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PA G E 3 0

Yo u r P a s s p o r t t o t h e S a i l i n g L i f e

To the Ends of the Earth


Power Up with Wind and Water



PA G E 7 2

Sizing Up the Pacific Trash Patch

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PA G E 2 2

$ 7. 0 0 U . S . / $ 9 . 0 0 C A N


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C R U I S I N G W O R L D . C O M


Photo by: Neil Rabinowitz




Contents A p r i l

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Editor’s Log

april 2016


12 Underway

30 On Watch

34 6


Point of View

36 Waypoints

86 Chartering News

B O AT S & G E A R

40 FINDING HOME AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WORLD Dismasted in the Southern Ocean, a voyaging family finds a warm welcome in remote Puerto Williams. St o r y & Ph o t o g ra p h s by So mi ra Sao

122 Of Watch



Dotted with islands, rivers and bays, Maine’s Penobscot Bay is a delight to explore, and there’s nary a bad-looking boat in sight.

67 Arm Yourself for High Latitudes How to outfit your boat for cold-weather adventuring. By Tom Zydler

St o r y & Ph o t o g ra p h s b y To m Zyd l e r

56 NORWEGIANS WOULD Four adventurous friends sail to the remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen, where they dive, climb, paraglide and generally have a ball.

20 Gear Finds for Spring There’s plenty of new kit to help you start your sailing season with a bang. Compiled by Jen Brett

80 Two of a Kind The two latest models in Dufour Yachts’ Grand Large cruising line ofer buyers more choices than just length overall. By Herb McCormick

Stor y by Andreas B. Heide, with Te r r y Wa rd

72 Natural Power Wind and hydro generators can produce all the electricity you’ll need on passage. By Don Street


76 Pressure’s On With the right tools, you can tell a lot about your engine. By Steve D’Antonio

ON THE COVER A Dufour 382 makes the best of a breezy Chesapeake Bay afternoon. Photo by Billy Black

A Sailor’s Sailboat J/Boats’ versatile new J/112E serves up hearty helpings of sailing performance and creature comforts. By Mark Pillsbury



On this coast, especially between Mount Desert Island D a Bay, a sailboat B will always find fr smooth w let her rip along. A of the day, there will always be a calm cove with a fr windward.

Redefined Elegance T

he new Marlow-Hunter 47, brings back a refined elegance to sailing. Her roomy state-of-the-art interior is appointed on a lavish scale. Her exterior lines

and style invite the visual of a bygone era built to current technology from the highest grade materials made. From her Kevlar速 reinforced hull and chainplate to the extensive use of Nida-Core above the waterline in the hull and deck, you will find a yacht of unequaled integrity. For more information on this trend setting yacht go to today.

MH15 | MH18 | MH22 | MH31 | MH33 | MH37 | MH40 | MH47 | MH50 | MH50cc

E d i t o r ’s L o g There’s nothing simple about allocating storage space as you provision an average-size cr uising sailboat.


april 2016


Even in relatively benign conditions, you’ll find Chuck Hawley wearing his PFD.


ooking through the list of afternoon seminars on the final day of US Sailing’s Leadership Forum this past February in San Diego, I found myself in the throes of a deep and personal philosophical debate: windowless meeting room or sun-splashed pool. Hmm. There were two sessions to go on this gorgeous Saturday afternoon before the closing reception lowered the curtain on the three-day confab. In 24 hours I’d be back home in New England, with another 6 to 10 inches of white stuf forecast for my impending return. Outside, youngsters splashed from the diving board and waiters delivered cold ones to shady tables. I was truly betwixt and between when one session jumped out from the rest. It



was titled “Improving Ofshore Safety with the Right Gear,” and the speaker was US Sailing Safety at Sea chairman Chuck Hawley. Confronted by the opportunity to glean some useful nuggets for our first spring issue, I decided to defer pleasure and keep the proverbial nose to the grindstone, for one more session at least. With a few Transpacs (two singlehanded), an Atlantic crossing aboard the megacat PlayStation, countless forays ofshore and nearly 25 years of moderating Safety at Sea seminars under his belt, Hawley has some well-founded opinions about what you should have on board. In the past I’d found his talks to be always informative, often entertaining, and, OK, it was only an hour long. I was in. To kick things of, Hawley and his partner in crime for the day, fellow SAS moderator Bruce Brown, flashed a PowerPoint slide showing all manner of safety equipment and asked the simple question, “What would you take?” “All of it” would be the simple answer. But then again, there’s nothing simple about allocating storage space as you provision an average-size cruising sailboat. When deciding what makes it into the sea bags and tool chest and what stays on the dock, start with the elements of good seamanship, advised Hawley and Brown, and go from there. First, know the limits of your crew and your vessel. In that regard, attending a Safety at Sea seminar would be an excellent over-the-winter thing to do. At these sessions you’ll learn how searchand-rescue (SAR) operations work, how to prepare to abandon ship, and, short of that, how to administer first aid or efect jury-rig repairs so you can get the boat and crew home in one piece. Breaking things down to the basics, you need to be able to keep your crew safe and water out of your boat. You should be able to reach safe harbor, if need be, and when conditions turn south, you’ll want to be able to summon help — and know who and how to call, when the time comes. So where to start? • A good inflatable PFD and tether top

the list. Modern equipment is comfortable to wear — and if maintained properly, practically infallible. Be sure to inflate and test your PFD annually or before heading out on a long passage, and bring along spare inflater cartridges just in case. Adding leg straps to the PFD greatly enhances its efectiveness when you’re in the water and it’s inflated. And it goes without saying that in boisterous conditions — think storms, rough seas or at night — the safety value of your life vest drops to nil if you’re not wearing it. • If you don’t have one already, install a fixed-mount VHF radio and a goodquality masthead antenna (which greatly increases the radio’s range). The radio should have a registered MMSI number, DSC calling and a way to input GPS information. A similarly equipped handheld is a relatively cheap backup and a great addition to your ditch kit or dinghy. • With an EPIRB or personal locator beacon aboard, you’ve bought into a worldwide satellite-based SAR network. Assuming you’ve registered your device (you have, haven’t you?), once you activate it, the cavalry will soon be on the way. Spending a little extra for an EPIRB with a built-in GPS will get them there even quicker. • When coastal cruising, the closest rescuer in an emergency is often your own vessel or others in your vicinity. With that in mind, a personal MOB device that broadcasts your location via the AIS network is well worth its $200-plus price tag. The latest technology even sends out a DSC signal that triggers a radio alarm and alerts those still on the boat that you’re in the drink — priceless, as they say in creditcard commercials. • And last but not least, arm yourself with a good signaling mirror for daytime use and one of the high-intensity LED strobes or white lights for nighttime illumination. If they’re coming for you, you might as well make yourself as easy to find as possible. It’s spring. It’s time to open up the boat, get your gear sorted and go sailing. When you do, be safe out there.



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Instrument Display

Sailing Features

A Passion for Sailing

EDITORIAL E D I TO R Mark Pillsbury E X E C U T I V E E D I TO R Herb McCormick S E N I O R E D I TO R Jen Brett M A N AGI N G E D I TO R Eleanor Merrill E L E C T R O N I C S E D I TO R David Schmidt D I GI TA L E D I TO R Benjamin Meyers C O P Y E D I TO R Savannah Vickers ART C R E AT I V E D I R E C TO R Dave Weaver D E S I G N E R Tanya Loranca E D I TO R S AT L A R GE Bernadette Bernon, Cap’n Fatty Goodlander, Gary Jobson, Elaine Lembo, Tim Murphy, Angus Phillips C O N T R I B U T I N G E D I TO R S Jim Carrier, Wendy Mitman Clarke, Barbara Marrett, Jeremy McGeary, Lynda Morris Childress, Michel Savage, Alvah Simon, Diana Simon C R U I S I N G WO R L D E D I TO R I A L O F F I C E 55 Hammarlund Way Middletown, RI 02842 401-845-5100; fax 401-845-5180 V P, D I R E C TO R O F B R A N D S T R AT E G I E S Matt Hickman E D I TO R I A L D I R E C TO R Shawn Bean C R E AT I V E D I R E C TO R Dave Weaver C O N S U M E R M A R K E T I N G D I R E C TO R Leigh Bingham GR O U P M A R K E T I N G D I R E C TO R Haley Bischof S E N I O R M A R K E T I N G M A N AGE R Kelly MacDonald B U S I N E S S M A N AGE R David Erne GR O U P P R O D U C T I O N D I R E C TO R Michelle Doster P R O D U C T I O N M A N AG E R Robin Baggett 407-571-4844 GRAPHIC ARTISTS Julia Arana, Jennifer Remias H U M A N R E S O U R C E S D I R E C TO R Sheri Bass

PUBLISHER S A L LY H E L M E 401-845-4405 ADVERTISING A DV E R T I S I N G D I R E C TO R , N E W E N G L A N D, M I D - AT L A N T I C & SOUTHERN EUROPE Ted Ruegg 410-263-2484 S O U T H E A S T, C E N T R A L U. S . & W E S T C OA S T Parker Stair 865-599-9791 CARIBBEAN David Gillespie 303-638-7909 CLASSIFIED AND SPECIAL-SECTION S A L E S M A N AGE R Michelle Roche 401-845-4440 E X E C U T I V E A DV E R T I S I N G C O O R D I N ATO R Trish Means-Reardon 401-845-4402 E V E N T D I R E C TO R Jennifer Davies 401-845-4412 E V E N T A S S I S TA N T James Imhof 401-845-4408

C H A I R M A N  Tomas Franzén CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Eric Zinczenko C H I E F   O P E R AT I N G O F F I C E R David Ritchie CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER Elizabeth Burnham Murphy C H I E F D I G I TA L R E V E N U E O F F I C E R Sean Holzman V I C E P R E S I D E N T, I N T E G R AT E D S A L E S John Graney VICE PRESIDENT, CONSUMER MARKETING John Reese V I C E P R E S I D E N T, D I G I TA L AU D I E N C E D E V E LO P M E N T Jennifer Anderson V I C E P R E S I D E N T, D I G I TA L O P E R AT I O N S David Butler V I C E P R E S I D E N T, P U B L I C R E L AT I O N S Perri Dorset GENERAL COUNSEL Jeremy Thompson

W R I T E R / P H OTO G R A P H E R GU I D E L I N E S : CW R E C KO N I N G S N E W S L E T T E R : Subscribe at CW ’ S C H A R T E R D I R E C TO R Y : B AC K I S S U E S : Back issues cost $5 plus postage. Call 515-237-3697. R E P R I N T S : Email This product is from sustainably managed forests and controlled sources. R E TA I L S I N G L E C O P Y S A L E S : ProCirc Retail Solutions Group, Tony DiBisceglie For customer service and subscription questions, such as renewal, address change, email preference, billing and account status, go to: You can also email, in the U.S. call toll free 866-436-2461, outside the U.S. call 515-237-3697, or write to Cruising World, P.O. Box 6364, Harlan, IA 51593.



Lila W. West Marine Associate Lila is wearing the world’s best-selling foul weather gear, West Marine’s Third Reef jacket and bib.

APRIL 2016

U N D E RWAY NEWS and NOTES from the CRUISING COMMUNITY Ed i te d by Je n B re t t




fter we sailed halfway around the world from Vancouver, British Columbia, our arrival in Madagascar was a revelation. In most places we’ve traveled, the fact that my husband, Evan, and I sailed there, from so far away, on our own 40-foot Meander catamaran, with a kid and a cat, has earned puzzled laughter and questions about pirates, storms and kitty litter. But in Madagascar, international sailboats are taken in stride — of course we’d sailed Ceilydh there. Why would we travel any other way? At sunrise the dhows slip out of Crater Bay, past anchored boats, on the first whispers of wind. As the breeze fills in, the huge sails billow and strain against the willowy tree-trunk masts. Filled with all manner of passengers and goods (fruit, chickens, granite stones), the ships set of with whoops and hollers from the crew, crossing the wide bays on the sort of



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A number of top awards handed out during Boating Writers International’s 23rd annual breakfast at the Miami International Boat Show went to Cruising World editors and contributors this year. In all, the contest attracted 127 participants and 322 entries. The magazine did particularly well in the Boating Travel or Destinations category, sweeping the top three prizes plus a certificate of merit. First place went to “Hung Up on Hongs” by Cap’n

Fatty Goodlander. “An Accidental Paradise” by Ben Zartman took second, and third place went to executive editor Herb McCormick’s “It Is Windy, No?” Boating Lifestyles was another good category for CW. First place went to “The Transition” by Lin Pardey, and second went to “Very Big Passages, Very Little Kids” by Mike Litzow. Read about all the winners at bwi.

Madagascar is a place where the Age of Sail never ended. Even the boats with engines seldom use them. structural material to rebuild a broken rudder), Madagascar was a reminder of a simpler type of sailing. We think Ceilydh is relatively fast for a fully loaded cruising cat, but more than once we were left in the wake of a dhow that seemed to be flying more rips than sail. When one dhow did need help, all that was required was a length of rope (discarded by us as too old), and they were of again moments later. Madagascar is a place where the Age of Sail never ended. Even the boats with engines seldom use them. Instead, when winds are light, they ghost along, chatting with nearby crews and laughing (with the universal smugness of true sailors) when we, in a misguided hurry to be somewhere else, turned on our engine. — Diane Selkirk

COMMITTED SAILORS SAIL ORS He: Jim Honerkamp, with a lifelong dream of sailing and recently retired, soon to wrap up a seven-year refit of Perfect Love, a once-derelict Vagabond 47 that he bought for pocket change in Florida and moved to the Midwest to restore. § She: Shirley Lambert, mother of three, who started out with her partner in 2012 to sail their Island Packet 35 from Lorain, Ohio, down the Erie Canal and Eastern Seaboard to Florida, where he passed away unexpectedly. § Time moved on, and then Jim met Shirley online. This led to that. It’s a long story, but to cut to the chase, Shirley reports that on Valentine’s Day: “We were married aboard the schooner Mystic at the Miami Boat Show. My dress was made by my 90-year-old mother-in-law, from a storm jib from a 26-foot Columbia.” § Says Jim: “The boat will be ready for sea trials this coming spring, and she will be, without a doubt, the nicest Vagabond 47 afloat. In midsummer we will begin our onboard adventure, motoring down the Ohio River and the Tombigbee Waterway to Mobile Bay, where we will meet up with our new spars. From there we set sail down the Florida coast to the Keys and beyond.” § Call it a fresh start, times three. — Mark Pillsbury PRICKLING OVER PFDS In spite of all the eforts of the Power Squadrons, the Coast Guard Auxiliary, state and local boating safety courses, etc., sailors seem to be oblivious to the risks of children (and adults) not wearing life jackets. In “Sailing into Paradise” (Feb. 2016), there is a large picture of a child hanging over the side of a boat underway in a position to slip under the lifelines and go overboard. Then, in the ad for Footloose Sailing Charters, the catamaran appears to be motorsailing, which is fine except that there are a woman and two small children leaning on the lifelines on the port foredeck. It would be bad enough if the children were to go over while just sailing, but with the engines running, there would be a good chance for them to get badly injured in the props. Is there a chance that the editors could exert at least a little influence to encourage those submitting ads and articles to show people behaving responsibly? E. C. Hutchinson Helena, Montana

MIXED FEELINGS ON CW’S REDESIGN I’m not one that accepts change easily; however, I like the improvements to your magazine in February. I wish to add that I have enjoyed this issue more than many recent ones; this part I credit to the stories submitted by cruising families. Taking the bad with the good, I can’t say I am happy about the switch from 12 issues to 10. Also, I don’t see the need to give more time or space to chartering. Your records may show I was among your first subscribers. Although my membership sufered some interruptions, I am planning on remaining a reader. Tom Fallon Via email


C r u i s i n g Wo r l d Au t h o r s Wi n B i g

dependable breeze that makes motors seem like a foolish investment. While the local boats are as sleek and graceful as any modern cruising boat, that’s where the similarity ends. Without a sailmaker logo in sight, the square- and lateen-rigged sails are sewn from canvas or rice sacks and patched with old cloth. Keeping with the DIY theme, the rigging is more likely to have been collected from the forest than found in a hardware store — sails are set on long yards of lashed-together branches. Even the hulls are hand-hewn. We watched several boats being built in villages and marveled at the use of hollowed logs, galvanized nails, tree pitch and motor oil. Suddenly the fact that one crewmember was always assigned the task of bailing made sense. While cruisers are masters of ingenuity (we had assisted in a remote Indian Ocean rescue in which palm coir was used as a

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No boat show can quite compare to Boot Düsseldorf, which each winter fills 17 exhibition halls in a sprawling complex along the Rhine River in western Germany. As soon as you arrive in town, signs for the show are everywhere. Got a ticket? You can even

april 2016


ride the city’s extensive public transportation system for free. Try that, why don’t you, in Miami, where the U.S. hosts its biggest annual event.


Repel’s Permethrin Clothing and Gear Insect Repellent. Wear gloves and follow directions exactly. If you will be wearing both sunscreen and bug spray, make sure to apply the sunscreen first, followed by the insect repellent. Currently, areas afected by the Zika virus included Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Pacific Islands and Cape Verde. For a full list of countries afected and for more tips on prevention, visit If you suspect you may be infected with Zika, contact your doctor. — Eleanor Merrill


biggest watersports show, this year Boot attracted 247,000 visitors from 52 countries. And every one

Toad&Co out the 1,800 boats that were towed, sailed and trucked in for the occasion. In the opening three days, we managed to catch a number of new a sneak preview of what’s soon to arrive on this side of the pond. For a look at what’s coming our way, go to cruising



B o o t D ü s s el d o r f Ro u n d u p

ith confirmed cases of the Zika virus on the rise and no vaccine available, it’s more important than ever to protect yourself from insects. Zika is transmitted through mosquito bites and can cause fever, rash, joint pain, conjunctivitis and birth defects in babies, among other complications. The illness typically lasts several days to a week. The Center for Disease Control recommends taking “advanced precautions” to prevent mosquito bites, including covering exposed skin with long-sleeved shirts and pants, using EPA-registered insect repellents that contain DEET or oil of lemon eucalyptus, sleeping in screened-in locations, and using permethrin-treated clothing and gear. Luckily for cruisers, clothing treated with permethrin, which is approved by the EPA as both safe for human use and efective at killing mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects, is becoming more common in the marketplace. ExOicio’s BugsAway line includes shirts, pants, jackets, socks, hats and bandannas, all treated with permethrin and good for

70 washes (do not dry-clean). Toad&Co’s Debug products include pants and shirts with more casual styling. For head and neck protection, both Tilley and Buf now ofer permethrin-treated products as well. Cruising World testers found that the treated fabric felt normal to the touch (not waxy or greasy) and did not have any strange odors. Many of the insect-repellent products on the market ofer additional functionalities, including moisture wicking and UPF sun protection. If you’d like to treat your own gear with permethrin, choose a soak or spray that is specifically for use on clothing and gear, such as Sawyer’s Permethrin Premium Insect Repellent for Clothing or




o you hear that? That’s the sound of dominoes falling — and when they’re done, the boating life in Florida could be changed forever. On January 26, House Bill 1051, which would ban anchoring in three popular anchorages, passed unanimously in a subcommittee hearing. The bill states in part that “a person may not anchor or moor a vessel at any time between the hours from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise” in three popular areas, including: • In Fort Lauderdale, the section of the Middle River lying between Northeast 21st Court and the Intracoastal Waterway. • Sunset Lake and sections of Biscayne Bay, Miami Beach. • In Destin, Crab Island in

Choctawhatchee Bay. The ostensible motivation for the Middle River and Sunset Lake bans appears to be a desire to provide improved “recreational boating zones” for water-skiing. Yet these areas have traditionally been used by many boats as a staging area to cross the Gulf Stream and cruise the Bahamas, and often these boats must wait days before a weather window allows safe passage. What will these mariners do? And how many people do you know who water-ski at night? A secondary rationale for the legislation is the recurring fight over the hundreds of derelict vessels around the state, which in many cases occupy prime anchorages. Everyone is in favor of their removal, and laws are already on the books

to do that. Though the proposed legislation contains a “strike-through” amendment that allows exemptions for emergencies, fishing and government-sanctioned events, it still eliminates a practice that resident and itinerant boaters have always held sacrosanct: the act of dropping an anchor, enjoying the sunset and spending a peaceful night on the water. It’s why many people buy a boat. Proponents of the legislation argue that mariners are not being banned; they can use marinas in these locations. Opponents counter that anchoring makes boating more afordable and enjoyable, and they should not be compelled to go to marinas unless they choose.  If enacted, the bill will take

efect July 1, 2016, and be enforced with penalties that range from $50 for first-time ofenders to $250 for a third ofense. Refusal to comply with requests by law enforcement to move from the anchorage within 12 hours will result in the vessel being impounded, with all removal and storage fees paid by the operator before the vessel is released. A matching bill in the Senate has not yet been scheduled for a hearing, but it appears that the anti-anchoring movement is gaining traction and anchoring bans will become a reality in the Sunshine State. There is no doubt that waterfront states on both coasts are closely watching this battle. To follow Florida House Bill 1051, go to — Robert Beringer

april 2016












april 2016




GEAR FINDS FOR SPRING 1. ACR globalfix v4 epirb • $400 •

2. CREWSAVER rescue c.a.s.e. • $1,200 •

3. GARMIN quatix 3 • $600 •

4. HOBIE mirage i11s • $2,000 •

5. SCANSTRUT rokk mini • $15 and up •

The new GlobalFix V4 from ACR is one of the lowest-cost EPIRBs on the market. Don’t let the price fool you, though — this 406 MHz EPIRB has an internal GPS and also transmits a 121.5 MHz homing frequency. Perhaps most notable is that the compact unit also features a userreplaceable battery that’s good for 10 years.

