come to grips with the persistently high unemployment goes a long way towards explaining the “no” vote. Especially since governments, the French as well as the others, have, from way back, used Brussels as a scapegoat for their own failures or for the unpopular decisions they have to make. The voters, of course, also delivered a European message, in fact a twofold message, about the economy and about the widening of the Union. They voted against a European Union perceived as the Trojan horse of globalization, which they charge of ushering into the Union an Anglo-Saxon style capitalism, savage capitalism. The “no” vote also was a reaction against a seemingly endless widening of the Union, and more specifically against the possible adhesion of Turkey. Admitting as large a Muslim country as Turkey into the community was, and is, perceived, not only by the French but by a majority of Europeans, as threatening the very identity of the Union. They strongly believe the time has come for the Union to set clear borders, beyond which third countries, such as Turkey, will be offered a privileged partnership, but will not be eligible for membership. Where is the European Union heading after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty? First of all, how decisive a set back is the downfall of the Constitution? The EU has experienced many crises since its inception more than 50 years ago. But somehow the European project emerged stronger from every set back. Could this be the case this time? Not sure. The failing of the Constitution leaves the enlarged and heterogeneous EU weakened, divided, and self obsessed. The EU will spend a good deal of its time in the next few years arguing about institutions instead of concentrating on the real problems in the real world. It is highly unlikely, on the other hand, that the French and Dutch “no” votes will lead to the unraveling of the Union. The fact is that the EU has continued to function more or less normally since the rejection of the Treaty. The seven-year budget planning exercise was approved, albeit after a serious bout of infighting. The new guidelines for Europe’s regional policy have been approved and the new East European member states will, as planned, become the major beneficiaries of Europe’s generous cohesion policy. They will receive from Brussels during the next seven-year period approximately as much as Western Europe received from the Marshall Plan after the war. Neither has the Euro been bruised

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by the constitutional fiasco. The single currency has maintained monetary stability within its geographic zone. It has prevented speculative attacks that would otherwise have developed against some of the national currencies. Were Italy, for instance, not a member of the Euro, there might have been a run on the Lira. This is not to say that the Euro has fulfilled all the hopes it had roused. It has not boosted growth nor has it led to faster economic convergence. Ireland has grown by an average of six percent a year since 1999, while Germany grew by a bare one percent. But such differences are no greater than those that exist between American states. Has nationalism been on the rise? To a certain extent, yes. The mutual blocking, for instance, of cross-borders takeovers, justified as acts of “economic patriotism,” go against the very grain of the European project. But the fears that this could cause the Union to go backwards and lead to a return of protectionism are clearly exaggerated. Does this mean the EU doesn’t really need the institutional reforms written into the Constitution? The answer is clearly no: the reasons behind these reforms have not gone away. They are the inescapable consequence of the Union’s enlargement. A Community conceived 50 years ago for six countries cannot function with 25 or 30 members without being overhauled. Almost everyone in Europe agrees that widening without deepening is a recipe for paralysis and ultimate failure. There is no consensus, however, as of now, on how the Constitution should be revitalized. Some governments — those of Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and Spain who have ratified the Constitution — want it resurrected. They propose the French and the Dutch vote again, as Denmark and Ireland did in similar circumstances some years ago. They see no reason why the “no” vote of two countries should prevail over the “yes” vote of the fifteen countries, soon to be sixteen, which have ratified the Constitution. In France, however, the widespread conviction is that a new referendum on the existing Treaty would be doomed to fail. Dutch leaders have been even more unequivocal in ruling out a second referendum on the same text. That is why Nicolas Sarkozy, a French presidential hopeful, proposes to concentrate on rescuing the institutional reforms set forth in the first part of the charter. This could be done in a short draft, which would not be labeled a constitution. The abridged treaty could be submitted to Parliament. This would eliminate the risk of a “no” vote inherent in any referendum. But the Treaty would require a new round of ratifications. The European summit which is being held marks the end of the “reflection period,” Governments decreed last year. But nobody expects much to come out of the discussion, except an extension of the “period of reflection” to the second part of 2007, after the French presidential elections are held in May. In other words, the conditions to re-start a meaningful constitutional process will not materialize for at least another year and [a] half.

Enlargement One of the victims of the French and Dutch referenda is the further enlargement of the Union. This does not mean that would-be members will all be left out in the cold. The Union is committed to take in Romania and Bulgaria as soon as they meet the entry criteria, either in January 2007 or a year later. Croatia has started preliminary negotiations with the Commission and will also very likely be admitted. The other Balkan states, offspring of the dismantled Yugoslav Federation, will have to wait much longer. The EU has, of late, been putting forward a new entry criterion: its own limited economic and political capacity to take in new aspirants. This applies in particular to Turkey, which will, I believe, have to settle for a privileged partnership status, which it rejects today. The same applies to Ukraine, whose entry into the Union would sour the Union’s relations with Russia, a development most member countries would rather avoid. The real threat behind the failure of the Constitution is this: the European Union cannot, in the long run, survive if it is reduced to a technocratic mechanism. The metaphor of the bicycle — Europe will fall if it does not move forward — has lost none of its relevance. Europe needs a political dimension; it needs a vision, a sense of direction. This brings me to the long-term evolution of the European Union, which raises three basic questions. The first concerns the ultimate institutional destination of the Union. Is it likely to develop into a fairly closely knit federation or will it remain a loose confederation, where states are the key players? The answer is not obvious at all. Today Europe seems fated to remain a confederation. But new challenges have always brought new integration. This is the case even today. Fighting terrorism and organised crime, controlling immigration are the challenges of the day. They are already causing states not only to closely cooperate [among] themselves, but to extend the powers of the European Commission. And it would be naïve to believe that Europe will not be faced with major new challenges in the future, such as the threat of Islamic fundamentalism. I just want to emphasise that the Union’s journey is far from over and that developments that seem unlikely today may well, in a different international environment, appear natural, if not unavoidable. The second set of problems concerns Europe’s ailing economy, arguably the EU’s most important challenge. It’s growth rate is the lowest in the developed world: less than 2% in the last two or three years, a meagre 2,3% in 2006. The truth, of course, is that some European countries have been doing well, while others have not. The laggards are Germany, Italy, and France, whose poor performances have dragged down the community average. All three are plagued by the same ills: persistently high unemployment, outrageously high taxes, stifling bureaucracies, rigid labour markets…. But some are on the way to recovery, while others are still in the starting blocks.


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Germany seems to be on the right track. Its economy is as competitive as ever: it is again the world’s first exporter before Japan, China, or the US. Schröeder, the former Chancellor, had initiated a set of courageous reforms and Mrs. Merkel is committed to carry on with them, provided the Social Democrats, which make up half of her governing majority, go along with her. I believe the German economy will be back on track in a few years. I would not say as much of Italy. Prodi, the new prime minister, is a good man, who knows what has to be done. Whether his razor-edge, composite majority, will let him do it remains, however, to be seen. This leaves me with France, which, to be quite frank, does not look promising at this hour. The problems are many and well known: a rigid economy, over generous social benefits, a bloated bureaucracy, explosive suburbs and the 35-hour week. Reforms have failed in the face of staunch opposition from the unions and interest groups. Can this change and when? The answer is it could change in ten months, when our next Presidential elections are to be held and if the front-running right-wing candidate, Nicolas Sarkozy, is elected. He understands what has to be done, knows how to do it and, in all likelihood, will do it. If a different result comes out of the ballot box, which is quite possible, I am afraid the country would be out for an uncertain future. Third question: How is Europe likely to fit into the geopolitical framework of the 21st century? This is too broad a problem to deal with now. Let me just make a few short remarks. The impression conveyed by Europe’s reaction to America’s intervention in Iraq was one of utter division. This perception is misleading. While governments were indeed disagreeing, public opinions were not. They overwhelmingly opposed America’s intervention, including in countries like Great Britain, Spain, or Italy whose governments have sided with the US. Apart from Iraq, Europeans by and large hold the same view concerning the role the Union should be playing in tomorrow’s


world. They believe the distribution of power and wealth is quickly growing more plural, making the unipolar conception held in Washington less and less realistic. They believe a plural world calls for multilateral structures, based on the rule of law, on international organizations, on “soft” rather than “hard” power. This is why Europe is inclined to support the United Nations and its Security Council in spite of its only too obvious shortcomings. Does this mean that a more united Europe would be at loggerheads with the United States? I am quite sure this wouldn’t be the case be it only for one reason: the challenges facing the two sides of the Atlantic in the decades to come will in all likelyhood be the same: Islamic fundamentalism and China’s meteoric rise. Neither America nor Europe can seriously hope to meet these challenges unless they maintain a robust Alliance. But this has two pre conditions: Europe must put its act together, overcome its constitutional impasse, develop a common foreign and defence policy, and speak in Washington with one voice. America, for its part, must accept that Europe, in order to be an effective partner, has to unite even if at times it is a difficult ally. Building “coalitions of the willing,” as the US did to support its intervention in Iraq, divides Europeans and therefore is counterproductive and runs against the long-term interests of the West. I am afraid I raised more question marks in my presentation than I gave clear answers. This is probably inevitable concerning as daring an undertaking as the Union of 30 states, small and large, with different cultures and languages, having more often fought one another than cooperated. But think of the stake: if Europe overcomes its present stalemate and integrates further, it will create a new political form — less than a federation but more than a confederation — that can become a model for new regional systems elsewhere in the world. This is well worth forging ahead, patiently, stubbornly, whatever the obstacles on the road.” Fletcher’s Sixth Annual Talloires Symposium will take place 1–3 June 2007.

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From the Page to the Schoolroom: Monitor readers send six Malawian girls to school Op-Ed by Xanth e Scharff, Fle tch e r PhD Candidat e LIL ON GWE, M ALA WI

When Xanthe Scharff (PhD candidate) traveled to the Malawian village of Bowa in June 2006, she was pleased to find that secondary-school student Matilda Chalcalca, an aspiring lawyer, was just months away from becoming the first girl in the village to receive a high school diploma. Chalcalca is one of six girls in Bowa whose education is being funded by Advancing Girls’ Education (AGE), a nonprofit conceived and supported by a team of five Fletcher students, including Scharff. AGE, which evolved out of Scharff’s internship with CARE, was created in the summer of 2005. Media coverage of Scharff’s efforts helped to increase awareness of Malawian poverty and raise money for a scholarship fund to help these girls become the first in their village to complete high school. – Elizabeth Hoffman, Tufts Class of 2008 This article is reprinted from the August 15, 2006 issue of Christian Science Monitor. In the summer of 2005, I met Anne Bonefesi, a 14-year-old girl in Malawi who tended her siblings rather than attending eighth grade. Her parents, like most in her community, lacked the funds to send girls to school beyond the seventh grade (“What it’s like to live on $1 a day,” July 6, 2005). Monitor readers asked me to help Anne and other girls like her. With pledges from readers, I set up the Advancement of Girls’ Education Scholarship Fund (AGE) to place girls in schools offering eighth through 12th grades. The fund pays the girls’ school fees and all associated costs. This summer, which marks AGE’s first anniversary, I traveled a dusty rural road one hour from Malawi’s capital, Lilongwe, to greet six grinning girls - the first cohort of AGE scholars supported by Monitor readers. Anne greeted me wearing a fresh white dress and a self-assured smile stretching from the depth of one dimple to another. Anne and fellow scholar Velenesi Kadnensi live together in town and attend eighth grade at the Chitikula Full Primary School. Just down the road, Efelo Sekani, Victoria Kalonga, and Alifosina Chilembwe, three of AGE’s high school students, share a room and attend the Chitikula Community Day Secondary School, where Efelo is in 10th grade, and Victoria and Alifosina are in ninth grade. Because of her outstanding grades, the sixth AGE scholar, Matilda Chalcalca, continues her education in the 11th grade at the select government boarding school in the capital, Lilongwe Secondary School for Girls. Efelo, the ringleader of the group, told me, “I have seen a change in myself. Before, there were a lot of things impinging

on my academic performance. Now I don’t have to do a lot of chores and so I can concentrate.” Alifosina added, “Living in a room near school helps because we don’t arrive at school late, and we can go back to school and study at night.” The course work in all public schools is determined by the Ministry of Education, and is oriented toward both urban and rural life. So, in addition to learning English - a requirement for many urban jobs - this year the ninth grade girls learn about factors of production and the effects of soil conditions, capital, labor, and management on farming yields. The scholars have completed their second of three terms this year. The girls have the opportunity to be the first in their village to graduate high school, but they face formidable challenges. They are setting a precedent, so they don’t have older females who’ve gone before them to rely on for advice. They struggle to hear their teachers in classrooms bloated with more than 100 students. And they’ve had little exposure to English speakers, so they have a lot of catching up to do in school. Despite their challenges, the AGE scholars have grown tremendously. The girls have developed a single-minded focus concerning their studies and embrace a collective responsibility to promote the importance of education in their community. Joseph Siyeni, the headmaster of the primary school that Anne and Velenesi attend, reports that the girls are in the “top half of their class, they are wellbehaved, and they are improving.” The agriculture teacher of the high school, Mr. Leston Nkhoma, reports that “Efelo, Victoria, and Alifosina are hard-working and are improving.” Matilda is doing very well in the competitive Lilongwe Secondary School for Girls, and is currently ranked 57 out of the 163 11th graders. But they will have to continue to work hard to keep up. AGE advocated on behalf of Efelo, Alifosina, and Victoria - the high school girls in Chitikula - and so they will be transferred to a better-resourced boarding school. Anne and Velenesi - AGE’s eighth-grade scholars - are also doing extra work, as they will take primary school exams at the end of the third term. Based on their results, AGE will work with Malawi officials to place Anne and Velenesi in the best possible school.


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New Professor’s Domain Extends Beyond the Classroom By T imothy R. Homa n, MAL D 2007

If a cell phone rings during class, Associate Professor Daniel Drezner says he’ll make the student stand up and sing a song. The threat from The Fletcher School’s newest and youngest faculty addition is not an idle one. Less than two weeks into the fall semester, one student had already violated Drezner’s code of classroom conduct and swiftly paid the consequences. Reflecting on the disturbance, Drezner said, “It was a Turkish student and I thought, well, I’ve never heard the Turkish national anthem before.”

“I’m pretty sure a cell phone’s not going to go off in that class again, which was the

idea,” Drezner, 38, said during an interview in his office in Cabot. Sitting in on Drezner’s class – Global Political Economy – provides an opportunity to witness an energetic professor challenging and feeding off the opinions of his students, from their thoughts on the stagnant Doha round of WTO talks to well-argued speculation on what international trade will look like in 20 years. While pacing the room for 75 minutes, Drezner elicits thoughts from students and engages them in discussion instead of giving a straightforward lecture. The result is a forum in which Drezner comes across as being as inquisitive of his students as they are of him. “I like Professor Drezner’s style,” says Jeff Kubiak, a PhD student at Fletcher. He adds that Drezner’s “somewhat unique classroom demeanor…made me curious as to how he would be presenting the material.” And with Drezner’s persona as a self-described public intellectual, there is plenty of material out there allowing students to form an opinion of the sometimes controversial professor before they even set foot in his classroom. Atop the results of a Google search for Daniel Drezner is a link to his Web blog, But with the popularity of the blog comes criticism. Some detractors, including members of the old guard in the ivory towers of academia, are not necessarily critical of Drezner’s opinions expressed on the blog, per se, but they do take issue with the blog’s mere existence. In an article published in the July 28 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education, Drezner notes that some of his colleagues at the University of Chicago, where he taught before coming to Fletcher, overestimated the amount of time he devotes to the blog, arguing his time would be better spent on more scholarly pursuits. For the record, Drezner says he spends anywhere from ten minutes to three hours a day on his blog, usually averaging about 90 minutes on a daily basis. Drezner established his blog on September 11, 2002. Looking

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back, he describes the impetus to do so by saying: “When 9/11 happened there was a lot of chatter in the blogosphere about what was going on in terms of foreign policy, but very few of these people had any type of expertise in international relations or politics. I thought there was a niche I could fill.” And fill it he did. The site now receives about 5,000 hits a day. “I really did think that I would do it for a year as a pedagogical exercise and then publish a small piece in International Studies Perspectives saying whether blogging helps your teaching or something. And what I honestly didn’t expect is that people started reading the damn thing,” he says. Claims that Drezner devotes too much time to his blog are hard to justify when one considers the list of articles appearing in prominent periodicals such as Foreign Policy and Foreign Affairs Journal, as well the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post. Then there are Drezner’s books. His most recent book is, a primer on trade policy commissioned by the Council on Foreign Relations, where Drezner was a fellow from 2000 to 2001. “The conceit of the book is it’s a policy memorandum to the President saying, ‘Mr. President, this is the current lay of the land, and I think you’ve got a free trade option and a fair trade option. Here are the pros and cons of both.’” While handing out free copies of the book to students after class, Drezner quips, “If I see any of these on eBay...” The kind gesture did not go unnoticed by the recipients. “It’s the first time at Fletcher I’ve had a professor hand out a book for free,” remarked one student. Drezner says the reason he got into the political science field in the first place was because “there are questions that I think are interesting and hopefully I can come up with some interesting answers.” In his forthcoming book, All Politics Is Global: Explaining International Regulatory Regimes (Princeton

