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Professor of International Law Michael Glennon, International Overseer Douglas Marston (F’76), and IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei

VO LU M E 2 5


FA L L 2 0 0 4

Third Talloires symposium hosts world leaders


Megan V. Brachtl and Leah S. Brady ART DIRECTOR

Margot Grisar DESIGNER


Katharine Garraty PHOTOGRAPHY

Over the weekend of June 4–6, 2004,


the Tufts European Center hosted a symposium organized by Fletcher’s Office of Development and Alumni Relations on the subject of international security and nuclear proliferation. Keynote speakers were Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Dr. Shokri Ghanem (F’73), prime minister of Libya. The symposium was attended by almost 90 people, most of whom were European-based Fletcher alumni and friends. Fletcher faculty and staff, led by Dean Stephen W. Bosworth, were also present. The Tufts European Center, housed in a restored eleventh-century monastery known as the Prieuré, is located in Talloires,

France, in the heart of the French Alps on the banks of Lake Annecy. This year’s symposium marked the third annual gathering of European alumni of The Fletcher School at the Prieuré. Begun in 2002 with a program on international terrorism, the Fletcher symposium was developed as a way to bring the school’s widespread European alumni together for a weekend of networking, intellectual stimulation, and the renewal of school ties. The symposium was held under “Chatham House Rules” (nothing said in the room leaves the room) in order to encourage frankness and candor in the exchanges between speakers and audience members. Director General ElBaradei | Continues on next page addressed issues

Doug and Hilma Marston,Tufts Digital Collections and Archives OFFICE OF DEVELOPMENT AND ALUMNI RELATIONS

Roger A. Milici Jr., Director; Elizabeth W. Rowe (F’83), Associate Director; Tara Lewis, Associate Director; Julia Motl, Annual Fund Coordinator; Leah S. Brady, Alumni Relations Coordinator; Pamela Cotte, Reunion Coordinator; Kathleen Bobick, Staff Assistant; Cynthia Weymouth, Administrative Assistant
















observer, it was clear that both Dr. ElBaraContinued from page 1 | concerning the creation of a more effective international secudei and Dr. Ghanem were greatly pleased rity system, while Prime Minister Ghanem with the weekend’s experience, which gave reviewed political and economic matters them both the pleasurable company of related to the hopeful transition now being knowledgeable and worldly people as well undertaken by Libya. The Fletcher grads did as a welcome respite from their heavy not hesitate to pose the most sensitive responsibilities. questions to both speakers, and followed up The now-annual Fletcher Symposium with vigorous dialogue to get at the heart of represents the ideal realization of the hopes the issues involved. The speakers acquitted of Charlotte and Donald MacJannet (A’16), themselves in the most professional yet Tufts benefactors who established and candid manner, allowing everyone to come endowed the Fletcher exchange program Margot Marston, daughter of Douglas Marston away from the symposium with a far with the Graduate Institute of International (F’76), with Libyan Prime Minister Shokri greater understanding of these profound Studies in Geneva (HEI). They gave the Ghanem (F’73). and complicated issues. Prieuré to Tufts University with the goal of The weekend was also filled with a wide variety of cultural having it serve as a gathering place for the world’s global citizens and social events, beginning with a piano concert Friday night, to discuss ways to make the world a better place. Fletcher’s continuing through a series of luncheons and dinners at local annual symposia have helped to achieve this goal, meanwhile restaurants (including a dinner cruise on Lake Annecy), and finstrengthening ties between diverse members of the Fletcher comishing with both a press conference and a group hike on Sunday. munity and raising the school’s profile in Europe. The weekend thus provided myriad opportunities for the attenNext year’s symposium is scheduled for June 3–5. Informadees to experience the special magic of the Prieuré, which comes tion on the program and registration procedures will be availfrom the unique blending of stellar intellectual discourse and the able via the Fletcher alumni Web site at extraordinary beauty of Talloires and its surroundings. To this after March 1, 2005.

LET TERS TO THE EDITOR I am rarely, if ever, viscerally moved to write letters to editors of publications vis-à-vis any specific article. Until I received Fletcher News: Spring 2004. In all honesty, I was astonished and yes, angered, by your decision and judgment to showcase a cover story on student Amal Jadou. Far from being a heartwarming student profile, this story was a onesided, unbalanced glorification of the Palestinian cause which, in my opinion, is not the kind of content appropriate for Fletcher News, which has always maintained its integrity as an informative tool to know the goings on of the school, faculty, and alums. Indeed, my sense is that Fletcher News was commandeered to serve as a mouthpiece for one side of a highly emotional, complex, and potentially intractable issue. Ms. Knopf is obviously unaware of the historical facts that led to the unfortunate displace-


ment of many Palestinians in 1948, as well as beyond entirely oblivious to the incessant suicide bombings that have vaporized innocent men, women, and children — not just because they are Israelis, but more important, because they are Jews. —STUART SPENCER (F’89)

For me, Fletcher is a school predicated on the notion of building international relationships, which makes it all the more disappointing that you would run such an incendiary and alienating piece. I certainly hope that in the future a little more diplomacy will be used in this publication. —MICHAEL RAUCH (F’99)

I am a graduate of the Fletcher School and am deeply disappointed and disturbed by the cover piece on Amal Jadou in the most recent issue of Fletcher News (Spring 2004). Many criticisms can properly be made about the Israeli government and the conflict in the territories, but this onesided piece — and its reference to Israeli military actions while ignoring Palestinian suicide bombers — smacks of propaganda. Further, the characterizations it employs paint Israelis as violent, sexist thugs while portraying Palestinians in an almost beatific light.