Ideal for inshore and near-coastal cruisers, the Crewsaver Rescue C.A.S.E. is a platformstyle buoyancy aid that can fit a crew of six. It comes in a compact valise and features a boarding ladder and five ballast pockets for stability.

The quatix 3 is much more than a watch — it’s a wearable instrument. It comes pre-loaded with marine-specific features such as a compass, barometer, anchor alarm and tide data. The quatix 3 can stream NMEA 2000 information from compatible devices and control Fusion audio systems. It’s waterresistant to 100 meters.

If you’re looking for a fun way to explore away from the mothership and get some exercise as well, check out the Hobie Mirage i11s inflatable kayak. This lightweight kayak offers hands-free operation with Hobie’s MirageDrive pedals, or you can attach the optional skeg for standup use.

Got gadgets? Now you can mount them just about anywhere using the ROKK Mini mounting systems. The line features interchangeable mounts and brackets that allow you to mount your device, such as a phone, camera, tablet or fish finder, to a rail, flat surface or even the mast.




CRUISING TIPS Many cruisers are intimidated by downwind sails, especially when sailing shorthanded or with inexperienced guests. The Quantum Code Zero is perfect for cruising boats for its range and ease of use—the sail is designed on a top-down furling system that makes deploying and dousing as easy as pulling on a single line.

HOW AND WHEN TO USE THE CODE ZERO The Code Zero will take you through more wind angles than any other sail on the boat, from relatively tight angles in light air, to very broad angles in heavy air. Your spinnaker is for downwind and your genoa is for upwind, but the Code Zero is for all the angles in between.


The Code Zero comes with a UV strip that will protect it on its furler during several days of regular use. If you won’t be on the boat for a week or more, just take the sail down and store it in its bag down below. With no restrictions on design, the cruising Code Zero can be designed very deep or very fl at. Talk to your sailmaker about the type of sail that’s right for you. Once you invest in a Code Zero, we’re sure you’ll use it more than any other sail on the boat.




s the first step in a multistage plan to remove half the plastic from the Pacific in a decade’s time, Dutch entrepreneur Boyan Slat and the team from his Ocean Cleanup project launched their Mega Expedition in the summer of 2015 (see Green Wakes, Oct. 2015). With some 30 vessels traveling through the North Pacific Gyre, including 20 racing yachts, the goal was to conduct research to help map the spatial distribution and density of the rubbish found in what’s come to be known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. I was fortunate enough to be the skipper of one of those raceboats. I arrived with three other crew in Honolulu last August to deliver Chris Hemans’ Newport Beachbased Rogers 46, Varuna, back from the Transpac. Along the way to California, we’d be gathering data for Ocean Cleanup by conducting visual surveys for trash and logging our finds with an intuitive smartphone app. We would also be conducting one-hour trawls with a device called a manta trawl to collect water samples. Our young, keen crew was excited and honored at the prospect of using our good fortune as sailors to benefit such a

worthwhile and important cause. Close-reaching north out of Hawaii for more than 1,000 nautical miles, Varuna — a true reaching machine and a thrill to sail — ate up the distance rapidly. Turning the corner at about 37 degrees N, we began heading east and gradually got into the zone for data collection, which extended from 154 degrees W to 130 degrees W, and 20 degrees N to 40 degrees N. We installed a small collection sock called a cod-end on the manta trawl and collected plastic by towing it 130 feet behind the port side of the boat for an hour at a time. Bringing the manta trawl back to the transom, we’d swap out cod-ends, tow for another hour, and so on. On our first day in the collection zone, we pulled four hour-long trawls. What we found was incredible. In most of the quart-size cod-end samples, we discovered countless bits of plastic, ranging from small specks to 16-ounce water bottles, broken pieces of laundry baskets, and other junk. There were bottle caps, Varuna, a Rogers 46, was one of 20 raceboats that signed on to collect water samples on their way back to the West Coast after the Transpac.



There are two types of people in this world. Those who shy away from challenges, and those who live for them. Which type are you?


Moving slowly in glassy conditions, it was clear that there were tiny pieces of plastic floating everywhere the eye could see, with larger pieces all around. small plastic, seeing only the big stuf. When we were slowed to a crawl with the specific purpose of looking for plastic, however, a very scary picture was painted. Moving slowly in glassy conditions, it was clear that there were tiny pieces floating

Calm seas made for ideal conditions to launch the manta trawl. After filtering through a fine mesh plankton net, debris — and sometimes critters (right) — are funneled to the cod-end.

everywhere the eye could see, with larger pieces distributed all around. The state of our beloved Pacific Ocean is truly disconcerting. Making matters even more alarming, our latitude at 37 degrees N was several hundred miles north of the most impacted area. After just one day in the Gyre and with four trawls completed, a new breeze began to fill in from the north, creating

quick close-reaching conditions back to the States, which made trawling a challenge. Varuna again began putting up big numbers and quickly made it to 130 degrees W and out of the research box. Along the way, though, we managed to check of three morning-time trawls, bringing our total up to seven. It wasn’t as many trawls as we had originally hoped for, but we knew our data was good, so we

march 2016


Side-Power Retractable Thrusters the solid choice for safety and reliability • Plug and play S-Link wiring for easy installation and superior

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strands of monofilament fishing line, and little bits of Styrofoam. We also found in every single sample a small ecosystem, with sailor jellies, crabs of various sizes, and other tiny sea creatures scurrying around. This was my 10th trip between Hawaii and the mainland, and I must admit to never fully appreciating the concentration of garbage before this voyage. Usually, whether on delivery or racing, I’m focused on sailing the boat at speed and therefore miss most of the


the discovery of an abandoned yacht, adrift and pristine but for a torn mainsail and obliterated name. Only a black cat is aboard, and both it and the classic wooden sloop are part of Capt. Em’s past. From ofshore waters to the Chesapeake and the Maine coast, intrigue


I felt a chill go through me as I looked down into the open cockpit of the silent boat. Two halffilled wine glasses sat neatly on the table ...


The Bitter End: An Em Ridge Mystery by Linda Hall (2015; Wild Seas Press; paperback, $11.99; e-book rom Amazon, $5.99) The Bermuda Triangle: Those three words instantly grab the attention of just about any cruising sailor. The second book in this fast-paced series ďŹ nds professional captain Em Ridge on the job in those infamous waters. It begins with

builds as Em aids oicials in unraveling the mystery behind the abandoned yacht, which ultimately involves family intrigue and murder. It’s not easy to ďŹ nd a wellwritten mystery; it’s even harder to ďŹ nd a top-notch sailing novel. But author Linda Hall is an expert sailor, and it shows — Capt. Em gets every nautical detail right. The combination of fast-paced mystery and well-crafted sailing adventure is irresistible. — Lynda Morris Childress




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march 2016


L 2016 RI • •••••• •••••

were pleased that we had done our best to help the cause. Not long after Varuna and other boats began arriving back in West Coast ports with their manta trawls and cod-ends full of plastic, the project’s 171-foot mothership, Ocean Starr, arrived in San Francisco to a hero’s welcome of supporters and media. When the large oceangoing research vessel opened up her payload of plastic and rubbish, she told a story, and a sobering one at that. By all estimates, there appears to be more plastic in the North PaciďŹ c Gyre than originally feared. Rather than be discouraged at the ďŹ ndings, however, we were only further inspired to help Ocean Cleanup and its supporters achieve their mission. As environmental issues are brought to the forefront of worldwide debates, the momentum behind those issues becomes too great to ignore for us as a global community. Fortunately, there are organizations like Ocean Cleanup that are attempting to make a diference. Inactivity is no longer an option. For the latest on Ocean Cleanup, visit the organization’s website ( — Ronnie Simpson




• • • • • • • • • • •R• L










classic sails one design


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april 2016


Since the inception of the Leukemia Cup Regatta in 1988, more than $54 million has been raised.

Sail outside the box

son Rhett was first diagnosed with leukemia in 2010 and is in remission five years later.  The top national fundraisers were recognized at Fantasy Sail, with John McNeil finishing in first place as the top national individual fundraiser, and Jen and Matt Cromar finishing as the top national fundraising

Gary Jobson (right) with Ted O’Connor, a Fantasy Sail qualifier from the Bahia Corinthian Yacht Club.

team.  The Cromars and McNeil sailed at the San Francisco Yacht Club Leukemia Cup Regatta, which received the Jobson Cup for the seventh consecutive year as the top fundraising LCR in 2015. Since the inception of the regattas in 1988, more than $54 million has been raised for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society’s mission of finding cures and ensuring access to treatment for blood cancer patients. For more information about the Leukemia Cup Regatta and a schedule of events, visit


very year, the Leukemia Cup Regatta series raises money at events throughout North America for the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. Participants who raised $12,000 or more in 2015 were invited to the annual Fantasy Sail event, which was hosted by world-renowned sailor Gary Jobson, who has served as the national chairman of the Leukemia Cup Regatta since 1993.  The weekend events, which took place October 30 to November 1, 2015, included sailing out of the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club and hearing personal accounts from sailors like Carl Krawitt, whose

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cups grated vegetables* cup olive oil (or to taste) cloves garlic, minced pound white fish (two thick fillets or four thin) 2 tablespoons butter 1 /4 cup white wine or beer 2 teaspoons dried herbs (e.g., thyme, oregano, tarragon) Salt and pepper, to taste 1 lemon, sliced into rounds 1

*Use 1 cup each of whatever you have, such as carrots, beets, winter squash, parsnips, potatoes or zucchini.

FISH ON! A thin fishing line tripped along in the wake of our Hinckley 64, Wyntje. We were under full sail, halfway between the British Virgin Islands and Bermuda, but at that moment, the crew had bigger fish to fry. A very large container ship was coming straight for us — very fast. The behemoth’s crew wasn’t responding to our VHF calls. We had to change course. Quickly. “Ready about!” yelled the captain. Ready on the winches, I eased the genoa to starboard. At that exact moment, the bungee on the fishing line tightened, the plastic line holder straining against the rail. “Fish on!” I shouted. What were the chances? For me, catching a fish was about as likely as being in an empty ocean on a collision course with another vessel. I’d sailed more than 10,000 nautical miles without ever catching anything bigger than a mackerel. I let the reel fly as we tacked, trimmed our sails, and watched the container ship slip past astern. Out of harm’s way, I pulled the line hand over hand until the glimmering, golden-scaled dorado was close enough to gaf. My watch was coming up, so I needed to make a quick, easy dinner. With this simple meal, nothing is left to chance — even in the middle of the ocean. — Jennifer Gof

Editor’s Note: Beets will tint all surrounding food unless cooked separately and added before serving.


Don’t Pitch That Fish If you cook more fresh fish than you can consume in one sitting, don’t despair. While serving day-old fillets doesn’t cut it, there are ways to use that leftover cooked white fish (or even salmon) as long as it’s kept refrigerated and used the next day. Consider making your favorite vegetable soup and adding cooked, flaked fish near the end of simmering time. Or fall back on old favorites like fish cakes or potato cakes (with flaked fish added). Here are links to two recipes from Cruising World’s People & Food archives that provide perfect ways to make fresh fish taste delicious for one more meal: “Salmon Cakes — Sizzle without Steak” (Janet Hofmeyr):; and “Ulster Potato Cakes” (Geraldine Foley): — Lynda Morris Childress


april 2016


Heat oven to 400 degrees. Grate veggies, add salt and pepper to taste, and toss with olive oil. Layer in the bottom of a lightly oiled 2-quart baking dish. Sprinkle with half the minced garlic. Place fish fillets over veggies, dot with butter, and drizzle with wine or beer. Sprinkle with remaining garlic, herbs, and salt and pepper, to taste. Top fillets with two to four lemon slices. Bake for 20 to 30 minutes (depending on thickness of fish) or until fish flakes easily with a fork. Serves two.

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O n Wa t c h What did God give us so we wouldn’t need engines? Wind! Still, though maneuvering in tight quarters under sail might make you a better skipper, the purr of the diesel sounds sweet. B Y

C A P ’ N



april 2016



am a believer in modern marine diesels. If you buy a new one, religiously maintain it, and never run it hot or without oil, it will last practically forever. The first thing I did when I purchased Ganesh, our 43-foot Wauquiez Amphitrite, was toss away the 35-year-old Perkins and slip in a brand-new Perkins. Given a small cruising kitty, I’d much rather have an old boat with a new engine than vice versa. As you can see, I am emphatically pro-engine on cruising sailboats. However, I’ve gone long spans of time engineless, on various sailboats, including the 22-foot Corina, the 35-foot Carlotta and the 38-foot Wild Card. Why? Because, as much as I love a dependable diesel, I absolutely loathe an undependable one. There is nothing worse than an engine that runs just long enough to get you into serious trouble — and then deserts you. Thus I’ve cruised with no engine while saving up my freedom chips to buy a brand-new one. Why not buy a rebuilt engine that is as good as new? Simply put, because it is not. If such engines were, the dealers would warranty them the same, but they

A crowded harbor on a windless day poses a challenge for the engineless, black-hulled Wild Card. A new Perkins was the first order of business aboard Ganesh (below).

don’t. Most rebuilt engines come with a taillight warranty: It lasts about as long as you can see the mechanic’s taillights burning rubber out of the shipyard. Do I sound bitter? I learned this lesson the hard way. Take our salvaged Wild Card, for instance. While I did manage to get its two-lunger diesel to run a bit after Hurricane Hugo, it ran only long enough to convince me to spend ever more money on it. Once I realized it wasn’t ever going to be dependable, I gave it away to a masochistic mechanic and went five years, from 1990 to 1995, sailing without an engine. We extensively cruised the windy West Indies, from Venezuela and Trinidad to Puerto Rico every year, and attended nearly every regatta in the eastern Caribbean, all sans diesel. The best part was getting together with the likes of Don Street of Iolaire, John Smith of Mermaid of Carriacou, or Julian Davies of Tiger Maru. We’d always manage, regardless of our limited pennies, to get hit by a drunk front with embedded rum squalls, and howl at each other, “Would you disgrace your vessel with a stinking, oil-oozing piece of metal crap? Never!” Being engineless certainly had its lighthearted moments. Once a bareboat charterer told me to stop hot-dogging as I sailed through the anchorage at Norman Island in the British Virgins. I immediately anchored and confessed to him that I’d just purchased the boat and didn’t know how to start my engine. Hell, I told him, I couldn’t even find it! Being a fine fellow, he swam over to help, and we had a pleasant hour or two drinking Mount Gay and hunting for our elusive prey. Finally, the guy borrowed a mask, dived overboard, looked at my boat’s completely smooth underbody devoid of a prop, and said, “Oh, you got screwed!” Things got even better when I installed my Bose cockpit speakers and recorded a cassette tape of an engine starting, warming up and running smoothly.



TIME TO O W N I T Now you can instantly create HD depth maps on screen with 1-foot contours of nearly any body of water. You don’t have to send anything in and wait, results appear instantly on your compatible Garmin chartplotter screen. More importantly, these are your maps. Share them if you wish, or keep for yourself. You own them.



Whenever there was a lull in one of our massive raft-up parties, I’d just loudly announce that I was going to crank up to charge my batteries, then punch my play button belowdecks and shout out the hatch, “Can somebody check and see if my raw-water is pumping?” When you’re dead broke in the Caribbean, you have to find your amusements any way you can. We enjoyed endless variations on that theme. We’d casually toss swimmers a rusty putty knife or scraper and ask, “While you’re in the water, could you knock the barnacles of the prop?” Some folks would still be circling our

april 2016


vessel if we hadn’t taken pity and let them in on the joke. One swimmer with a good buzz on quickly reported that we had no prop. My jaw dropped in amazement. I said, “I hope you’re joking!” while my wife, Carolyn, dashed up from the galley screaming, “Not the prop pirates again!” “Yeah,” said the amazed guy in the water, “and I guess they got the shaft too!” Being engineless, however, is not all fun and games. Our mooring in Great Cruz Bay, at St. John in the U.S. Virgins, was cheek-to-jowl with other vessels. While the Sparkman & Stephens-designed Wild Card handled beautifully, and we never

damaged ourselves or another vessel, the owners of nearby Hinckleys and other well-polished yachts died of coronaries long before their time. Carolyn didn’t seem to enjoy it as much as I did. A number of times, as we zigzagged under sail through the crowded mess, Carolyn screamed aft, “Fatty, hit a cheap one, OK?” The tolerance among the spectators for such shenanigans became sort of a barometer of sea-gypsy acceptance. Once, in Puerto Rico at a fancy new resort marina, after flawlessly sailing up to a fuel dock to take on water, the dock jockey went of on us for even attempting it. “Are you crazy?” he asked me. “Where did you hear that?” I asked. “Did my therapist call? Damn that woman!” A few months later, in the Lesser Antilles, when I pulled the same stunt in St. Maarten at Bobby’s Marine, the West Indian harbormaster watched, smiled and said, “Ya mon, sweet!” The main lesson I learned about close-quarter work under sail was this: If you think you can, you can. If you think you can’t, you can’t. I say this not to encourage anyone to take a foolish chance, but to caution you that if you don’t think you’re up to the challenge, you’re definitely not — and shouldn’t even try. The key to sailing without an engine year after year and not damaging anything is to have the wisdom not to attempt what you shouldn’t. Sailing off our crowded mooring was easy. We’d just reverse our position on the mooring by walking the pendant line astern without casting off. Once we were stern to the wind and completely ready, we’d just cast off, pop open the roller-furling jib, and slalom out with complete control. Easy as pie. If we came back in settled conditions with a crew — after a race, for instance — I’d just go for it. The only problem was having enough way on to fetch the pendant, and yet not so much speed that we overshot the mooring. This is easy when it works. But a sudden lull or gust at the last moment can make it messy. There was always that do-it-or-abort moment that would make me shake with fear. If it was just Carolyn and I approaching the mooring, I’d often luf up and put Carolyn in our little rowing dinghy with a length of thick polypropylene line that had a large fender tied at one end. She would row over and attach the line to the mooring pendant and then let the fender drift backward in the breeze. This made picking up the mooring easy, as the floating bright-yellow line extended downwind almost to the next mooring buoy.


cruising without an engine on Ganesh, although I regularly sail her into harbors just to keep in touch with my daredevil roots. But there’s no doubt being engineless taught me a thing or two about both sailing and grace under pressure. And, even worse, I must admit that I miss the childish thrill of roaring past all the megayachts in St. Barts to luf up within sight of Lulu’s Marine, screaming at the top of my lungs, “Does anyone know how to get these white floppy things down?!” Fatty and Carolyn Goodlander are enjoying cruising Asian-style aboard their repowered ketch, Ganesh.