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University Press), expected in February 2007, Drezner continues that line of provocative inquiry. “In a world where it’s regulatory standards that are the remaining residual impediments to economic integration, under what circumstances are you going to see those regulations coordinated at the global level and when will there be disagreement?” Drezner asks. “How should we treat labor? What are the minimum standards by which labor should be treated in terms of employment? What are the environmental standards? To what extent should banks be supervised? Is there content on the Internet that should be censored? These are questions that are what I call the politics of daily life. When you talk about global political economy, most people think about these abstract trade negotiations that don’t affect them, but the regulatory questions do affect them in a lot of ways,” Drezner says. He goes on to add: “Global civil society is very active on questions of labor standards or environmental standards. They’re less active on issues of, let’s say, financial codes and standards, which in some ways are just as important. They’re more arcane regulations.” Drezner was born in Syracuse but spent little time there. By the time he was ten, he had moved about six or seven times. His father was still in medical school when Drezner was born and the moves coincided with an internship, residency and other career advancements. After that Drezner grew up in Avon, Connecticut. He strengthened his New England roots by receiving a BA at Williams College in western Massachusetts. As the father of two children – a six-year-old son and a twoyear-old daughter – Drezner now lives with his wife and kids in Newton. He says that in addition to Fletcher’s reputation one of the reasons he decided to move to Medford was because of the school’s proximity to his family in Connecticut. “Given that we wanted to live in New England, there weren’t a lot of schools at this level,” Drezner says. “I think the fact that I do both scholarly and more policy-oriented work was an attractor.” Drezner is keenly aware of his professorial role at an institution focused on fusing theory with practice. He says that while some students come to graduate school thinking they need to accumulate facts, such as the nuances of international trade statutes and how they’re applied, “anybody with a decent Internet connection can figure out those things. The value added of the Fletcher education is getting the analytical toolkit to tell you which facts are salient and which facts aren’t. And my job is to teach them the toolkit.” Having worn many hats – an economist in the Treasury Department and an academic from his first teaching position at the University of Colorado at Boulder – Drezner describes himself first and foremost as a political scientist. “I’m a political scientist who knows a thing or two about economics,” says Drezner, who has an MA in economics and a PhD in political science from Stanford University. “I originally was going to get a PhD in economics and then switched after two years in the

program because I liked the tools that I learned in economics but I thought the questions they asked were boring. I thought power was much more interesting to study.” Drezner says his thinking has been influenced by the likes of Stephen Krasner, his dissertation adviser at Stanford, and the economist Albert Hirschman, noting, “Every time I read him I’m sort of blown away by the extent to which what a lot of us are doing now is simply an elaboration of what he came up with.” On the surface, Drezner’s politics are difficult to pigeonhole, especially when one considers he’s a libertarian and registered Republican who voted for Democratic hopeful John Kerry in the 2004 US presidential election. “I’m a libertarian who studies international relations which leads to certain contradictions because a classical liberal is someone who generally believes the state should probably get out of most of the public’s affairs,” Drezner says. “On the other hand, if you study international relations you learn to very quickly respect the power of states in world politics and the ability of states to crowd out any threat to them in world politics.” He added that while his politics have remained steadfast over the years, the only thing that has changed is the degree to which the Bush administration infuriates him. Drezner was an informal advisor to the Bush campaign in 2000. With his outspoken comments, Drezner acknowledges it can sometimes be difficult to appear impartial and keep his politics out of the classroom. “It used to be the case that I always felt I kept them separate,” he said. “The blog has sort of made that a little tougher in that I know people read it, and so it’s obviously a way in which people can find out how I think about things.” Still, Drezner said he doesn’t let his views outside the classroom affect his performance inside it. “My goal is if I see the entire class agreeing on something and I don’t think they’ve come to that agreement without having thought about it then I’m going to adopt the opposite position, and any good teacher should do that.” The approach sometimes has unexpected results. During a classroom discussion about the merits of neorealism versus neoliberal institutionalism, Drezner argued for the other side, causing one student to label him liberal. After a pause and a smirk, he relished the moment and replied, “That’s one of the first times I’ve been called a liberal in class.” Like the cell phone going off in class, such comments will likely become an anomaly as students get to know Professor Drezner. Daniel Drezner is an Associate Professor of International Politics at The Fletcher School.

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 11

Quotes of Note “Since the attacks on the World Trade Center, Americans feel much more vulnerable to attack. Public opinion on major issues is surely more sharply divided than in the past; indeed, agreement on basic approaches to government and the means to run it are frequently lacking. At the same time, the world has become much more interconnected and far more dangerous.” — Dr. Janet L. Norwood (F’46) speaking as the recipient of the Class of 1947 Distinguished Leadership Award at Fletcher’s Convocation, 8 September.

“The existing culture of ‘hyper-masculinity’ within UN peacekeeping missions that perpetuates the cycle of sexual exploitation and abuse of local women and children must be reformed if they are to fulfill their role of bringing about stable peace within post-conflict states.” — Sarah Martin of Refugees International speaking at Fletcher, 13 September in a lecture sponsored by The Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights

“Islamist ideology is powerless when confronted with the basic duties of governance. Look at the Palestinian territories, where Hamas’ recent unpopularity is derived from its inability to pay salaries and deliver basic services. Promotion of democracy is an ambitious goal whose prospects for success are unclear.” — Lorenzo Vidino (F’07), from an op-ed in The Boston Globe, 24 September 2006.

“Surveying Sudan from a helicopter humbles you into recognizing just how large a country this is. ...roughly the size of the United States east of the Mississippi river. If Khartoum is taken to be where New York City sits on the map, this puts the most volatile Darfur hotspots somewhere around the Illinois-Kentucky-Tennessee vicinity.” — Brian Neff (F’07) from his blog at .

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Phillip McMullen joined The Fletcher School staff on 8 August as Director of the Office of Career Services (OCS). For 6 years prior to arriving at Fletcher, Phillip served as Associate Director of the Career Development Office at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, one of the most successful professional school career offices in the US. Phillip’s responsibilities at MIT encompassed the full range of career services including strategic planning, program design and delivery, career counselor/coach, employer development, support for international students, and operations with responsibility for finances and technology. Phillip worked for 13 years in the private sector in increasingly responsible positions with Electronic Data System as finance and then project manager, Software AG as managing director for the International Business Division, and GE Logisticom as Director of Business Operations. Much of his work experience has been overseas in Europe, Asia, and Latin America with major multinational clients. Phillip holds a Master of International Management from the American Graduate School of International Management (Thunderbird, and a BA in English and German from Colorado State University. Karrie Peterson is the new Director of Fletcher’s Ginn Library. Karrie comes to the School from North Carolina State University. Previously, she was head of a unit serving research needs in government information, patents and trademarks, numeric and geospatial data. Her background and keen interest is in the dissemination of government information, especially within a publishing environment that is shifting from print to digital. She feels that “Libraries, used effectively, are a powerhouse for any individual. The trick is to stay current with the new tools for managing digital information, and not get lost in the increasingly complicated online world.” Karrie is excited to pursue the many opportunities she sees for collaboration within the Fletcher School, and across the University. She will ensure that the Ginn Library identifies, investigates and delivers to users the very best in research tools and resources. In particular, the library is exploring new ways of helping alums stay proficient and productive in a rapidly changing information landscape. “We are looking at everything from online tutorials to virtual library ‘open houses’ as potential ways to help alums stay current with research resources and information management tools.” Learn more about Fletcher and Tufts library resources at: Other new members of the Fletcher community include... Jonathan Brookfield, Associate Professor of Strategic Management and International Business Cheyanne Church, Visiting Instructor

12 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Daniel Drezner, Associate Professor of International Politics


FLETCHER’S NEW CLASS On August 28th, amidst a flurry of late summer building renovation, the incoming class made its debut at The Fletcher School. The 197 newest members of the Fletcher community are an academically and professionally accomplished group of individuals. Representing five continents and 44 citizenships, the 92 men and 105 women bring with them a variety of unique backgrounds and experiences. Hailing from places including Nepal, Suriname, Scotland, Ukraine and Arkansas, they grew up speaking 34 different languages, including Farsi, Tigrinya, Cantonese and Bulgarian. Approximately 41 percent of the student body is international, and, as one might expect, the majority of US citizens in the class have substantial experience abroad. They have strong academic backgrounds – with degrees in history, political science, journalism, philosophy, international relations, economics, engineering, law, comparative religion, and microbiology, among others. Tufts University, Harvard University, and Cornell University were the most popular undergraduate institutions. Ranging in age from 21 to 45, the class also enters Fletcher with a wide range of professional experience. New students include: an editor and publisher of Hong Kong’s pro-democracy news publications Next Magazine and Sudden Weekly; a financial advisor for KPMG Romania; a security agent for the Israeli Airports Authority; a research assistant on arms control and arms trade issues at the Federation of American Scientists; a consular investigations assistant at the US Embassy in the Dominican Republic; an officer in the Singapore Navy; a diplomat at El Salvador’s permanent mission to the EU; a risk consultant at the Chinese division of Marsh, Inc.; a foreign service officer in Bosnia and Croatia; an advisor on counter-terrorism for Greece’s Permanent Mission to the UN; a global marketing specialist for FedEx; a police

officer in South Korea; an investment banker for The Industrial Bank of Japan; and a research analyst for the World Bank in Dhaka, Bangladesh. While they are new to Fletcher, these students have already made an impact on the world. They have worked to reconstruct Petroleos Mexicanos’ (PEMEX) Corporate Social Policy, helped establish a legal clinic for abused children in Central America, provided legal aid with juvenile justice causes in rural India, directed a multiethnic community dialogue project in Kosovo and southern Serbia, worked with former child soldiers in Uganda, and been involved in the development of the first treaty negotiated under the World Health Organization. Other members of the class have helped implement a USAID project providing technical assistance to local governments in the Republic of Georgia, served with the US Army in Iraq, built and tested unmanned helicopters in California, and supported nomadic schools through various programs in Tourag communities in Niger. They are an impressive and focused class, though their academic interests are as varied as the individuals represented. While the most frequently pursued fields of study are International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, International Organizations, International Security Studies, and Development Economics, students have brought their own unique concentrations to Fletcher. With interests ranging from transitional justice and humanitarian assistance in post-conflict societies, to cultural diplomacy with music as the medium, they are prepared to challenge, engage and enrich the Fletcher community. View the new video “The Fletcher Connection” featuring the experiences of students, faculty, and alumni at: http://

STUDENT PROFILES Shal Mylvaganam (Sri Lanka) BA: Economics,Yale University Shal has worked as an analyst for a subsidiary of AOL Time Warner and a research associate in the Legal and Constitutional Unit of the Centre for Policy Alternatives (Sri Lanka) – a research and advocacy organization focusing on issues of governance and conflict resolution. He will focus on Public International Law and Security Studies. Maria Placht (United States) BA: International Relations, Connecticut College Maria interned with The Nature Conservancy in Yunnan, China, and the Desert Development Center in Cairo, Egypt and worked at the International Ecotourism Society and the Environmental Law Institute in Washington, DC. She will focus on International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, and International Environment and Resource Policy. Margherita Zuin (Italy) LLD: concentration in International Law, Universitá degli Studi di Milano Margherita’s work experience includes Amnesty International (Quito), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Rome), the European Commission (Brussels), and the UN Development Fund for Women (Amman). She plans to study Forced Migration and Law and Development, with a focus on gender.

Fall 2006 2006 FLETCHER FLETCHER NEWS NEWS 13 13 Fall

Fle tcher News

ing these changes.” A full degree program will enable students to leverage Fletcher’s resources and reputation for excellence in international affairs. The initial student enrollment will be around 25, expanding to a steady-state of 40 students. The program will also feature an interdisciplinary Center for Emerging Market Economies and Enterprises, dealing with issues such as risk in global asset management, micro-finance and corporate governance in emerging capital markets, as well as an executive training module on the finance and law of emerging capital markets and sponsoredapplied research in how best to nurture the “emergence process.”

Thomas Schmidheiny Gift to Help Launch New International MANAGEMENT Degree Program Through a generous gift of $5 million by Swiss businessman and philanthropist Thomas Schmidheiny, The Fletcher School announced in May its plan to create a new two-year international management master’s degree program in the fall of 2008. This interdisciplinary program will target young professionals from around the globe with a minimum of three years work experience in the private sector. Mr. Schmidheiny shares Fletcher officials’ belief that in today’s global marketplace, core business skills are not sufficient, and that successful leaders must have an interdisciplinary knowledge, connecting business and international affairs. He explained: “The dynamic international environment and the increase in international business transactions are providing more professional opportunities worldwide. Additionally, the nexus between the public and private sectors is becoming stronger and increasingly critical in effecting change. I believe that The Fletcher School has an important role to play in facilitat-

14 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

The Fletcher School and the Abu Dhabi Education Council Announce Joint Venture The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and the Abu Dhabi Education Council have announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), beginning a process that both parties hope will lead to The Fletcher School offering a one-year master’s degree program in international affairs in Abu Dhabi. Under the MOU signed on 10 September 2006 by Mubarak Al-Shamesi, Director General of the Abu Dhabi Education Council and Stephen W. Bosworth,

Dean of The Fletcher School, the parties will continue discussions and conduct a market analysis in the coming months. The MOU also envisions the inclusion of other Tufts University programs in Abu Dhabi in the future. “This is an ambitious endeavor, and we’re enthusiastic about the opportunity to strengthen The Fletcher School’s links to this important region,” said Dean Bosworth. “Fletcher’s vibrant learning culture and dynamic community of students and faculty provide the highest quality academic experience available.” The new program would fully meet The Fletcher School’s standards of academic excellence. The MOU also describes two research centers to be established in Abu Dhabi and Medford. The centers will sponsor an ambitious research program, organize events, and use cutting-edge technology to create an innovative learning environment across two continents. For more information about the Abu Dhabi Education Council, visit: www.


Fletcher Club of Boston

Fletcher Club of Dhaka

The Fletcher Club of Boston has been busy organizing a wide and robust variety of programming and events from happy hours at a local wine bar, to high-profile speakers. On March, 28th, alumni were treated to a special screening of the movie Imelda, followed by a very open and personal discussion with Dean Stephen W. Bosworth who was serving as US Ambassador to the Philippines at the time the Marcos regime fell. The Club’s Annual Meeting in June featured the Jebsen Center for Counter Terrorism’s Director, Brigadier General (Ret.) Russell Howard, as keynote speaker. The largest event, “Simulating Nonviolent Conflict: Bridging Theory and Practice with A Force More Powerful – The Game of Nonviolent Strategy,” was held in ASEAN Auditorium in October. Dr. Peter Ackerman (F’69, F’71, F’76) and Hardy Merriman, Director, Programs and Research at the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict addressed an audience of Fletcher alumni, students, faculty and staff to rave reviews. The Club is in the midst of planning their annual holiday party to take place at the Union Oyster House in December.

The Fletcher Club of Dhaka has recently reformed, thanks to the efforts of Mosud Mannan (F’89). After a few informal gatherings, the club held its first official meeting after a hiatus of several years on 17 August, at the home of Anuradha Harinarayan (F’99). Over delicious appetizers and a hearty meal, seven alumni shared their Fletcher stories and professional experiences. The group included three diplomats from the Bangladesh Ministry of Foreign Affairs, two NGO workers and two current students in Dhaka for their summer internship. Mr. Mannan shared the names and whereabouts of all the Bangladeshi alumni he has been able to identify, an impressive list of at least twenty people. The club plans to meet informally once a month and formally once every three months. Until her departure from Dhaka, Julia Sable (F’05) will be the club’s secretary. Alumni in attendance included: Mohammed Hasib Aziz (F’86), Anuradha Harinarayan (F’99), Muhammed Jabed (F’07), Farheen Khan (F’07), Mosud Mannan (F’89), Masud Bin Momen (F’90), Julia Sable (F’05).

Fletcher Club of Buenos Aires

Fletcher Club of Philadelphia

The club is happy to report that club member Raphael Trotman’s (F’02) newly formed political party won 10% of the parliament seats in recent elections, and is poised to become a force in changing Guyana in the coming years. Membership is now up to 48 alumni who reside not only in Argentina, but throughout the world who are developing projects together. The club is also preparing for the January ‘07 GMAP residency that will take place in Buenos Aires, arranging for speakers and events to help make for a great program.

Tommy Heanue (F’90) continues his efforts to organize events for the Fletcher Community in Pennsylvania. It is great fun getting everyone together. They’ve had a busy summer. In May, the first Fletcher Empanada Night, hosted by Dr. Laurence Barton (F’79), President of The American College, took place at The American College, followed by Dr. Angela Kachuyevski’s (F’98) Fletcher Cookout in August. October brought a Cookout Under the Stars on Clark Thompson’s (F’91) roof. Tommy wants to engage alums from all over PA, so keep an eye out for future events.