The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent those of The Fletcher School. Fletcher News welcomes letters on topics covered in this newsletter. The editor reserves the right to edit for space and clarity. Please send letters to Fletcher News, Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 160 Packard Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA; fax 617.627.3659; or e-mail




or the past fourteen years, incoming students have begun their Fletcher education the same way: with a weeklong orientation program of ice-breakers and team games, information sessions and field trips, lunches and small group meetings. The primary objective of these activities has been to enable our new

students to get to know one another before delving into their schoolwork.

Orientation culminates on the first day of classes with the school’s annual Academic Convocation, an all-school event that assembles new and returning students, faculty, staff, and alumni celebrating their 50th-plus reunion to kick off the new academic year. The orientation program is a vital part of the Fletcher student experience. As Fletcher alumni know well, the relationships formed during students’ short time at Fletcher will serve them well throughout their lifetimes. By interacting outside of the classroom setting during their first few days at Fletcher, students create a comfortable network of trust and friendship that strengthens the entire Fletcher community. One feature of the school that greatly affects the student experience is the condition of the facilities in which they learn, work, and interact. The Fletcher complex has been demanding attention for some time now, and I am pleased to report that it is undergoing a face-lift. Students who returned to Fletcher this fall were pleasantly surprised with the results of phases I and II of our renovation master plan, completed this summer. Under a $10 million financing plan endorsed by senior university leadership and the Tufts board of trustees, this is just the beginning of a two-year renovation of the Fletcher building complex. This is the first comprehensive rearrangement and expansion of our facilities in more than a quarter century, through which we will gain 20 to 25 new offices and work spaces, and two to three new classrooms. The new space is desperately needed for the expansion of academic programs and related activities, including the continued expansion of our faculty. For students in particular, it will improve the quality of their experience by offering centralized student services offices and more meeting space. Of the $10 million, Fletcher is seeking to raise at least $5 million to be put toward the amount

borrowed for this project. This spring we received an anonymous $1 million gift for this project. The implementation schedule of phases III through V depends upon the success of our fundraising for the remainder of this project. To learn more about our fundraising needs and goals, please call or e-mail Roger Milici, director of development and alumni relations, at 617627-2372 or To see photos from this summer’s construction and the results, please visit renovation/. Some 190 new students joined the Fletcher community this fall, the majority of whom will be graduating in the Class of 2006. These students, drawn from more than 1,700 applicants, are part of a recent upward trend in applications at all APSIA schools, but Fletcher has had a larger increase than most of our major peer institutions. The past three years have seen the highest levels of applications in Fletcher’s history. We have benefited from a rising interest in international affairs and from weak employment demand from the U.S. private sector, but the surge in our applications also reflects a major strengthening of our recruitment effort. Members of the Class of 2006, like their recent predecessors, will begin their Fletcher experience with an orientation program designed to familiarize them with life at school before the intensity of their studies sets in. These individuals have succeeded in a highly competitive process to be a part of the Fletcher community, and expect and deserve the highest-quality graduate school experience possible. With a renovated facility and the continued support of our alumni and friends, I am confident that we will be able to exceed their expectations.

Stephen W. Bosworth


R E T U R N I N G A LU M N I E X P E R I E N C E C L A S S D AY, H E A R S E N ATO R LU G A R A D D R E S S S T U D E N T S lumni who returned for Fletcher’s Spring Reunion 2004 saw several changes to the program that increased interaction between graduating students and alumni and enhanced the reunion experience. On Friday night, more than 300 returning alumni, students, and family members mingled under a large tent at the school’s annual clambake. Attendees enjoyed the menu of traditional New England fare while a steel-drum band set the mood for a festive evening. Saturday morning, the exuberant members of the Class of 2004 met to have their class photo taken before participating in Class Day ceremonies. Meanwhile, alumni gathered for coffee and pastries and presentations by students and Dean Stephen W. Bosworth on the topic of life at Fletcher today. Class Day, a new component of commencement weekend, incorporated Fletcher’s tradition of inviting a figure of international import to speak to the graduating students. U.S. Senator Richard G. Lugar, chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, addressed a large audience, garnering national press coverage as he reflected on the war on terror and the U.S. presence in Iraq. “To win the war against terrorism, the United States must assign U.S. economic and diplomatic capabilities the same strategic priority that we assign to military capabilities,” he said. Following Lugar’s speech and lunch, reunion attendees enjoyed a showing of Bringing Down a Dictator, a film about the nonviolent movement that ousted President Slobodan Milosevic, produced by Fletcher board chairman Peter Ackerman (F’69). They also toured the Fletcher complex and library. In the evening, class dinners took place at Fletcher, local restaurants, and at the homes of some local alumni. Sunday morning brought alumni together for breakfast at Blakeslee House, the current home of the Office of Development and Alumni Relations. Commencement ceremonies concluded the reunion weekend. Spring Reunion 2005 will be held May 20–22 for classes ending in 0 and 5. For more information on the program and volunteer opportunities, please contact Pamela Cotte, reunion coordinator, at



“New Diplomacy” the focus at at Fletcher’s Center for International Environment and Resource Policy B Y W I L L I A M M O O M AW