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my concern. The problem was that my wife and young daughter were waiting for me on the beach at Great Cruz Bay and were being eaten by mosquitoes and no-see-ums. They were not happy, not even when they finally sighted my tricolor entering the harbor after midnight. Luckily, this shameful moment coincided with our reaching the magic $5,000 mark in our engine fund. We slapped in a Perkins M30 in 1995. It was and is a wonderful diesel engine and is still running for the boat’s new owners. Today I’m older and wiser, and our new boat doesn’t handle as if controlled by my every whim. I would never consider

33 april 2016

Once Carolyn was back on the sailboat, I’d swoop us in and bring Wild Card up alongside the polypro as Carolyn used our boathook to scoop it up and quickly attached a strong stainless-steel snap shackle around it. The shackle was tied to a line that ran from the bow cleat over the anchor roller. Presto! We’d be attached to the mooring without any chance of coming undone. Once she’d yelled aft, “Made!” she’d pull the shackle aboard, along with as much slack in the polypro as possible, and belay it around the cleat. The beauty of this method was that once the snap shackle was attached, there couldn’t be an unexpected line fumble while routing the polypro around the forestay or bow rail. We were secure, and the boat couldn’t suddenly become loose without steerage in close quarters. When we did it right, the boat would have very little way by the time we had the mooring line in hand. I’d just fully luf the sails and then dash forward to drop the mainsail as all forward motion ceased. It helped that I’d converted Wild Card from wheel to tiller steering; the boat was easy to slow using excessive rudder drag created when I’d first put the helm hard over on one side, then the other. To wrap things up, I’d drop our mooring splice over our bitts at my leisure and re-coil the polypro for future use. This method worked well unless it was too squally. Then we’d just anchor outside the open-mouthed harbor and push Wild Card in with the dinghy, at night, when the trades lay down a bit. Often, instead of docking or attempting to raft up under sail, we’d just sail up and anchor to windward of the dock or raft-up, and then pay out scope on the 300-foot, 3⁄8-inch nylon rode we carried specifically for this purpose. In its day, our handling of a Danforth 12H was a mighty beautiful thing. Eventually, though, being engineless got old. We actively cruise and live aboard our boat. It’s where we earn our money. We use it to fetch supplies and enter races; it’s our means of interisland transportation, and we like to party aboard. When the crews aboard the other boats grew tired, they hit the starter button. For us, the most stressful part of attending Antigua Sailing Week was picking up our Cruz Bay mooring upon our return. I remember the straw that broke the camel’s back. I’d taken part in the BVI Spring Regatta. I had a swell time racing, had a blast at the lively awards ceremony, and managed to sail out of Tortola’s Nanny Cay (yeah, tricky) as a fat moon rose — and took away the last breath of wind. I was dead in the water, but that wasn’t

Charleston, USA Buenos Aires, AR


Point of Vie w There are few odder moments in the cruising life than seeing another boat brought to a halt by the breakdown of gear you’ve never had. B Y


april 2016


e pulled into Neiafu, Tonga, after a dreamlike passage from Suwarrow, in the Cook Islands. As Pelagic, the Crealock 37 we then owned, pulled into the mooring field, my wife, Alisa, pointed at an inflatable puttering out to meet us. “Look,” she said. “There’s Macy!” Our friends Julia and Dave, of the beautiful wooden yacht Macy, had spotted us entering the anchorage and come out to say hello. We had last seen them in the Tuamotus, and we spent the night catching up over a bottle of Panamanian rum. After we’d heard each other’s stories, it came out that Macy had a bit of a problem. Their outboard was acting up. Within a couple of days, it was dead. Julia’s brother and his two kids were flying out from the States to explore Tonga on Macy, but without an outboard to drive their RIB, Julia and Dave couldn’t play host. Macy would be portbound until another outboard could be found. We were sympathetic, but it was hard to truly feel their pain. We had never had an outboard on Pelagic, and always rowed ashore. There are few odder moments in the cruising life than when you see another boat brought to a halt by the breakdown of gear you’ve never had. That was seven years ago. But as Alisa and I have made a boat switch to accommodate our change from a family of three to a family of four, and as I’ve worked on various systems on our present sailboat, Galactic, a 45-foot cutter, that moment has stayed with me as the perfect example of how additional gear can take away from the sailing life at the same time that it gives. I should make it clear that we are far from being exemplars of simplicity: We now have an outboard, as well as radar, a refrigerator, a high-frequency radio with modem, an autopilot, a laptop running as a plotter and AIS, two wind generators and three solar panels. But Alisa and I have come to this level of complexity over eight years of full-time sailing. The first time we crossed the Pacific on Pelagic, we did it with a windvane but no autopilot. I’ve heard people say that you must have a watermaker, chart plotter and onboard weather forecasts to cross the Pacific. But we’ve crossed the Pacific more than once without these things. And while we were out making these crossings, plotting our position on paper charts

and, for the first crossing at least, taking whatever weather came along because we couldn’t download GRIB files, someone else was doubtless working on their boat in a marina, adding these “musthaves” so they could leave. It’s a tried and true message — “Keep your boat simple!” — but it’s one that our own culture, so focused on acquisition, just can’t seem to learn. When we decide to go sailing, it feels as though we need to buy stuf. To be proper sailors, we have to buy the right gear to show how serious we are. But many boats bought with the Big Trip in mind never get away from the dock, and the huge amount of money and efort invested in gear has to be a part of the reason why. The last time we were in an American marina, as we were getting Galactic ready to cross the Pacific, I was mesmerized by the sight of all the boats that never left the harbor, each mast adorned with its very own radar dome that we’d never seen turned on. If you want to get away, you have to keep the diference between means and ends well in mind. The goal is a life that is fluid and free, unencumbered by possession and open to spontaneity, a life able to pay the rewards of a well-laid plan. Make sure that the gear is serving the ends of whatever adventure you imagine at sea, rather than turning into a goal of its own. Most boat gear can be justified as useful. But the sum total of all these useful items can completely swamp you. There’s no way, when you’re starting of, that you can keep it all running and have time left over to sail. The marinas of the world are full of boats set to leave on an open-ended trip — next year. Every week you spend installing a fridge, watermaker or SSB, every week you try to integrate your plotter with your autopilot, is another strike against your chances of turning “next year” into “this year.” When you look at your boat, and at your dreams for where that boat will take you, think about what you don’t need rather than what you do. Your boat will never be truly ready to go anyway, so you might as well call it good with the most basic gear you can imagine using and see how far you get with that setup. Decide what your boat doesn’t need. Then go sail a thousand miles, and see if you weren’t right.

Hauling water in Pago Pago, American Samoa, was a great excuse for a lively row in the dinghy.

Mike Litzow is the author of South from Alaska: Sailing to Australia with a Baby for Crew.

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Way points Then I stepped onto Georgia’s Cumberland Island and into my own Tolkienesque fairy tale. K E N N O N

april 2016




on’t go through Georgia,” fellow cruisers told my husband, Chip, and me on our inaugural trip down the Intracoastal Waterway. Ninefoot tides, shifting currents, shallow waters and other horrors awaited us there, and, because we were rookies, we listened. For more than a week, we hunkered down in Beaufort, South Carolina, waiting for a good weather window to go ofshore and bypass Georgia entirely. But with only 23 days of cruising under our keel, we were just beginning to learn that Mother Nature was in charge, and she had other things to show us. Tired of killing time, we scratched that ofshore plan and nervously tiptoed into the

northern reaches of Georgia. For four days, we plied through capricious waters, finding that the grousing cruisers were right about everything — the currents, the shallows and the 9-foot tidal swings. What they had failed to tell us, however, was that Georgia would be, quite simply, beautiful. Those robust tides required constant attention, but in exchange, they laid bare a stunning and majestic marshland devoid of human development. We were treated to mile upon mile of blazing gold marsh grass set of against steely gray November skies, a thriving estuary reserved for shorebirds, fish, insects, reptiles — and those lucky enough to have a boat. Then, at Georgia’s southernmost

point, we discovered what might be the state’s best treasure: Cumberland Island. Motoring into the anchorage of Cumberland Island, I looked toward the shore and wondered what all the fuss was about. Friends of mine had waxed on about the place, but my only knowledge of the island came from John F. Kennedy Jr. Why would someone who could have married anywhere in the world choose Cumberland Island for his fairy-tale wedding? Then I stepped onto Cumberland and into my own Tolkienesque fairy tale. Gnarly, writhing live oak trees bend and strain toward the sky, so twisted, regal and filled with life that you can almost hear them whisper Middle

Earth secrets behind your back. Stretching their arthritic arms far overhead, they grasp hands to form a towering cathedral ceiling over sandy footpaths. From below, palmettos spread their brilliant green fans to reach up toward wispy Spanish moss of the palest green-gray stretching down from above. It’s a place so enchanted you can feel the ghosts of past residents wandering about — a place so mystical that when a wild horse wanders up, you expect to see a single horn sprouting out of its forehead. And then, a rustling erupts among the palmettos, and out walks a tiny gray armadillo with a pointy nose and full armor, gazing at you as if you’re the one so oddly out of place. The island, home to salt marshes, maritime forest and

Cumberland Island, with its canopy of tangled, mossy live oaks, easy anchorage (top), wild horses and historic sites, is well worth a stop during an ICW cruise.




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white sand beaches, has a history woven from familiar North American threads. For thousands of years, its only inhabitants, as far as we know, were the Tacatacuru, part of the Timucua tribe, who summered there, gathering shellfish along the generous Atlantic shore that stretches more than 15 miles. They called the island Wissoo, their word for the abundant indigenous sassafras that they harvested for medicinal use. Then, in the 16th century, the Europeans showed up — first the Spanish, followed by the pirates, and then the British, who renamed the island after the Duke of Cumberland, erasing the last trace of those first occupants. After the Revolutionary War, the island became part of the new state of Georgia, and plantations began to sprout. By the mid-1800s, there were 10 cotton plantations on Cumberland. After the post-Civil War collapse of the plantation system, wealthy U.S. families, including the Carnegies, purchased the land and ushered in the Gilded Age. They turned the plantations into lavish private estates where they vacationed and entertained the famous and aluent of the time. One of those estates, the Dungeness mansion, still stands, sort of, now in haunting yet lovely ruins. Its checkered and ill-fated history includes wartime occupation, famous names, tragic fires and rumors of arson. The National Park Service now owns the Dungeness ruins as well as most of Cumberland Island. Cumberland is a barrier island and a designated national seashore, inhabited mostly by wild horses, armadillos, shorebirds and nesting sea turtles. It’s accessible only by ferry and private boat. The ferry dock near the anchorage includes a convenient floating dinghy dock. The Sea Camp Ranger Station and museum are open from 10 to 4:30, and staf is available with maps and information on guided tours. The island has 87 structures

listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including Dungeness and the First African Baptist Church, where JFK was married. As the island’s maritime history suggests, the approach to Cumberland welcomes vessels from every direction. From the north, you follow the ICW by Jekyll Island and across St. Andrew Sound, a crossing not to be taken lightly, as it passes through the eastern edge of the shoalfilled sound, fully exposed to the Atlantic. Once past the sound, Cumberland ofers full protection on a long and lolling ride to the main anchorage, tucked up under the southern tip of the island. You’ll enjoy good holding in 9 to 15 feet of moss-green Georgia water. Although Cumberland Island feels as remote as Middle Earth, civilization lurks just across the water. Cumberland forms the northern shore of the wide St. Marys River inlet. Upriver, past a few sharp turns, St. Marys, Georgia, ofers copious anchorage space, sailor-friendly services and generous open arms at Thanksgiving, hosting the entire cruising community for the price of a side dish (see “Cruisers’ Thanksgiving,” Feb. 2016). To the south, past the inlet, you’ll find the full-service charm of Fernandina Beach, Florida, a bustling little burg well camouflaged by its industrial waterfront. Depending on the weather and your needs, you can choose a marina slip, a mooring ball or a convenient anchorage. That first year, when we left Beaufort, I had dreaded the journey south through Georgia as a necessary evil that, at the end, would deliver me to a Bahamian dreamland painted in a palette of turquoise and white. It’s hard now to believe that the rush to my imagined paradise almost made me miss one I never even considered. Tammy Kennon cruised with her husband, Chip, for three years aboard their Island Packet 380.

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A dismasting while on passage from New Zealand to France forces the adventurous family aboard Anasazi Girl to stop at P u e r t o W i l l i a m s , C h i l e . S u r p r i s i n g l y, t h i s Pa t a go n i a n o u t p o s t t u r n s o u t t o b e j u s t w h a t t h e y w e r e l o o k i n g f o r. Story and photographs by SOMIRA SAO

James Burwick walks hand in hand with daughter Pearl along the beach in Puerto Williams, Chile.

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hen I was a young girl, the Cape Horn archipelago always brought to my mind historic tall-ship voyages made with bravado by explorers like Cook, Drake, Darwin and Magellan. I often imagined this faraway location to be an inhospitable landscape where elements of nature were harsh and raw. My husband, James Burwick, and I believe it’s important to give our three children an understanding of life in the wilderness. This is a big reason why sailing ofshore has worked so well for us as a family. Over the years, during our land-based adventures in the austral regions of South America, we often dreamed of exploring by boat the channels and fjords of Chile with our children. Our only problem was not having the right cruising vessel. Anasazi Girl, a Finot-Conq Open 40, is set up for making solo, port-to-port, long-distance passages (see “Southern Ocean, Family Style,” Feb. 2016). With a full carbon-fiber hull, carbonNomex deck, fixed deep keel, watertight compartments, rotating wing and stripped-out interior, she is most suited for Southern Ocean sailing. We have a life raft T O T H E S O U T H O F A N A S A Z I G I R L ’ S B E R T H O N and an emergency anchoring system, but no dinghy. Since we are S E N O M I C A LV I A R E T H E B E A U T I F U L D I E N T E S not geared up for coastal cruising, we make passages that the boat is D E N AVA R I N O M O U N T A I N S . T O T H E N O R T H I S designed to do: nonstop voyages with legs averaging 6,000 nautiS E N O L A U T A , W H E R E B O AT S A R E A N C H O R E D . cal miles. In port, we tie to deep berths where we can live aboard at the dock. We then spend between four and 12 months in each harbor. This gives us time to work, maintain the boat, experience local culture and, most importantly, form connections and personal friendships. Due to our limitations for coastal cruising, when we departed Auckland, New Zealand, in February 2014, we were headed eastbound and nonstop for Lorient, France. We had no intentions of stopping in Chile. However, on Day 21 of our passage, Anasazi Girl was knocked down and dismasted

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Cape Horn and Antarctic expedition boats anchor in the protected waters of Seno Lauta against the dramatic backdrop of Argentina’s Martial Mountains.

Patagonia SO



Strait of Magellan


Area of detail










Nautical Miles




70˚ W



Cape Horn


66˚ W

Drake Passage





54˚ S C ARGENTINA O C E Tierra A del Fuego N Ushuaia O O Puerto Williams Canal Beagle

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Clockwise from above: Life on Navarino Island ofers the kids plenty of opportunities for outdoor exploration. An active fishing fleet keeps the community fed. Puerto Williams is a popular stopover for yachts of all kinds. James, Tormentina and Raivo check out Anasazi Girl’s mast stump. Centolla crab is a major catch in Chile.

300 nautical miles west of the Diego Ramirez Islands. Our family was safe, but we found ourselves shipwrecked on Chile’s Navarino Island, with Anasazi Girl’s rig left behind at the bottom of the great big blue. For the last two years, Navarino Island has become home for our family of five. We have been living aboard, rafted to expedition boats at the Micalvi Yacht Club and working to earn the funds needed to repair our vessel. During this period we organized a replacement mast, applied for and received temporary residency and work visas for Chile, formed a Chilean LLC (Anasazi Ltda.) and conceived our fourth child (due to be born just as this story goes to print). Situated on the north side of Navarino Island on the south shore of the Beagle Channel, Puerto Williams has become a regular port of call for sailors. Its strategic location has made it a hub for most expeditions bound to and from Antarctica, Cape Horn, the Route of Glaciers, Ushuaia, South Georgia and the Falklands. The weather here is dynamic, but there are two very wellprotected natural inlets (called senos) of of the Beagle Channel, Seno Micalvi and Seno Lauta, where boats tie up. To the south of Anasazi Girl’s berth on Seno Micalvi are the beautiful toothlike pinnacles of the Dientes de Navarino mountain range.

To the north, you can see Seno Lauta, where boats are moored and anchored, the Beagle Channel, and Argentina’s Martial Mountains. This provides a stunning and dramatic backdrop in all four seasons. or most sailors, Puerto Williams is just a temporary stopping point between sailing trips to pick up crew, fuel up, connect to the Internet, obtain zarpes or do basic in-port maintenance. Only a few voyagers have “lived” here yearround as we have, though over the years several have taken up residence in the town of Puerto Williams. We feel very fortunate to be shipwrecked here, of all the places in the world. Navarino Island has proven to be a true paradise for our small children, Tormentina, 7, Raivo, 5, and Pearl, 3. The beauty of being here is that it’s remote enough to be pristine, but not isolated enough that you feel completely desperate or cut of

Yagáns (formerly settled on the island at Bahía Mejillones) now live in a district of Puerto Williams called Villa Ukika. My kids visit the homes of local Yagán artists to see what they are crafting, and my oldest goes to school with Yagán descendants. We are reminded of the impact of invasive species on the island: wild horses, mink, beaver, stray dogs and yellow jackets. Every once in a while a mink or beaver will swim stealthily through the calm waters of the inlet. We have watched the wild horse population multiply as new foals and fillies are born before our eyes. It is an incredible opportunity for us to discuss with our children the fragile balance of this life. Sea life is abundant. Whales and seals swim in the channel. The local fishermen give my children gifts of róbalo (Patagonian blenny), centolla (southern king crab), erizos (sea urchins) and pulpo (octopus). Jellyfish and small fish swim up to the water’s surface alongside the boat. Teeming in the sand, mud, T H I S L O C AT I O N F U L F I L L S M A N Y B A S I C B U T tide pools and under rocks are countless invertebrates. The constant tidal rise and fall of the waterways proV E R Y I M P O R TA N T Q U A L I T I E S W E WA N T F O R duces fresh troves of starfish, urchins, mussels, clams, limpets, chitons and centolla (both live and empty shells). Most coveted of the objects to be discovered on the L I F E W I T H O U R FA M I LY: C L E A N A I R A N D shore or in the forest are rarely found Andean condor WAT E R A N D E X P O S U R E T O A U N I Q U E C U L T U R E . feathers, which can span up to 3 feet long — taller than

from the rest of the world. The location fulfills many basic but very important qualities we want for life with our family: clean air, water and land; abundant nature and outdoor recreation; a low population density and crime rate; a pedestrian-friendly lifestyle; immersion in a foreign language; and exposure to a unique culture. The island is part of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, named by UNESCO in 2005 as one of the 37 most pristine ecoregions in the world. My children have the opportunity to play in subpolar, Magellanic forests filled with evergreen and coigüe (Magellan’s beech), lenga (high deciduous beech), ñirre (antarctic beech), notro (Chilean firetree) and canelo (winter’s bark). We are immersed in a landscape steeped in the incredible presence of the indigenous Yagán tribe. The last remaining

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Clockwise from left: Anasazi Girl’s youngest crew greets officers and enlisted personnel of Armada de Chile, based in Puerto Williams. Winter at the Micalvi Yacht Club is not for the timid. With only a few stores and restaurants, Puerto Williams feels very much like a small town. The area’s nautical heritage is evident everywhere; Pearl strikes a pose by a weathered rowboat on the beach.

my youngest daughter, Pearl! Seeing the kids play among the island’s sun-bleached whalebones also gives us a new perspective on our size and place in the world. A wide network of walking paths through forests, wetlands and sphagnum peat bogs is easily navigable by small children. A park along the Rio Ukika is a favorite, providing a nice loop through town, into the magic forest, downriver to its outlet to the sea, and back to the Micalvi along the shore of the Beagle. Only on rare occasions do the kids and I see someone else on our outings. A new sailing school (Club Escuela Deportes Nauticos Puerto Williams), built by Chilean businessman Nicolas Ibañez Scott, sits on the point between Seno Lauta and Seno Micalvi. The school provides a free opportunity for all youth on the island to learn sailing and participate in national regattas. There are several kayaks, a fleet of Optimist prams, and one keelboat. The waters are protected in the inlets, and it’s very easy to mitigate risk in the cold waters. My kids have found both independence and personal meditation on the water. It is so nice to hear them talking about being in “the zone.”

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ruisers are fortunate on Navarino Island, because here it’s best to have your own boat. All movement in the Chilean waterways is controlled by the Armada, but once boats are out in the channels, there are many beautiful and well-protected anchorages nestled in the dramatic, wild, windblown landscape. Sailors have a truly secluded playground for sailing, skiing, climbing and scientific expeditions. A very special and remote region along the Beagle is the Cordillera Darwin. In the winter, the snow-covered mountains along the Glacier Route are full of frozen waterfalls ripe for ice-climbing. The Darwin range is part of Yendegaia National Park, a recent 370,000-acre project of the Conservation Land Trust program. The Micalvi Yacht Club brings in an international scene of sailors: Spanish, Austrian, French, German, Dutch, Chilean,

Puerto Williams is considered the southernmost city of the world. With a population of around 2,900 concentrated in a densely developed area on the island, it feels very much like a small town. The navy uses the port as a base of operations for rescue, reconnaissance, service and patrol missions in the Beagle and Drake channels and Antarctica. We have seen the island populated with an unusual mix of people over the last two years, including sailors, fishermen, local business owners, government

and municipal workers, Yagán descendants, navy and military personnel, people from the University of Magallanes, and international travelers. Due to governmentsubsidized projects to develop Puerto Williams as the “Antarctic Gateway” of Chile, there has also been a huge influx of construction workers over the last year. They are building roads, houses, a public hospital, a new fishing port, a commercial port for superyachts and cruise ships, and an airport runway extension.

Argentinian, Finnish, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, American, British, Kiwi, Canadian and Australian, just to name a few. Seno Micalvi is often filled with a cacophony of languages across the six fingers of boats rafted together. My oldest daughter has learned how to speak, read and write in Spanish at the local school, and the sailing scene gives all my kids added daily exposure to a multitude of languages. The peak sailing season is between October and April, with up to 42 sailboats in port at once. Many boats winter over in the

Despite all these imminent plans and changes, the place still feels lost in time. Less than a dozen shops, restaurants and businesses make up the central business district. With only five mom-and-pop grocery stores (not including the navy commissary), all the shopkeepers know your name after a few visits. A simple but adequate choice of products is available to keep our crew running healthy on a balanced diet. Supplies arrive at the island once a week by boat from Punta Arenas, 30 hours and 300 nautical miles

through the channels. For us, Saturday morning’s ferry means bringing a 70-liter backpack to provision with the best selection of produce for the week. Come Monday, it’s slim pickings for produce, and by the end of the week, shelves are empty. There’s no fresh meat on the island unless you buy the whole cow, but smaller cuts of frozen meat are sold. Seafood is purchased directly from fishing boats We get farm-fresh eggs, and fresh produce (mainly lettuce and herbs)is grown in government-subsidized greenhouses outside of town.

or our situation, searching in Chile and Argentina for a replacement rig for our type of boat proved fruitless. Fortunately during our knockdown, Anasazi Girl did what she was designed and built to do — keep us all Clockwise from opposite left: With abundant playtime in nature, the kids have learned all about the flora and fauna of the Cape Horn region. Optis are everywhere, even at the bottom of the earth, and Tormentina takes one out for a spin. Massive tires can make a great playground.