Fletcher Club of Brussels


In June, The Fletcher Club of Brussels and the Harvard Club of Belgium were proud to host Bruce R. James, the US Public Printer who spoke about how digital documents are changing our information landscape: history, challenges, opportunities and threats. Under the leadership of Mr. James, the GPO has dramatically transformed into a leading information service facility which now offers on-line access to the nation’s most important information products, such as the Congressional Record and Federal Register ( This was the Club’s first joint event and several animated discussions followed. The event was graciously hosted by Brussels’ first think-do tank, public affairs firm, the Centre ( Katrina Cochran Destrée (F’95) and Salomé Cisnal de Ugarte (LLM 1994) organized the event and look forward to further cooperation between the clubs.

Fletcher alumni in Taipei gathered on 14 August for a Roundtable discussion with Professor Alan Wachman (F’84). The event, “Why Taiwan? Geostrategic Rationales for China’s Territorial Integrity,” was organized by Paul Hsu (F’65), and held at the Foreign Service Institute of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Several dozen people attended.

Fletcher Club of Tokyo Professor Alan K. Henrikson, Director of Diplomatic Studies, traveled to Japan over the summer. He gave a lecture entitled, “The ‘Diplomatic’ Turn in US Foreign Policy,” at the National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS), and an informal talk to the Fletcher Club of Japan at the home of Mark J. Davidson (F’86), 18 July. It was a very distinguished and also very interesting, diverse group of almost sixty people. They enjoyed a probing, reflective discussion.

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 15

club contacts Atlanta Tim Holly (F’79) Australia Melissa Conley Tyler (F’96)

Greece Marilena Griva (F’02) Thomas Varvitsiotis (F’99)

Bangkok Ekachai Chainuvati (F’03)

Hong Kong Dorothy Chan Alicia Eastman

Beijing Stephane Grand (F’98)

Houston David Hwa (F’76)

Berlin Jan-Philipp Görtz (F’98)

Kenya Anne Angwenyi (F’02) Viviane Chao (F’02)

Bombay Forming soon... Richard Cooper (GMAP’02) Boston Katherine Sikora Nelson, (F’93) Brussels Katrina Destree (F’95)

Kosovo Iliriana Kacaniku (F ‘04) London Alexandra Paton (F’01)

Budapest Anita Orban (F’01)

Los Angeles Adrineh Gregorian (F’04) Spencer Abbot (F’97)

Buenos Aires Carlos St. James (GMAP’04)

Malaysia Shah Azmi (F’86)

Chicago Daniela Abuzatoaie (F’00)

Miami Daniel Ades (F’03)

Chile Andres Montero (F’85) German Olave (F’97)

Middle East Alumni Association Walid Chamoun (F’00)

Copenhagen Needs new leadership... Dhaka Mosud Mannan (F’89) Julia Sable (F’05)

New York Raymond Linsenmayer (F’01) Deborah Eisenberg (F’03) North Carolina Forming soon... Marcin Szajda

Dubai Paul Bagatelas (F’87) Christine Lauper Bagatelas (F’87)

Oregon Needs new leadership! Please email if interested in taking on a leadership role.

Fletcher Alumni of Color Association Belinda Chiu (F’04)

Paris Julien Naginski (F’93) Angela de Santiago (F’91)

16 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Philadelphia Thomas Heanue (F’90) Philippines Cathy Hartigan-Go San Diego Geoffrey Pack (F’89) San Francisco Vladimir Todorovic (F’01) São Paulo Paulo Bilyk (F’92) Sarajevo Haris Mesinovic (F’00) Seattle Julie Bennion (F’01) Seoul Junsik Ahn (F’00) Shanghai Meredith Ludlow (F’03) Singapore Kim Odhner Switzerland Mauricio Cysne (F’93) Tokyo Mariko Noda (F’90) Vienna Rainer Staub (F’96) Jonathan Tirone (F’00) Washington, D.C. Victoria Esser (F’99) T. Colum Garrity (F’98)

Fle tcher News

FACULTY Alan K. Henrikson. The “Diplomatic” Turn in U.S. Foreign Policy, National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) and the Fletcher Club of Japan, Tokyo, July 2006. _____. What Can Public Diplomacy Achieve? Clingendael Discussion Paper in Diplomacy, no. 104. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael,” September 2006.

and Poland: From Communism to the European Union. Cambridge University Press, February 2006. Crocker Snow Jr. “Public Diplomacy Practitioners: a changing cast of characters.” Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 27 no. 3 (2006). ALUMNI Ken Allard (F’82). WARHEADS. Naval Institute Press, October 2006.

Matthew E. Kahn. Green Cities: Urban Growth and the Environment. Brookings Institution Press, 2006.

Jay Bragdon (F’64). Profit for Life: How Capitalism Excels. Society for Organizational, 2006.

William C. Martel. “The West Must Face Facts – Why US Can’t Live With A Nuclear Iran.” The Providence Journal, September 2006. _____. Victory in War: Foundations of Modern Military Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, October 2006.          

Deborah Bräutigam (F’82). “Strategic Engagement: Markets, Transnational Networks, and Globalization in Mauritius.” Yale Journal of International Affairs, vol. 1, no. 1 (2005): 63-78. _____. “The People’s Budget? Politics, Participation and ProPoor Policy,” United Kingdom: Development Policy Review, vol. 22, no. 6 (2004): 653-668.

William Moomaw and Lawrence E. Susskind, editors. “Papers on International Environmental Negotiation: Ensuring a Sustainable Future.” Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, vol. XV (2006). _____. Editor. “The Environment in the Balkans and the Black Sea regions.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2006). Adil Najam, Mihaela Papa (F’03), and Nadaa Taiyab (F’96). “Global Environmental Governance: A Reform Agenda.” International Institute for Sustainable Development 2006. John Curtis Perry, Rockford Weitz (PhD Candidate), and Scott Borgerson (F’03, PhD’06). “The World Bank Must Weed Out Root Causes of Corruption.” Singapore Straits Times (Singapore), July 2006. Anna Seleny. “Tradition, Modernity, and Democracy:  The Many Promises of Islam,” Perspectives on Politics, vol. 4, no. 3 (September 2006). _____.The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Hungary

Melissa Conley Tyler (F’96) and D. Bretherton. “Peace Education in Higher Education: Using Internships to Promote Peace.” Journal of Peace Education, vol. 3, no. 2 (September 2006): 127-145. _____ and J. Bornstein. “Court Referral to ADR: Lessons from an Intervention Order Mediation Pilot,” Journal of Judicial Administration, vol. 16, no. 1 (2006): 1-15. Charles C. Chester (PhD’96). “Conservation Across Borders: Biodiversity in an Interdependent World.” Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006. Ioli Christopoulou (F’04) and Vivi Roumeliotou. “Uniting People through Nature in Southeast Europe: The Role (and Limits) of Nongovernmental Organizations in Transboundary Prespa Park.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2006). Fernando Gonzalez Saiffe (F’95) and María Celia Toro Hernández. “Las Naciones Unidas a sus 60 años de Fundación: desafíos y perspectivas para el siglo XXI” Editores:


Cámara de Diputados, Colegio de México (2005). _____. “México y el fortalecimiento de la ONU.” México y el Mundo: La Agenda Internacional de México, 2006-2010. Editorial Planeta, Coordinador, Rafael Fernández de Castro, México (2006). _____. “La regulación del uso de la fuerza y la relación OEA-ONU: dos temas clave para la seguridad hemisférica.” Rompecabezas Geopolítico: La seguridad en las Américas a inicios del siglo XXI. Woodrow Wilson Center. Edited by Joseph S. Tulchin, Raúl Benítez Manaut y Rut Diamint. Argentina (2006). Timothy R. Homan (F’06), Tony Capaccio and Jonathan Ferziger. “Israel, Hezbollah Assess Arsenal, Consider Lessons as War Halts,” Bloomberg (August 2006). Maja Ilic (F’06). Una Matko and Lidija Ppovic. “The New Ecological Issue off the Coast of Montenegro: An Algae Invasion.  An Opportunity for Regional Cooperation?” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2006). Shannon Lawrence (F’01). “The World Bank Must Weed Out Root Causes of Corruption.” The Singapore Straits Times, 18 September 2006. _____ and Peter Bosshard. “Pakistan’s Rot Has World Bank Roots,” Far Eastern Economic Review, vol. 169, no. 4 (May 2006): 39-43. Tania C. Mastrapa (F’99). “Claiming Property and Investing in Cuba.” Cuban Affairs Quarterly Electronic Journal, vol. 1, no. 3 (July 2006).   Colette Mazzucelli (F’87) and Derek Beach, eds. Leadership in the big bangs of European integration. Houndmills Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Environmental Security Agenda?” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2006). Hy Rothstein (PhD’2001). Afghanistan & The Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare. Naval Institute, May 2006. Dan Satinsky (F’90). Buyer’s Guide to the Russian IT Outsourcing Industry. WorldTrade Executive, Inc., May 2006. STUDENTS AND FELLOWS Natasha Bajema (F’07). “Updating Multilateral Instruments to Combat Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Is Vital. The Center on International Cooperation, no. 369 (April 2006). Matan Chorev (F’07). “Keeping Peace Between Israel and Hezbollah.” Journal of International Peace Operations, vol. 2, no. 2 (September 2006). Christi Electris (F’07) and Nicholas A. Ashford. “The Role of the United States – Greek Initiative for Technology Cooperation with the Balkans in Constructing a Unified Environmental Technology Plan.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2006). Nicholas Kenney (F’08) and Todd Walters (F’07). “The United States and North Korea Compete for China’s Support,” Power and Interest News Report, June 2006.

Submissions to Recent Publications must contain complete citation information in order to be included in Fletcher News. Please submit only books, major journal articles, and newspaper articles and op-eds.

Lazaros Panourgias (F’98). Banking Regulation and World Trade Law. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006. Mihaela Papa (F’03). “Rethinking Conflict Prevention in South Eastern Europe: An Emerging

Fall 17 Fall 2006 2006 FLETCHER FLETCHER NEWS NEWS 17


Philip M. Davenport(F’38) passed away

on May 9, 2006. No further information was available at the time of printing. Martin Bice Travis, Jr. (F’40) died April

26, 2006 at the age of 88 after a battle with cancer. Born in Iron Mountain, Michigan, he studied at Amherst College before attending Fletcher. After serving in the Army at the Edmonton Alberta base on the Alcan Highway during World War II, he received his PhD from the University of Chicago. He taught political science at Syracuse, Duke, Stanford, and Columbia universities before beginning a career at SUNY Stony Brook University where he served as chairman of the political science department for 10 years, coordinator for Stony Brook’s program and the American University in Beirut, and helped establish the William Roberston Coe Institute of American Studies. He is survived by his two daughters, Elizabeth Mugharbil and Helen Willard Travis; his sister, Marta Betsy Hornidge; two grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.

Class N otes

He received a BA and a PhD from the University of Washington and a MA from The Fletcher School. During World War II he rose from private to captain and was a combat infantry company commander in Europe. In the 1950’s he was an intelligence analyst on China serving in the Pentagon, and served in Hong Kong as senior Assistant US Army Liaison Officer responsible for collecting information on China. He was on the Seattle University faculty for 25 years. He served three terms as president of the Washington State Division of the American Association of University Professors. He has had several series on educational and commercial TV stations and has been a political commentator on election night principally for KIRO TV in Seattle. Ben served as the Mayor of Lake Forest Park from 1980-1983. Ben is survived by his loving wife, Zoe Ann of 56 years, two sons Alan Cashman and Jeff Cashman, grandchildren Colby, Megan Baumgartner, brother in-law Stacy Anderson, nieces and nephew. Robert H. Smith (F’50) passed away April

on July 30, 2006 at the age of 84 after a long illness. He was born in Muskogee, Oklahoma and grew up in Chicago and New York. During his study in history at Queens College in Flushing, NY, he served as a Staff Sergeant – cryptographic technician with the US Army Air Corps in Calcutta and Jodhpur, India. After graduating from Fletcher, he worked with the Central Intelligence Agency until his retirement in 1982. During his career, he also managed the security program for the airline, Civil Air Transport, in Taipei, Taiwan. He is survived by his wife of 55 years, Dorthea June Hassinger Umbach; his four children, Rebecca Ruth Umbach, Corwin Paul Umbach, Lois Emily Umbach MacGillivray, and Sara Margaret Umbach Cronk; and five grandchildren.

4, after a brief illness. He was 79. A native of Seattle, WA, son of the late Albert J. Smith and Elsie Smith Spellmire, stepson of the late Adolph Spellmire, he is survived by his loving wife of 53 years, Joan McCoy Smith, children, Kathleen (Mark) Barry and Kevin (Kelly) Smith, grandsons, Daniel Smith and Joseph Barry, brother, Bernard Smith, 15 nieces and nephews numerous cousins. Mr. Smith retired after serving as a senior officer of Commerce Union Bank and Sovran Bank of Tennessee. He was a member of the Exchange Club of Nashville, Financial Executives Institute Nashville and Sierra Club of Nashville. A community activist, he served in volunteer leadership positions for United Way of Middle Tennessee, St. Mary Villa, Opportunity House and St. Henry Church.

Ben Cashman (F’50) passed away at

Josephine W. (Kidder) Shane (F’53, F’87)

home on June 6, 2006 after a brief illness. Born, August 31, 1922 in Stockton, CA, Seattle has been home since he was 12.

passed away on September 6, 2006. Joy and her husband, the late Chuck Shane (F’58, F’59, Associate Dean Emeritus)

Erwin W. Umbach (F’47) passed away

40 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

were integral parts of the Fletcher community for decades. An active volunteer in many of the School’s activities, Joy co-founded and led the Fletcher host family and the Fletcher spouses programs for many years. She is survived by many friends and family members, including 4 children, 10 grandchildren, brother George H. Kidder, sister Joan S. Kidder, 17 nieces and nephews, along with grandnieces and nephews, and cousins. The family is planning a memorial service around Thanksgiving. Ambassador William T. Pryce (F’54)

passed away July 11, 2006 at his residence in Alexandria, Virginia. He is survived by his wife of 48 years, Joan M. Pryce; daughter Kathy Pryce; sons Jeffrey and Scott Pryce; sister Katherine P. Collins; and five grandchildren. He served as Vice President of the Washington office of the Council of the Americas from February 1997 until his retirement in January 2003. Ambassador Pryce came to the Council following a career as a Foreign Service Officer who specialized in Latin America. His last overseas assignment was as US Ambassador to Honduras. Prior to Honduras, he was Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director for Latin America and the Caribbean at the National Security Council. Earlier assignments included service as alternate US representative to the Organization of American States and representative to the Economic and Social Council, and special assistant to the Under Secretary of state for Economic Affairs. His overseas assignments in addition to Honduras have been to Mexico City, Moscow, Panama, Guatemala and La Paz. George Armand Pavlik (F’56) died

June 10, 2006 in Le Mars, Iowa following a brief illness. He was 78. George earned a BA degree from Westmar College in 1949, a JD from University of Iowa College of Law in 1952 and a Masters of Arts degree from The Fletcher School. He served in the Iowa State Guard during WWII and on active duty

class notes

as a first lieutenant in the Army Judge Advocate General Corps from 1952-1955 and became a Captain in the Guard. He was commissioned as a Foreign Service Officer, Vice Counsel at the Consulate General in Toronto, Canada and Intelligence Analyst for the Department of State. Later, he worked as a legislative assistant to Iowa US Senator Hickenlooper, Senator Packwood, Congressman Scherle, and Congressman Mayne. He was a research assistant for the Republican National Committee and worked as a legal consultant in Washington, DC until his return to Iowa in 1989, where he worked with H&R Block Tax Services until his retirement. He chaired the Republican Headquarters in Le Mars in 1960, and served during the campaigns for Goldwater, Wiley Mayne, and Gerald Ford. He enjoyed singing, photography, travel, reading, participating in musicals and drama, and corresponding with relatives. His survivors include a sister-in-law, Shirley Pavlik, seven nieces and nephews; thirteen great nieces and nephews and one great-great-grandnephew. H. Edward Bilkey, Jr. (F’60) died in his

sleep during a business trip to the Dominican Republic July 14, 2006. He was 72. He recently retired as chief operating officer for DP World, the third-largest port company. He was hired by the Dubai royal family in the late 1980’s, and spent 45 years total in the shipping business. He was the grandson of Senator Joseph S. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey. Mr. Bilkey grew up in New Jersey, and attended Yale before earning his MA and MALD from The Fletcher School. In 2000, he and a friend sailed a 60-foot sloop on a 16-day trip across the Atlantic from Rhode Island to Ireland. Mr. Bilkey is survived by his wife, Susan. Dr. Shastri Moonan (F’96) passed away on September 8, 2006 at the age of 61. He was born in Rio Claro and studied at St Benedict’s College before attending Fletcher. A lawyer, economist, and technologist, he was elected an Opposition Senator in the Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago on July 4, 2006. He is survived by

his wife Mary and his daughter. He will be missed by all those who knew him. Alessandro Missir di Lusignano (F’97) was killed, along with his wife Arianne Lagasse de Locht, in a tragic incident involving a break in and theft in his household on September 18, 2006. An Italian official posted in the European Commission Delegation in Morocco, Alessandro was 39 years old at the time of the tragedy. His wife was 35. He is survived by four children who were uninjured in the attack. Kimberly Rosario Perez (F’04) died in

a vehicle accident in Accra, Ghana, on August 14, 2006 at the age of 30. The daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Alberto and Estrella Perez, she studied at the University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz before serving in the Peace Corps, in Phokoane, South Africa on HIV/AIDS awareness and community and development. She completed an MA in Public Diplomacy and International Affairs at Fletcher, and was a PhD candidate in Sociology and African Studies at Michigan State University, having completed all of her requirements except for her dissertation. During her studies, she received many prestigious awards and fellowships, including several Title VI African Language and Area Studies Fellowships, a Fulbright Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship from the US Department of Education, and a Doctoral Dissertation Enhancement Award in Sociology from the US National Science Foundation. During her extended travels in Africa, Kim also gained proficiency of Hausa language. Kim had been living in Kano, Nigeria, since January 2006 consulting with faculty at Bayero University and conducting field research on the topic of “Decentralization and Representation in Nigerian Local Government: Bridging Ethnic, Religious, and Gender Cleavages in Kaduna, Nigeria.” She is survived by her two brothers, Kenneth Perez and