Since its founding, The Fletcher School has been dedicated to the premise that the central goal of international policy is to improve human well-being by reducing the potential for international conflict through law and diplomacy. Traditional Diplomacy has focused on defending sovereignty, national territory, and borders; resolving and preventing conflicts; and promoting communication and commerce through increased trade. The Westphalian Principles of sovereignty and territoriality have governed relationships among nations for more than 350 years. Issues of war and peace continue to be major issues for foreign ministries and the United Nations through the Security Council. However, the past half-century has seen the rise of a new set of concerns — transnational and global issues — that require a novel approach to global governance. These emerging issues are being addressed through the development of a new set of treaties, agreements, and institutions, through a New Diplomacy for the ever-changing economic, social, and environmental times in which we live. Beginning with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 60 years ago, a host of New Diplomacy initiatives have been launched — most during the past 35 years. These policy tools include agreements dealing with human rights and the prevention of genocide, as well as those targeting humanitarian intervention, sustainable development, international labor standards, and fair trade. The greatest number of New Diplomacy treaties address domestic and international environment and resource issues, including protection of the climate, atmosphere, oceans, Antarctica, forests, fisheries, and biological diversity; the management of international trade in chemicals and waste; and the use of genetic resources. Problems exemplifying the need for New Diplomacy abound. Take, for instance, recent findings that suggest that rice production in Southeast Asia has dropped 10 percent in the past 25 years as the result of warmer nighttime temperatures. Despite this alarming finding, governments — used to the methods of Traditional Diplomacy — have yet to develop a diplomatic strategy that will allow economic development to continue without bringing on a crisis that will require massive humanitarian intervention. Given that two billion people in the world depend upon rice for more than 70 percent of their

food calories, this is one development problem that will require the cooperation of the entire global community. To keep pace with the contemporary challenges created by growing human needs and conflict, Fletcher has been at the forefront in the study of issues addressed by New Diplomacy. Our work at the Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (CIERP) has revealed that what characterizes these issues is their focus upon a set of concerns and premises different from those of Traditional Diplomacy. The notion that the violation of human rights within the sovereign territory of a particular nation is the concern of the international community, and may require intervention, challenges traditional views of the international order. This is also true of intervention to protect resources, such as forests, or protecting species within national boundaries. International agreements address these issues, but only weakly, given the intrusion on national sovereignty that governments are unwilling to relinquish. Given these scenarios, CIERP faculty, students, and staff search to understand the importance of how these factors have altered international assistance for building sustainable societies. Through courses on the environment, natural resources, and sustainable development, we encourage Fletcher students to analyze how the global commons of the oceans, atmosphere, and climate are threatened by human action. For example, most of the world’s fisheries are being harvested at their maximum rates or have been overfished and are now in decline. In addition, pollution continues to build up in the ocean. But coordinated efforts to protect coastal wetlands and coral reefs, managed at a local level, and to revive declining fish stocks, a more global problem, are severely lacking. Meanwhile, human industrial activity and agriculture have depleted the protective ozone layer, produced transboundary air pollution, and altered the climate worldwide. Treaties have been negotiated among as many as 180 nations to address these | Continues on next page Fall 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 5

‘ N E W D I P LO M AC Y ’

Continued from page 5 | issues, but in each case they require nations to collaborate on an unprecedented level, and to impose new domestic laws in order to comply. CIERP students learn to create innovative solutions for international environment and resource problems by considering science, technology, and economics in the design of new policy initiatives. One issue requiring such innovation is water-use availability and distribution. Nearly half the world’s population located in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Andes, North America, and Europe depend upon snow and ice to store water and to supply it throughout the dry season as melt-water. Human-induced global warming is shrinking glaciers and snowfields around the world, and water shortages have already begun to appear. Expensive water management systems will be needed in the future to provide this (previously) free environmental service, consuming funds that might otherwise have been used for education, public health, or economic development. At CIERP, student and faculty research is finding that alternative choices of energy systems and changing agricultural and industrial practices can improve climate and water management, but only if the current system of subsidies and trade barriers is altered. These changes require most governments of the world to coordinate their domestic policies across trade, development, energy, and environmental regimes. This is a challenge that can only be met through New Diplomacy. New Diplomacy raises many questions and challenges, as it attempts to address emerging issues that arise from globalization; globalization is not just about the economy. Nor is it just about the ability of transnational firms to extract natural resources from anywhere in the world, to send them to a third country for processing and to a fourth for manufacturing, and to market and sell these products to a global consumer class. Globalization is also about equity and the impact that resource extraction, manufacture, use, and disposal of a product have on the environment and on the health and well-being of the workers who produce it, people near and far, and for other species. It is also about the ability of private corporations and NGOs to move across national boundaries in ways that governments and intergovernmental organizations cannot. It is

also about access to knowledge, information, and science, and about transparency. The world is still uncertain how to practice New Diplomacy, and governments tend to treat the issues as just a part of “unspectacular diplomacy.” But the intensity of public response, the high stakes involved, and the increasing share of diplomatic time being spent on these new issues reveal that these are critical international concerns. New Diplomacy is an evolving, incomplete, new set of rules that makes traditional diplomats and many governments very uncomfortable. Where does it stop? When is intervention in the internal affairs of another country justified? Are nations capable of cooperating at the level necessary to stop some of the most severe transnational problems, and enhance people’s well-being at the same time? What happens to the traditional notions of international power based upon economic and military might when the enemy to be addressed is human-induced climate change or the depletion of forests and fisheries? New Diplomacy requires better cooperation not only among the members of the entire community of nations, but also from the multinational corporate sector and from nongovernmental organizations and civil society. New Diplomacy treaties provide inspiration and aspirational goals that can often best be implemented by members of society and the private sector operating in an optimal domestic policy context. It is a challenge, but the stakes are high, and we are beginning to figure out how this new diplomatic system functions. The world has changed since Fletcher was founded, and, as it always has, Fletcher is helping to understand those changes and to educate future decision makers, our students, as to the best approach in addressing a new diplomatic agenda. William Moomaw, a scientist, is a professor of international environmental policy and the director of CIERP. For more information about CIERP, please visit or contact Melissa Bailey, assistant director of CIERP, at To access the texts of major New Diplomacy treaties, please visit the Fletcher Multilaterals Web site — a project started by Peter Stott (F’95) — at

The Fletcher School is proud to host a program as unique as the Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (CIERP). The only APSIA school with a center of this kind, Fletcher recognizes the growing importance of this field of study as the world’s population increases, industry expands, and environmental resources grow ever more scarce. A major initiative is under way at The Fletcher School to endow the position currently held by Professor Moomaw, director of CIERP. Over the course of the next several years, the school aspires to raise $5 million to ensure that this important work carries on for generations to come. This endowment will support one tenured faculty member, scholarships, fellowships, research, and other programming.