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safe, with only minor damages aside from the very major loss of the broken rig. Shipping on and of the island is slow and expensive, and missing just one part creates a big hiccup in work progress. For us to repair the rig requires complete organization ahead of time, with all the parts and pieces coming in from outside of the country. Equivalent replacements for the full carbon wing and racing sails had us digging deep for 100,000 euros, which is well beyond our budget. We don’t have a cruising kitty, a house or another life to go back to. Fortunately for us, although we are poor in pesos, we are rich in friendship. After our dismasting, 48 professionals in the marine industry around the world donated their time and knowledge to help us come up with the safe alternative solution of using a carbon plug to connect the carbon stump that remains on the boat to a new tube section. Our replacement rig is coming out of Buzz Ballenger’s shop in Watsonville, California. It’s an aluminum section originally shipped from New Zealand to California for a trimaran that was damaged in transit and written of by insurance. The rig will be shorter than our original but will fit Class 40 sails. Michael Hennessy of Dragon Racing donated a used main and headsail to us. Over the last 24 months, both friends and complete strangers have made small contributions to our mast project, which raised our spirits immensely and kept us afloat during some tough financial lows. For approximately a third of the original carbon-replacement budget, we plan to step this tube over our carbon stump and use some of our original rigging and headsails. We are currently working to pay of the final balance due on the rig. After a long two years, freedom from the dock and freedom to finish our family circumnavigation finally feels reachable. B E I N G H E R E H A S P U S H E D U S T O A N O T H E R L E V E L Through our marine-service business, we have also created something that gives us the potential for a future here. Navarino Island has been a surprising gift. Never did W I T H PAT I E N C E , P R O B L E M - S O LV I N G A N D I imagine as a child that I would live in this magical C R E AT I V E T H I N K I N G. T H I S E N V I R O N M E N T H A S place with my own family, or that it would be under such challenging circumstances. Being here has pushed us to A L S O G I V E N M Y FA M I LY A S I M P L E A N D P U R E L I F E . another level with patience, problem-solving and creative thinking. This environment — so clean, wild, and full of beauty and nature — has also given my family an incomextremely well-protected Lauta and Micalvi inlets (25 last year, and parably simple and pure life. Our special experiences here will close to 30 expected in 2016). Others head north to Puerto Montt, certainly be imprinted strongly in all of our memories. or out of country to Brazil or Uruguay for ofseason refits. There are no chandleries or marine service shops on the Professional photographer Somira Sao is currently living with her famisland. Hardware stores are sparsely stocked. More supplies are readily available in Ushuaia, Argentina, but it is still a challenge. ily on Navarino Island, Chile. To see more of Somira’s work, visit her When it comes to making repairs on an island at the bottom of website ( the planet, patience is the name of the game. The local private yachting industry is extremely small and developing slowly. Most yachts in the country are foreign-flagged, and there are some services available for these visiting vessels, but they are very limited. In general, Chile’s maritime industry caters mostly to commercial motor vessels. For sailing yachts, careful planning is needed to maintain vessels here in a timely and afordable way.


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S A I L B OAT Spotting

DOWN MAINE’S PENOBSCOT BAY offer a cr uising g round rich in histor y and

B E AU T I F U L B OAT S . St o r y a n d p h o t o g ra p h s b y

To m Z y d l e r


Maine coast twists, turns inward and outward, and spills ofshore, creating one of the world’s most interesting destinations to explore by sailboat. The largest of the many sounds and bays, Penobscot Bay, presents a panorama of islands large and small, winding passages, tight harbors and quiet towns. On a scintillating day in mid-October, we steered our Mason 44, Frances B, across the mouth of Blue Hill Bay and turned northwest toward Eggemoggin Reach, the eastern border of Penobscot Bay. In the clear fall air, a crowd of islands stood sharp against the mainland, their forested shores bright green against misty blues of distant hills. For centuries artists have come to Launched first in 1916, the yawl Seminole tacks through Camden’s outer anchorage.

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The islands and inlets of


Maine to paint seascapes of wild waves, jagged islands and sailing ships. Afraid to lose the particularly inspiring light of the changing seasons, many stayed to live here. Jerry Rose, a friend of ours and a painter of exceptional talent, settled on Benjamin River, which side-steps from Eggemoggin Reach. He lives across the bay from WoodenBoat magazine’s school of boatbuilding — a very fitting neighbor, since some decades ago Jerry built himself a Herreshof-designed double-ender to sail to the Bahamas. For many years he painted Bahamian sailing smacks, their sailors and their families — a career reminiscent of Maine artist Winslow Homer’s. From Benjamin River, Frances B headed northwest again, beating against the cool northerlies over smooth waters in the lee of dense forests of fir, spruce and birch. Steering with light finger pressure on the

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Faced with

LABOR PROBLEMS (shipwrights who to ok swigs of rum while banging timber with adzes ), Stets on introduced the

“coffee break,” now a hallowed employee perk the world over. wheel, I leaned back and relaxed with my wife, Nancy. There was no particular need to keep lookout, as the lobster-trap buoys that litter most of Maine’s waters had vanished. The crustaceans, so ubiquitous everywhere else, don’t like the muddy bottom in the Reach. But let’s not forget that lobsters are the main crop here. In Castine Harbor, with its strong currents and great depths, we picked up a mooring of Eaton’s Boatyard. Kenny Eaton took the money for the mooring, then surprised us with a gift of live lobsters — the best deal of the season. The modest town of Castine is old, predating even Plymouth Colony. First a fur trading post, it later expanded as a source of timber for navy ships. The British, French and even the Dutch battled for it. During the Revolutionary War, a confrontation between the British Navy and the U.S.’s Penobscot Expedition cost America 41 vessels, the worst U.S. Navy


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loss until Pearl Harbor. In the 19th century, Castine became a shipbuilding town. However, only a stone marker remains of the Noyes shipyard, which between 1835 and 1872 launched more than 60 vessels, clipper ships among them. State of Maine, the large freighter that now sits along the Maine Maritime Academy waterfront, is used as a training ship for students. Bowdoin, a schooner moored nearby and also owned by MMA, stirred our memories. Twice in northern Labrador we have sought shelter in Bowdoin Harbour, so named to celebrate over 20 Arctic voyages the schooner made under the command of Capt. Donald B. MacMillan. Much as Castine was quiet, Camden, on the western shore of Penobscot Bay, was humming. Although the inner harbor was packed tight with yachts, traditional schooners still came to their customary wharves, many without auxiliary power, helped only by the small yawlboat they tow. With the end of commercial sailing in the 1950s, several schooners, some launched in the late 1800s, began taking paying passengers for recreational sails. Today a dozen of them are busy chartering, their sails — some tanbark red — turning Penobscot Bay into a canvas from the past. Considering the small size of the town, the number of vessels that have hit Camden’s waters over the years is staggering. Some 70 boats were launched from just one yard owned by Joseph Stetson, which opened in 1816 and carried on for 40 years. Faced with labor problems (shipwrights who took swigs of rum while banging timber with adzes), he introduced the “cofee break,” now a hallowed employee perk the world over. Many of the ships built in Camden were big. In 1905, Holly M. Bean’s yard launched a

Forests of Maine burst with color when September ends with boisterous wind and cooling weather (left). A classic cedar shake cottage survives intact on Monhegan Island (above).

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lobster boats

dot ted

the coves along the wester n shore. Ahead on the clear

Monhegan appeared, recog-


nizable by its whaleback silhouette. in 1916 by Lawley & Sons, was tying up after the last trip of the season. Seminole is owned by Elizabeth Meyer of J-class fame. Spectacular modern classics turn up here, too. The Bill Langan-designed 130-foot Huckleberry (formerly Victoria of Strathearn), built by Alloy Yachts, is a regular. We had our mind set on a visit to Monhegan Island, about 10 miles of the mainland. It figures prominently in the history of both exploration and art history. Monhegan’s anchorage is untenable in southerly winds and swell, so while waiting for fair weather, we sailed to the Fox Islands. With a forecast of strong northeast winds, we sheltered in a bay in the islands’ Thorofare, a passage separating North Haven and Vinalhaven. In the afternoon we had a bleachers view of the trimaran Flying Fish, a Chris White-designed Hoping for juicy bits of bycatch, a gull takes a turn toward Blue Ox, one of the Maine lobster boats famed for brawn and seaworthiness.

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Hundreds of

five-masted schooner, and had 64 vessels to its credit before closing in 1920. Today, on the same site, yachts are still serviced at Lyman-Morse Boatbuilding Co.’s Wayfarer Marine campus. At one point Tom Watson of IBM was one of the yard’s three owners. An active sailor, he probably thought the best way to keep his yachts shipshape was to own a repair facility. He owned a fleet of Sparkman & Stephens-designed beauties all named Palawan, which he sailed to northern Greenland, across Hudson Bay, and to Antarctica, among other destinations, earning the Cruising Club of America’s Blue Water medal in 1986. Camden still attracts legendary yachts. At the Wayfarer docks we saw Sumurun, a 94-foot Fife ketch from 1914, and another Fife, the 52-foot 1912 yawl Dione, preparing for the Northwest Passage. We swung by right when Seminole, a 58-foot yawl designed by W. J. McInnis and built

Hammerhead 54, which in the rising prefrontal southerly literally flew over the smooth waters of the Thorofare. The next day the northeasterly dropped to 15 knots, and Frances B took of toward the west coast of Penobscot Bay, on to Owls Head and a squeeze through Muscle Ridge Channel. Hundreds of lobster boats dotted the coves along the western shore. Ahead on the clear horizon, Monhegan appeared, recognizable by its whaleback silhouette. The slot between Monhegan and the smaller Manana Island, which passes for a harbor, receives some protection, but even the larger Monhegan is only 1.7 miles long. The bottom is rocky, and the junk of centuries makes for uneasy anchoring. We 69º W

68º W

67º W

66º W


Portland O


43º N

54 O

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Penobscot Bay

Rockport O


44º N



Penobscot Bay O

65º W




Fox Islands Thorofare Camden

44º 20' N


Owls Head Thomaston

North Haven

44º 10' N

Blue Hill Bay O Vinalhaven Eggemoggin 44º N Reach y Muscle Ridge a B Channel t Muscongus o St. George River Bay s c 43º N o b Nautical Miles P e n Manana 0 5 10 Island Monhegan Island 67º 40' W

gratefully picked up one of the moorings reserved for visiting yachts. For a couple of centuries, the few families that lived on Monhegan did well fishing cod, once fabulously plentiful. The island was also safer than the mainland settlements, which sufered from Native American raids. In the mid-1800s, two roaming artists happened upon Monhegan. Ocean swells pounded the high clifs facing the Atlantic, spray flew, and low clouds tore through gnarly forests — inspirational drama was at hand. The word spread, and eventually big names of the art world followed. Robert Henri, Winslow Homer, Rockwell Kent, Edward Hopper and multiple generations of Wyeths all painted here, producing exquisite work. Today, day-trippers arrive, some motivated by nostalgia, others to explore the galleries of the resident artists. Less than a dozen local boats continue lobstering. We went of on some of the 18 trails that cross the island from the village to the Atlantic shore. The terrain felt wild as


69º W

68º 40' W

68º 20' W

Thomaston. The view ahead seemed to belong more to Newport, Rhode Island: a bright red Swan 100, a 29-meter Frers, a Hinckley Sou’wester 70 glowing in varnish like a Stradivarius violin. We arrived at Lyman-Morse’s Thomaston campus, and it looked impressive. The old Morse Boatbuilding Co. of Thomaston built a lot of Friendship sloops and Alden schooners. Then, in 1978, Cabot Lyman, fresh from sailing across the Atlantic and cruising the Med, burst on the scene, bought the place and brought in new ideas. Very soon the yard was building S&S-designed Seguin 40s, 44s and 49s — a series of high-end, semicustom, good-looking, fast and yet supremely seaworthy bluewater sloops. To prove it, Lyman took his wife and three very young sons on a circumnavigation. By 2013, when we visited, Lyman-Morse had launched almost 100 boats, sail and power, and Lyman himself had cruised and raced over 150,000 miles, surely a record among

Frances B, the author’s Mason 44, swings on a guest mooring in Monhegan Harbor (above). Custom cutter Windmaiden beats to windward (right).

boatbuilders. As we toured the facilities, we learned about the SCRIMP resininfusion system that the yard employs, and which is said to produce immensely strong yet light structures with virtually no pollution. Designs built at LymanMorse have come from Frers, Chuck Paine, Sparkman & Stephens, Reichel/ Pugh, Bruce Farr and even Morrelli & Melvin, which specializes in wavepiercing catamarans. Whereas new ships once slid down a muddy riverbank, here


70º W

up and down we traipsed from one rocky point to another through tangled woods. Now and then we picked apples of the trees marking the site of a homestead long since gone. Reading tall tales from exploring scribes can actually get you to interesting places. Capt. Weymouth’s expedition from England arrived on Monhegan in May 1605. They went ashore to get firewood, feasted on wild fowl, cod and haddock, and then crossed to the mainland and sailed into a river that the ship’s clerk compared to the Orinoco, Seine and Loire — a case of false advertising. It’s now called St. George River, and only 10 miles from the entrance, we reached the end of navigation at the waterfront of

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the emphasis on cleanliness and quality working conditions has led to well-lit, climate-controlled, environmentally friendly buildings. The structures are big — one of them opens to admit a 40-footwide 110-ton Travelift that can accommodate a 150-foot boat. Up a gentle hill from the boatyard, we walked through the streets of old Thomaston, carpeted with fall leaves and lined with perfectly tended homes from the 1800s. The census of 1840 listed seven millionaires in the whole of the United States, two of them boatbuilders from Thomaston; the town still looks comfortably well-to-do. If there are any ugly boats in Maine,

we didn’t see them. What we did glimpse were Friendship sloops, schooners, yachts from robber-baron days and the Roaring 20s, and racing sleds large and small. And they all spread their wings in these waters nature surely crafted for sailing. On this coast, especially between Mount Desert Island and Muscongus Bay, a sailboat will always find free wind over smooth water to let her rip along. And at the end of the day, there will always be a calm cove with a fragrant forest to windward. Tom Zydler and his wife, Nancy, are preparing Frances B for their third trip to Greenland and Labrador.


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With three weeks’ leave and a well-stocked boat, four friends set sail for Norway’s westernmost island, scaled the northernmost active volcano on Earth, and paid a visit to the windblown Shetlands — just because they could. STO RY BY A N D R E A S B . H E I D E , W I T H T E R RY WA R D

Norwegians Would

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Barba’s crew takes advantage of a sunny Jan Mayen day to invite the island’s base commander and two others aboard for a sail in the shadow of the 7,500-foot-tall Beerenberg volcano.

Andreas Heide embarks with his underwater scooter to take a cold plunge in 37-degree water of the island’s western tip (above). Back aboard, the captain displays his dinner trophies, two large cod (below).



explorer’s notes


We used an Iridium 9555 satellite phone for phone calls and downloading GRIB files and other weather data. We had good experiences with the email program UUplus, which streamlines the use of phone-data downloads. By sending an email to Saildocs, we were able to get a variety of weather files emailed back to us, and used the map program OpenCPN to read them.










70° N


Jan Mayen












20° W



The dominant wind direction demands starting off from a northern point in Norway to reach Jan Mayen without too much hard-going. Although we departed the Norwegian mainland from the south, in Floro, we got very lucky with the weather. It’s best to visit Jan Mayen on the way back to mainland Europe from Svalbard or, alternatively, as a detour from Iceland. Have plenty of diesel aboard. ANCHORING

Visitors can come ashore in Båtvik on the south side of the island and in Kvallrossbukta on the north. Both sites have good holding in heavy lava sand. We used two anchors set in a row and never dragged. An anchor sail is definitely worth having. You’ll want an outboard engine for your dinghy to reach the island in windy conditions. Drysuits for entering the water and dry bags for transporting gear are also useful. UPON ARRIVING

Once you know your expected arrival time,

0 0°


150 10° E

contact the base commander. Foreign sailors should apply for visas in advance. The base is staffed at all times. ASCENDING BEERENBERG

Beerenberg is known within Europe’s mountaineering community as an exceptionally remote summit. Many people sail to Jan Mayen with the sole goal of bagging the peak. Good physical fitness and outdoor experience are mandatory to get up and down within the 24-hour time limit for island stays. While the climbing isn’t considered technical, glacier equipment and relevant experience are advisable. In the case of an accident on the mountain, there are few rescue options. FINAL THOUGHTS

Jan Mayen is a unique place, in large part because of the location, and it experiences very limited human traic. Show caution around wildlife and avoid walking too much over the vulnerable vegetation. Any sailor who sets foot on the island will be rewarded with a beautiful adventure.

Nautical Miles

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The nearest safe harbor lies 320 nautical miles away in southern Iceland, so it’s vital to follow weather reports on a daily basis. July and August are considered the best months to visit. Prevailing winds come from the northwest. Based on the weather data we analyzed back to 1963, July brings the least likelihood of storms. We experienced air temperatures around 10 degrees C and waters around 3 degrees C.

75° N



Since Jan Mayen lacks a harbor and opportunities for provisioning, boats must be selfsuicient with necessities such as diesel and food, though we were able to fill up the water tanks. There is little boat traic in the area, so you should expect long response times should help be needed. Large parts of the route to and from the island, including Jan Mayen itself, don’t have helicopter coverage. Be prepared to fix all damage to boat and crew. Nature-preserve rules apply on Jan Mayen; read more at lovdata. no.




etting sail to one of the world’s most remote and seldom-visited islands is fraught with those headiest of sensations: mystery, anticipation, and, as always, healthy doses of fear and respect. But as we boarded Barba, my 37-foot Jeanneau Sun Fast, and loosened lines to depart the southern Norwegian oil capital of Stavanger, the four of us felt another overriding sensation: the realization of how precious little we really knew about where we were headed. Arctic destinations are, by nature, remote. But Jan Mayen, a lone island in the North Atlantic between Iceland, Svalbard and Greenland, is particularly isolated. Stretching some 30 miles in length, and with the active 7,470-foot-high Beerenberg volcano as its defining feature, the island is as exotic as its name (a nod to a Dutch whaling captain who may or may not have discovered the island in 1614). It has been under Norwegian sovereignty since 1929. In terms of cruising, Jan Mayen presents a particular challenge because there is no harbor on the island, narrowing anchoring options to open-ocean roadsteads along the northern and southern coastlines, only tenable depending on what the weather brings. Just a handful of private yachts make the trip to Jan Mayen each year, and Barba was one of them. Among our crew for this adventure was Henrik Wold Nilsen, a particle physicist prone to brainy ramblings, who was armed with all the factoids you might expect from a scientist. Before our departure, he’d analyzed weather data from the region, going all the way back to 1963, and estimated that the statistical set gave us less than a 5 percent chance of encountering a serious storm along the way — news that was met with unanimous smiles from the rest of us. A look at the charts showed we had an approximate two-day sail to the town of Floro, just north of Bergen on Norway’s west coast, followed by another five-day crossing over open ocean before we could expect to see Jan Mayen’s towering peak, Beerenberg, appear on the horizon. With head winds expected the entire way north, we loaded up with 100 gallons of diesel and set forth on an expedition that seemed the best possible way for four adventure-seeking friends to maximize three weeks of summer vacation. Ours was a motley crew, and between us we covered the various shades of gray between seasoned salt and brand-spankingnew sailor. That latter distinction applied mostly to Jon Grantangen, a student from Oslo who had previously challenged himself (and succeeded) by traversing the entire length of Norway by foot, but who’d never before stepped aboard a sailboat.