Kevin Perez. All those who knew Kim were enriched by her presence and will sincerely miss her for she made many contributions to the human community. A funeral service was held for her in San Diego, CA where her family resides and a memorial service took place at MSU early in the fall semester. David Seamon, Sr. (GMAP’04)

died of cancer on June 18, 2006; he was 47 years old. David was born in South Carolina.  After high school he enlisted in the US Army where he served his country for four years, then served again in the US Marines, where he fought in Desert Storm and in the peacekeeping operation in Somalia. David obtained a bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Regents University and a master’s in business administration from Wake Forest University before coming to Fletcher.  He had also studied at Oxford University. David had just taken the post of Chief Development Officer of Virginia Beach, VA.  Prior to that, he had worked as Director of Business Services for the Missouri Department of Economic Development.  He traveled quarterly to South Africa to instruct various municipalities on Best Practices in Economic Development at the behest of the US State Department. David is survived by his wife, Sharon, and two sons, David, Jr. and Justin. The GMAP class of ‘04 mourns the passing of their friend and classmate David Seamon.  They remember him as an imaginative thinker; a passionate man with a sharp mind and an extraordinary sense of humor. He was a decorated warrior who believed in peace; a hard-headed tough guy with a heart of gold.  He came from humble beginnings but dreamed of big things.  Semper Fi, David.  You will be missed.

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 41


d onor rec og nition

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2006, The Fletcher Fund, Fletcher’s annual fund, reached new heights and raised $1,023,372— surpassing the million dollar mark for the first time! Through the Fund, alumni, parents, and friends are helping shape talented students from around the world. Whether by supporting financial aid, summer internships, or enabling students to conduct research with a faculty member, each gift helps position Fletcher students to address the challenges of our increasingly complex global community. The Fletcher Fund has grown by more than 45% in the last five years. With continued commitment from alumni, parents, and friends, the School aims to match this growth in the coming five years and support Dean Bosworth’s strategic vision for both strengthening Fletcher’s premiere status among graduate schools of international affairs as well as fulfilling the School’s mission of preparing leaders with a global perspective. Led by Nihal Goonewardene (F’73), Chairman of The Fletcher Fund, last year was marked with additional achievements: • Alumni participation reached 26%. • Leadership giving at the Fletcher Associate ($1,000 plus) and Young Associate ($500+ from alumni of the last decade) levels reached new heights with 276 members. In the following pages, we have listed the names of all donors who made a gift to The Fletcher Fund in fiscal year 2006 (between July 1, 2005 and June 30, 2006) to acknowledge and publicly thank them for their support and example. On the capital side, Fletcher alumni, friends, and parents contributed or pledged more than $4.5 million to assist with a variety of academic priorities and strategic initiatives. Later this fall the School will introduce its academic and institutional funding priorities for the next five years. On pages 43 - 45 we have listed the names of our capital donors who made a gift or pledge of $1,000 or more between July 1, 2005 and June 30, 2006 to acknowledge and publicly thank them for their support and example. Also included in this donor report is a comprehensive list of Fletcher’s named endowed funds and a first-time listing of bequests and planned giving donors in the newly created Austin B. Fletcher Society. If you would like more information about these funds or if we have inadvertently made an error in our listings, please contact Roger Milici at or +1.617.627.2372.

The Austin B. Fletcher Society, a group of alumni and friends who have included The Fletcher School in their estates and long-term financial plans. Members of the Austin B. Fletcher Society will be thanked in all forthcoming Fletcher Donor Reports and are invited to campus each May for a special event with Dean Bosworth. Members are also invited to an annual luncheon at President Bacow’s home on the Tufts University campus. Present members of the Austin B. Fletcher Society include: Anonymous (6) Tatiana Androsov (F’80) Mark Baker (F’95) Barbara Bodine (F’71) Catherine Farnsworth (F’85) Ronald Glantz (F’63) Jane Harbaugh (F’53) Mary Harris (F’70) Maia Henderson

42 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Edward Hoyt (F’62) Hilda “Peggy” Kirby (F’37) John Lacey (F’76) Robert Meagher Irene Meister Armington (F’52) Brandon Edward Miller (F’04) Barbara Phillips (F’61)

NAMED ENDOWED FUNDS Fellowships & Scholarships Charles F. Adams Scholarship Atlantic Community Fellowship Ruhl J. Bartlett Fellowship

George B. & Helen J. Hargens Scholarship Joseph Harrison & Francis H. Russell Fellowship John L. Hedges Fellowship in Public Diplomacy Richard D. & Polly B. Hill Scholarship

Elizabeth Parker Powell (F’62)

William L. Blue & Joan R. Blue Scholarship

Margaret Smith (F’91)

Ralph Bunche Scholarship*

Hubert Steele (F’39)

M.A. Edward Bunford Scholarship

A. Eiken Hohenberg Charitable Scholarship

If you wish to be included in the ranks of the Austin B. Fletcher Society, please contact

Cabot Corporation Scholarship

Fay Kirby Scholarship*

John Moors Cabot Fellowship

John R. Lacey Scholarship*

Antonio Cardozo Alumni Scholarship

Katrina Lago Memorial Fellowship*

Citicorp/Wriston Scholarship

Emily & Henry Cabot Lodge Fellowship

Tara Lewis, Associate Director, Office of Development & Alumni Relations, The Fletcher School, Tufts University, 160 Packard Avenue, Medford MA 02155. +1.617.627.2720

Class of 1964 Fellowship*

Asher Hobson Scholarship

Dana Laird Memorial Scholarship*

Phyllis E. & C. Douglas Dillon Fellowship

Roger Long Scholarship

Samuel J. Elder Scholarship

Donald R. MacJannet Scholarship

Endowed Scholarship (Anonymous)

Lester Martin Fellowship

Carl J. Gilbert Scholarship

Jeffrey C. Metzel Scholarship

Joan Gillespie Fellowship

Sherry Mueller Scholarship

Armand Hammer Scholarship

Mary Pillsbury Lord Scholarship

Robert F. Meagher Scholarship*

d onor rec og nition

and Resource Policy*

Disaphol Chansiri (F’00) Allen B. Macomber (F’64)

Fletcher Library Book Fund

Edward R. Murrow Chair of Public Diplomacy*

John Curtis Perry Fellowship

Ginn Library Fund for International Law

Walter B. Wriston Chair of International Finance & Banking

Daniel E. Rothenberg

John E. Peurifoy Fellowship

Grace Frees Guillet Book Fund

Quezon Fellowship

Houghton-Mifflin Book Fund

Research Funds Hitachi Center Fund

Ian Paley Rak Fellowship

Imlah Book Fund

Latin American Studies Fund

The Fletcher Forum

John Roche Memorial Scholarship

Mildred Adams Kenyon Book Fund

North Pacific Studies Fund

Sasakawa Young Leaders Fellowship

Charles Kimball Book Fund

Segal Pollution Research Fund

The Sidney A. Swensrud Foundation

Michael Maney Library Fund

* in progress

Charles N. & Josephine W. Shane Scholarship*


Belinda Pearson Book Fund

capital gifts

Johannes & Julia R. Solleveld Fellowship in International Environment & Resource Policy

$5,000-9,999 Mansoor T. Al-Nehayan (F’01)

Gavriel Ra’anan Memorial Book Fund

National Cheng-Chi University Fellowship

Isabelle Oroian Fleck Memorial Library Fund

Frank C. & Christel Nichols Scholarship

CV Starr Scholarship Somerville Pickney Tuck Memorial Fellowship Harry S. Truman Scholarship Theodore Xanthaky & Dorothy Osborne Xanthaky Scholarship General Funds General John R. Galvin Tribute Elizabeth Parker Powell Fund for International Business* Maintenance Funds Cabot Intercultural Center Fund Goddard Hall Fund Second Century Fletcher Fund

Ames Samuel Pierce Library Fund

Roche Memorial Book Fund

Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

$250,000-999,999 Anonymous (2)

T. Dixon Long (F’58)

John Stevenson Hay Book Fund

Sarah Scaife Foundation

Manzur Zaidi Book Fund

The Tavitian Foundation

Prize Funds Class of 1947 Distinguished Leadership Award

Alfonso T. Yuchengco

Murrow Center Prize Alfred P. Rubin Prize in International Law Professorships Charles Francis Adams/Raytheon Dean’s Chair

Shelby Collum Davis Chair of International Security Studies

Joseph Grew Lecture Series

Henry Willard Denison Chair of Japanese Diplomacy

William L. Clayton Chair of International Economic Affairs

Constantine Karamanlis Chair of Hellenic & Southeast European Studies*

Tokyo Foundation $2,500-4,999 Anonymous (1) Chung W. Kang (F’77)

$100,000-249,999 The Starr Foundation

Jung-Hoon Lee (F’86)


Ann Imlah Schneider (F’56)

$50,000-99,999 Anonymous (2)

$1,000-2,499 Anheuser-Busch Foundation

Gerald W. Blakeley III & Lucy Blakeley

Robert B. Beattie

Constantine G. Karamanlis Foundation

David H. Marks

John Templeton Foundation Lynde & Harry Bradley Foundation, Inc. Sherry L. Mueller (F’66) The Ridgefield Foundation $25,000-49,999 Consolidated Contractors International S.A.L. Earhart Foundation

Kim Koo Chair of Korean Civilization and Foreign Affairs*

Frederick Pakis (GMAP’04)

Joseph Cummings Book Fund

Henry J. Leir Chair of Humanitarian Studies

Johannes Solleveld

Isaam Fares Book Fund

Chair of International Environment

Elizabeth L. Cabot Book Fund

Dacor Bacon House Foundation

Sasakawa Book Fund

Lecture Series Charles Francis Adams Lecture Series

Book & Library Funds Michael A. Bradley Memorial Book Fund


Joann M. Lindenmayer & Peter J. Aranow

Henry J. Braker Chair of Commercial Law

US-Hispanic Relations Lecture Series

$1,000,000+ Gerald W. Blakeley

Paul S. Slawson (F’60) & Mary Slawson

Shelby Cullom Davis Foundation

William L. and Bessie B. Salacuse Book Fund

Internships William S. Barnes Summer Internship for Latin American Studies

Dr. Maurice S. Segal Lecture Series

Leadership Donors

OSCE Mission in Kosovo

Reebok Foundation

$10,000-24,999 Aramco Services Company

MacJannet Foundation

Mary A. Bernald (F’64) Lynn Salinger (F’81) & Steven R. Morrill Denise Pappas Jeswald W. Salacuse & Donna Salacuse David A. Schwimmer (F’95) & Katherine H. Greig (F’05) Fred B. Smith & Martha G. Smith Robert M. Steck (F’81) If we have inadvertently made an error in our listing, please accept our apologies. For our records, please contact Kathleen Bobick at or +1.617.627.4573

“My classmates and professors at Fletcher emboldened me to explore unknown cultures and customs, to examine new ideas with an open mind, and to embrace commitment to goals of excellence as a linchpin of sound public policy.” — Karen Hastie Williams, F67, retired partner, Crowell & Moring LLP Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 43

d onor rec og nition

Fletcher Associates Leadership gifts from Fletcher Associates ($1,000 or more; $500 or more, graduates of the last decade) are the foundation of The Fletcher Fund. In fiscal year 2006, these 276 gifts accounted for almost 80% of total Fletcher Fund revenue. President’s Circle ($25,000 or more) Anonymous

Tamimi (A’09P)*

Charles N. Bralver (F’75)ß & Belinda Bralver (J’76)

Helena Robin Bordie (GMAP ‘02)

Margaret L. Bates (F’46)

Myles J. Connor (F’84P) & Mary Connor (F’84P)

Steven F. Benz (F’85) & Lynne D. Sherburne-Benz (F’85)

Tavitian Foundation

John F. Crawford (F’59)

Nancy M. Tumavick (F’69)

Andrew Czekaj (F’79)

Johannes A. Binnendijk (F’70)ß & Mary E. Locke (F’70)

Christopher S. Wendel (F’93) & Hilary Wendel (F’94)

Christina Greer Dawson (F’84) & Mark H. Dawson (F’85)

Eileen B. Keane Binns (F’66)

Dean’s Council ($5,000-$9,999) Anonymous

Robert J. Engel (F’75)

Steve Borncamp (GMAP ‘05)

Bruce M. Everett (F’70)

C. Fred Bergsten (F’62)ß

Stephen W. Bosworth & Christine Bosworth

Robert L. Chambers (F’40)

Geoffrey D. Fink (F’94) & Cyrena L. Fink (F’95)

Bonnie R. Clendenning (F’86)

Saul Grey (F’55)

David Budinger

Andrei P. Vandoros (F’71, A’04P)ß * & Lucy Vandoros (A’04P)*

Mary Graham Davis (F’66)

John P. Hamill (F’99P)ß & Kathryn Hamill (F’99P)

Jeffrey H. Bunzel (F’81)

Alfonso T. Yuchengco

Robert P. Fisher, Jr. (F’78)

Catharine A. Hartzenbusch (F’94)

Nancy M. Chase (F’44)

Society of Fletcher Fellows ($10,000-$24,999) Neil A. Allen (F’76)ß

Brian T. Gibbs (F’89)

Kamal Ibrahim (GMAP ‘04)

Suchati Chuthasmit (F’58)

John R. Lacey (F’76)

Cynthia Valianti Corbett (F’78)

Herbert Levin (F’56)

Virginia R. Cornyn (F’63)

Bette Bao Lord (F’60) & Winston Lord (F’60)

Michael P. D’Ambrosio (F’73)

Lisbeth Tarlow (F’84) & Stephen Kay

Eileen Guggenheim Wilkinson (GMAP ‘01)ß Frederick Pakis (GMAP ‘04) Andrew Safran (A’76, F’77, A’09P)ß * & Linda Safran (A’09P)* Steven G. Schulman (F’75) Jonathan A. Small (F’68)ß & Cornelia M. Small (F’68)

Annenberg Foundation Philip K. Asherman (GMAP ‘04)


John C. Evans (F’67)

Lawrence P. Heim, Jr. (GMAP ‘02) Ralph Hooper Edward L. Hoyt (F’62, F’91P) & Sarnia H. Hoyt (AG’62, F’91P)

Lawrence S. Bacow* & Adele Fleet Bacow*

Chung Won Kang (F’77)

Joyce L. Barsam (J’62) *

Michael M. Maney (F’57)

Philip J. Bergan

Stephen B. L. Penrose, III (F’67) & Eleanor Ford Penrose (F’67)


Paulo A. Bilyk (F’92)

Brian A. Maher (F’73) Vikram S. Mehta (F’79)ß

Peter Malone (F’78) ß

Elizabeth Parker Powell (F’62)ß

William G. Meserve (A’62, A’91P, A’92P, J’95P, A’02P)ß & Susan Meserve (A’91P, A’92P, J’95P, A’02P)

Savio Chow (A’08P)* & Riana Chow (A’08P)*

Josephine W. Shane (F’53)†

Lee E. Dirks (F’57)

Herman T. Skofield (F’48)

ExxonMobil Foundation*

Dorothy Meadow Sobol (F’66)

Nihal W. Goonewardene (F’73) & Chrystal Goonewardene Robert D. Hormats (F’66)ß

Claudio Sonder (A’99P, F’99P, E’01P) & Rose Sonder (A’99P, F’99P, E’01P)