If you would like to learn more, or to support this effort, please contact: Tara Lewis, Associate Director Office of Development and Alumni Relations The Fletcher School Tufts University Medford, MA 02155 617-627-2720


John Schwarz (A’71, F’75) John Schwarz is a model Jumbo. In fact, a model double Jumbo. A psychology major at Tufts in the early seventies, he returned to Medford to earn his Fletcher M.A. in 1975, meeting his wife Terry (a Jumbo herself, as a graduate of the M.F.A. program at Tufts) along the way. John’s John Schwarz

daughter, Julie, is preparing to graduate from Tufts next May, and John

visits the campus regularly to recruit both Fletcher students and Tufts undergrads for internships and full-time positions at Citigroup in New York. A managing director in Citigroup’s Global Corporate and Investment Bank, John spoke via phone with Megan Brachtl in July and explained what brought him to Fletcher, and why he keeps coming back. What drew you to Fletcher as a student?

After working for a year in New York, I moved back to Boston. I took a job with a small importing company and eventually decided that I wanted to give business school a shot. As part of my BU (Boston University) M.B.A. courses, I wanted more internationally related courses on the business side, so I decided to cross-register at Fletcher. I took two courses and really loved them. So I finished my M.B.A. that summer and had also applied to Fletcher to do the oneyear M.A. program. What did you focus on when you were here?

I focused mostly on international trade, economics, and finance. I took the usual smattering of different courses to fill the fields that were required.

staff members from Fletcher’s Office of Career Services came down and made a presentation to the person who headed recruiting for Global Corporate Finance here, and they were very impressive; they did a good job. So our recruiting folks called me, and I said that Fletcher students are perfect for here, and that we should do something about it, so that’s really how it started. Citibank recruits mostly at the business schools, so Fletcher is a little bit of an anomaly in that regard. When you come to Fletcher to recruit, what are you looking for?

I basically tell the students that we’re looking for people who have an interest in the field and that the business is not that complicated that someone with a Fletcher background can’t learn it if they don’t know it. But it’s a different vocabulary and a different approach to things than what they’re used to. But with good common sense and an interest, most importantly, they can learn and we teach them. The training program is very good. So it’s a matter of their interest in the field.

What did you do after that?

Then I joined Citibank in New York… and I’ve been there ever since.

How much harder is it to sell the Fletcher degree than it is to sell the M.B.A.?

How did you get involved with recruiting at Fletcher?

It depends on the area of the bank. But generally speaking, the M.B.A. student is deemed to have learned the technical

That started about five years ago. Some

skills, the quantitative skills, that Fletcher students have to prove themselves perhaps a little more during the interview process. I think in terms of breadth of thinking, the Fletcher student is tops, but the M.B.A. student has obviously evidenced a strong interest in business, has taken the full range of business-related courses, and can then be taught quite easily the specifics of what we do. The Fletcher students have to prove that they are of equal standing from a business point of view and also prove their interest a bit more. Some of them manage to do that very well. But we seriously consider all sorts of applicants, ranging from those with extensive business experience to those with none — who might have worked for the government or in the Peace Corps, or something like that. That’s fine, provided that they can really demonstrate their interest and their seriousness about it. Have the criteria changed since you’ve started to recruit at Fletcher?

The criteria are a little more stringent. The number of people we’ve hired in recent years, because of the slowdown in the economy, has been reduced. We’re a little more careful because we have plenty of applicants, so we can afford to | Continues on next page be more Fall 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 7


careful right now. The numbers aren’t what they used to be in terms of total hiring, but it’s hopefully improving right now.

Continued from page 7 |

How often do you visit Fletcher — is it once a year?

No, it’s more frequently than that, for a couple of reasons. One, we visit in the fall to recruit second-year students who would start the following summer after graduation. Then we come up in January or February to recruit for the summer class — the first-years, who would be between years at the time they work here. That’s a very good way to get a job here. Do most of the first-years who intern with Citi have a pretty fair chance of getting hired?

They do — if they do a good job. It’s really a good opportunity both ways — for them to see if they like us and vice versa. There’s a very high percentage of the summer people who get full-time jobs. The hiring of the second-year students — the number — is dependent on how many of the first-years from the summer come back. The summer ones really get first crack, so it’s a better way to go. What’s on your agenda when you visit?

Typically, we host a reception on the night before interviews, where we sit down with all the students and we talk about what the program is like, what we’re looking for, and a little bit about the interviews, and we just socialize for that evening. The following day we interview and within one to two weeks a select few are invited back to New York for full-day interviews, and then job offers emanate from that. How many of you come up for the interviews?

Usually I come with one or two of the more recent Fletcher grads so the students can get to speak with someone with a current perspective both on Fletcher and on the training program. What are your impressions of the school when you return?