He was initiated into the less glamorous side of sailing as Barba entered the open ocean just outside of Haugesund and he “called the moose,” as we say to describe mal de mer in Norwegian. (The Norwegian word for moose is the most melodious “elg.”) Also aboard Barba was Hanne Bowitz, a lawyer with a childhood steeped in competitive sailing. She served as my first mate, eagerly trimming the sails and tweaking the rig while the others took mental notes until they felt confident enough to pitch in. And there was me, of course, Andreas, the Stavanger-based captain, marine biologist and avid scuba diver. We were pieces in an adventurous puzzle made complete by an abundance of onboard gear, from ice picks and survival suits to an air compressor for scuba diving forays into the chilly arctic waters. fter a month of planning, the time had come to depart. We were fully stocked with many question marks about what we were getting ourselves into — and with an exclamation point, our adventure ahead. Soon enough, we were sailing along at 6 to 7 knots across calm seas, heading north along the Norwegian coast. A distinctive ocean mood settled in, and with it freedom from all those pesky material trappings that seem so important on land. Jazzman Chet Baker crooned on the sound system, someone was cooking up a bon voyage steak dinner down below, and we cruised alongside graceful fulmars flying over the sea. After her launch in 2005, Barba had operated as a charter boat in Portsmouth, England. When I bought the boat, I upgraded her with a wind generator, an arsenal of spare parts, and pretty much every adventure toy in the book, including a paraglider that I looked forward to launching when the winds were right. Simply put, she was my platform for adventures of all kinds. From previous experiences leading an expedition on a similar boat from Norway to East Greenland, I knew that Barba’s 37-foot-long frame could withstand most sea conditions. But I was nonetheless comforted by the fact that Henrik’s weather calculations proved accurate as we sailed along, storm-free and northward. We’d filled the tanks with 85 gallons of water, enough to sustain our crew for three weeks, provided that we washed up, brushed our teeth and boiled our potatoes with ocean water. Our watch schedule of two hours on and six of was entirely manageable, and made all the more so by the fact that it never gets dark during summer in these northern latitudes. A book we’d brought along, whose title translates to Jan Mayen, a Norwegian Outpost in the West: The Island’s 1,500-Year History, by Susan Barr, told us we should be able to spot Beeren-



april 2016



Clockwise from top left: The Atlantic puffin is one of the 134 bird species registered on Jan Mayen. Jon Grantangen and Hanne Bowitz successfully land the dinghy but wear drysuits just in case. Author Andreas Heide soars with the birds of the island’s southern coast. Team Barba includes Hanne, Andreas, Jon and Henrik Wold Nilsen.

hen we woke the next morning, Barba was tossing on the waves. Strong winds made it impossible to paddle the dinghy to shore, so we came up with an alternate plan. Zipped into drysuits with scuba fins to propel us, we gathered ropes and


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hen we rang up the military base on Jan Mayen to say we were arriving from Stavanger, I’m quite sure we surprised the duty oicer of the day. Spontaneous arrivals by sea are not commonplace at an Arctic outpost with no harbor. The closest island to Jan Mayen is Iceland, a good 320 nautical miles away. Regardless, we paddled ashore in the dinghy that some heartless friends had dubbed Inflatable Barba. We were a joyous band of pirates making landfall, and soon the base commander escorted us to meet the locals, a total of 18 military personnel who rotate in and out for six-month stints. Supplies arrive on Jan Mayen 12 times per year via 11 Hercules military transport aircraft flights and a single supply-vessel visit. So it was hard to tell if our new friends were just happy to see new faces, or if their spirits were boosted by the sight of the week-old newspapers and stash of fresh oranges we’d brought from the mainland. Either way, we found an exceptionally pleasant group of people responsible for maintaining Norwegian sovereignty up here at the country’s westernmost point, and we were invited to a party that evening that finished with high blood alcohol content, lots of camaraderie, and a sketchy late-night paddle in the dinghy back to Barba. Even if we’d wanted to, we couldn’t have stayed ashore. To remain in compliance with the strict preservation laws of the island, guests are allowed to stay only up to 24 consecutive hours on land. Camping, we were warned, is strictly forbidden.

berg from more than 100 nautical miles away if the weather was fair. So after four days on the open ocean, we started to optimistically scan the horizon for land. By the fifth day, however, there was still nothing, and we began to wonder if our free Mac-compatible charts program and eBay-sourced GPS antenna were playing tricks on us. Then, finally, Jan Mayen materialized — and a scant 5 nautical miles away, at that, thanks to a thick layer of fog that had been keeping the island under wraps. Happy as I was to see land, I cursed the weather. Back home in southern Norway, we’d had nearly endless warm sunshine all summer long, while up here in the Arctic, we were holding at 6 degrees C under a thick blanket of haze, which was only to be expected. But even if we weren’t thrilled by the weather, we had other exciting surprises in store.


Few cruising sailboats visit Jan Mayen, and Barba has this roadstead all to herself — a safe anchorage as long as the weather holds.

swam to shore to rig a shore anchor. All we had to do then was hop in the dinghy and pull ourselves along the rope to land. As for who was left aboard to man the ship that day, it came down to a good old lottery. In life there are always winners and losers, and this time Henrik was left behind on Barba, which was anchored of Båtvika, on the south side of the island, to shelter us from stronger winds predicted to arrive from the north. Ashore, the fog began to lift, revealing landscapes that even a crew of avid Norwegian outdoorsmen had hardly realized existed in their own country. Jan Mayen is volcanic and resembles a

desert. The southern part of the island is covered in thick moss, the only thing that will grow here. Fauna is similarly limited. While arctic foxes once roamed the terrain, they were hunted to extinction in the 1930s to sate the demands of mainland housewives with an addiction to stylish fur. The last polar bear that showed up here was shot dead on sight in 1963. There has been no trace of the animals since the sea ice began retreating 40 years ago. When it comes to bird life, however, this stopping-of point between the Greenland and Norwegian seas is a real hotspot. More than 130 species of birds have been recorded here, on an island that’s just

144 square miles in size, and we quickly picked a favorite feathered friend, the skua. A predatory sea gull, it’s easily identified by its black plumage, superlative size and hostile demeanor. You know you’re approaching a nesting area when they divebomb you. Another telltale sign is the dead birds scattered around the terrain, having been invited for a last supper. Come too close to a nest, and the skua will fearlessly lunge your way, fully capable of inflicting a none-too-gentle blow to the head. Jan Mayen, it should be noted for tropical-latitude sailors in particular, is not a destination to get your fill of vitamin D. With a near-constant fog layer rolling in

from the north, the island averages only six sunny days a year. We considered ourselves extremely lucky when we woke up one morning to blue skies. To the north was Beerenberg, Norway’s most fabled mountain and the northernmost active volcano on Earth, tempting us to its summit. he sail around the island to the spot where we could best access the volcano took a full day, during which we spotted humpback and minke whales, a 980-foot-high eroded cross-section of another volcano that had blown itself apart, and the lon-


gest icefall in Norway. While the crew insisted it was a lucky fishing rod that landed us six cod along the way in under six minutes (a total of 88 pounds of delicious fish dinners), the humble captain would like to say it came down to his Viking-style angling. We later donated the fish to the island’s residents, who don’t have a boat with which to access the rich waters. The day’s pleasure cruise was also a recon mission, and prepared us for the next morning, when we found ourselves at the base of Beerenberg, pockets fully loaded with chocolate bars and full-on glacierclimbing equipment in tow, ready to scale

You can read more about Andreas Heide’s Arctic adventures aboard Barba in his blog posts, at and at

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the peak. Norway’s longest continuous uphill climb didn’t fail to challenge us. It took eight hours of steady plodding upward to reach the point where we decided it was prudent to attach ropes. Ahead of us were crevasses and another six hours to climb. Just when we started to wonder if we were ever going to make it, there we were, atop the volcano, midnight sun glowing brightly at 2 a.m. and casting Beerenberg’s long shadow far out to sea. We continued along the crater rim, sea fog approaching, and then began the long slog back down to complete the 22-hour round trip. To say that Barba was a welcome sight, lying in wait there at anchor all by her lonesome, is perhaps the greatest understatement of the entire trip. For the remaining few days on the island (we stayed one week in total, the maximum time visitors are allowed), we paraglided of sea clifs and scuba dived in chilly waters waving with kelp, where seal bones littered the seabed and big cod eyes peered up at the human aliens. Then we fished up one last whopper cod for dinner and raised the anchor to set sail back south, Beerenberg fading into the distance with our wake. Soon Barba was surfing gale-blown waves, the horizon quickly changing from a comforting line in the distance to an alltoo-close calamity of thrashing crests. With nearly 10,000 feet of ocean under the keel, the waves were of the long and forgiving variety, but constant concentration was required for all of one fast and furious day at sea. As quickly as they had come up, the winds relented. And soon enough we arrived in Lerwick Harbor in the Shetland Islands. We rewarded ourselves with an Indian dinner — surely the finest tandoori in the North Sea — and regaled the other sailors in port with stories of a remote and little-known island far, far to the north. Just two days later, Barba was docked back in Stavanger. And as is often the case, once I was back to the real world, mundane tasks once again filling my days, it hit me just how incredible our journey had really been. Over the course of three weeks, we’d sailed some 1,700 nautical miles, scaled a volcano, and set eyes on a little-known piece of our homeland that we can now say firsthand is worthy of the utmost preservation eforts. Someday in the future, when a new set of sailors heads out for Jan Mayen, we can only hope they will find the island as pristine as we did.



sailing to make someday today



Roger Bauman and Ruth Emblin have co-chaired the Eastern Connecticut Sailing Association Leukemia Cup Regatta since 2013. Roger, who lost his father to non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Ruth, whose family has been affected by blood cancers, hope to inspire others to support finding cures for blood cancers. The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society invests in lifesaving cancer breakthroughs with promising research that has been proven to save lives. For more information on the Leukemia Cup Regatta and how you can get involved, please visit National Supporters

Upcoming Events Lake Lanier Regatta March 12-13, 2016 Flowery Branch, GA

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Lower Lake St. Clair Leukemia Cup Regatta Great Lakes Yacht Club May 20-21, 2016 St. Clair Shores, MI








C 74 • RUIS






APRIL 2016





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Cold Readiness

Wind and Wa ter Generators

Pisto n Pressure

PAG E 6 7

PAG E 7 2

PAG E 7 6

1 ARM YOURSELF FOR HIGH LATITUDES Fe e l i n g t h e p u l l o f t h e e n d s o f t h e e a r t h? Ta k e n o t e o f t h e s e t i p s t o p re p a re y o u rs e l f a n d y o u r boat for the icy cold . B Y T O M Z Y D L E R




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he grand, unspoiled scenery of the high latitudes lures more and more yachts to places like Labrador, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Svalbard and Iceland. South of the equator, it’s the Chilean Channels, Antarctic and South Georgia. Whatever the desti-


TOM’S TIP In Labrador and Svalbard waters, a spare dinghy is a good idea. Polar bears, common there, tend to destroy these little boats just for fun. nation, a well-built, strongly rigged sailboat designed for blue water can get to these seemingly faraway places in time to cruise through the summer season and then escape before winter gales arrive. Still, even the most seaworthy of boats must prepare for seriously cold climates and water cold enough to maintain ice, both factors on our minds when my wife, Nancy, and I

Spirit of Sydney powers through a field of brash ice in the waters of the Antarctic Peninsula.


bottles not previously bought from them. Greenland uses European-style fittings, so it’s best to carry enough of your own bottles. Keeping warm on deck in windy weather is easy in these days of modern, light gear for outdoor activities. Very protective but pricey drysuits marketed by Musto, Kokatat, Neil Pryde, Ocean Rodeo and others keep you absolutely dry and don’t hinder physical activity on deck. With some layers of fleecy underclothes, however, modern ofshore

modified our Mason 44, Frances B, for several summers in Labrador and Greenland.

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A reliable cabin heater is the first equipment to install. A diesel heater that works with a gravity-fed fuel supply has the appeal of simplicity and easy installation. We were choosing between a Sig Marine model and a Norwegian Refleks, both sold in the U.S. by Maine’s Hamilton Marine. The Sig 170 fit our available cabin space. We had an 8-gallon aluminum tank made, which we installed 4 feet above the heater. Plumbed with a shut-of valve and a filter, it’s now been silently working for four years, eliminating the need to run another fuel line and pump from the main fuel tank. In addition to the usual exhaust pipe, we also put in a pipe to draw air from outside. This


Because of the extremely cold water, a crew in trouble will have to receive help particularly quickly. When calling for help, satellite communicators such as SPOT or DeLorme inReach can back up the ubiquitous EPIRB. A personal AIS transmitter such as McMurdo’s Smartfind S20, clipped to a foul-weather jacket, will immediately alert the yacht’s AIS receiver if the wearer falls overboard.

TOM’S TIP Autopilots working off magnetic compasses don’t do well past 70 N, so we use our Aries windvane often, even when motoring. Its paddle lifts up easily when ice threatens. balanced setup helps maintain a draft in strong winds, and you don’t have to worry about becoming asphyxiated from the heater using all of the oxygen in the closed crew quarters. Many high-latitude yachts carry bus heaters that circulate air warmed by the engine. They consume a lot of DC current but work great when powering. On Frances B, we decided we’d rather layer on more clothing than tear up joinery for the installation of a duct/blower assembly. For the same reason, we rejected electronically managed diesel-burning units that employ ducts and powerhungry pumps. As for the less eicient solid-fuel heaters, we lacked space to load wood, coal or charcoal briquettes. And forget finding wood north of

2 1) Lexan storm covers mounted on the coachroof on 1⁄4-inch spacers retain enough air space to prevent condensation inside. 2) Companionway doors are vulnerable if a large wave boards the cockpit. We cut 1⁄2-inch-thick Lexan to protect the doors. Held in place by three fasteners, this plate rests on the very strong main frame of the companionway.

the tree line. A propane heater would present the challenge of installing absolutely leakproof piping throughout the cabin, so that got a thumbs-down too. Keeping warm on board also relies on the consumption of hot cofee, tea, soups and stews. Our use of propane in the galley skyrockets. We

take of for Greenland and Labrador with five 15-pound propane bottles. These typically last from Baddeck, Nova Scotia, through a voyage to Greenland and back to Newfoundland — not quite five months. It’s diicult to refill propane bottles in Labrador, and shops refuse to exchange

foul-weather gear will be quite adequate even in Davis Strait or Bain Bay, between Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. Make sure to get foamor fleece-lined boots, big and loose outer gloves with space for inserts, a fleece neck gaiter and several hats that lower over the ears. We have immersion suits aboard too. They are awkward to don and restrict movement, but they may still come in handy if it comes to abandoning the boat at sea or wrecking on rocky shores. The latest immersion suit design, Stearns’ I950 Thermashield 24+, circulates the wearer’s warm breath and provides cold-water protection for over 24 hours. STOP CONDENSATION

Condensation is a real problem in colder weather, and not just in high latitudes. Our Mason 44 came with insulation



TOM’S TIP One day you may have to go into that freezing water to check something below the waterline. It could be a propeller fouled by kelp, a bunch of netting lost or discarded by a thoughtless fishing vessel, or one of your own lines that snaked overboard. A diving drysuit gives the best protection, but one must learn its proper use. I had to go into the water off an Alaskan tidewater glacier in a heavy wetsuit, and my wife, Nancy, kept me going by pouring warm water inside the suit every time I surfaced. Before you jump in, tie an underwater camera such as a GoPro to a boathook and try to see what exactly needs to be done.





3) A canvas pad filled with 1-inch-thick foam slips between the lens of the overhead hatch and a mosquito-netting frame. These pads have efectively prevented condensation. 4) The combination of a tall stovepipe and a low air-intake pipe for the burner helps the cabin diesel heater burn efficiently and safely. 5) Note the additional pipe on the right of the stovepipe. It delivers the outside air to the burner. The heater is located as low as possible because warm air rises. A fan across from it and above also directs the warm air into the rest of the cabin.



One of the best ways to prevent trouble is to prepare the boat for the ice you will surely encounter while voyaging in the high latitudes. A propeller working in an aper-

ture behind a keel or rudder skeg is a lot less likely to foul than a prop on a shaft held by a strut. Apart from getting fouled, an exposed prop can get damaged by chunks of ice

when powering through even light brash ice. For navigating in heavy ice, a protective cage around the propeller helps. Rudders are also vulnerable, and going into icy waters

with a spade rudder is plain crazy. Boats exploring iceprone waters like Melville Bay in northwest Greenland, the Northwest Passage, or Antarctica sometimes install another skeg aft of the rudder to protect it when going in reverse. Any boat that may encounter ice, even occasionally, should carry ice poles, also known as tuks, that are 15 feet or so long; a metal blade at the end can be useful when pushing of threatening floes. That said, some boats with rudders and propellers ill-designed for coping with ice survive and have made it even through the Northwest Passage. Some people are just plain lucky. Because chunks of ice are common in high-latitude waters, good visibility from the cockpit is essential. On Frances B we can lower the dodger when the wind is down to see better. If the wind picks up, whitecaps may mask the smaller pieces of ice. In some circumstances, one may have to heave to, as the radar picks up only icebergs and, in a flat sea,

april 2016

in all lockers. It’s thin, and we have been adding layers so it’s now three-thick. On a new construction, one should line the hull with up to 4 inches of insulating material, especially for boats planning to winter in ice. Overhead hatches can rain condensation, so Nancy, ever inventive, has sewn some insulating pads — canvas pockets filled with 1-inch-thick medium-density foam. They sit against the hatch lens and are supported by mosquito-net frames. These pads block out light, which we found helpful when sleeping during the 24 hours of sunlight in Greenland, and really help stop the drips. Deckhouse portholes sweat condensation as well. I was able to stop this with Lexan storm covers I installed over the portholes as protection against damaging waves. Condensation can also accumulate in the fuel in the integral tanks often found on metal boats. Preventing water from overcoming the fuel filter’s capacity is essential. Take fuel samples from the bottom of the tank and use a waterdetecting paste on a stick or electronic sensor to determine if water is in your fuel. Installing larger filter sizes and changing them more often helps. In the super-cold waters of Antarctica, Svalbard and the Canadian Arctic, the sea can get cold enough for diesel fuel to begin congealing. Carry a supply of winter fuel additives and octane boosters. It is also good to have a separate fuel tank in a warm engine space. In Greenland, fuel suitable for local conditions and season can be bought in every village. In Labrador, where you may be sold heating diesel, the fishermen add a quart of automatic transmission fluid per 55-gallon drum to increase lubricity. I add Opti-Lube XPD, which I purchase online.



very large bergy bits. Dense fog also forces heaving to in an area with low-lying ice. The state of the sea will decide this for you. KEEP THE OCEAN OUT

HIGHL AT I T U D E W E AT H E R FA C T O R S From the East Coast, it’s usually an easy sail north with the prevailing southerlies. July in Greenland above the Arctic Circle can be quite sunny and calm. But as the summer progresses, watch out for stray post-hurricane systems — they definitely affect the southern parts of Greenland and make frequent visits to Labrador. Come September, strong winds arrive. Hopefully the boat will be on the way south by then and running downwind. In the Southern Ocean, bad weather occurs in summer as well.

My, what big bearings…and power… and line speed you have.

with a 2-inch diameter or four with a 1 1⁄2-inch diameter. Water is heavy, and on our boat I had to glass in two stout partial bulkheads under the cockpit sole to shore up the cockpit well, as it was originally supported only at the ends. ANCHORING

Generally, anchorages in high latitudes are very deep. On Frances B, we carry 400 feet of 3 ⁄8-inch G4 chain, the longest uninterrupted length you can

The sharp flukes of the folding Northill anchor can penetrate kelp-covered bottoms; their generous size gives good holding power.

buy, and it’s about right. We also have two 600-foot nylon anchor rodes. Most of the time, our Bruce anchor works very well. For particularly weedy bottoms, frequently found in Labrador at depths less than 40 feet and in the Chilean channels near Cape Horn, Frances B carries a heavy Northill anchor. An aluminum Fortress and a folding fisherman-style anchor complement our inventory. KEEP SAFETY TOP OF MIND

In August 2014, south of Greenland, the eye of Hurricane Cristobal caught up with Trevor Robertson in his 35-foot Wylo II, Iron Bark. Trevor set the Aries windvane to steer the boat with the wind on the port quarter; for the next 10 hours, venturing on deck would be suicidal. As a Cruising Club of America Blue Water Medal recipient who has spent years sailing in the extreme high latitudes, wintering in Antarctica and Greenland, Trevor certainly prepared his boat well. He reported that loose items and lockers on Iron Bark were positively secured and nothing came adrift. That must mean that his usual supply of rum in jerry jugs also survived to continue keeping the skipper warm. Tom Zydler is a requent CW contributor.


Winches of lustrous chrome or perfectly traditional bronze. Blocks with sideplates of maritime elm, hand-finished to the edge of art. This is the Classic Collection. Beauty on the outside. Harken lurking on the inside.

Install a valve to shut of the exhaust system to prevent flooding the engine with following seas. In extreme conditions, the boat may pitch the bow down so much that water can run from the lift box into the engine block. Few boats have a valve between the mixing elbow and the muler lift box, but the box may have a drain valve already installed that can be used to empty it into the bilge. Heavy following seas may climb aboard, so the companionway hatch has to have storm protection covers. Cockpit drains must be efective and large — preferably two drains

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2 NATURAL POWER D uring the spring fit-out season , a longtime voyager urges sailors to consider adding a wind or water generator for plentiful green energy aboard .