Paul S. Hsu (F’65)ß & Pat Tsao

Galen L. Stoneß

David M. Sloan (F’75)

Robert E. Kiernan, III (F’81)

Robert J. Tarr, Jr. (F’76)

P. H. Koo, E1 Corporation

Gregory J. Terry (F’70, A’05P)ß

Wesley S. Williams, Jr. (F’64) & Karen Hastie Williams (F’67)

Mark K. Nichols (F’71)ß

G. Richard Thoman (F’67)ß

B. Craig Owens (GMAP ‘01)

Mian E. Zaheen (F’73)

David S. Pettit (F’67)* & Susan Gould Petit (J’67)*

1933 Founders’ Club ($2,500-$4,999) Fuad S. Abu-Zayyad (F’58)ß

Thomas Pickering (F’54) & Alice Pickering (F’54)

Agustin A. Acosta (F’93)

Charles R. Sitter (F’57)

Gerald W. Blakeley, Jr.ß

R. Bram Smith (F’71)

Martha O. Blaxall (F’64)

Fahad Tamimi (A’09P)* & Anud

Rene-Henri Bodmer (F’95)

44 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Sherry Lee Mueller (F’66) Maria Teresa Oxenstierna (F’89) William J. Papp, Jr. (GMAP ‘04) John H. Rixse, III (F’68) Joseph S. Roussel, III (F’89) Sam B. Rovit (F’87)

Global Leaders ($1,000-$2,499) Anonymous Bandar K. Al-Faisal (F’05) Elaine B. Andrews (F’58) Osamu Aoi (F’85) Paul T. Bagatelas (F’87) & Christine Lauper Bagatelas (F’87) Michael D. Balaban (F’75) Werner R. Balogh (GMAP ‘05)

Barbara K. Bodine (F’71)

Robert L. Bragar (GMAP ‘03)

Kenneth R. Button (F’72)

Antonie C. A. Dake (F’55) William B. Dale (F’47) & Joy Dale Charles H. Dallara (F’75)ß Christiane S. Delessert (F’73) Darlene Sambo Dorough (F’91) James Van Dresser (F’68) & Evan Dresser Charles K. Ebinger (F’72) & Putnam Mundy Ebinger (F’72) Richard J. Evans (F’01) Charles Sims Farr (F’75) J. Marcel H. Feenstra (F’96) Jeffrey D. Feltman (F’83) Clarence T. Fernandez (GMAP ‘05) Pablo L. Figueroa (GMAP ‘04) John M. Fisher (GMAP ‘05) Robert M. Fouché (F’57) John P. Friel, Jr. (F’80) Charles C. Frost (F’55) R. Michael Gadbaw (F’70) Frederick E. Gilbert (F’62) Ann Goldsmith (F’56) Dean Goodermote (F’79) Maria Pavlenko Gordon (F’98) Olaf J. Groth (F’95)

d onor rec og nition

James S. Guerin (GMAP ‘06)

Wm. David Newbern (F’67)

Geary Truan (F’90)

K. Eikren (F’01)

Calvin A. Hamilton (F’85)

Clay D. Norrbom (F’01) & Jennifer K. Eikren (F’01)

Christopher R. Tunnard (F’85)

Vijaya R. Palaniswamy (F’03)

Gerald Van Wyke (GMAP ‘02)

Alan Perese (F’03)

Bernard Norwood (F’48) & Janet Norwood (F’46)

Rhonda M. Vitanye (F’91)

Candace D. Plotkin (F’96)

Kim Hoan Vu (F’00)

Arne Rees (F’99) & Caroline S. Rees (F’99)

Arnold C. Hanson (F’49) Jane W. Harbaugh (F’53) J. Lise Hartman de Fouchier (F’81)

Bronwyn M. Owen (GMAP’05) Jutta Parsons (F’67)

Craig J. Wallentine (F’89) & Elaine Klein

Llewellyn P. Pascoe (F’62)

John Yang Wang (F’94)

Peter Howell (F’62)

Kirk R. Patterson (F’83)

Richard C. Warmer (F’59)

Christopher Row (F’03) & Agatha Ciancarelli (F’03)

James L. Huffman (F’68)

R. Todd Pratt (F’50) & Nancy D. Pratt (F’50)

Helene Ryan Warrener

Dina Ginzburg Selkoe (F’01)

Michael E. Watt (F’91)

Carl-Michael Simon (F’02)

Thomas D. Reese (F’57) & Caroline Reese

John C. Whitehead

Michael T. Sullivan (F’00)

Barry F. Wiksten (F’61)

Yukimi Tachibana (F’00)

Gregory P. Wilson (F’75)

Adam J. Treanor (F’02)

Alexandria Woolcott-Garbacz (F’81)

Kim Hoan Vu (F’00)

Douglas Henderson (F’41) John B. Howe (F’84) & Theresa Howe

Carol Johnson Hurlburt (F’62) Wolfgang F. Ischinger (F’73)


Mahnaz Z. Ispahani (F’81) Pamela L. Jacklin (F’67) Theodore D. Jennings (F’51) & Shirley Anderson Jennings (F’51) Satish Chandra Jha (F’85) Farrokh Jhabvala (F’73) Ignasius Jonan (GMAP ‘05) Barbara A. Kates-Garnick (F’73)

Thierry Regenass (GMAP ‘05) Jonathan A. Rosen (F’99) Michael A. Rosen (F’84) Elizabeth W. Rowe (F’83) Edward W. Russell, III (F’68) & Lynn Russell Thomas C. Sadler (F’78)

Daniel T. Kessler (F’82)

Emilio Sanchez-Santiago (F’71) & Madeleine Santiago

Dalchoong Kim (F’66)

Daniel W. Schenck (GMAP ‘01)

Gary Oseung Kim (F’55) Mary Stuart Kreimer (F’49)

Charles R. Scott (F’94) & Eiko Ikegaya (F’94)

Peter F. Krogh (F’61)

Patricia M. Semmelhack (F’61)

B. Gresh Lattimore, Jr. (F’65) & Nancy Lattimore (J’66, AG’71)

L. Paul Shapiro (F’86) & Beatriz Shapiro

Susan C. Livingston (F’81)

Tammi L. Sharpe (GMAP ‘05)

T. Dixon Long (F’58)

Gerard E. Sheehan (A’07P) & Marilyn K. Kuhar (A’07P)

Julia Motl Lowe (J’98) & Nicholas J. Lowe

Jonathan A. Rosen (F’99)

Claudine S. Welti (F’97)

John M. Yates (F’62) Frances A. Zwenig (F’70) Young Associates ($500 or more, graduates of the last decade) Ulrik P. Ahnfeldt-Mollerup (F’01) Bandar K. Al-Faisal (F’05) Philip A. Aquilino (F’96) Anand Balachandran (F’02) Mark R. Battistoni (F’01) Eric R. Bjorklund (F’06) Scott G. Borgerson (F’03) Lynne A. Brons (F’00) Nicole L. Byrns (F’98)

Fletcher Associate Giving Levels President’s Circle: $25,000 or more Society of Fletcher Fellows: $10,000 - $24,999 The Dean’s Council: $5,000-$9,999 1933 Founders’ Club: $2,500-$4,999 Global Leaders: $1,000-$2,499 Young Associates: (graduates of the last decade) $500 or more

Jean MacDonald Shepard (F’47)

Erik J. Cetrulo (F’02)

David M. Lowrey (F’65)

Marilyn Skony Stamm (F’74)

Linda J. Dixon (F’99)

Allen B. Macomber (F’64)

Margaret E. Smith (F’91)

Victoria Esser (F’99)

Joseph Marcel-St Louis DeMertine (F’90)

Franz A. Stadler (GMAP ‘03)

Richard J. Evans (F’01)

Paula Stern (F’70)

J. Marcel H. Feenstra (F’96)

Marion Marchal (F’56) & Jacques Marchal

Arthur R. Stevens (F’41)

Edmund A. Gaither (F’00)

John Todd Stewart (F’62)

Maria Pavlenko Gordon (F’98)

Fund at: or

Michael T. Sullivan (F’00)

Patrick O. Kocsi (F’96)


Yukimi Tachibana (F’00) Barbara C. Teele

Alexander Kraus (F’00) & Wendin D. Smith (F’00)ß

Donald C. Templeman (F’56)

Joshua E. Kurland (F’02)

Jean M. Tennyson (GMAP ‘05)

Lam K. Le (F’96)

Brian K. Thomson (F’88)

Carlisle J. Levine (F’99)

Shou-Chung Ting (F’81)

Boris Q. Li (F’97)

Neslihan Tombul (F’83)

Hongyu Liu (F’99)

Jennifer M. Toolin McAuliffe (F’83)

James H. Mackey (F’00)

Malcolm Toon (F’38)

William J. Miller, Jr. (F’01)

Frank L. Trippett (F’74)

Lisa H. Neuberger (F’02)

Philippe Truan (F’89) & Barbara

Clay D. Norrbom (F’01) & Jennifer

Douglas O. Marston (F’76) William F. McSweenyß Roger A. Milici, Jr. & Frances Fleming Milici Lorraine J. Miller (F’83) Lauren Moriarty (F’77) Lucia Mouat (F’61) Yoshio Murakami (F’61) Ronald J. Naples (F’72) Katherine Sikora Nelson (F’93) Lev N. Neretin (GMAP ‘05) Lisa H. Neuberger (F’02)

Key: * Represents University-wide Annual Giving

If we have inadvertently made an error in our listing, please accept our apologies. For our records, please contact Julia Motl Lowe, Director of The Fletcher

ß  Member of Fletcher’s Board of Overseers † Deceased Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 45

d onor rec og nition

Donors to The Fletcher Fund 2005-2006

Class of 1944 Total: $1,615 Participation: 57%

Gifts from Alumni

Nancy M. Chase@

Class of 1935 Total: $100 Participation: 50%

Mildred B. Sareyan

Jean O. Christie Class of 1936 Total: $550 Participation: 43%

Curt F. Beck

Jerrold Scoutt, Jr. Class of 1945 Total: $525 Participation: 57% Martha Mautner Marion Montaque Metcalfe

Carl Q. Christol

Norma Voelker Odom

Hilda X. Kirby

Friedrich J. von Mering

William L. Krieg Class of 1938 Total: $1,000 Participation: 20% Malcolm Toon@ Class of 1939 Total: $1,100 Participation: 10% James V. Martin, Jr. Class of 1940 Total: $5,650 Participation: 40%

Class of 1946 Total: $3,365 Participation: 63% Nan G. Amstutz Margaret L. Bates@ Jeannetta W. Black John C. Craig Martin G. Cramer Edward W. Holmes Mary Alice Holmes Frederick Irving

Robert L. Chambers@

Betty L. Neuhart

James M. Wilson

Janet Norwood@

Class of 1941 Total: $3,250 Participation: 45%

Class of 1947 Total: $3,520 Participation: 53%

Douglas Henderson@

William D. Brewer

Neil T. Houston

Chester Cheng

George T. Little

William B. Dale@

Arthur R. Stevens@ Robert B. Wright Class of 1942 Total: $150 Participation: 15% Thomas E. Norpell Zelda L. Wakeman Class of 1943 Total: $370 Participation: 38% Hermann F. Eilts David H. Ernst Barbara M. Morley James W. Morley Jane G. Pfeiffer

46 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Charles P. Edwards

Bernard Norwood@

James W. Gould

Roy Olton

William M. Johnson

Herman T. Skofield@

Jean B. Shepard

Theodore A. Wahl

Class of 1949 Total: $3,350 Participation: 56%

James L. Weber

Ralph E. Cook


Jonathan D. Stoddart

Class of 1948 Total: $6,625 Participation: 41%

Richard B. Gray Arnold C. Hanson@ William A. Helseth

Walter Adamson

Lewis Hoffacker

Eleanor Bluhm

Mary S. Kreimer@

William T. Bluhm

Helen M. Low

Francois M. Dickman

Edward E. Masters

Donald Y. Gilmore

Melvin E. Sinn

Norman W. Mosher

Russell L. Smith

d onor rec og nition

In Appreciation For his tireless efforts and personal example, we would like to thank and publicly acknowledge Nihal Goonewardene, F’73, for service as Chairman of The Fletcher Fund in fiscal years 2003 to 2006. Under Nihal’s term, The Fletcher Fund grew by 30% and reached a new record high of $1,023,000 with 26% alumni participation. Leadership giving to The Fletcher Fund by Fletcher Associates also grew during these three years at an impressive pace, up 25% to 276 Associates by 2006.

Class of 1950 Total: $4,010 Participation: 63%

Fletcher Associates now account for approximately 80% of The Fletcher Fund.

J. Bruce Amstutz Alta F. Fowler

Richard E. Pearson

Raymond H. Fredette Raymond E. Gonzalez Luke T. Lee

Dale M. Povenmire Josephine K. Shane †@ William W. Whitson

Charles W. Muller

Class of 1955 50th Reunion Class Fund Agents: Antonie Dake & Dennis Kux Total (FY05 & FY06): $11,675 Participation: 38%

Thomas D. Boyatt


Herbert Levin@

Donald W. Born

Raymond C. Malley

Ruth Caldwell Gisela Fort Ann Goldsmith@

Charles W. Naas

Class of 1954 Total: $23,675 Participation: 47%

Richard D. Nethercut

Robert J. Bartel

Robert L. Nichols †

Eugene E. Cortright

Helen M. Bethell

Marion Marchal@

Nancy E. Pratt@

Antonie C.A. Dake

William T. Crocker

Roger D. McLean

Robert T. Pratt@

Price Daw

John G. Day

Mary S. Olmsted

Robert H. Smith†

Charles C. Frost@

Ronald F. Dick

Ann Imlah Schneider

Jan-Hein L. Van De Mortel

Saul Grey@

James C. Falcon

Donald C. Templeman@

Ruth W. Woodcock

George N. Grosshans

Lowell V. Hammer

M. Ladd Thomas

Class of 1951 Total: $2,750 Participation: 32%

Ann L. Irvine

Milda E. Isenberg

Seth P. Tillman

Gary Oseung Kim@

Michael J. Obertin

H. David Willey

Paul M. Levine

Alice Pickering@

Chusei Yamada

Eze A. Ogueri

Thomas R. Pickering@

Robert L. Price

William T. Pryce †

Augustus L. Putnam

Class of 1957 Class Fund Agent: Cliff Cooper Total: $35,420 Participation: 50%

Harthon I. Munson

Shirley Anderson Jennings@ Theodore D. Jennings


Jonathan V. Levin Stephen Low Robert L. Obrey Horace L. Rhorer George E. Slater Class of 1952 Total: $725 Participation: 39%

Raymond W. Smyth Susan S. Smyth Hiroshi Tsukino Robert E. White


Class of 1956 50th Reunion Class Fund Agent: H. David Willey Total: $13,437 Participation: 49% Marta Bent

George F. Jones

Clifford S. Cooper John G. Craig, Jr. Carole A. Davison Lee E. Dirks@ Robert M. Fouché@

Robert G. Bent

Irene Meister Armington M. Janice Baldwin Harland H. Eastman Deane R. Hinton Ann Temple McDonell Anne V. Spilsbury Kurt H. Teil Class of 1953 Total: $8,660 Participation: 32% Dwight R. Ambach Bruce Brooker† Marvin L. Durham Jane W. Harbaugh@ Frank C. Heinemann Robert A. Huff Edward J. Malonis Robert L. McNeill

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 47

d onor rec og nition

James W. Gramentine

Carol Bachman Hart

Robert M. Ruenitz

Ronald A. Glantz

William H. Jackson, Jr.

David B. Hunn

Carl W. Schmidt

Jeanette Goodstein

Suzanne Dress Keith

Harriet W. Isom

Patricia M. Semmelhack@

Linda J. Groff

David L. Larson

Hisami Kurokochi

John N. Thomas

Mary M. Grow

Michael M. Maney@ß

Thomas A. Sargent

Anne W. Thompson

Karen A. Hansen

Robert G. Nettheim

Carla L. Scopeletis

Richard W. Turk

Margaret I. Haupt

Phyllis Oakley

H. Floyd Sherrod, Jr.

Barry F. Wiksten

Kay Jordan Kohl

David E. Parry

Richard D. Stearns, Jr.

Levio E. Zeni

Wilfrid L. Kohl

Anne Pinkney

Phillip R. Trimble

Class of 1962 Class Fund Agents: Edward Hoyt & Carol Hurlburt Total: $23,944 Participation: 48%

Thomas P. Noe, III

Horace Andrews, Jr.