Physically it’s changed a lot with the new buildings, and there’s more to come, so it’s an impressive complex. I think the student body continues to be a mixture of people who are … very interesting young men and women, some of whom, from a professional point of view, are clearly headed in our direction and others who are not. I find the students very engaging; I have a lot of fun with them. I like to follow up with them on their career choices, both those who are selected to come to Citi, and those who are not — who want some objective help from a fellow alumnus. What makes you want to help the school as you do?

A couple of things. I would say that while I spent one year at Fletcher… it was probably the best year I can recall, in the sense that I really enjoyed the academics, I really enjoyed the international nature of the student body and how different they all were. I had a job when I was at Fletcher that helped me to pay the bills — coaching the Tufts freshmen baseball and basketball teams, which was perfect for me. I met my wife that year…. She was a graduate student in art at Tufts.… So it was a wonderful year, and I felt, and still feel, that the school just has fantastic students whose résumés today are outlandishly impressive. They’ve done so much in such a short period of time that it’s amazing. The school just attracts fabulous applicants, and they’re not all geared to work here, which is fine. I made some very good friends from there, from all sorts of different backgrounds. I believe the concept of the school is terrific. I like supporting it. I think it’s a great institution. Do you keep in touch with your classmates?

Oh, absolutely. I just had lunch with two of them in Washington when I was on a business trip down there. The former chairman of Citi, Walter B. Wriston (F’42), went to Fletcher and I used to fly with him occasionally to visit a couple of customers or for dinners, and we used to talk about Fletcher. I just think

the school is neat, and I enjoyed everything about it, and the young people that we've brought in here from the school recently have done extremely well. What advice would you offer Fletcher students?

I would say that given their level of ability, within reason, anything in the world that they would like to do they could accomplish, and that they need to look in the mirror and make sure that the direction they’re headed in is one that will make them happy. They should also realize that if they happen upon a choice that’s not perfect for them, they have enough going for them to be able to change direction a bit. They should have… the self-confidence to take a stab at a field that they truly are interested in, and they’ll succeed. I think the one thing that they have to do is to be honest with themselves because, for example, we hire quite a few people. If a few of them don’t work out for whatever reason, we’ll go on. But the students have one career path to follow, so they should be as candid with themselves as they possibly can, and then with the abilities, the background that they have, they’re virtually certain to succeed. If you were to talk to a room of potential applicants who are considering the M.B.A. or the M.A.L.D. or both, what would you say to them?

Again, it’s a matter of interest, really. I think the Fletcher degree gives you a broader look, a broader perspective on the world, and the business degree gives you more in-depth knowledge of the various components of business, what makes a business run. It, again, depends on interest. A combination of the two is perfect. If you have to choose one, then you have to choose the one that piques your interest the most. No one can ever take away from you the education that you’ve attained. It’s your accomplishment for life. And what you do with it is a function of your interest and your motivation. So just go for it!

Why gasoline taxes are a bad idea BRUCE M. EVERETT (F’70)

Despite record-high prices at the gas pump and the turmoil in the Mideast, America’s thirst for oil remains insatiable. We consume 20 million barrels of oil each day (MBD), yet produce less than half that amount. As our economy grows and domestic oil continues to decline, our dependence on the world oil market will only get worse. To be sure, the gasoline tax is not popular, and our elected officials have learned not to touch it. Although Senator John Kerry once supported a gas tax, candidate John Kerry and President Bush both oppose the idea. But now there is a growing chorus of analysts who see higher gasoline taxes as the answer. Philip Verleger, respected energy expert, has proposed a $5-per-gallon gas tax phased in over four years. The New York Times’ Thomas Friedman has proposed a $1-per-gallon “Patriot Tax.” Even the conservative columnist Charles Krauthammer would like a higher gas tax. Proponents cite three benefits: more fuel-efficient cars, an accelerated switch to alternative fuels, and less driving. In reality, a high gasoline tax could fundamentally change our society, not necessarily for the better, and we will still rely on imported oil for the foreseeable future. According to the U.S. Department of Energy figures, there are currently 200 million drivers in the U.S., each consuming about 700 gallons of gasoline annually at 20 miles per gallon. If in 20 years we can double vehicle efficiency to 40 mpg, each driver would consume only 350 gallons. But with the population increasing by about 20 percent over the same period, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. gasoline demand would fall from 9 MBD today to about 5.5 MBD in 2024. Even modest growth in other oil products, combined with the continued decline in U.S. crude production, would offset much of the reduction in gasoline use, leaving us with imports near today’s level. Alternative fuel technologies are exciting. Realistically, however, there are no economically viable transportation alternatives to oil today. Natural gas can be used in cars. However, the U.S. is stretching our domestic natural gas resources for use in electricity, home heating, and industry. Growth must come from imports, and global natural gas resources are heavily concentrated in the Middle East and Russia. Converting our transportation system from oil to gas will only exchange one import vulnerability for another. Hydrogen fuel cells promise efficient zero-emission vehicles. Elemental hydrogen, however, must be manufactured