CREW MIDLAYER JACKET When the weather calls for added protection, the Crew Midlayer provides iconic Helly Hansen performance and style to match.



n passage, as long as there are 12 knots of true wind, a combination of wind and water generators will reliably churn out 200 or more amp-hours per day (APD) at 12 volts. To produce this amount of power via the engine’s alternator or a generator would typically require running it for four to five hours a day. The first practical wind generator was developed by the late Hugh Merewether, a retired Hawker Siddeley pilot. He reached Grenada in 1973 with a small wind generator mounted on the face of the mizzenmast of his Nicholson 38, Blue Idyll. Since Blue Idyll had an engine, he never really knew

apparent wind drops of, the output of the wind generator would also drop of, to the extent that Iolaire at times had to revert to kerosene lamps belowdecks. When that Merewether generator was replaced by the Ampair-developed 100, I cannibalized the original and assembled bits and pieces from an Antigua slipway junk pile, inventing a water-powered tafrail generator. I proved that it worked on a sail from Antigua to Grenada and then showed it to

In 1975 I persuaded Hugh to lend me the wind generator to see if it would produce ed the wind generator on Iolaire’s mizzen masthead so it would be as high as possiThat year Iolaire did a double transatlan-

HH 5.5 M

sailed 13,000 miles in seven months with the wind generator providing enough APD to run her lights. This proved to Hugh that he had, with development, a commercial proposition. Hugh and the British company Ampair developed the Ampair 100, one of which was on Iolaire’s mizzen masthead from 1977 until 2008, when Ampair gave me one of its new 300-watt wind generators. The 100 gave me 31 years of silent, trouble-free service. It went through many gales, three storms blowing 70 knots, and one hurricane. In the storms and hurricane, the wind in the rigging gave more noise than did the wind generator. Its 300-watt replacement begins to give an audible hum at 40 knots, at which time it is electrically locked of. On Iolaire’s double transatlantic, I realized that as long as the wind was abeam or forward of the beam, the wind generator produced enough APD to run Iolaire’s lights. Downwind, however, since the

Aquair 100, a unit that produces 144 APD at 7 knots with only 24 pounds of drag, measured on a spring scale. Today, with wind and water generators, there’s no excuse for boats on passage to use engines or generators to charge batteries. Engineless Iolaire has made five transatlantic passages, all with cold beer. All the electricity needed has been generated by a combination of the Ampair 100-watt wind generator on her mizzen masthead and a tafrail water turbine. This was in the days when the threeway masthead light had an incandescent bulb drawing 3 amps. Belowdecks, lighting consisted of low-amperage fluorescent lights, but each still drew 1 amp. Quiet and reliable 300-watt wind generators, affordable LED lights, and eicient 12-volt refrigeration units were still in the future. Today, with the combination of a 300-watt wind generator when the wind is forward of abeam, backed up by the


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water-powered generator when the wind is abeam or aft, a boat should expect to be able to produce 200 APD reliably on passage. A tricolor LED masthead light draws 10 APD, LED lights below deck probably no more than 20 APD, a properly installed and insulated refrigeration system no more than 15 to 20 APD, and a deep freezer the same. Watermakers are available that draw as little as 1 amp per gallon. If the crew is willing to limit water consumption, there should be enough amperage produced to allow limited use of a watermaker,

early-morning stretch, will not have his fingernails clipped by the revolving blades. In port, the Aquair 100 can be made into a wind generator. The fan is pulled out from below and assembled (blades are numbered so it will stay in balance and not make noise), then hoisted on a halyard with guy lines well above anyone’s head or fingertips. The higher it’s hoisted, the more wind it gets and the more amperage it produces. Paul and Jenny Davies, the parents of Volvo Ocean Race skipper Sam Davies, have sailed Nanita doublehanded for many years. Nanita is an exact replica of the original Nina, a 63-foot schooner that won the 1928 race to Spain. They have

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permitting occasional showers. As soon as the wind goes abeam, the drag of the water turbine is not important, so it’s streamed. The water turbine, depending on which model you’re using, will produce 120-plus APD. On trade-wind passages, where boats are knocking of 160 or more miles per day, water turbines kick out an absolute minimum of 144 APD, backed up by the wind generator producing 70 to 90 APD, for a total of about 214 to 234 APD when sailing dead downwind. If the wind is on the quarter, the apparent wind will increase, and the total APD may be 250 or more. My advice is this: Do not buy a wind generator unless the salesman will put you in contact with three people who have had the same model mounted on their boat for at least one full year. This is essential to ascertain if the output of the wind generator matches up with the claims of the sales brochure. Noise level, reliability and aftersales service must also be checked. Similarly, a water-powered generator should not be bought until you have talked to sailors who have made at least two long ocean passages using the same model. If the wind generator is not mounted high on a mizzenmast, it must be mounted on a pole tall enough that the tallest member of the crew, going aft for an



an Aquair water-turbine/wind-generator combination and love it. Nanita is big and fast enough that they are not worried about the drag of the water turbine going to windward, so on passage they tow the water turbine all the time. At anchor they hoist it in the rigging and use it as a wind generator. For those who are willing to experiment, almost unlimited amperage is available from a shaft-driven alternator, which uses the boat’s freewheeling propeller to generate electricity. If you are contemplating a lot of ofshore cruising, especially a trade-wind passage to the Caribbean, or heading across the Pacific, you certainly should install a 300-watt wind

ECLECTIC ENERGY Based in the U.K., Eclectic Energy produces the DuoGen hybrid wind/ water generator, the SailGen water generator and the D400 wind generator. HAMILTON FERRIS The Ferris WP-200 can be towed behind a sailboat

or easily converted to a wind generator in port. The unit has been in production since 1975 and is made in Massachusetts. KISS In production for more than 20 years, the popular KISS wind generator is now available from Cruise RO Water & Power. cruiserowaterandpow PRIMUS WINDPOWER Primus Windpower, located in Colorado, produces the popular Air X wind generator along with the Air Breeze, Air 30, Air 40 and the new Air Silent X.

generator and a water turbine. When on passage, why tolerate the noise and fumes of running an engine or generator just to charge the batteries, when wind and water can do the same silently with no pollution?

RUTLAND WINDCHARGERS U.K.-based Marlec produces the range of six-bladed Rutland Windchargers, which includes the 504 and the 914i. In 2016, the company will introduce the 1200, a three-bladed model. WATT & SEA Watt & Sea is a French company that manufactures “outboard”-style hydrogenerators. There is a version for racing sailboats and a simplified version for cruising sailboats. —Jen Brett

Don Street, lifelong sailor and prolific author, is a passionate supporter of green energy aboard. Thanks to the Cruising Association in the U.K. ( and the editors of their in-house publication, where this article originally appeared.

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AMPAIR The company is now owned by Seamap and based in Singapore. At press time, Seamap is manufacturing the hybrid Aquair 100 and has parts available for the Ampair wind generators. ampair





mechanic tells you your engine is worn out and needs to be rebuilt or replaced, but how can you quantify what is actually wrong? Definitively determining the condition or health of your engine is anything but subjective; unsurprisingly, all that’s required are the right tools and the requisite knowledge for their proper use. Any engine relies on compression of a gas, air, or a fuel/ air mixture, created by a reduction of cylinder volume, which occurs as a result of each piston’s upward movement. In both gasoline and diesel engines, the expansion of that compressed gas is the result of an explosion or, more accurately, a controlled burn of the fuel and air. That’s what generates a piston’s reciprocal motion, known as the power stroke, which is then transformed into rotational energy via a crankshaft. All of this combined ultimately results in propulsion. For this system to work ei-

3 PRESSURE’S ON C o m p re s s i o n a n d l e a k - d o w n t e s t i n g u n ra v e l t h e m y s t e r i e s o f a p o o rl y w o rk i n g m a r i n e d i es e l engine. B Y S T E V E D ’ A N T O N I O

Compression and leak-down testers access the cylinders through injector ports or other threaded holes.

ciently, the seal established between the moving pistons and cylinder walls is vitally important, and it’s no small feat to accomplish, as all the parts are very hot metal moving at high speed over the course of thousands of hours of run time. While this process is critical for any engine, it’s especially important in diesels because they rely on heat generated by very high compression (as the air is compressed, its temperature increases dramatically) to ignite fuel that’s injected into the cylinder. It’s why diesels are sometimes referred to as compression-ignition engines. Testing the compression generated in either gas or diesel engines is relatively straightforward, and doing so can provide a picture of the condition of the cylinder, piston rings, and exhaust and intake valves. The first and simplest test relies on an aptly named compression tester. This is inserted into the hole where a spark plug, glow plug or injector would be located. The engine’s


Repairing a Keel/Hull Joint Open the keel joint with a rotary tool to expose bright metal and fiberglass laminate. Clean and widen the crack, then bevel the opening into the surround fairing putty to provide a gentle transition. Dispense G/flex 655 Epoxy Adhesive in equal amounts (or 1.2 -to-1 by weight) and mix by folding the thick epoxy material over itself. G/ flex has a 32 percent elongation, which helps prevent cracks from reappearing in the joint. Apply G/flex into the crack, and then use it to fill the trough formed by the shallow bevel on both sides of the crack. After the G/flex Epoxy Adhesive cures, wet sand, dry and paint for a lasting repair.

Hairline cracking typically begins at the front of the keel.

Repair Cross Section Hairline crack to be repaired Keel Joint Area to be removed, beveled and illed with epoxy




A diesel-engine compression tester (left) is more robust than those used on gas engines. A leak-down tester (right) uses two gauges to determine if poor compression is due to leaks.

ignition and fuel systems are then disabled to prevent the motor from starting during the test. Once that’s done, the engine is cranked or turned through several revolutions using the starter, and the pressure generated by the piston is recorded by the gauge. The pressure readings are then compared to those provided by the engine manufacturer.

While the compression test is valuable, it can provide only a pass or fail grade; it’s unable to provide details or clues about where a fault may lie and how serious it may be. Enter the leak-down tester. This device is similar to the compression tester in that it plugs into the cylinder via one of the aforementioned ports; however, instead of using the

engine’s rotation to generate pressure, it utilizes an external compressed air source, which is pumped into the cylinder. The tool is equipped with two gauges, one measuring the pressure of air available to the cylinder and another that measures air pressure maintained within the cylinder — hence the term “leak-down tester.” The amount of leakage is

a direct indication of wear or damage within the cylinder. Additionally, the areas where the air leaks out of the cylinder can tell a mechanic a great deal about what needs to be done to fix the problem. Air leaking from the intake or exhaust manifolds indicates worn valves or seats, respectively, which is comparatively easy to repair because it only requires the cylinder head to be removed. Air leaking from the crankcase vent often foretells something more ominous: worn or damaged piston rings or scored cylinder walls, which in turn requires an engine rebuild or replacement. In the hands of a competent mechanic, the compression and leak-down testers remove much of the guesswork from engine diagnostics. Steve D’Antonio ofers services for boat owners and buyers through Steve D’Antonio Marine Consulting (stevedmarineconsulting. com).





Annie Haeger (East Troy, Wisc.)

has been named the 2015 Rolex Yachtsman of the Year in recognition of a year that featured 10 wins, including the Etchells North American Championship in Rye, NY. Benjamin skippered his team to victory in the DQCVĆƒGGVCDQCTF6GTTCRKP

has been named the 2015 Rolex Yachtswoman of the Year in recognition of her impressive list of top results in 470 Class competition throughout 2015.

Benjamin’s dominance in the Etchells went beyond the North American Championship. He placed second out of 43 boats at the World Championship in Hong Kong. His teams won at the Piana Cup, Long Island Sound Championship and Coral Reef Cup, among others. “This award goes to all the great sailors and crew I’ve had the opportunity to race with this year,� said Benjamin. “I had some incredible team members to help me every step of the way, and perhaps the biggest supporter of them all is my wife, Heidi.� “I’ve been at this a long time, so this is truly an astonishing honor.�

Haeger and crew Briana Provancha made their mark on the international stage by winning gold at the Olympic 6GUV'XGPVKP4KQFG,CPGKTQ$TC\KN6JG[YQPKPCJKIJN[ EQORGVKVKXGĆƒGGVHGCVWTKPIVJGIQNFCPFUKNXGTOGFCN winning boats from the London 2012 Games. “Winning gold at the Olympic Test Event was a major EQPĆ‚FGPEGDQQUVGTCPFKVTGKPHQTEGFVJCVKHYGECPGCTP US Olympic Team selection we have a chance to medal at the Games.â€? Haeger and Provancha experienced success in other high-caliber women’s 470 events, including the European Championship (3rd place) and the South American Championship (4th place). “In winning this award, I’m not representing

Photo credits Top left: John Payne Top right: Will Ricketson

the front of my boat. I think she is the best tates.�






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**A sailor with previous experience and competency can challenge the required prerequisite levels by completing the written and practical examinations required for each EGTVKĆ‚ECVKQP%QPVCEVCP[#EETGFKVGF US Sailing school for the details,


The US Sailing Report Overall we had a busy and successful year in 2015, and have continued to make progress as we embark on 2016. We focused our attention on four key areas: 1) Member engagement, 2) improving our core programs, 3) initiatives that will positively impact the future of sailing, and 4) positioning our economic engine to generate resources for the future. US Sailing spent a good deal of time supporting and listening to our members. We hosted 12 regional symposiums across the country, an engaging National Sailing Programs Symposium in New Orleans, a summit that brought leaders together from across the country to discuss growing sailing, and a conference for the disabled sailing community. We attended boating safety conferences, set up coffee bars at major regattas to connect with sailors, supported all of our National Championships and USA Junior Olympic Festivals, and returned to boat shows in conjunction with our member organizations. We also extended our presence online with our video series, “The Beat�.

Across all of our core programs we worked to improve our services. In Training, we enhanced online processes supporting seminars and EGTVKĆ‚ECVKQP9GGZRCPFGFQWT curriculum in the Smallboat and Keelboat programs, and continued building our online education offerings for training, safety and race administration. The Offshore department implemented changes in its governance structure and management team to address the evolving market and needs of race organizers and sailors. Our partnership with SAP began to produce results that YKNNKORTQXGQWTGHĆ‚EKGPE[CPF member service, and add value to sailors across the country. The USA Junior Olympic program expanded and continued to evolve the festival concept to strengthen the skills of sailors. Our National Championships experienced increased energy and momentum with new and exciting formats. In our critical role to provide CNGXGNRNC[KPIĆ‚GNFHQT competition, we achieved double-digit growth in both VJGPWODGTQHQWTTCEGQHĆ‚EKCN seminars and attendees.

The future health and growth of sailing is on everyone’s mind, and in 2015 we approached this from two angles. In early 2015 we completed a mid-quad review of our Olympic program’s RTQITGUU1PGQHVJGƂPFKPIU in this review was the need for a comprehensive youth sailing strategy that would encourage the development of talented and passionate young sailors and clear pathways for them to advance their skills and capabilities to achieve success internationally, and embed a lifelong love for the sport. From this recommendation, a group led by US Sailing Vice President Cory Sertl has begun to develop a set of goals to enable US Sailing to launch an effective youth sailing strategy. In 2016 we YKNNƂPCNK\GRNCPUCPFNQQMVQ launch this critical initiative. The second approach began in February when we hosted a Grow Sailing Summit that brought 65 of sailing’s thought leaders from across the sport together in Atlanta. The group assessed a new concept to expand sailing participation that

fully engages local sailing organizations, the grass roots of the sport. Following the summit we assembled an advisory group and internal team to create alignment and develop a plan that would establish a common theme and message, a universal on-ramp, a set of resources and a plan for execution. The campaign, First Sail, is under construction, and we introduced it at the Sailing Leadership Forum in February. Thanks to everyone – the Board, committee chairs and members, volunteers and staff - for all of your contributions and commitment to our organization and sport. Due to your hard work and generous contributions, we continue to make great progress and positively impact sailing; we have much to be proud of. Here’s to a successful 2016, and we look forward to overcoming the challenges and taking advantage of the opportunities that lay ahead. Cheers,

Jack Gierhart Executive Director of US Sailing

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6JG+PVGTPCVKQPCN2TQƂEKGPE[ %GTVKƂECVGŠ works much like a driver’s license for an CWVQOQDKNG6JGEGTVKƂECVG must be presented to a charter company to obtain a boat, and then carried aboard at all times while sailing in EU waters.


In order to make it easier for cruising sailors from the U.S. to charter sailboats in the European Union (EU), US

Sailing has created a simple EGTVKƂECVKQPRTQITCOHQT cruising sailors seeking to charter sailboats in EU waters. 6JG+PVGTPCVKQPCN2TQƂEKGPE[ %GTVKƂECVGŠ, an extension of US Sailing’s current Keelboat %GTVKƂECVKQP5[UVGO allows sailors who have completed a US Sailing Bareboat Cruising course to charter sailboats without a captain in EU waters.


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APRIL 2016





ast fall, during their final deliberations, the 2016 Boat of the Year judging team faced a dilemma. In the Midsize Cruiser category, the three-member panel had narrowed down the field to two boats from the same manufacturer, the French builder Dufour: the Grand Large 350 and 382. Which would they choose? It was an extremely tough call because, in exterior matters especially, in terms of deck layout, hull form and profile appearance, the boats were essentially mirror images of each other. And that was a good thing. They were both very contemporary-looking, very attractive yachts. In fact, when the two Dufours were tied up beside each other at the U.S. Sailboat Show in Annapolis, Maryland, a dockside observer could easily conclude that he was sufering from double vision. (The fact that both boats were sporting identical beige dodgers and mainsail covers for their stacking, fully battened mains didn’t make things any easier.) They were that much alike.

Boat of the Year judge Tim Murphy takes command of the 350 Grand Large on Chesapeake Bay. With no backstay to contend with, there’s plenty of room for the driver behind the twin helms.

At first glance, among the many similar features were the hard chines carried well aft to maximize beam and interior volume; the drop-down transoms and boarding/swim platforms; the twin helm stations and expansive cockpits with teak seats and floors, and nifty central folding tables; and the self-tacking 95 percent roller-furling jibs on dedicated tracks. Heck, the plumb bows of both boats were even outfitted with the same optional sprit for flying downwind and/or reaching sails. It was only later, when the boats were underway, that you could tell them apart by the portlights embedded in their hull: The 350 has but one, and the 382 has a pair. Not surprisingly, they’re put together identically, with a handlaminated, solid glass layup for the hulls that’s bonded to an internal structural grid, and decks that employ sandwich construction over an injected foam core. Each has an L-shaped bulb keel and a semielliptical rudder with a solid stainless-steel stock that anchors a blade fashioned using closed-cell epoxy foam. In other words, the builder has saved weight wherever possible, for performance reasons, but not at the expense of strength or reliability. Anyway, those were some of the traits that made these two

81 april 2016

Sharing clean lines and stellar sailing performance, the D U F O U R 3 5 0 G R A N D L A R G E and 3 8 2 G R A N D L A R G E are tasty peas from the same pod.


S P E C I F I C AT I O N S DUFOUR 350 GRAND LARGE LENGTH OVERALL 33’6” (10.28 m) WATERLINE LENGTH 29’6” (9 m) BEAM 11’6” (3.54 m) DRAFT 6’3”/5’1” (1.9/1.55 m) SAIL AREA (100%) 592 sq. ft. (55 sq m) BALLAST 3,417 lb. (1,550 kg) DISPLACEMENT 12,509 lb. (5,674 kg)


april 2016


DISPLACEMENT/LENGTH 214 SAIL AREA/DISPLACEMENT 17.8 WATER 58 gal. (220 l) FUEL 42 gal. (160 l) HOLDING 14 gal. (53 l) MAST HEIGHT 47’6” (14.47 m) ENGINE 19 hp Volvo (saildrive) DESIGNER Umberto Felci/ Dufour Yachts Design Team PRICE $165,000 Dufour Yachts 352-871-0362

SEA TRIAL WIND SPEED 10 knots SEA STATE Slight chop SAILING Closehauled Reaching

6.2 knots 6.3 knots

MOTORING Cruise (2,400 rpm) 6.3 knots Fast (2,900 rpm) 6.8 knots

For a complete guide to Cruising World’s extensive online boat reviews and to request reprints from our older print archives of reviews, go to sailboats/sailboat-reviews.

On the bow, the 350 sports a big anchor locker and a single-line jib furler (top left). Embedded windows in the deck (top right) provide plenty of natural light in the tidy main cabin (above).

new Dufours unmistakable siblings. But there were some significant diferences as well. Let’s start with the 350, perhaps the first Dufour ever without a fixed backstay on the standard rig (though you can get one in the optional Grand Prix sail package). There’s also no traveler. (Both items would be key discussion points in BOTY deliberations.) The accommodation plan was likewise very straightforward. At the foot of the companionway, to port, there’s a nice galley and a private cabin aft. To starboard, the nav station fronts a large head compartment. Going forward, a pair of settees flanks a robust folding dining table, and the owner’s cabin in the bow is accessed through double

doors. It’s simple but efective. On the other hand, you can really soup up, customize and accessorize the 382. There are no less than a half-dozen different interior layouts, with either a traditional L-shaped galley or a straight-line one; two or three cabins; and one

Dropping the Hook One of the key components of our Boat of the Year sea trials is testing the anchoring arrangement on each boat. On boats with plumb bows, setting the pick can be a challenge. Dufour’s answer is a beefy stainless-steel guard on the bow to ward of dings.

or two heads. You can get either a very ICW-friendly short rig (55 feet 3 inches) or, if your plans include terrorizing your local club-racing fleet, the optional tall stick (61 feet 10 inches). Accordingly, both in-mast furling mains and traditional, classic mainsails are available, and you can choose between a self-tacking jib or an optional overlapping genoa. Furthermore, if ofshore forays are in the cards, you can even specify an inner forestay and a staysail. Altogether, there are eight diferent sailplan configurations from which to choose. So with all those many options available on the 382, one might think it would be the hands-down winner. But then the judges went sailing. And things became much more complicated. As judge Tim Murphy noted: “Every year I take my own poll after our dockside inspections regarding who I think the winners will be. And every year I change my mind on a few after our sea trials. And that’s what happened here. I really enjoyed being aboard these boats once they were in motion.” First up was the 350, tested in about 10 to 15 knots of breeze. The lack of a backstay actually proved beneficial in one aspect, as the helmsman had a lot of room to get comfortable behind the twin wheels. Short-tacking up the Severn River past the U.S. Naval Academy, the boat was responsive and nimble, making better than 6 knots closehauled. The vang proved very efective in controlling the mainsail; in the brief moments that the boat felt overpowered, easing it instantly got the boat back on her feet. “It just felt fun to sail this boat,” said Murphy. “It was a lovely sail.” Next came the 382, sailed in slightly puier winds. The split backstay, which helps the ergonomic flow through the cockpit from the transom to the companionway when anchored, terminates


B O AT S & G E A R

S P E C I F I C AT I O N S DUFOUR 382 GRAND LARGE LENGTH OVERALL 36’10” (11.23 m) WATERLINE LENGTH 32’5” (9.9 m) BEAM 12’7” (3.85 m) DRAFT 6’4”/5’4” (1.9/1.6 m) SAIL AREA (100%) 623 sq. ft. (58 sq m) BALLAST 4,299 lb. (1,950 kg) DISPLACEMENT 15,564 lb. (7,060 kg)

SAIL AREA/DISPLACEMENT 16.33 WATER 95 gal. (360 l)


FUEL 53 gal. (200 l)

at the extreme aft quarters of the yacht; we discovered it was much more comfortable to steer from a windward position rather than tucked down to leeward. But once you were locked in, the 382 was a joy to drive, with fingertip control. The German-style double-ended mainsheet, led to winches just forward of the helmsman to port and starboard, provided quick and easy trimming control, as did the wide traveler, positioned on the coachroof just forward of the dodger. Like its sister ship, the 382 easily trucked to weather at better than 6 knots. (It’s worth noting that both models we tested were fitted with shoal keels; the judges would opt for the available deeper versions to reduce leeway when hard on the breeze.) “I think there’s a trend in the Dufour line, at least in this size range, to make it a really easy boat for a couple to operate,” said judge Ed Sherman. “It certainly worked for me. With the selftacking jib, once everything was trimmed up correctly,

HOLDING 12 gal. (45 l) MAST HEIGHT 55’3”/61’10” (16.82/18.86 m) ENGINE 29 hp Volvo (saildrive) DESIGNER Umberto Felci/ Dufour Yachts Design Team PRICE $210,000 Dufour Yachts 352-871-0362

Once underway, it was easy to identify the 382 by the twin portlights in its hull (top). Wide side decks with good handholds made moving fore and aft a breeze (left), and tacking is quick and easy thanks to the self-tacking jib (right).

you could just slam it around on quick tacks very easily. It actually makes it a very good boat to singlehand. Overall, I was very happy with it.” So, as mentioned at the outset, when it came time to cast their ballots, the judges faced a quandary. All of them considered the 350 a sweet little cruising boat, but they also appreciated the 382’s increased volume, rig and accommodation options, and its better, beefier sailhandling controls. Ultimately, it came down to a simple question: Was the

bigger boat, costing roughly $50,000 more than the more compact model, worth the extra expenditure? In the end, their answer was yes, and the Dufour 382 was named 2016’s Best Midsize Cruiser. But here’s a little secret from someone who watched them agonize over their decision: In his heart of hearts, I reckon each judge would be just as happy with a Dufour 350 in his slip. Herb McCormick is CW’s executive editor.