Justin Simpson

C. Fred Bergsten

Ralph J. Thomson

Thomas D. Reese

William P. Wadbrook


Ernest L. Schwab

Richard C. Warmer@

Charles R. Sitter@ Anne Frederick Starbird

Class of 1960 Total: $6,220 Participation: 26%

Theodore D. Wyly

Carol Johnson Capps

Kusuma Snitwongse

Class of 1958 Class Fund Agent: Mark Lissfelt Total: $10,105 Participation: 46%

James R. Cobbledick Edward J. Gotchef W. Alston Hayne Bette Bao Lord@

Fuad S. Abu-Zayyad@ß

Winston Lord@

Elaine B. Andrews

Lois E. Nelson


Rodney E. Armstrong

Gene E. Rainey

Robert C. Bennett

Sara Stedman Russell

Suchati Chuthasmit


Anthony S. Dalsimer Samuel F. Hart Wilbur Jones Tomoya Kawamura Paul L. Laase Mark C. Lissfelt T. Dixon Long@ William D. Shaughnessy Pierre Shostal

Theodore E. Russell Ursula H. Shears Class of 1961 45th Reunion Class Fund Agents: Lucia Mouat & Tricia Semmelhack Total: $8,824 Participation: 58% Robert F. Arnove Mary E. Ashley Kevin B. Callanan

Melvin Thornton

Richard A. Christensen

Mary A. Tseroni

John J. Eddy

Kwan Ha Yim Class of 1959 Total: $6,040 Participation: 50% Craig S. Barnes Doyle R. Bates David W. Carr Pramote Chitaratanon Rosemary K. Coffey John F. Crawford@ Ralph E. Fretty Jackson A. Giddens Ilene Shapiro Ginsberg Donald K. Guthrie

48 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Charles R. Grader Marcia A. Grant Susan M. Klingaman


William R. Noyes Herbert L. Sawyer Michael T. Sharples

Horace W. Briggs

William G. Tyler, III

Daniel J. Costello

Alexander A. Zampieron

Henry Delfiner

Diana Jane Zentay

Frederick E. Gilbert@

Class of 1964 Total: $8,442 Participation: 34%

Eric G. Hansen Peter Howell@ Edward L. Hoyt@ Carol Johnson Hurlburt@ F. McLellan Johnston, Jr. David E. Long John P. McKay George A. Midwood, III Lela Garner Noble Ine Noe Richard M. Ogden Llewellyn P. Pascoe@ Malcolm C. Peck Elizabeth Parker Powell@ß Alden C. Small John T. Stewart@ Thomas R. Van Dervort Ellen B. Widmer John M. Yates@

Mary A. Bernald John G. Blaxall Martha O. Blaxall@ Philip C. Brown Edwina L. Eichner Amnon J. Golan William L. Hamilton Katherine W. Huger Frances E. Irwin Kantilal C. Kotecha Allen B. Macomber@ Keith D. Martin James D. Mietus David C. Moon Dennis H. Nason Susan Rubinstein Charles P. Werner William R. Westlake Heather A. Wheeler

Richard W. Miller

Class of 1963 Class Fund Agent: Alex Zampieron Total: $5,067 Participation: 40%

Lucia Mouat

Deborah D. Berman

Yoshio Murakami@ß

Larry T. Caldwell

Bradford C. Oelman

Avery Chope

Stephen J. Rask

Virginia R. Cornyn@

Charles R. Richardson

Jumana W. Dejany

Class of 1965 Class Fund Agent: B. Gresh Lattimore Total: $ 14,715 Participation: 35%

James A. Rotherham

Brenda L. Ebeling

Peter F. Krogh


Harry A. Lenhart, Jr. Lois Lorimer @

Wesley S. Williams, Jr.@ John C. Woodbury Jan R. Zehner

Robert W. Andrus Christopher W. Beal

d onor rec og nition

Paul M. Cleveland


Robert B. Fitzsimons 60%

Susan C. Garfin Gary A. Glenn Norene A. Halvonik Giles D. Harlow Arthur H. House Paul S. Hsu

David C. Jamison Judith Denton Jones

Percent Participation

William B. Ford




45% 40%


34% 30%










B. Gresh Lattimore, Jr. @ Jane Sneddon Little

0% 1960

David M. Lowrey@






Ben L. Martin

Class Year

Toshiyuki Niwa

Jon G. Trail

James M. Patton

Class of 1967 Class Fund Agents: Eleanor Ford Penrose and Stephen Penrose Total: $27,552 Participation: 46%

Larry D. Struve


Class of 1968 Class Fund Agents: John H. Rixse, III Total: $34,175 Participation: 36%




1960s All Alumni Overall

Richard P. Wells Charles A. White, Jr.

Class of 1966 40th Reunion Class Fund Agent: Eileen Keane Binns Total: $26,830 Participation: 36%

Dena-Kay E. Cowdy

A. David Davis

Class of 1969 Class Fund Agents: Nancy Tumavick Total: $7,128 Participation: 37%

John T. Craig

Carmen D. Deere


John C. Evans@

Terry L. Deibel

James E. Auer

Ellen L. Frost

Richard J. Dill

James M. Barkas

Peter Gil

James V. Dresser@

J. William Brumfield, Jr.

Somendu K. Banerjee

John C. Hammock

Raymond Garcia

Conrad W. Carter

Eileen B. Keane Binns@

William E. Hellert

Jonathan T. Howe

Vicente Collazo-Davila

Richard S. Bloom

Pamela L. Jacklin@

James L. Huffman@

Philip S. Coonley

Michael E. Costello

Anthony F. Kleitz

Charles B. Jacobini

John M. Dorger

Nancy Hunt Cylke

Margaret V. Knox

Alexandra B. Keith

Sharron D. Dorward

John J. Damis

Malcolm G. Koch

Curtis H. Martin

Alice A. Dress

Mary G. Davis@

Ronald A. McCrea

Gary H. Maybarduk

Anne D. Emerson

Jan E. Dill

Wm. David Newbern

Bruce J. Miller

Anthony L. Faint

Claire E. Gilmore

Oscar J. Olson, Jr.

Sally F. Miller

Daniel J. Houton

Susan Goodwillie Stedman

Jutta Parsons

Peter C. Oleson

George B. Lambrakis Charles T. Lotspeich

Sandra L. Vogelgesang William H. Wainwright



Odeh F. Aburdene

Frederick W. Hale

Harold Payson, III

John F. Owen

Libby G. Halperin

Eleanor Ford Penrose@

Lewis W. Pate

Michael C. Mattice

Robert D. Hormats@ß

Stephen B. Penrose, III

Richard M. Pesin

Robert A. Mirabello

Onyeonoro S. Kamanu

David S. Pettit

Robert H. Ratcliffe

Paul D. Mosher

Kristin E. Keaton

Richard L. Riseling

Alexis Rieffel

Mary A. Nayak

Dalchoong Kim@

James B. Rouse

John H. Rixse, III@

Bruce L. Pearson

Sherry Lee Mueller@

C. Dart Thalman

Michael M. Rubinger

Edmund J. Singer

John M. Newmann

G. Richard Thoman@ß

Edward W. Russell, III@

Joseph C. Strasser Nancy M. Tumavick@ William E. Wilson

Michael V. Olds



Ward C. Thompson

Christina E. Schoux

Helen M. Parr@

Richard M. Weintraub

Richard L. Schreadley

Dane F. Smith, Jr.

Karen Hastie Williams@

Cornelia M. Small@

Dorothy Meadow Sobol@

Jonathan A. Small@ß

Dwight G. Stecker

Roger C. Sullivan, Jr.

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 49

d onor rec og nition

Class of 1970 Total: $21, 246 Participation: 38% Robert A. Anderson Kristen R. Apgar Hans A. Binnendijk@ß Michael J. Blake Christine Probst Brumfield David J. Buffam John D. Caswell Farrinaz Varzi Cress Francis M. Dimond Richard H. Doyle Craig G. Dunkerley Bruce M. Everett@ Ralph A. Froehlich R. Michael Gadbaw@

Barbara B. Crane

Richard E. Miller, Jr.

Valentin R. Livada

Mary van Bibber Harris

Robert F. Dobek

Ronald J. Naples@

Neil C. Livingstone

Michael B. Hughes

Victoria A. Floyd

Saleem Noorani

Susan M. Livingstone

Robert F. Ichord, Jr.

Jess T. Ford

Joseph J. Shattan

Brian A. Maher@

Gary H. Jefferson

David G. Frantz

James R. Tanenbaum

Sandra W. Meditz

Andrea M. Johnson

Fred K. Green

Alan E. Van Egmond

Michael S. Monteith

William S. Johnson

Robert L. Hiett

Miquelon L. Weyeneth

R. Sean Randolph

John A. Koeppel

Bradford Jealous, Jr. J. Griffin Lesher

Mary E. Locke@

Mark K. Nichols@ß

Lawrence S. Lotman

John R. Pate

Kathleen A. MacKay

Class of 1973 Class Fund Agent: Nihal Goonewardene Total: $32,738 Participation: 27%

William J. Shaughnessy

David Levintow

Perry L. Pickert

Mian E. Zaheen@

Leslie M. McCann

David M. Adamson

William B. Richardson

Carolyn L. Patterson

John F. Bender

Emilio Sanchez-Santiago@

Harry J. Petrequin, Jr.

David M. Bluhm

Richard Bram Smith@

Henry Precht

Bruce W. Boyd

David J. Steel

Terry L. Schaich

George L. Breeden, II

Class of 1974 Class Fund Agent: Nihal Goonewardene Total: $4,800 Participation: 26%

Susan J. Steel

Mary M. Shirley

Edwina S. Campbell

Lisa S. Anderson

Roger H. Taft

Roy W. Stafford, Jr.

Steffen Crowther

Denise B. Battat

Andrei P. Vandoros@ß

Paula Stern@

Michael P. D’Ambrosio@

Louis M. Cardillo

Robert L. Webb

Christiane S. Delessert@

Stephen J. Flanagan

Class of 1972 Total: $6,835 Participation: 28%

Roger Z. George

Carl I. Freedman

Nihal W. Goonewardene@

Theresa P. Jones

Greta K. Greathouse

Kenneth A. Koretz

Laurence R. Hausman

Karl Lautenschlager

Hollis H. Hebbel

Ann W. MacNamara

Marie-France Houde

John S. Moses

Walter R. J. Houser

Marilyn L. Moses

Herbert M. Howe, Jr.

Lorie J. Nierenberg

Wolfgang Ischinger@ß

Arne C. Paulson

Farrokh Jhabvala

Edward B. Petersen

Gregory J. Terry@ß Margaret D. Xifaras Frances A. Zwenig@ Class of 1971 35th Reunion Class Fund Agents: Mark Nichols Total: $47,140 Participation: 30% Puthiyedath E. Balakrishnan Barbara K. Bodine@ Terrence J. Brown Richard R. Burt Jonathan T. Carder

50 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Kenneth R. Button@ Charles K. Ebinger@ Putnam Mundy Ebinger@ Schuyler Foerster Craig Hale Charles P. Humphreys Robert W. Jerome Caroline V. Meirs Philip W. Michelini


Andrew W. Spisak Elizabeth G. Wylie Frank J. Young

Barbara A. Kates-Garnick@

Kenneth G. Schofield

Christopher M. Lehman

Michael K. Simpson

d onor rec og nition

Marilyn Skony Stamm@

Elsie B. Garfield

Alice C. Maroni

Joseph D. Straubhaar

Anthony W. Hawks

Patrick C. Reed

Robert W. Stuart

Stanley H. Knight

Donald L. Rheem, II

Frank L. Trippett

John R. Lacey

Randall W. Roeser



John P. Waterman

Janice Dunn Lee

Stephen J. Romaine

Henry P. Williams, III

Lorraine H. Lewandrowski

Thomas C. Sadler@

Class of 1975 Total: $72,114 Participation: 27%

Steven L. Llanso

David R. Slade

Douglas O. Marston@

Reid E. Whitlock

Robert K. McNamara

Katherine P. Arendt

Kiichi Mochizuki

Michael D. Balaban@

Gustavo Palacios

Class of 1979 Total: $8,200 Participation: 21%

Catherine M. Barry

Jeffrey D. Phillips

Alfreda Brewer

Mary E. Blakeslee

Barbara R. Rowley

Andrew Czekaj@

Charles N. Bralver@ß

Frederick C. Smith

Steven B. Geovanis

Evelyn G. Brown

Jane M. Strauss

Dean Goodermote@

Barbara Chrisman

Robert J. Tarr, Jr.@

Matthew H. Jacobson

Charles H. Dallara@ß

Lisa M. Tender

Kent A. Jones

Robert J. Engel@

Martha Novick Kelley

Susan Whilton Agusti

Miles A. Libbey, III

Shelley A. McGregor

Laureen E. Andrews

Micheal M. Matz

Amy J. Medeiros

Andrew W. Barlow

Vikram S. Mehta

John Medeiros

Brian V. Evans

Claire E. Reade

Julia Nanay

Russell L. Frisbie

Scott N. Thayer

Ralph F. Perry, III

Chung Won Kang@

Robert J. Reynolds

Thomas B. Keeling

Eileen S. Roulier

Deborah L. Linde

Class of 1980 Total: $4,160 Participation: 15%

Steven G. Schulman@

Laura D. Mayer

Marion L. Billington

John F. Schwarz

Lauren Moriarty@

Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Jr.

David M. Sloan@

Maria A. Nemeth-Ek

Bruce E. Boevers

John R. Spillane

Elizabeth M. Norris

Timothy J. Christenson

Marcia C. Spillane

Lawrence T. Pistell

M. Scott Davis

Peter A. Thomas

Tamara E. Rowland

Thomas S. Drake

Margaret Nelson Vogt

Andrew Safran@ß

Regina M. Frawley

Gregory P. Wilson@

Class of 1978 Total: $15,070 Participation: 21%

Lawrence R. Kessler Bradley R. Larschan

John P. Friel, Jr.@ Cristina A. Haus-Alimonti Paige Dunlap Knipp

Harriet K. Bailey

Elizabeth H. Menten

Lynne L. Bernier

J. Peter Mitchell

Arthur M. Boley

Mark R. Oderman

Theodore H. Ahlers

Terrill H. Burnett

Gregory J. Pano

Neil A. Allen

Kenneth W. Colli

Michael R. Schneider

Bernard Balkenhol

Cynthia Valianti Corbett

Rodney G. Bent

Robert P. Fisher, Jr.@

Thomas W. Smith

Christine White Booth

Eric R. Hermann

Robin I. Zeitz

Peter H. Conze

Mary H. Knox

Joan F. Denny

Ellen Beth Lande

Kathleen L. G. Deyman

Peter Malone@


Kurt Taylor Gaubatz

Mahnaz Z. Ispahani@ Robert E. Kiernan, III@ Zofia M. Klimek Susan C. Livingston@

Maureen D. McGee

Class of 1976 30th Reunion Total: $28,479 Participation: 26%

Stephen J. Del Rosso, Jr.