from something else. Hydrogen can be made from natural gas, but see above on natural gas use in transportation. Another choice is to electrolyze seawater using renewable energy — technically feasible, but way too expensive. My own estimates indicate that hydrogen from solar energy would cost about $50 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. Wind power is better, about $12. Research may bring this cost down, but for now the gap between oil and alternatives is just too great to bridge with a gasoline tax. That situation may change someday, but it would be reckless to count on it. What about just driving less? Transportation, however, is deeply woven into the fabric of our society. Once we’ve achieved 40 mpg vehicle efficiency, a further 2 MBD reduction in oil demand would require a 4 percent cut in miles driven. The economic consequences would be severe, and we would still be importing several million barrels per day of oil. A gasoline tax also carries some real dangers. Even at half today’s gasoline use, a $5-per-gallon tax would transfer to the government $350 billion per year, about 3 percent of GDP. Experience tells us, however, that government spends whatever revenue comes into its hands. A gasoline tax will take more money out of consumers’ pockets and make our government even bigger. Europe has had high fuel taxes for years, yet oil consumption is almost the same today as it was in 1980. At the same time, European governments take a much larger share of GDP, ranging from 38 percent in the UK to more than 50 percent in Sweden, compared with 30 percent in the U.S. Europe’s high tax burden contributes to lagging economic growth and persistent unemployment. The United States will not achieve energy independence in the next 20 years no matter what we do. A gasoline tax will have the same effect it had in Europe: continued energy dependence and bigger government. Bruce M. Everett teaches about petroleum in the global economy at Fletcher. From 1974 to 1980, he worked at the Department of Energy’s International Affairs Department, and was later an executive with ExxonMobil for 22 years, retiring in 2002. Fall 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 9


Quotes of Note IN THE NEWS In late July, The Boston Globe Magazine featured a debate about reinstituting the draft in the U.S. between Professor ROBERT PFALTZGRAFF and Eve Lyman, daughter of Professor ANTONIA CHAYES. Professor Pfaltzgraff argued that national conscription would not satisfy the specialized needs of today’s military, while Ms. Lyman countered that obligatory military service would raise political awareness and participation among Americans. The Pakistan Press reported on Associate Professor of International Negotiation and Diplomacy ADIL NAJAM’s seminar on “Negotiating Sustainable Development: Challenges for Developing Countries,” organized by the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) in July in Islamabad. In his talk, Professor Najam stressed the need for developing countries to think and act collectively and to define “sustainable development” more broadly than as just an

economic and environmental term. Professor ANDREW HESS traveled to Azerbaijan in June and met with Elmar Mammadyarov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Azerbaijan Republic. Professor KATHLEEN HAMILL (F’99) taught a course on international human rights during the summer session at Fletcher. She and her class were visited in June by a camera crew from CNN, who videotaped and later aired some of the classroom discussion on the handover of control in Iraq in June. The Israeli Ambassador to the United States, Daniel Ayalon, spoke to a capacity crowd in ASEAN auditorium in April. Fletcher first-year ELIZABETH BLUMENTHAL (F’05) and recent alumnae LAUREN BRODSKY (F’04) and NANCY DIBIAGGIO (F’04) were chosen from a pool of 30 Fletcher applicants to help NBC News as delegate reporters during the Democratic National Convention in July.

CHINA CONFERENCE FEATURES FLETCHER FACULTY Qingdao, Shandong Province, might be 10,000 miles from Medford.But it was the site of an exciting symposium this past May cosponsored by the Hitachi Center at The Fletcher School. In cooperation with Qingdao University, the Hitachi Corporation and Mr. Isobe, the “Partners Managing Risk” symposium brought together scholars and practitioners from Japan, China, and the United States to discuss and debate subjects ranging from international finance to telecomDean Stephen W. Bosworth and Chris Bosworth munications policies. The two-day program was were invited guests of Mr. and Mrs. Asahiko Isobe at made possible by the generosity of Mr. Isobe, a the May symposium at Qingdao University. longtime friend of The Fletcher School. Hosted by Professor Wu Haihua of the College of Economics, Qingdao University, and Fletcher’s Dean STEPHEN W. BOSWORTH, the symposium brought together faculty from both schools. Fletcher professors JESSE PARKER, PAUL VAALER, DONALD GONSON, and PATRICK SCHENA each presented and discussed their research. The major theme of the symposium was examining how Japan, China, and the United States approach critical issues involved in international finance and international telecommunications policy. Due to the success of the symposium, the Hitachi Center will cosponsor another conference at The Fletcher School in April 2005 to continue the examination of policy questions inherent in the tripartite relationship between Japan, China, and the United States.

10 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2004

“‘Mindless bipartisanship’ is not an inaccurate description of what happened after September 11. By questioning anything about the response to the attacks, you were perceived as unpatriotic.” Hurst Hannum, “Our political pipe dream; With a Dem-GOP ticket just a folly and a bad word uttered, unity seems a long way off,” Los Angeles Times, 5 July 2004.

“Why have a Constitution at all if the president can unilaterally decide who to torture, when to torture, and why to torture? ....We don’t know what policy is going to replace this. The White House and Justice Department have not said how they interpret the law and ultimately their views may not be very different. It may also be that the unseemly practices will be driven further underground.” Michael Glennon,“U.S. experts unconvinced by Bush assurance on torture,” Reuters News Service, 24 June 2004.

“Under Saddam [Hussein], there was an instability that people got used to. With the U.S. invasion, there was a belief that when the Americans came, there would be a sense of direction. . . . Sadr is taking advantage of what has come after. He’s banking on and feeding on a general sense of unease.” Adil Najam, “U.S. tries new path in Iraq: Negotiation,” Chicago Tribune, 18 April 2004.

“Beijing is masterful at setting parameters for diplomatic interactions on its own terms. …By casting the president as the problem, Beijing is wishing away or failing to accept the deeper problem of a separate Taiwanese identity.” Alan Wachman (F’84), “Taiwan — The Result Is Final: A Divided Taiwan: China Bites Its Tongue,” Far Eastern Economic Review, 1 April 2004.