SEA TRIAL WIND SPEED 10 to 12 knots SEA STATE Slight chop SAILING Closehauled Reaching

6.3 knots 6.2 knots

MOTORING Cruise (2,350 rpm) Fast (2,900 rpm)

6.9 knots 7.9 knots

For a complete guide to Cruising World’s extensive online boat reviews and to request reprints from our older print archives of reviews, go to sailboats/sailboat-reviews.

83 april 2016



B O AT S & G E A R

A SAILOR’S Sailboat

84 april 2016

J/BOATS’ versatile new J/112E lets the cruising skipper dial in as much performance as desired. BY MARK PILLSBURY



aving spent a few seasons hanging around with CW’s Boat of the Year judges, I can’t step aboard a new sailboat without stopping to measure it up against its design brief. That’s the standard that our team of industry pros uses as they survey a broad range of entries each year to come up with winning models. And it makes sense, when you think about it. Each boat is built with a purpose in mind, and the good ones do their jobs flawlessly, year in and year out. From that point of view, when I stepped aboard the latest addition to what J/Boats calls its Sport Cruising line, I knew exactly what the justlaunched J/112E was intended V-shaped bow sections are intended to provide directional stability and reduce slamming when seas are up.

to do: go sailing. Oh, you could certainly sit in the roomy cockpit and soak up the rays in some sunny anchorage. And at day’s end, you’d find everything you’d need in the well-equipped galley to whip up dinner for friends. With two private cabins, there’s plenty of room for the kids or another couple, and settees on each side of the drop-leaf centerline table in the saloon could be turned into sea berths in a pinch. But what you’d really want to do, if the J/112E was your boat, is get those sails up and go sailing, no matter the size of your crew — which is just what a few of us did aboard hull Number One, on a late autumn afternoon out on Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay. The breeze was light as we motored away from the dock, but once out in open water, where we had 10 knots

or so to work with, the J/112E sprang to life. Upwind, the speedo read 7.2 knots, nearly

Now You See It ... To keep line clutter on deck to a minimum, both tails of the double-ended 2-to1 mainsheet are led into watertight boxes in both cockpit coamings and then over deck rollers to winches mounted just forward of the single wheel, where they can be easily tended by the helmsman when sailing shorthanded.

matching the wind speed. Later, with the asymmetric kite set on the retractable carbon sprit and a bit more breeze, we were rewarded with a few surges of 9 knots and better. Were we having a good time? You bet. J/Boats’ designer, Alan Johnstone, says the intent wasn’t to build a boat for hardcore racers (J/Boats has plenty of other models for that) or for the long-distance bluewater cruiser. What he and the team wanted to produce was a versatile and lively sailboat for a performance-minded skipper, with amenities that also make it quite suitable for the yacht club’s annual cruise or a family’s summer getaway. At 36 feet, the J/112E is the middle sibling in a range that includes the 32-foot J/97E and the J/122E, a 40-footer that was the genesis of the Performance Cruising line. E, by the way, stands for “elegance and design evolution,” according to J/Boats’ brochure. The base boat sells for $275,000; the J/112E we saw, outfitted with Doyle sails but sans navigation electronics, was priced closer

B O AT S & G E A R

raising the high-aspect main, a dodger and cockpit bimini, cockpit cushions, and an anchor windlass with a retractable roller. With several of us aboard for the test sail, the cockpit still felt roomy. Though today’s design trends call for twin helms even on 30-footers, the J/112E has a single 59-inch-diameter wheel that lets you sit outboard to either side with good sightlines forward, or stand comfortably, which I like to do when sailing downwind. For the record, the chain and wire linkage and deep fin rudder provided fingertip control. The cockpit bench seats end just forward of the wheel and the easily adjusted Harken traveler, mounted on the cockpit sole. On each side of the helm, there’s plenty of

Mark Pillsbury is CW’s editor.

J/112E LENGTH OVERALL 36’ (10.97 m) WATERLINE LENGTH 31’9” (9.68 m) BEAM 11’10” (3.61 m) DRAFT (STANDARD/SHOAL) 6’11”/5’9” (2.11/1.75 m) SAIL AREA (100%) 696 sq. ft. (64.7 sq m) BALLAST 4,000 lb. (1,815 kg) DISPLACEMENT 11,300 lb. (5,125 kg) BALLAST/DISPLACEMENT 0.35

DISPLACEMENT/LENGTH 157 SAIL AREA/DISPLACEMENT 22 WATER 53 gal. (201 l) FUEL 22 gal. (85 l) HOLDING 12 gal. (45 l)


MAST HEIGHT 56’10” (17.32 m)

april 2016

The performance-oriented J/112E’s interior will pamper the crew (top). In the cockpit, the steering pedestal doubles as a good foot brace when the boat’s heeling.


ENGINE 30 hp Volvo (saildrive) DESIGNER Alan Johnstone/J/Boats Inc. PRICE $310,000 J/Boats 401-846-8410

SEA TRIAL WIND SPEED 8 to 12 knots SEA STATE 2 to 3 feet SAILING Closehauled Reaching

7.8 knots 9.2 knots

MOTORING Cruise (2,400 rpm)

7 knots

For a complete guide to Cruising World’s extensive online boat reviews and to request reprints from our older print archives of reviews, go to sailboats/sailboat-reviews.


to $310,000. The 112E is built in France by J Composites Shipyard, which is licensed to manufacture a number of models for the Newport, Rhode Island-based company. The boat’s end-grain balsa-cored hull is resin-infused using the SCRIMP system, as are its foam-cored deck and bulkheads and the fiberglass floor grid that takes the loads from the keel, mast and chainplates. An outer layer of vinylester resin is added to the layup to prevent osmosis. The result is a hull that the builder is willing to stand behind with a 10-year warranty. The J/112E’s standard draft is 6 feet 11 inches, with an epoxy-encapsulated castiron fin and lead bulb keel; a 5-foot-9-inch shoal-draft foil is an option. For cruising sailors, the boat comes with an aluminum spar and boom (a carbon-fiber rig is available), and flies a 105 percent jib set on a Harken roller furler. Other options include teak decks, an electric cabin-top winch to take the work out of

room to move past. Better yet, the layout lets the helmsman sit aft of the wheel (when there’s crew aboard to help with sheet trim), straddle it with feet braced on the pedestal, or sit forward of it, so the pair of winches for controlling the tails of the 2-to-1 mainsheet and primaries for the jib sheets are readily within reach. (To reduce clutter, the two ends of the mainsheet are led into watertight boxes in the cockpit sidewalls and then through deck blocks to their respective winches.) Down below, accommodations are modern and practical. There’s a pleasing mix of varnished walnut woodwork and white side and ceiling panels; portlights in the cabin top, opening overhead hatches, and ports in the hull let in lots of light during the day. In the saloon, the space between the aforementioned table and settees seemed a little tight; Johnstone said the walk-through space will be increased slightly on future boats, and the table will be a little narrower. The owner’s cabin forward includes a large hanging locker, a roomy double V-berth with storage beneath it, and double doors that open into the saloon. The single head and shower, located to port at the foot of the companionway, can serve as a wet locker on rainy days, and aft of it, there’s a large, deep locker that’s also accessible from the cockpit above. Overall, I found the interior to be quite comfortable, and a place where I’d enjoy relaxing and recouping after a good long sail. With tankage for 53 gallons of water and 22 gallons of fuel, the J/112E probably will not cross many oceans. But that’s not what it was built to do. It was created to sail as most of us do, with a bit of racing here and there, frequent daysails, and the occasional week or three of coastal cruising. For that, I’d say the builder nailed the design brief with a bull’s-eye.



The Newport Charter Yacht Show, an annual event in Rhode Island that draws vacation brokers who come to inspect the global fleet, is now owned by the Newport Shipyard.

april 2016


FLEET ADDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Just in time for cruising in spring and summer 2016, Anacortes Yacht Charters in Anacortes, Washington, has expanded and now ofers these models, among others, for exploring the San Juan Islands: Exergy, a Beneteau 37; Width Gratitude, a Leopard 48; Livin’ on a Prayer, a Bayliner 35; Serendipity, a Ranger Tug 29; and Columbia, an Ocean Alexander 42. For details and incentives, contact the company (

LEARN TO BAREBOAT IN THE MED ... Sunsail ofers an International Certificate of Competence (ICC) training course and test through Britain’s Royal Yachting Association curriculum, on flotillas in Greece and Croatia from May 2 to September 26, 2016. Certification proves competency to bareboat charter in European cruising grounds. In the United States, it’s known as the International Proficiency Certificate (IPC) and is ofered through the American Sailing Association. On the Sunsail flotilla, the curriculum includes the RYA Start Yachting course, RYA Essential Navigation & Seamanship online course (to be completed prior to

departure), and the ICC course and examination. A maximum of three sailors will be able to sit for the ICC course and examination at the end of the flotilla. For details on the ICC flotilla, contact Sunsail (sunsail. com/sailing-schools/zerohero). For information about the IPC, contact the ASA (asa. com/international-proficiencycertificate). ... OR GET THE BASICS


Horizon Yacht Charters ofers learn-to-sail courses sanctioned by the American Sailing Association at its Caribbean bases in the British Virgin Islands, Antigua, Grenada and

St. Vincent. The combination of charter and instruction in a tropical setting promotes hands-on learning. Mornings are spent learning and practicing new skills, and afternoons are spent sailing so newly learned skills are practiced en route. Once anchored for the afternoon, students have time for snorkeling, watersports and relaxing. Refresher, intermediate and advanced packages are also available. For details, contact Horizon Yacht Charters (

DIGITAL LOGBOOK BUILDS COMMUNITY BoatBook, an online logbook for keeping track of sailing and charter history, has partnered with Sunsail in a campaign to build a global community of sailors. With more than 100,000 members, BoatBook and its Sailing Log app make it possible for users to list courses and certifications, share route and itinerary details, and post photos. For details, log on to the website (

CREWED YACHT NEWS The Newport Charter Yacht Show, which features boats accommodating clients from waters near and far, has a new owner. The Newport Shipyard in Newport, Rhode Island, will be the home of the event, which takes place from June 21 to 24, 2016. The Shipyard takes over the event from the Newport Exhibition Group. For details, visit the Shipyard and show websites (, — Elaine Lembo

COMPANIES ADVERTISING THIS MONTH The Moorings 888-703-3176 p.37 Sunsail 800-797-5307 p.91 Kiracoulis 800-714-3471 p.99 Dream Yacht Charters 866-776-8256 p.93 Tortola Marine Management Ltd. 800-633-0155 p.90 The Catamaran Company 800-262-0308 p.88-89 Footloose Sailing Charters 855-217-9217 p.100 Conch Charters Ltd.* 877-521-8939 p.87 Barefoot Yacht Charters* 784-456-9526 p.98 Annapolis Bay Charters* 800-991-1776 p.94 CYOA Yacht Charters 800-944-2962 p.97 Med Caribbean Charter 284-340-2249 p.94 Pro Valor Charters 866-776-8256 p.96 Island Yachts* 800-524-2019 p.96 Sail Caribe 866-381-7609 p.92 Southwest Florida Yachts* 800-262-7939 p.99 Cruise Annapolis 443-949-9481 p.96 Harmony Yacht Vacations 888-542-2667 p.92 BROKERS Ed Hamilton & Co. 800-621-7855 The Globe Sailor 646-453-6602

p.94 p.99

*Also broker This directory is a list of charter companies advertising in this charter section; it is not an endorsement by the editors. Classified advertisers not listed. Listings are arranged in fleet size order. “Charter companies” listed maintain fleets of bareboats and report that they maintain chase boats/personnel, carry liability insurance, return security deposits in 10 working days, deliver the boat contracted (or same size, type, age, condition, or better), supply MOB gear and offer pre-charter briefings. “Brokers” are not affiliated with any charter company; they book private or company-owned boats, crewed or bareboat.


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© Photothèque Lagoon : Nicolas Claris

The British Virgin Island’s Preferred Charter Operator for: Lagoon & Gemini Catamarans



We have the perfect sailing escape for you. Remote tropical islands, refreshing cocktails, and the warmth of the Caribbean sunshine can paint the tapestry of your summer if you let it. Feel the wind in your sails as you cruise atop the water. After all, it’s those exhilarating moments we’re all on a journey to catch. What’s more, you can share this experience with up to 10 friends aboard our Sunsail 444 Catamaran. Choose your horizon from 25 destinations worldwide.

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Who said family run companies are a thing of the past? Island Packet Yachts 201{ Dealer of the Year


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In our 39 years, IYC has earned a reputation as the premiere Virgin Island charter company, offering exceptional personal attention and unequaled yacht quality. Sail one of our lovely Island Packets and enjoy the US and Spanish Virgin Islands as well as the British Virgin Islands. Call or e-mail direct to our St. Thomas, USVI office today!

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IYC is the official Caribbean Dealer for Blue Jacket Yachts. solar panels aboard all our vessels.

6100 Red Hook Qtr., 18B, Suite 4, St. Thomas, VI 00802-1303 (340) 775-6666 • Fax (340) 714-4194 • email:

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U.S., British & Spanish Virgin Islands Catamarans l Monohulls l Bareboat l Skippered Reservations: U.S. & Canada +800-944-2962 | International +386-210-4155 CYOA Yacht Charters Frenchtown Marina l St. Thomas USVI | email: l

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Learn to Sail & Cruise! Liveaboard cruising courses, 3 days to 3 weeks. Earn ASA Certifications in: • Basic Sailing • Coastal Cruising • Bareboat Chartering • Cruising Catamaran • Coastal Navigation • Advanced Coastal Cruising • Celestial Navigation • Offshore Passagemaking Also Available: • Private & Own Boat Instruction

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A cruising ground that’s somewhere between heaven and earth, but a little closer to heaven.


arefoot Yacht Charters

Celebrating 31 years of excellence.


Full service Marine Centre & Yacht Management Facility * Restaurant & Bar * Ocean-view Apartments Sail Loft * Surf Shop * Internet Café * Water Sports Centre * Boutique. Blue Lagoon, St. Vincent & The Grenadines, W.I. | Tel: 1.784.456.9526 | Fax: 1.784.456.9238 | E-mail: |

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“Join us while we rekindle the Ancient navigation arts through the Barefoot Navigator” -Philip Barnard

Barefoot Ofshore Sailing School ofers the perfect ofshore sailing conditions of St Vincent and the Grenadines to bring the highest level of sailing to everyone on top quality, professionally prepared yachts, using the industry’s best instructors. We help all sailors reach the level needed to move purposefully towards their sailing dreams! We are pleased to introduce our Barefoot Navigator course with Jack Lagan!

Barefoot Offshore ASA Courses: We offer the full spectrum of ASA courses: ASA 101, 103, 104, 105, 106 and 114.

Barefoot Offshore Courses:

B.O.S.S developed this course to give us hands on skills for using the world around us as a navigational aids. We will use everything from the indigenous birds of the area, wave and wind directions and the stars above to fix our position.

• One week Barefoot Navigator Course with Jack Lagan – $2,500.00 per student • Yachtsman’s Diesel Engine Course – $200.00 per student • Yachtsman’s Rig Tuning Course – $200.00 per student

“Come join us as we rekindle the ancient navigation arts through the Barefoot Navigator”

Website: Email:

Escape to the British Virgin Islands and experience a fun, affordable and family-friendly vacation on a private yacht with Footloose Charters. 888.852.4666 |

Plan Your Next Charter Vacation Go To Cruising World ’s online

CHARTER DIRECTORY Plus tips on: How to Choose A Charter Company Chartering 101 Owning a Charter Sailboat and more...




april 2016



2011 BENETEAU OCEANIS 50 FAMILY This 2011 Beneteau Oceanis 50 Family is the high water mark for the current excellent range of Beneteau sailing yachts. She features 4 cabins, 4 heads plus a single berth and head in the forepeak. Boasting immense space below decks, and very clever sailing aids, such as cockpit arch, powered winches and bow thruster, this a strong cruising package. Having a full sized generator and aircon means comfort and upgrade potential for going truly ofshore. HUGE PRICE DROP - now asking only $210K. Owner very motivated to sell. P L E A S E S E E O U R A D O N PA G E 1 0 8 The Moorings Yacht Brokerage 8 50 NE 3rd St #20 1 | Dania Be ach, FL 3 3 0 0 4 Te l : +1 8 00 8 50 408 1 | + 1 954 92 5- 4150 | Email: |

2012 PASSPORT VISTA 585 See more at

1983 Passport 40 AC This attractive cruiser has the popular pullman berth and was repowered and equipped with solar panels and custom swim platform. Asking $127,000

2006 Passport 515 AC This extremely well equipped shoal draft aft cockpit is ready for extended cruising. Asking $575,000.

2007 Passport 470 AC Gorgeous two stateroom aft cockpit Passport with low engine hours. Please contact us.

1999 Stellar 52 Raised Salon R. Perry’s update of a S&S design luxuriously executed to the highest standard. Asking $299,950.

2008 Passport 470 CC Fully equipped for cruising and ready to go. Shoal draft, three staterooms. Priced well below replacement. Asking $548,500.

2004 Passport 470 CC Very well equipped with arch twin wind generators and solar panels Well priced at $349,000.

Gozzard 36 AC Excellent cruiser/liveaboard design with strikingly beautiful lines. Several to choose from starting at $125,000.

1997 Passport 470 Center Cockpit Well thought out deck plan. Large practical cockpit/galley. Two staterooms/heads ensuite. Asking $309,000.

2000 Gozzard 44 Mark I In pristine condition, this yacht has been in fresh water only since 2007! Asking $299,500.


1996 Passport 470 CC Gorgeous joinery, dark blue hull, 3 staterooms and teak decks make this popular model a real head turner. Well maintained and constantly updated. Asking $375,000

2006 Passport 515 CC A 3 stateroom blue water yacht of unparalleled quality and exceptionally equipped and maintained. Available for thousands of dollars less than new. Asking $575,000

2011 Passport 515 CC Very well equipped dealer demo offered at a fantastic price of $575,000.

For more information on these and other previously owned yachts, please contact us: ANNAPOLIS: Yacht Haven, 326 First Street, Ste. 404, Annapolis, MD 21403


NEW 2016

NEW 2016

NEW 2016

OYSTER 63' PILOTHOUSE Custom-built pilothouse featuring inside controls and raised navigation area. Thoughtful design throughout, immaculate condition. Cruised by husband and wife team.

LITTLE HARBOR 62' CENTER COCKPIT Full comprehensive refit 2012/2014 – in need of nothing! Shallow draft, powerful hull form and roomy interior. Sleeps eight in four ensuite staterooms. Excellent potential as a charter yacht.

BENETEAU OCEANIS 58', 2012 ALEA is the ultimate performance cruiser. Three ensuite staterooms, plus crew. All sailing functions led to cockpit. Lightly used. Latest model, lowest price in the USA.

HINCKLEY SOU’WESTER 59' 3-SR/3-head layout. Mechanical and electrical systems refit, 2007. Ready to cruise or race, with electric winches, electric main furling, air conditioning, bow thruster. Priced to sell!

DIX-HARVEY 55' CATAMARAN, 2009 Custom built in collaboration between owner, experienced design team and quality builder, reflecting strong Gunboat influences. A luxurious cruising catamaran in impeccable condition, well tested, with stunning performance.

HINCKLEY SOU’WESTER 52' NEW MOON is simply spectacular. Maintained and upgraded without compromise and sailed mainly seasonally. For that special yachtsman who demands only the absolute best.

LITTLE HARBOR 53' CENTER COCKPIT Classic shallow-draft Hood centerboard design with rare two-stateroom layout featuring a large owner’s suite forward. Easy to handle, and a joy to sail!