Karen Henderson

John P. Luneau

Arturo Zampaglione

Jeffrey H. Bunzel@

J. Lise Hartman de Fouchier@

Class of 1977 Total: $21,801 Participation: 21%

Charles Sims Farr, Jr.@

Class of 1981 25th Reunion Total: $19,900 Participation: 27%

Andrew B. Sisson

Jeffrey D. McCausland John C. Palenberg B. Lynn Salinger Robert M. Steck Ann Fleming Temple Shou-Chung Ting@ Mark A. Wilson Alexandria W. Woolcott-Garbacz@ Class of 1982 Total: $3,335 Participation: 16% Jonathan D. Auerbach Deborah A. Brautigam Phillip D. Fletcher Louise Hodgden-Thompson Sara Growdon Howard Daniel Theodore Kessler@ Karen T. Levine Anne F. Lundberg Frederick T. McElligott Martin M. Mordecai Reiko E. Niimi James A. Peyser Hugh J. Ralston Yale J. Reisner Timothy J. Richards David R. Sands Sandra Dunlap Short Kristin R. Spak Irena S. Stern Class of 1983 Total: $8,725 Participation: 18% James R. Brooke Paul S. Dwyer, Jr. Jeffrey D. Feltman@

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 51

d onor rec og nition

Karen L. Hendrixson Marla J. Hexter Phyllis M. Lee James A. Lico Jennifer M. Toolin McAuliffe@ Richard W. Mies Lorraine J. Miller@ William M. Morgan Bartley B. Nourse Kirk R. Patterson@ Elizabeth W. Rowe@ Richard B. Samuelson Mark C. Storella Neslihan Tombul@ Ellen G. Vanwart Elizabeth B. Warfield

Catherine E. Farnsworth

Stacy L. Luks

Calvin A. Hamilton@

Margaret Mathieu

John P. Harper

Frank Craig Pandolfe

John H. Henshaw, III

R. Steve Rasin, Jr.

Class of 1988 Class Fund Agents: Carrie Thompson & Brian Thomson Total: $4,290 Participation: 17%

Petra W. Hesse

L. Paul Shapiro@

Pamela B. Berkowsky

Diane L. F. Castiglione

Satish Chandra Jha@

John C. Springer

Madeleine Costanza

Stephanie A. Connor

George M. Kalevas

Ellen H. Starbird

Karen E. Donfried

Christina Greer Dawson@

Peter H. Langer

Lisa C. Errion

Ann G. Farrar â€

Suzanne B. Leonard

Linda A. Gregus

Michael J. Levitin

Raundi A. Halvorson-Quevedo

Charles E. Moser

Tina F. S. Hofmann

Class of 1987 Class Fund Agents: Paul Bagatelas & Christine Lauper Bagatelas Total: $6,935 Participation: 19%

Lucio R. Pench

Christine Lauper Bagatelas@

Elizabeth C. Hafner

John B. Howe@

Richard M. Porter

Paul Theodore Bagatelas

William Hendrickson

Youssef P. Khlat

Calvin D. Schnure

Ginna D. Brelsford

Jeannette Herrmann

Michael A. Rosen@

Lynne D. Sherburne-Benz@

Vivianne Filmer Burke

Julie Kelly-Detwiler

Sandra Cleveland Shaw

Christopher R. Tunnard@

Paul C. Cassani

Yumin Liu

Nancy Anderson Sones

Veronica M. White

Janet K. Feldman

Sarah-Ann Lynch

Jeanne G. Sullivan

Class of 1986 20th Reunion Class Fund Agent: Augusta Heywood Total: $8,045 Participation: 15%

Gail L. Gugel

James P. Seevers

Philip A. Heywood

Eugene B. Skayne

Mikihide Katsumata

Alison Townsend Slack

Eric Levy-Myers

Carrie A. Thompson

Julia Shane Li

Brian K. Thomson@

Linda A. Bohaker

Christian Lindemann

Samuel E. Watson, III

Kent F. Wisner Class of 1984 Class Fund Agent: John B. Howe Total: $15,810 Participation: 12%

Lisbeth Tarlow@Ă&#x; Amy Finkelstein Winton Class of 1985 Class Fund Agent: John P. Harper Total: $11,325 Participation: 21% Nicholas J. B. S. Adams Charles E. B. Altekruse Osamu Aoi@ Robert C. Ayer Mavis Bauman Steven F. Benz@ Christopher M. Crane Katherine E. Crane Mark H. Dawson@

52 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Bonnie R. Clendenning



Stephen E. Flynn Abbie Littlejohn Fosburgh Bruno P. Grandsard

Laurie J. MacNamara

John T. Zagula

Mark J. Davidson

Pedro C. Moreno

Nicholas Dujmovic

Amelia A. Newcomb

Mark R. Ferri

Susan Wolfe Preneta

Toneema Haq

Caroline Keller Pruden

Class of 1989 Class Fund Agent: Brian Gibbs Total: $15,920 Participation: 16%

Micheline Hershey

Sam B. Rovit@

Augusta P. Heywood

David M. Schwartz

Timothy H. Hiebert

Jan E. Surotchak

Peter B. Kelly-Detwiler

Frederick W. Weston, III

Kathy L. Brum Rones Jose M. Cruz-Osorio Phyllis A. Dininio Benjamin W. Driggs Raymond B. Farrow, III

d onor rec og nition

Peter J. Gascoyne Brian T. Gibbs@ Veronica H. Ingham Daryl A. King Susanne U. Klemm Grognuz Linda J. Kornguth James M. Loewen Bethanie B. Newby Maria Teresa Oxenstierna@ Geoffrey T. Pack Geoffrey A. Pomeroy Joseph S. Roussel, III@ Conrad P. Rubin Stuart A. Spencer Alan Tafapolsky Richard Tharp Philippe Truan@ Craig J. Wallentine@ Class of 1990 Class Fund Agent: Stacy Bernard Davis Total: $5,200 Participation: 17%

Colleen E. Green

R. Scott Zimmerman

Zain E. Husain Lynne C. Maloney

Alice Slayton Clark

Class of 1992 Class Fund Agent: John Mitchell, III Total: $12,195 Participation: 13%

Theodore H. Clark

Alison Koff Arnstein

Julie Pascoe

Howard C. Deshong, III

Paulo A. P. Bilyk@

Cynthia R. Payne

Darlene Sambo Dorough@

Celia J. Bloomfield

Timothy J. Roorda

W. Michael Dunaway

Michael K. Denning

Gregory A. Townsend

Judith G. Federbush

Daniela M. Fagnani

Melissa Squire Weiss

Alison J. Gibbs

Kathleen M. Gripman

Christopher S. Wendel@

Mark C. Grader

Stanley D. Hubbard

Marcia E. Greenberg

Isabella C. Meijer

Md. Shamsul Haque

John W. Mitchell, III

Sara L. Hendey

Class of 1994 Class Fund Agent: Charles ScottTotal: $19,635 Participation: 23%

Carlos M. Pelayo

Elisabeth Hoffman

Gabriela M. Artavia

Kristen D. Pendleton

Edward A. Hoyt

Jorge Benitez

Deirdre Joanne Savarese

Caitlyn Welsh Hughes

Andra Bowditch

Amy B. Siegel

Elizabeth A. Levine

Jeremy A. Day

Maria T. Tejada

Irene F. Marr

Paulo G. Espindula

Richard C. Vidal

Derek J. Mitchell

Geoffrey D. Fink@

Katherine T. E. Ward

Moira A. Murphy-Aguilar

Catharine A. Hartzenbusch@

Class of 1993 Class Fund Agent: Maurico Cysne Total: $11,900 Participation: 14%

Jonathan P. Hosmer

Agustin A. Acosta@

Stephen J. Leahy

F. Christopher Calabia

Mark E. Manyin

Jeffrey J. Carlisle

Sorin Matei

J. Robert Charles

Elizabeth A. McClintock

J. Mauricio M. Cysne, Jr.

Michael A. McDermott

Rebecca D. Goldfarb

Robert G. Menzi

Erica T. Burman

Ruth Margolies Beitler Lyn M. Benoit-Geer Mark A. Berman Alexander C. Calvo Anne G. Campbell Randall L. Carlson Jindra M. R. Cekan Stacy Bernard Davis David L. Jones William A. Lawrence, III Claire M. Madden J. H. Marcel-St Louis DeMertine@ J. Kevin Mattonen Robert A. McKeon Mariko Noda Michael E. O’Hare Pamela G. Sakamoto Daniel M. Satinsky Christopher L. Shaw Patrick L. Smith William B. Thompson Barbara Geary Truan

Michael E. Watt@

Class of 1991 15th Reunion Class Fund Agent: Erica BurmanTotal: $6,945 Participation: 22%

Steven C. Walker


Mieke J. van der Wansem

Simona Petrova-Vassileva William R. Regan Maryse Robert Janis Sallinger Gregg D. Shapiro Margaret E. Smith@ D. Mark Tullis Rhonda M. Vitanye@

Robert C. Martinage William H. Mott, IV Katherine Sikora Nelson@

Eiko Ikegaya@ Richard A. Johnson, Jr.

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 53

To paraphrase Rousseau, this Fletcher graduate ‘leaps with joy’ to support The Fletcher Fund. The Fund is now an established, proven institution and has seen steady growth, thanks in large part toog thenition wonderful volunteer leadership by fellow Fletcher alumni. Each year, d onor rec contributions to the Fund address the School’s priority needs and our support enables us all to share in partnership with our cherished School, a shining intercultural beacon in our all too troubled world.” — Charlie Edwards, F’47

Sheila C. O’Neill

Joseph E. Vorbach, III

Kuniko Ashizawa

Stephen R. Meade

Maria A. Proestou

Class of 1996 Class Fund Agent: Philip Aquilino Total: $5,953 Participation: 20%

Daniel A. Balsam

Janot R. Mendler

Michael L. Castellano

Mark Nguyen

Jeroen S. Cooreman

Gabriela V. Pelin

Yolanda Cossio

Gabriel Petlin

Jeffrey J. Davis

Gweneth Bourgeault Rehnborg

Jennifer L. Haworth McCandless

Thomas M. Sanderson

Michael F. Hayes, Jr.

John A. Sawicki

Grant A. Hosford, IV

Valeria E. Scott Laitinen

Toby Hsieh

Michael C. Strauss

John J. Kavanagh, III

John M. Turner

Naohiko Kitsuta

R. Christian C. Winger

E. Rebecca Kreis

Michael J. Moriarty

Class of 1999 Class Fund Agents: Renee Kalvestrand & Jonathan Rosen Total: $6,125 Participation: 21%

James F. Perkaus

Penelope S. Anderson

Richard J. Ponzio

Rebecca M. Archer

Gabriella A. Rigg

Jennifer L. Bayon

Christine S. Samuel

Todd R. Chappell

Lisa A. Sebesta

Wendy MacLeod Chappell

Scott E. Sheriff

Jennifer C. Croft

Dana E. Stiffler

Linda J. Dixon@

Claudine S. Welti@

Barnaby S. Donlon Martina V. Donlon

Charles R. Scott@ Saurabh K. Shah Hidenobu Shirota William Carlton Stacia, Jr. Patrick L. Stuart

Nancy L. Bailey Jennifer L. Bilchick

Laura A. Svat

Richard W. Brewer

Freyr Sverrisson

Charles C. Chester

Camilla E. Tarmy

Melissa H. Conley Tyler

Mark T. Terry

Margaret McAuliffe deGuzman

Ellen E. Tipper John Yang Wang

Philip A. Aquilino@


Hilary Wendel Bauer@ Manfred H. Wiegandt Ernest A. Wright, Jr. Mona K. Yee Shira Yoffe Class of 1995 Class Fund Agent: Erin Conaton Total: $10,650 Participation: 19%

Michelle DeBortoli Djuric J. Marcel H. Feenstra@ Robin Beth First Jason W. Forrester Hilary F. French Nick Gill Susan R. Goldfarb Lisa M. Gonzalez William S. Gripman, Jr. Wendy Gutierrez

Alexia Gabrielle Latortue Boris Q. Li@

Rene-Henri Bodmer@

Jane J. Heller

Erin C. Conaton

Tamara L. Johnson Hochman

Martha B. Culver

Sara B. Ivry

Katrina C. Destree

Erik A. Johnson

Donna Demenus Dholakia

Patrick O. Kocsi

Evelyn N. Farkas

Christine L. Kowalczuk

Class of 1998 Class Fund Agent: Sarah Kenny Total: $4,381 Participation: 20%

Cyrena L. Fink@

Joseph W. Laszlo

Amy K. Aiken

Victoria Esser@

Jennifer A. Gergen

Lam K. Le@

Michelle M. Bailer

Tobin L. Freid

Lullit Getachew

Jodi L. Lis

Melinda C. Burrell

Mark S. Hannafin

Olaf J. Groth@

Jessica S. Madoc-Jones

Nicole L. Byrns@

Dana M. Hollywood

Laurence S. Hanauer

Richard A. Morris

Carolyn N. Choi

Akira Izumi

Kevin J. Haney

Kyle Nickerson

John M. Conley

Renee B. Kalvestrand

Duncan B. Hollis

Candace Lun Plotkin@

Brian J. Cook

A. Banafsheh Keynoush

Alice L. Hurley

Mary Regan

Diana D. Perry-Elby

Christine Klink

Maria T. Kelly

Stefanie Ricarda Roos

Carol-Monica Frausto

Wolfgang Lassl

Bingham Kennedy, Jr.

Maria T. Vardis

Timothy J. Froggatt

Jennifer A. Leonard

Patrice R. McAree

Anthony C. Wanis-St. John

Irina V. Gorbman

Carlisle J. Levine@

Ayako Nakajima Nomizu

Carol A. Welch

Maria V. Gordon@

Hongyu Liu@

Brooks A. Olbrys

Zia Daniell Wigder

Jordan A. Herzberg

Katherine K. Marquis

Mary B. Reissen

Class of 1997 Class Fund Agent: Vitaly Veksler Total: $4,230 Participation: 17%

James R. Holmes

Megan E. Newstrom Gaillard

Sarah E. Kenny

Zeynep Ogut

Elizabeth N. Kerton

Michael A. Rauch

William H. Laitinen III

Arne Rees@

Ena Michel Laliberte

Caroline S. Rees@

Polly C. Laurelchild-Hertig

Jonathan A. Rosen@

Leslie-Anne Levy

Jeffrey G. Ryder

Jessica D. Lieberman

Jonathan D. Schuman

Jennifer Lovitt Riggs Raleigh D. Sahl Caroline L. Sanderson Eric S. Sanderson Keith L. Silver Michael H. Smith David B. Sullivan

54 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006


Susan Abbatecola C. Spencer Abbot Jason N. Ader Sara Mason Ader

Margaret C. Donovan Melissa T. Dresler

d onor rec og nition

Ellen M. Shaw

Sarah A. Thomas

Jeanne L. Smoot

Carla M. Tully

Brian W. Woodward

Mehmet A. Ugur

Zaid A. Zaid

Marjorie L. Victor

Class of 2000 Class Fund Agent: Anna Balog Total: $9,020 Participation: 26%

Kim Hoan Vu@

Christopher C. Ahn James F. Alexander, Jr. Anna L. Balogh Kimberly A. Barry Neil A. Berenson Jessica B. Berns Davis B. Bookhart Lynne A. Brons@ Amy M. Coletta Fiona C. Evans Eric J. Eversmann Natasha S. Franceschi Edmund A. Gaither@ Michael E. Genovese Maria Giardinelli Stephen E. Goodman James C. Guyton Carla N. Haddad Martin Hansen Kinuyo Y. Ino Brian T. Jackson Alexander Kraus@ Daniel L. Kunin James H. Mackey@ Jennifer A. Mahr Michele L. Malvesti Francis H. Marlo Kelly S. Morgan Todd B. Neff Cristina D. Paulino Hannah Fretz Pierpont Daniele Riggio Takashi G. Sato Lisa N. Shishido Wendin D. Smith@Ă&#x; Marcia D. Spivey Karsten Steinfatt Gonzalo O. Suarez

K. Brooke Welch Andreas Wendlberger Susan M. Williams Class of 2001 5th Reunion Class Fund Agent: William Miller, Jr. Total: $7,365 Participation: 19% Roy H. Adkins Ulrik P. Ahnfeldt-Mollerup@ Susan R. Banki Ariunaa Batbold Mark R. Battistoni@ Julie A. Bennion Devorah Issac Bitran Dulce M. Carrillo Jay Zengjun Z. Dong Jennifer K. Eikren@ Sita M. Farrell Michael J. Federici Anne H. Gotwals

Anand Balachandran@

Philipp A. Uhlmann

Nina Rabinovitch Blecker

Sara G. Weinstein

Erik J. Cetrulo

Rockford Weitz

Rajan R. Dalvi

Cynthia E. White

Beth A. Dixon

Peter Yauch

Daniel J. Fahey

Class of 2003 Class Fund Agent: Rachel Cherry Total: $4,045 Participation: 19%

Jihee Go

Kevin H. Huyler Shannon E. Lawrence Sylvia L. Leung

Christopher M. Greller Stevie B. Hamilton, Jr. Stephanie J. Hutchison

Ju-seong Lim

Paul Y. Jun

Christopher P. Maier

Mariya A. Kravkova

William J. Miller, Jr.