FACULT Y Eileen Babbitt. “Evaluating Coexistence: Insights and Challenges.” In Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict, edited by Antonia Chayes and Martha L. Minow. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. Katrina Burgess. Parties and Unions in the New Global Economy. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press, 2004. Antonia Chayes and Martha L. Minow, eds. Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. Diana Chigas. “Grand Visions and Small Projects: Coexistence Efforts in Southeastern Europe.” In Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict, edited by Antonia Chayes and Martha L. Minow. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. Bruce M. Everett (F’70).“Over a Barrel.” The Baltimore Sun, 29 July 2004. Douglas Farah and Richard Shultz. “Al Qaeda’s Growing Sanctuary.” The Washington Post, 14 July 2004. Reprinted as “A festering threat: Terrorists are ready to fill power vacuums in West Africa.” The Kansas City Star, 18 July 2004. Michael Glennon. “How U.S. lawyers read the Constitution sanctioning torture.” International Herald Tribune, 19 June 2004. Lawrence Harrison and Vernon Briggs.“Guest worker plan to hike jobless rate.” The Boston Globe, 22 March 2004. Alan Henrikson. “Henry Kissinger, Geopolitics, and Globalization.” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (2003).

Adil Najam. “Explaining the Spanish vote.” The News International, Pakistan, 29 March 2004. W. Scott Thompson. “The problem about corruption is that it is a moving target.” The Jakarta Post, 23 July 2004. —.“When will Bush ‘get it’?” Straits Times, 12 July 2004. ALUMNI Hassan Abbas (F’02). Pakistan’s Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America’s War on Terror. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe: 2004. Ruth Margolies Beitler (F’90). The Path to Mass Rebellion: An Analysis of Two Intifadas. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004. Robert M. Cassidy (F’97).“Back to the Street without Joy: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Vietnam and Other Small Wars.” Parameters 35 (Summer 2004): 73-83. —.Peacekeeping in the Abyss: British and American Doctrine and Practice After the Cold War. Westport, CT: Praeger Pubishers, 2004.

Tomohisa Hattori (F’83).“Giving as a Mechanism of Consent: International Aid Organizations and the Ethical Hegemony of Capitalism.” International Relations 17, no. 2 (June 2003): 153–173. James Holmes (F’98).“Machiavelli to Allawi: Kill the Sons of Brutus.” In the National Interest 3, no. 29 (July 21, 2004). — and Igor Khripunov.“G-8 Summit: March Jointly against WMD.” Atlanta JournalConstitution, 4 June 2004. Reprinted in Savannah Morning News, 7 June 2004. Kent Jones (F’79).“Russia and the WTO: The Long and Winding Road to Accession.” In Market Democracy in Post-Communist Russia, edited by Michael Bruner and Viatcheslav Morozov. London: Wisdom House, 2004. Charles J. L. T. Kovacs (F’70). “US-European Relations from the Twentieth to the Twenty-first Century.” European Foreign Affairs Review 8, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 435–455.

Rebecca J. Cook (F’72), Bernard M. Dickens, and Mahmoud F. Fathalla. Reproductive Health and Human Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Mark Krikorian (F’84).“Keeping Terror Out: Immigration Policy and Asymmetrical Warfare.” The National Interest, Spring 2004: 77–85.

Stacy Bernard Davis (F’90) and Donald F. Patierno.“Tackling the Global Landmine Problem: The United States Perspective.” In Landmines and Human Security: International Politics and War’s Hidden Legacy, edited by Bryan McDonald, Richard A. Matthew, and Kenneth R. Rutherford. New York: State University of New York Press, 2004.

William A. Lovett, Alfred E. Eckes (F’66), and Richard L. Brinkman (F’55). U.S. Trade Policy: History, Theory, and the WTO. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2004.

Jason Forrester (F’96) and John Steinbruner.“Perspectives on Civil Violence: A Review of Current Thinking.” In Military Intervention: Cases in Context for the Twenty-First Century, edited by William J. Lahneman. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

William F. Miles (F’80).“Sharia as De-Africanization: Evidence from Hausaland.” Africa Today 50, no. 1 (2003): 51–75. S. Ricarda Roos (F’96).“The World Bank’s Role as a Guarantor for the Implementation of International Human Rights Law — Reflections on the Legal Admissibility and International Law Imperative of a Project-related Human Rights

Conditionality.” Heidelberg Journal of International Law 63, no. 4 (2003): 1035–1062. George Sailer, as told to Sara B. Ivry (F’96).“Between Ice and a Hard Place.” The New York Times Magazine, 15 February 2004. Melissa Conley Tyler (F’96), Ethan Katsh and Daweon Choi, eds. Proceedings of the Third Annual Forum on Online Dispute Resolution. Hosted by the International Conflict Resolution Centre at the University of Melbourne in collaboration with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), Melbourne, Australia, July 5–6, 2004. Mark Vail (F’96).“The Myth of the Frozen Welfare State and the Dynamics of Contemporary French and German SocialProtection Reform.” French Politics 2, no. 2 (July 2004): 151–183. —.“Rethinking Corporatism and Consensus: The Dilemmas of German Social-Protection Reform.” West European Politics 26, no. 3 (July 2003): 41–66. Walter B. Wriston (F’42).“Ever Heard of Insourcing?” The Wall Street Journal, 24 March 2004. STUDENTS AND FELLOWS John A. Quelch, James E. Austin, and Nathalie Laidler-Kylander (Ph.D. candidate).“Mining Gold in Not-for-Profit Brands.” Harvard Business Review (April 2004). Maria Stephan (F’02 and Ph.D. candidate).“Why do they do these terrible things?” (letter to the editor). The Boston Globe, 20 June 2004. Parker Wertz (F’05). Op-ed. Roanoke Times, 28 June 2004.

Fall 2004 FLETCHER NEWS 11


ALUMNI ORGANIZE FIRST CLUB IN AFRICA Thanks to the efforts of Anne Angwenyi (F’02) and Viviane Chao (F’02), Fletcher’s first alumni club in sub-Saharan Africa, the Fletcher Club of Kenya, was inaugurated on May 8, 2004. A kick-off luncheon brought together a dozen alumni and students who are entering Fletcher this fall. The lunch took place at Le Rustique Restaurant in Nairobi, with attendees representing class years from 1968 to 2002. Fletcher has a number of alumni in East Africa, particularly in Nairobi, including U.S. Ambassador to Kenya William Bellamy (F’75), Leslie Rowe (F’82), U.S. deputy chief of mission, and Francis Situma (F’92), a member of the law school faculty at the University of Nairobi who has played an active role in encouraging

CLUB CONTACTS ATLANTA Wendy Gutierrez (F’96) BANGKOK Kusuma Snitwongse (F’57) BEIJING Stephane Grand (F’98) Mosud Mannan (F’89) BERLIN Jan-Philipp Görtz (F’98) BOSTON Erika de la Rosa (F’00)

Kenyan students to attend Fletcher.“I was surprised at how keen people were to get to know each other and to share what Fletcher meant to them,” wrote club cochair Viviane Chao after the event. The incoming students “really enjoyed meeting everyone and hearing about the school from alumni. It gave them a good sense of the diversity of graduates.”The group is planning more events, so if interested, please get in touch with Anne Angwenyi at or Viviane Chao at VIENNA CLUB RECEIVES MEDFORD VISITORS Alumni in the Vienna area received a lot of attention this summer from members of the Fletcher faculty and staff. Helen Anderson, director of internships in the Office of Career

CHILE Andres Montero (F’85) German Olave (F’97) GREECE Marilena Griva (F’02) Thomas Varvitsiotis (F’99) HONG KONG Tara Holeman (F’97) HOUSTON Jamil Al Dandany (F’87) David Hwa (F’77)

BRUSSELS Katrina Destree (F’95) katrinadestree@

KENYA Anne Angwenyi (F’02) Vivian Chao (F’02)

BUDAPEST Anita Orban (F’01)

KOSOVO Fiona Evans (F’00)

CHICAGO H. Jürgen Hess (F’86)

LONDON Andrea Wilczynski (F’98) MALAYSIA Shah Azmi (F’86)

12 FLETCHER NEWS Fall 2004

Services, visited in midsummer to meet with potential employers and to connect with alumni. Earlier, a small but steadfast group of Vienna alumni gathered at the Café Schwarzenberg on June 23, 2004, to catch up with Professor Alan Henrikson, wife Pamela, and Executive Dean Jerry Sheehan, who were paying a visit to the Diplomatische Akademie. The group included Jumana Dejany (F’63) and Jonathan Tirone (F’00). Jonathan, together with Rainer Staub (F’96), is organizing the second Central European alumni gathering for February 4–6, 2005. Following the great success of the first such gathering organized by Anita and Christian Orban (F’01, F’02) in Budapest last fall, the next reunion will coincide with the famous Kaffeesieder Ball in Vienna’s Hofburg Palace. For details, please e-mail Jonathan Tirone at

MIAMI Daniel Ades (F’03)

SÃO PAULO Paulo Bilyk (F’92)

MIDDLE EAST Walid Chamoun (F’00)

SEAT TLE Julie Bennion (F’01)

NEW YORK Raymond Linsenmayer (F’01) OREGON Susan Williams (F’00) Michael Zwirn (F’01) PARIS Julien Naginski (F’93) Angela de Santiago (F’91) PHILADELPHIA Ernest Wright Jr. (F’94) PHILIPPINES Nicole Sayres (F’00) SAN FRANCISCO Liz Kerton (F’98)

SEOUL Eun Ha Chang (F’01) Junsik Ahn (F’00) SINGAPORE Syetarn “Creek” Hansakul (F’88) SWITZERLAND Mauricio Cysne (F’93) TOKYO Mariko Noda (F’90) VIENNA Rainer Staub (F’96) Jonathan Tirone (F’00) WASHINGTON, D.C. Victoria Esser (F’99) T. Colum Garrity (F’98)

4–6 FEBRUARY 2005

S AV E T H E D AT E ! M AY 2 0 – 2 2

SPRING REUNION 2005 Members of Fletcher classes ending in 0 and 5 are invited to attend reunion this spring. Information on the schedule of events, registration, and accommodations can be found at or by calling Pamela Cotte, reunion coordinator, at 617.627.4833.

FLETCHER CENTRAL EUROPEAN ALUMNI GATHERING This weekend of cultural, social, and intellectual events will include attending the famous Kaffeesieder Ball in Vienna’s Hofburg Palace. For more information on the schedule of events and registration, e-mail


Record Achievements in FY04 The Fletcher Fund raised $825,515 between July 2003 and June 2004, reaching and surpassing our goal of $825,000. A record 30% of alumni — 1,717 individuals — donated to The Fletcher Fund, making this our most successful drive yet. An additional $71,500 was raised through the 70th Anniversary Gala for unrestricted use by the school.

S AT U R D AY, 4 D E C E M B E R 2 0 0 4

SECOND ANNUAL FLETCHER LONDON SYMPOSIUM Details on the program of speakers and registration are available at


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Fletcher News - Fall 2004  

Fletcher News publication from Fall 2004 without class notes. Cover Story: Third Talloires symposium hosts world leaders.