Anthony P. Kujawa

Gregg M. Nakano

Joshua E. Kurland@

Kit J. Nichols

Jona Lai


Henrietta L. Lake

Ilena C. Patti

Daniel B. Langenkamp

Michael Pevzner

Thomas A. Lank

Ursina Pluess

Ann-Marie P. Layne

Bibiana Popal

Akira Maeno

Mustafa M. Popal

Tara A. Mcfeely

Arturo Ramos Dina Ginzburg Selkoe


Vashti D. Van Wyke Michael J. Zwirn

Cynthia J. Ray


Richard J. Evans@

Clay D. Norrbom

Class of 2002 Class Fund Agent: Anand Balachandran Total: $5,474 Participation: 21%

Assaf Moghadam Farzana Muhib Maria Mussler Lisa H. Neuberger@

Michael T. Sullivan@

Nicole C. Palasz

Yukimi Tachibana@

Sarah E. Prosser

Grigore Scarlatoiu Carl-Michael Simon@ Adam J. Treanor@

Daniel Ades Beth Ahern Bouchra Aquil Scott Gerald Borgerson@ Christopher E. Burdick Rachel D. Cherry Agatha R. Ciancarelli@ Christine M. Clay Elisabeth Dallas Brian M. Dusza Keith M. Eischeid Bruce E. Etling Sierra E. Fletcher Brett D. Freedman Kathryn M. Gates Jan E. Gudell Judson M. Horn Veenarat Laohapakakul Sara Malakoff

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 55

d onor rec og nition

Oanh T. Nguyen

Neal J. Wozniak

Paul B. Campbell

Jaime Lopez-Aranda

Vijaya R. Palaniswamy@

Brendan E. Cavanagh

Amanda M. MacEvitt

Sheila Chanani

Matthew B. McCaffree

Hyun-jung Choi

Matthew M. McCandless

Christopher A. Row@

Class of 2005 Class Fund Agent: Stephane Tomagian Total: $2,500 Participation: 11%

Linda E. Cole

Joseph McCrossen

Deborah Ruiz-Verduzco

Bandar K. Al-Faisal

Thomas C. Cole

Malcolm S. McDermid

Nicholas P. Sullivan

Yevgeny Bendersky

Alexandru Colosivschi

Marta L. McLellan

Catherine R. Dry

Edward Conant

Alexandra T. Melby

Class of 2004 Class Fund Agent: Rodolphe Costanzo Total: $2,375 Participation: 15%

Rachel Gottesfeld

Paul J. Crames

Ana C. Melo

Charles M. Interrante

Gillian L. Cull

Erica Miller

Yoshiyasu Ishimaki

Nicole David Palau

Michael H. Moisio

Iva Naffziger

John D. Davis

Joshua T. Newton

Mark Basile

Victoria L. Obst

Anne W. Debevoise

Caroline C. Nolan

Christopher Pearce

Lyn Debevoise

Leigh E. Nolan

Emily Butera

Roberto Porzecanski

Debra A. Delay

Matthew W. Nolan

Raphael Carland

Harish Reddy

Karoun A. Demirjian

James M. O’Brien

Susan Shin

Juan Cruz C. Diaz

Akua B. Ofori-Adjei

Susan M. Chun

Stephane R. Tomagian

Gregory Dimitriadis

Ali A. Omar

Rodolphe Costanzo

Marina Travayiakis

Andrew D. Dixon

Iyore Amy Otabor

Melissa R. Tritter

Brian H. Doench

Abigail L. Parish

Almasa Dozo

Patrin Watanatada

Daniel D. Dolgin

Eun J. Park

Hannah T. Fairbank

Anne Williams

Neeraj Doshi

Seema Patel

Alissa Wilson

Dimitrios Efstathiou

Marina Pevzner

Matthew R. Hager

Sarah A. Yamani

Marieta Fall

Paul M. Pleva

Stephanie A. Hanford

Class of 2006 Class Fund Agent: Matthew B McCaffree Class Gift Officers: Ashley Brady, Ricardo Borges De Castro, RamonCarlo Galicia, Nicole David Palau, Heidi Ritzke & Kevin Rosier Class Gift Total: $6,789 Class Gift Participation: 75%

Sara J. Feldman

Benjamin G. Presnell

Marti Flacks

Heidi M. Ritzke

Wanrawee Fuangkajonsak

Eric S. Roland

Ramon-Carlo E. Galicia

Kevin J. Rosier

Rachel L. Milner Gillers

Amelia R. Runyon

Keira A. Goldstein

Joseph E. Rupp

Akifumi Goto

Kozo Saiki

Michael Hartnett

Yukari Saito

Brian E. Abrams

Thomas B. Hickerson

Kanita Sapphaisal

Kentaro Akutsu

Nathaniel L. Hoopes

Xanthe M. Scharff

Jose E. Arvelo-Velez

Delphine Hou

Cornelia Schneider

Phinyada Atchatavivan

Anne E. Hurst

Martin Schuepp

Tannaz M. Banisadre

Aiyaz Husain

Euna Shim

Daniel Benaim

Maja Ilic

Raven R. Smith

Jill T. Bernstein

Sara M. Jablon Moked

Sandra I. Sohne

Ashish K. Bhatia

Alison S. Jarrett

Stephan P. Sonnenberg

Anika L. Binnendijk

Kristina Jeffers

Edward S. Spang

Eric R. Bjorklund@

Deborah L. Jones

Christopher J. Strom

Lauren Boccardi

Georgia L. Kayser

Naohito Suzuki

Ricardo A. Borges De Castro

Farheen Khan

Marcin Jan Szajda

Ashley L. Brady

Olha Krushelnytska

Lourdes S. Tabamo

Alexis H. Brooks

Bartol Letica

Nadaa A. Taiyab

Reed F. Bundy

Michael M. Lieberman

Hideyasu Tamura

Shamineh S. Byramji

Erika F. Lopez

Charlotte M. Taylor

Jeremy Perelman Alan Perese


Daniel P. Wald

Sara L. Bowers

Lisa Chow

Erik J. Dahl

Victoria Gellis

Ezequiel O. Hart Syed W. Hasib Meelis Kitsing Tamas I. Kovacs Miriam S. Lemay Abigail T. Linnington Dominick Mastropoalo Verdina Mekic Brandon E. Miller Samuel Milton Oren Murphy Florian A. Müeller Kimberly R. Perez† Carol L. Pons Jennifer S. Porter April K. Rinne Katherine D. Robinson Jon J. Rosenwasser Claire Sneed Ermina Sokou Sharon Squillace David Sussman J. Kendal Wolf

56 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006


Dorothy Meadow Sobol, PhD, F’66 Chair, The Fletcher Fund (2006-2009) d onor recFletcher og nition We are pleased to welcome Dorothy Meadow Sobol as the Chair of The Fund. Dorothy has been an active member of the Fletcher community since her graduation. She is a member of the Fletcher Development Committee, a standing subcommittee of the Fletcher Board of Overseers, and has helped coordinate several reunions, most recently her 40th Reunion last May.

Dorothy recently retired as a vice president in the research and market analysis group at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, where she had been working in various roles since 1978. She joined the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) faculty in the fall of 1998, first as adjunct professor and beginning in 2001on a more full-time basis as a professor of emerging markets and international economics. In July 2006, she was named to the core faculty of the International Development Program headed by Professor Francis Fukuyama. Dorothy was a Senior Fellow in Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations from 1985 to 1987 and has been a member since then. She joined the Bretton Woods Committee in 2006.

Pavel Vasilev

GMAP I Class of 2002 Class Fund Agent: Aldo Aldama Bretón Total: $11,175 Participation: 18%

GMAP I Class of 2005 Class Fund Agent: Steve Borncamp Class Gift Total: $15,660 Class Gift Participation: 75%

Cara E. Vileno

H. Robin Bordie@

Hiyam K. Alfassam

Deborah Vouche-Barrelet

Lawrence P. Heim, Jr.@

Ava E. Arcilla

Dylan P. Walsh

Michael McNally

Raffy P. Ardhaldjian

Godfrey Waluse

Robert P. Palmer

Werner R. Balogh@

Todd Wassel

Ko Unoki

Steve Borncamp@

Hongchi Wei

Gerald Van Wyke

Robin White

GMAP I Class of 2003 Class Fund Agent: Franz Stadler Total: $2,200 Participation: 5%

Jonathan R. Thomas Teitur Torkelsson Katsuya Tsukamoto

Nirmalaguhan Wigneswaran Nobuhiro Yamamoto

Daniel W. Schenck@ Paul J. Tringale

Steven Rehermann


Clarence T. Fernandez@

Anne M. Ancia

John M. Fisher@

Donald R. Anderson

David P. Janes

Stephen E. Bergey

Shayra Moledina

John F. Daniele

Nizar N. Nakfoor

Zlatko B. Dimitroff

Alyse Nelson Bloom

Tito P. Dua

Lev N. Neretin@

Andrea L. Fischer

Philip K. Asherman@

Bronwyn M. Owen@

Douglas H. Gorsline

Alicia A. Eastman

Diana L. Perez-Buck

James S. Guerin@

Pablo L. Figueroa

Franz A. Stadler@

B. Craig Owens@

Tim Nank

Kathleen E. DeLacy

GMAP I Class of 2001 Class Fund Agent: Nancy DiBiaggio Total: $36,300 Participation: 22%

Walter H. Hawes III

Ignasius Jonan@

Susana Carrillo Gery

Robert L. Bragar@

Eileen Guggenheim Wilkinson@ß

Ichiro Inoue

GMAP II 2006 Class Fund Agent: Rahul Sharma Class Gift Total: $7,178.00 Class Gift Participation: 82%


Hirohiko Yoshida

Andrus Alber

GMAP II 2005 Class Fund Agent: Kevin Kreplin Total: $1,400 Participation: 15%

GMAP I Class of 2004 Class Fund Agent: William Papp Total: $44,050 Participation: 21%

Lijie Cai

Rebecca M. Quintanilla

Holly Haverstick

Kamal Ibrahim@

Thierry Regenass@

Elena R. Hughes

Robert J. McMahon

Tammi L. Sharpe

Todd C. Huntley

Frederick Pakis@

Dirk P. Swart

Malcolm D. Ipson

William J. Papp, Jr.@

Jean M. Tennyson@

John P. Isakson



Douglas J. Planeta

Janice L. Jensen Brent M. Law Shwu J. Li Odo R. Manuhutu Bruce R. Moody Bertrand Njanja Fassu Serge Nkuindja Andrew W. Palowitch Allan C. Polley Rahul Sharma Mary S. Sutton Otgontsetseg Zundui If we have inadvertently made an error in our listing, please accept our apologies. For our records, please contact Julia Motl Lowe, Director of The Fletcher Fund at: or +1.617.627.5441

Key: @ Fletcher Associate * Represents University-wide Annual Giving

ß  Member of Fletcher’s Board of Overseers † Deceased Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 57

d onor rec og nition

Gifts from Parents

& Valentina Vasilyeva

Frances Y. Parisi

Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Inc.

Anonymous (2)

Paul R. Wenke & Cynthia C. Wenke

Eduardo Pena & Patricia Pena

Carnegie Corporation

Joseph C. Yang & Eva S. Huang

Michael Preiner

Citigroup Foundation

Mussa Banisadre & Lilly Banisadre

Karen M. Quinn

Comerica Incorporated

Carol G. Bohnenkamp

Peter C. Read & Suzanne P. Read

Deloitte & Touche Foundation

Kathleen C. Reardon

ExxonMobil Foundation

Jeswald W. Salacuse & Donna Salacuse

Fidelity Foundation

Gerard E. Sheehan & Marilyn K. Kuhar@

First Tennessee/First Horizan


John J. Bajema & Maria Bajema

Thomas E. Brady & Elizabeth Brady John B. Bunnell

Anonymous Lawrence S. Bacow & Adele Fleet Bacow@

DeAnn P. Clancy Paul M. Cleveland

Leonard J. Baldyga & Joyce Baldyga

Rosemary K. Coffey & Zigmund L. Dermer Myles J. Connor & Mary Connor

Gifts from Friends

Gerald W. Blakeley, Jr. @

Galen L. Stone@ @

Abraham Dau & Laure Dau

Stephen W. Bosworth & Christine Bosworth@

Lawrence C. Davis

David Budinger@

Reza A. Eghbal & Magda T. Eghbal

Ann Carey

Robert P. Feldman & Nancy J. Feldman

Dane M. Carillo

John R. Frey

Savio Chow & Riana Chow@

Tetsuo Fujichaku & Katsuko Fujichaku Carl J. Gebuhr & Carolyn C. Gebuhr Charles R. Grader Frederick W. Green & Linda Green Susan C. Greenberg & Allan S. Greenberg John P. Hamill & Kathryn Hamill@ Sarnia H. Hoyt & Edward L. Hoyt@ Gail A. Innes George B. Lambrakis & Claude Lambrakis

Stanley K. Chervin & Erin L. Chervin

Anud Tamimi & Fahad Tamimi@ Helene L. Warrener@ John C. Whitehead@ Raymond S. Wong Alfonso T. Yuchengco@

Financial Security Assurance Gannett Foundation Gillette Company Goldman, Sachs & Co. Henry Luce Foundation IBM Int’l Science & Tech Institute, Inc. J.P. Morgan Chase Fdn Matching Gift


Kirkland & Ellis Foundation

@ Fletcher Associate

McGraw-Hill Foundation

Jessica L. Daniels

ß Member of Fletcher’s Board of Overseers

Microsoft Corporation

Farouk El-Baz

† Deceased

Theodore L. Eliot & Pat Eliot

If we have inadvertently made an error in our listing, please accept our apologies. For our records, please contact Julia Motl Lowe, Director of The Fletcher Fund at: or +1.617.627.5441

Pamela D. Cotte

Carolyn G. Friedman Elizabeth Z. Ginsberg Marianne E. Haggerty Jay W. Haskel John F. Herlihy & Sarah A. Herlihy Lenore M. Hickey

Nomura America Foundation Pearson Education Matching Gift Prog Pfizer Inc. Qualcomm Science Applications International Corp Scitor Corporation Shell Oil Company Foundation

Richard D. Hill

State Street Corporation

Jay J. Lopez & Inge F. Lopez

Ralph Hooper@

Michael P. Malakoff & Louise Malakoff

Insong Kim P. H. Koo, E1 Corporation@

Matching Gifts from Corporations & Foundations

Robert A. Nolan & Mary E. Nolan

Richard J. Kypta & Ellen Kypta

AT&T Foundation

UPS Foundation

Patricia L. Obst & Anthony K. Obst

Accenture Foundation

United Technologies Carrier Corp

Owen B. Pearce & Mary L. Pearce

Nicholas J. Lowe & Julia Motl Lowe@

Wachovia Matching Gifts Program

Walter H. Pincus & Ann Pincus

Deborah R. Marchiony

American Appraisal Associates, Inc.


Alfred P. Rubin

John Matel

American Express Foundation

Xerox Corporation

Robert M. Russell & Sharon Russell

Joseph A. McIntosh & Betty J. McIntosh

American International Group, Inc.

Lorraine Sartori Usko Shivute & Frieda T. Shivute Audrey Y. Slater Larry L. Smith & Ruth Smith Claudio Sonder & Rose Sonder@

William F. McSweeny@ Paula Menzel William G. Meserve & Susan Meserve@

Anheuser-Busch Foundation Archer-Daniels-Midland Foundation BP America, Inc. Bank of America Bank of America Foundation

Carole B. Stewart

Roger A. Milici, Jr. & Frances Fleming Milici@

James C. Strom & Esther R. Strom

William A. Mohler & Patricia Mohler

Barclays Global Investors

Jozef M. Szajda & Teresa Szajda

Nora B. Moser McMillan

Ann B. Thomas

Robert Murphy & Barbara G. Murphy

Becton Dickinson Matching Gift Program

Leonid Vasilyev

58 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2006

Bank of New York Foundation

Boeing Company

State Street Foundation Texas Pacific Group The Neiman Marcus Group

d onor rec og nition

Corporation & Foundation Support Apple Pond Farming Center B & T Association, Inc. BWN Services Dry Family Charitable Foundation E1 Corporation Exxon Mobil Corporation Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund Fidelity Foundation Figueroa & Figueroa Foundation for the Carolinas Frank & Nancy Parsons Fund

Franklin Cole Foundation

Office in Boston

Hawthorne Lane Fund

The Annenberg Foundation

Jewish Communal Fund

The Columbus Foundation

KPMG Foundation

The Ethan James Foundation

Leon Lowenstein Foundation

The Keaton Living Trust DTD

Lopez Engineering, Inc.

The Pakis Family Foundation

Microsoft Corporation

The Tavitian Foundation

Pannonia Foundation Robert & June Chambers Trust

Thornton & Elizabeth Hooper Foundation

Robert & Molly Tarr Charitable Foundation

Vanguard Charitable Endowment Program

Springcreek Foundation

Whitehead Foundation

Taipei Economic and Cultural

Wiccopee Fund

Fall 2006 FLETCHER NEWS 59

Reunion 2007           MAY 18-20 Return, Reconnect, and Rediscover Fletcher Enjoy the riveting conversations, reminiscing, and fantastic food, while reconnecting with classmates, other reunion alumni, and faculty.  Last year more than 100 were in attendance - don’t let 5 years pass without coming back to celebrate with us! The following classes will be celebrating reunion in May 2007: 1962, 1967, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002 To learn more, visit index.html or call Fletcher’s Reunion Coordinator, Ann Carey, at: +1.617.627.4833

Save the Date… Fletcher’s Sixth Annual Talloires Symposium 1-3 June 2007 In conjunction with this year’s Symposium, we hope that alumni of the Fletcher-Geneva Exchange will join us in Talloires on Sunday, 3 June 2007, for a special celebration of the 40th anniversary of the MacJannet Exchange Program. Details to come…

2 D ECEMBER 2006

Fletcher’s Fourth Annual London Symposium Featuring keynote speaker:

Peter Ackerman (F’69, 71, 76) Founding Chair of the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict Chair, Fletcher Board of Overseers International Institute for Strategic Studies London, England For details: or +1.617.627.5440.

Fall Reunion 2007 5-7 September 2007 Celebrating the class of 1957 and earlier graduating years The Fletcher School’s 75th Anniversary Gala 11 October 2008 Washington, DC

The Fletcher School T u fts U niversit y 160 Packard Avenue Medford, Massachusetts 02155 Return Service Requested

The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent those of The Fletcher School. Fletcher News welcomes letter on topics covered in this newsletter. The editor reserved the right to edit for space and style. Please send letters to Fletcher News, Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 160 Packard Avenue, Medford, MA 02155; fax 617.627.3659; or e-mail

Fletcher News - Fall 2006  

Fletcher News publication from Fall 2006 without class notes.

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