HYLAS 51' Located in New England. Three-stateroom/three-head layout. Ready for cruising, with Leisure Furl boom for easy handling. New antifoul and entire bottom of hull repainted (2014).

ROYAL CAPE CATAMARANS MAJESTIC 500, 2007 Exceptionally large deck and cockpit spaces in a beautifully finished, five ensuite-stateroom layout. Equipped for world cruising in comfort. Easily sailed by two.

MARK ELLIS/BRUCKMANN 47', 2000 Modern construction and systems, with classic lines. Easy to singlehand, with hydraulic winches, bow thruster and genoa furler. 2-SR/2-head layout. In pristine condition.

HYLAS 46' Nice example of this popular design features queen berth aft, huge galley and functional cockpit – with newer sails and electronics. Asking only $239,000!





Jeanneau SO 41ds SISTERSHIP

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^Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ĺ?ŽƾĆ?Ĺ?ĹśĆ?Ĺ?Ä&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;ŽƾĆ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;:Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ŜŜÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ƾϰϭÄ&#x161;Ć?ĨÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;Ĺ˝Ç ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć?Ć?ĆľĹ?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ĺ&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ć&#x152;Ĺ?Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ĺ?Ĺ&#x161;Ç&#x20AC;ŽůƾžÄ&#x17E;ĹľÄ&#x201A;Ĺ?ĹśĆ?Ä&#x201A;ůŽŜÄ&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ĺ?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹŻÄ&#x17E;Ç&#x2021; Ä&#x201A;Ć?Ç Ä&#x17E;ĹŻĹŻÄ&#x201A;Ć?Ä&#x201A;Ç&#x20AC;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ç&#x2021;Ä?ŽžĨŽĆ&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ä?ĹŻÄ&#x17E;ĨŽĆ&#x152;Ç Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x161;Ć?Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;ŽŽžŽžÄ?Ĺ?ĹśÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ç Ĺ?Ć&#x161;Ĺ&#x161;Ĺ?Ć&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ć?Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?ĹŻĹ?ĹśĹ?ĨÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x161;ĆľĆ&#x152;Ä&#x17E;Ć?Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;Ä&#x201A;Ä?Ĺ˝Ä?ĹŹĆ&#x2030;Ĺ?Ć&#x161;ÄŽĆ&#x161;ĨŽĆ&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x201A;Ć&#x152;Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161; Catalina 385 you start to appreciate the things that have made the Jeanneau 41ds so popular. Special Pricing

New by Com-WÄ&#x201A;Ä?^Ć&#x2030;Ä&#x17E;Ä?Ĺ?Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ç&#x152;Ĺ?ĹśĹ?Ĺ?ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ć&#x161;Ä&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?ĹśÄ&#x201A;Ä&#x201A;ĹśÄ&#x161;:Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ŜŜÄ&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;ĆľYĆľÄ&#x201A;ĹŻĹ?Ć&#x161;Ç&#x2021;Ć&#x152;ŽŏÄ&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ä&#x201A;Ĺ?Ä&#x17E;>Ĺ?Ć?Ć&#x;ĹśĹ?Ć?Ä?Ç&#x2021;>Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x201A;Ä&#x161;Ĺ?ĹśĹ?ĆľĹ?ĹŻÄ&#x161;Ä&#x17E;Ć&#x152;Ć?

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Catalina 36 â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;90 $46,700

60,500 26,000 34,995 75000 SOLD 153,000 54,900 29,900 109,900 SOLD 139,900 32,000 44,700 60,000 75,700 34,900 119,700 19,970 21,500

35â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Hunter 356 2004 35â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Hunter 356 2003 36â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina 1999 36â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina MKII 2002 37â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Case Motor Sailor 2002 38â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina 380 2001 38â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Ericson 38 1981 38â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Cabo Rico 38 1985 39â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Camper Nicholson 1977 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122; C&C 1981 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina 400 2004 41â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Beneteau 411 2001 42â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Endeavour CC 1985 42â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Pearson 424 1978 44â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina 445 2011 47â&#x20AC;&#x2122; CT 1983 47â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Catalina 470 2001

74,900 82,100 103,900 82,500 120,000 129,900 59,500 124,900 39,500 34,900 180,000 124,000 79,900 69,900 315,900 79,000 224,900

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WE ALSO OFFER: Live-Aboard financing I Loans for older boats (1919–1995) I Loans for part- and full-time charters *Estimated APR (Annual Percentage Rate). Subject to consumer loan program requirements and credit approval. Certain fees, closing costs, and restrictions may apply. APR applied to the loan is the APR in effect on the date the application is received and is valid until 30 days after the loan is approved. APRs may vary with loan term. Boat must be 1996 model year or newer; for boat model year 1996 to 2005, add .25% to above rate. Maximum loan term based on model year, loan amount, loan type, and lender guidelines. Other rates with different loan terms are available. Example of a recreational use Boat loan: A 10 year fixed-rate $55,000 loan. Based on an APR of 3.99%, this loan has 120 monthly payments of $556.59 each. Member FDIC. Equal Housing Lender.

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2004 Island Packet 485 2006 Island Packet 440 2001 Island Packet 420 2008 Island Packet 370 2008 Jeanneau 45’ 2004 Island Packet 370 2004 Island Packet 370

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Of f Wa t c h Every March I’d drive the boat in the windy, wavy Caribbean while Bobby G clicked away; every day was a wet, wonder ful adventure.

april 2016


and for years covered worldwide events for the old Washington Star. He was also on the White House beat during the Reagan et’s face it: I’ve got a pretty cool gig. administration, and at the start of every Over the years, I’ve relished countpress conference, he’d whoop out a deep, less opportunities to sail to amazing noisy yelp or two, which unfailingly got places, with wonderful sailors and people, the president to cast a startled look in his on many astounding boats. Lucky. But one direction for a guaranteed money shot. It of the most enjoyable tasks for an editor worked every time. at a sailing magazine — and something I When he wasn’t ambushing politicians, don’t get to do nearly often enough — is Bobby spent much of his time on the taking the wheel of a photo boat during Chesapeake, sailing and shooting. A vetboat tests or regattas while hard-workeran transatlantic sailor, he’s also a true ing professional marine photographers ply waterman, and his book of black-and-white their craft. Now that’s fun. photography, Chesapeake Bay: Photographs — Some of the world’s best nautical with an introduction by James Michener! — shooters are based in Rhode Island near is nothing less than exquisite (and though our oices in Newport, including Onne it’s oicially out of print, you can find it on van der Wal and Daniel Forster, both of Amazon). Later, Bobby moved west to run whom I’ve driven for on rare occasions. the photo department of the Los Angeles Bobby G is always ready with a lens, Billy Black is another great local pro, who Times. The man knows his stuf. smile or bark. shoots our annual Boat of the Year contest, A few years back, while doing a charter and while he usually has a dedicated assistant at the helm, once story in the British Virgin Islands with a couple of my best pals in a while I’m pressed into duty for him, which I really enjoy. and our daughters, we ran across Bobby on a similar task for a dif(Once, many years ago, Billy and I shared an assignment in South ferent magazine. He came alongside our catamaran in his dinghy Africa and, when we had a few days of, rented a car and took and went into his Rin Tin Tin act, which thoroughly delighted the a road trip down the coast. We had a fine time, even though he girls, especially my Maggie, about 7 at the time. She immediately made me pull over what seemed like every few hundred yards to dubbed him Photo Dog, a pretty apt nickname. take another picture. Somehow, we both survived the journey.) In San Diego, Bobby became chums with legendary America’s You can almost feel Billy size up and compose his images with Cup skipper Dennis Conner, who considered nautical scribes his very direct, specific instructions to his boat driver. All three like myself a royal pain in the rear. When I was assigned a feature photographers are excellent seamen — it’s a prerequisite for the story about Conner, I asked Bobby if he might help me out, and job — and it’s a joy spending time on the water with them. You he pulled the necessary strings. At the outset of our subsequent always learn a new trick or two. interview, Conner looked me in the eye and said, “You know, I’m But the guy I’ve probably spent the most time ferrying about only doing this because of Bobby G.” is San Diego-based photographer Bobby Grieser, aka Bobby G. As mentioned, we had a lot of fun in St. Maarten. One time, to Along with magazine assignments and covering many America’s get some publicity shots for the regatta, we wandered down a St. Cup regattas together, for several years we both worked on the Maarten beach, Bobby with a Heineken flag slung over his shoulmedia side of the St. Maarten Heineken Regatta, and nearly every der. As nonchalantly as you or I would ask for directions, he walked March I’d drive the boat in the windy, wavy Caribbean while up to the most stunning gal on the beach and wondered aloud if Bobby G clicked away; every day was a wet, wonderful adventure. she’d remove her top, wander into the water and step out wearing Built like the college football nose tackle he once was, Bobby the flag like a cape. Such a request would have got me arrested. She owns an outsize personality to match and seems to know everysimply said, “Sure.” Moments later, Bobby had that very shot. one everywhere, making him a fine traveling companion. Also, As she handed him back the flag, I sheepishly said “thanks.” he does an incredible impression of a loud, barking dog, which he Bobby went “woof.” unleashes (sorry) with perfect timing. Unlike most marine pros, Bobby got his start in hard news, Herb McCormick is CW’s executive editor.




Quality, Strength, Performance What do these have in common? All three are the results of a bar that has been raised for an iconic brand that has been building production sailboats for over forty years. A brand that under new owner David Marlow, has moved to the next level. One much higher, leaving behind a level it previously shared with other production boat builders. It started first with design but then moved through construction materials, building techniques as well as equipment improvements. The end result was better quality, greater strength and higher performance. Quite simply put a better boat. To learn more about the new Marlow-Hunter sailboat line; visit us at w w

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In this issue

In This Issue VanDam Custom Boats - Part Two


This is a two part series highlighting Luv N It, a custom wooden boat, built at VanDam Boats in Boyne City, Michigan.

Editor/Designer Jenessa Hilger Managing Editor/Copy Editor Grace Ombry Contact/Subscriptions Darlene Auman Contributors Alan Gurski, Bruce Niederer, Craig Bousquet, Don Gutzmer, Greg Bull, Captain Hugh Covert, Mike Barnard, Sam Magruder, and Susanne Altenburger Epoxyworks is published twice a year by Gougeon Brothers, Inc., Bay City, MI, USA.

A Tall Ship for Drummond Island


Captain Hugh Covert shares his plans to build Huron Jewel, a schooner he plans to sail near Drummond Island.



After losing his old loor lamp to a game of hide-andseek, Alan Gurski decides to build a replacement based on the form of a iddlehead fern.

Warm Temperature Bonding


When temperatures rise, pot life falls. Here are some tips to keep in mind this summer when working in warm temperatures.

Cockpit Sole Repair



Why buy a new seat when you can ix the old one? With some help from G/lex and our Technical Staff, Sam Magruder repairs his old roto-molded seat shell to better than new.

Applying Polyester Gelcoat Over Epoxy


Andy Miller, of Miller Boatworks, does his own testing to prove that polyester gelcoat can be used over epoxy.

Hog Tide Project


Last summer Gougeon partnered with Sail Magazine to create a iberglass boat repair video series. One of those videos was on how to repair a rotten bulkhead. We cover the process in this article.

Strings' Float


One of the keys to Strings' self-rescuing capabilities is the loat on top of her mast. Technical Advisor Greg Bull walks through how it was made.

Shiloh, an Argie 15

Gadabout is a boat that was contracted by the Navy, designed to it into a standard 40' shipping container, and had to be able to be built by non-boatbuilders.

Epoxyworks is a registered trademark of Gougeon Brothers, Inc. WEST SYSTEM, 105 Epoxy Resin, 205 Fast Hardener, 206 Slow Hardener, 410 Microlight, G/5, G/lex and Six10 are registered trademarks of Gougeon Brothers, Inc. 207 Special Clear Hardener, 209 Extra Slow Hardener, 422 Barrier Coat Additive, Episize and Scarffer are trademarks of Gougeon Brothers, Inc.

Epoxyworks subscriptions are FREE to US and Canadian addresses. Subscriptions do not expire. To start or stop a subscription, change address or subscribe for a friend, complete and return the tear-out mailer or call 866937-8797 toll free. You may also subscribe via e-mail to (be sure to include your mailing address) or by illing out the subscription form at or Our mailing list is strictly conidential and will not be sold or used for any other purpose.

Contribute to Epoxyworks If you have completed an interesting project, or developed a useful technique or a practical or unusual use for epoxy, tell us and your fellow epoxy users about it. Send a photograph or two, or e-mail digital photos (about 300 dpi). Include a note describing the project and how we may contact you. By sending photographs you are granting permission to publish your photos in Epoxyworks and other Gougeon Brothers print and online publications or promotional presentations.

Mailing address Epoxyworks P.O. Box 908 Bay City, MI 48707-0908 20

Sailor and model ship builder Craig Bousquet decides to try his hand at building his own sailing vessel, a stitch and glue Argie 15.


Š 2016 by Gougeon Brothers, Inc. Reproduction in any form, in whole or in part, is expressly forbidden without the written consent of the publisher.

Subscriptions, US and Canada

Rotten cockpit soles are not an uncommon issue in older boats. Technical Advisor Don Gutzmer tackles the repair in a 1994 Four Winns.

Sea Ray 400 Seat Repairs

Product Number 000-605


Epoxyworks Online Browse back issues or look for speciic topics.


Part Two The inished boat was delivered to its new owners the summer of 2015. Here are the proud new owners of a Van Dam Custom original, doing what it was meant to do-having fun and LUV N IT!

By Bruce Niederer

In the previous issue of Epoxyworks, we looked at the start up process employed by the craftsmen at Van Dam Custom Boats as they built LUV N IT, afectionately referred to as the Limousine in Part One. We ended our “tour” of this build with the hull stained and pre-coated with WEST

SYSTEM® 105 Resin/207 Special Clear Hardener, and the custom-built stainless steel cutwater being itted for installation. Let’s pick up the build with the cabin top being installed…

Cover Photo: Nokomis, the sister ship to LUV N IT. Photo taken by Michel Berryer

LUV N IT Build



The Team at Van Dam often pre-stains and then coats components with WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin/207 Special Clear Hardener before installation. Here the pre-coated and sanded cabin sides are being it.


The cockpit coamings in place. The multiple pre-laminated curved pieces that make up the aft corner of the cabin have been installed.

4 Seating and storage are built and inished before they’re installed in the boat. The cabin trim, door jambs and window trim installed, and the cabin top primed.

Number 42, Spring 2016



6 The engine room is wired before the engines are set. Van Dam does all wiring to ABYC standards with team members who are ABYC certiied.

Dave Snyder itting the ceiling boards on the interior.

7 With the shaft logs installed and the bilge area painted white, the irst engine is lowered into place and set on custom aluminum mounts.


9 The neat installation of the engines and the shop-made exhaust pipes. The area under the engines is isolated, covered with 6 oz. cloth and WEST SYSTEM Epoxy, then painted white.

Now the focus becomes hours and hours of inish work. On the left Trevor Brazell and Justin Halteman work on inishing the interior of the cabin. On the right, the dash, steering wheel seats and sliding windows are installed.

10 Van Dam is comfortable with multiple inish approaches and inish products. In this case, as on many of its new boats, Trevor Brazell sprays an automotive clear coat over the top of the WEST SYSTEM 105/207 on the exterior.

11 Trevor Brazell pulls the tape on a freshly painted waterline. The boatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name gleams under the new clear coat.

12 Van Dam does its irst of multiple sea trials with engine hatches off and all mechanical and electrical systems accessible. This allows for ready monitoring of all components, assuring a trouble free experience for the customer.


13 This piece of mahogany was carved to it custom engraved crystal glasses and decantersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a good example of the level of detail Van Dam provides for their clients.


LUV N IT is a great example of Van Dam Custom Boats' dedication to ine boatbuilding and complete customer satisfaction. Every Van Dam boat is a result of sound engineering, high-quality materials, excellent craftsmanship and long experience in boat building. To learn more, visit their website:


A Tall Ship for Drummond Island By Captain Hugh Covert

he current boat I have is in good shape, sails well and has been a lot fun for 17 years. It had grown in the planning stage from 18 to 20, 22 and inally to 36 feet long on deck. But, while it grew much longer and somewhat wider, it didn't gain much in headroom. he need for a bigger boat with more room, fused with a desire to sail a tall ship with passengers, resulted in a plan for a new boat. I have been captain of several big sailing vessels around the U.S. and the Bahamas, and have built several boats, so the idea of building one to sail close to home seemed natural. Various limitations of water depth and haul out facilities produced a plan for a boat 60 feet on deck, 14 feet wide, schooner rigged with two masts, a centerboard and shallow draft. he inspiration for the design is an early 19th-century Baltimore Clipper-type Virginia pilot schooner whose measurements were taken by a French naval engineer in 1820. he lines were later re-published by Howard Chapelle, the American naval architect and historian. Reuel Parker, a leading light of the wooden boat fraternity, adapted the plans to modern building techniques and built a successful boat 20 years ago that cruises the East Coast and Bahamas, proving the validity of the concept. My boat will be named Huron Jewel and be licensed to carry six passengers on day sails in Potagannissing Bay and voyages to the North Channel. In working out my ideas about a new boat, I drew heavily upon Mr. Parker’s experiences and developed a plan further adapted to current wood/ epoxy construction and U.S. Coast Guard rules.

he sail plan is that of a typical 19th-century schooner, gaf rig with four lower sails: jib, staysail, a boomed foresail and mainsail. A main topsail will be part of the working canvas, making for about 1,700 square feet, with an additional isherman staysail for lighter winds. he hull will be planked in Douglas ir (milled in Michigan) and sheathed in WEST SYSTEM Epoxy (made in Bay City, Michigan) and iberglass cloth. he interior will have eastern white cedar, as well as birch and other hardwoods. he masts will be of wood as well. We’ll be carrying almost 14,000 pounds of ballast, mostly lead, but also counting the weight of engines and gear such as anchor chain. We plan to launch in Big Shoal Bay in the summer of 2017, after building the hull and turning it over the summer of 2016 to inish the interior. She will be a very fast and stable boat, suited to cruising around the rocky shores of Drummond Island, the Les Cheneaux Islands and the North Channel, and capable of extended voyages to the Caribbean.

Below are two views of the model built to the plan dimensions.

Captain Hugh Covert owns and manages Shelter Island Transit Company on Michigan’s Drummond Island. We'll be keeping in touch with him as the project progresses, and hope to provide updates in future issues of Epoxyworks.

We have built a 32' x 72' boat shop and are now lofting: drawing lines on the concrete loor based on a full-size model temporarily pinned together to get the dimensions just right. We’ve already acquired two Yanmar diesels for power and a tiny wood stove made in Benton Harbor, Michigan for heat and the proper aroma of wood smoke that belongs on a traditional schooner. We are sourcing as much material as possible through suppliers and manufacturers in Michigan, and have pledges of volunteer help from the local community. Number 42, Spring 2016


Balance By Alan Gurski

I have always been fascinated with balanced objects. Buildings, stones, sculptureâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the more impossible a balanced item looks, the more intriguing. I have been thinking for a long time about how to bring almost unbelievable centers of gravity into objects that are practical. A good loor lamp is hard to ind, so after our children destroyed our paper-lantern shaded loor lamp while playing hide-n-seek, we went shopping and found nothing. I decided I wanted to build a balanced and beautiful loor lamp. Lamp construction is very approachable. Lamp-speciic hardware elements are readily available for next-to-nothing on a few well run internet stores. Aside from these standard ittings and castings, any material can be incorporated and the design possibilities are endless.

Design he inspiration for this lamp would be a Fiddlehead Fern. Aside from being a tasty forage food, they have a very interesting balanced structure that I have always admired. he materials would be maple wood and aluminum as I like mixing organic and industrial materials in the mid-century tradition. I sat down with my trusty Âź" grid graph paper over coarkboard and set a workable scale of Âź"=3". I determined the space available for the lamp would require it to it into an imaginary rectangle 2' wide and 6' high. I knew the general shape of a Fiddlehead so I used a piece of plastic cut away from an egg carton lid as a fairing batten. As the shape I wanted began to form, I ixed the curves with push pins plunged into the underlying corkboard. I picked easily scalable points on the graph paper grid where I could. Once I got the shape reined and the pins in place, it was time to study the balance element.

Finished loor lamp.

Graph paper sketch. Note centerline of balance and pushpin holes for fairing the curve.


Finding balance is a matter of placing material or mass at distances of a neutral axis or centerline so the forces cancel each other out (like a seesaw). I knew my centerline and then calculated the mass of my materials on each side of the centerline. As the wood structure element was a relatively ixed mass per foot, some simple math was all that was required. I set out to keep the top curve material about equal on each side of the

Fiddlehead Fern EPOXYWORKS

The clamping jig made from laminated MDF. Note the subtle red grid lines scaled up from the design sketch.

centerline. I used the glass lamp shade and bulb components on the right side to balance the more vertical material on the left side of the centerline.

Construction I needed to get the very distinct recurve and spiral elements so I set out to steam bend the wooden element. To keep this brief, it was a terrible failure. First the maple snapped and then the substituted ash snapped. Suice it to say steam bending is best accomplished with green/air dried very straight grained stock of a species with excellent cross-grain strength. At the 10' lengths required for this project there was no such stock to be found locally. Laminating veneers was my fallback plan. I needed to get the lamp cord inside the 1 ½" x 1 ½" lamination so I decided on a three step process. I would laminate a 5/8" inside member, a ¼" center member with a hollow for the lamp cord and a 5/8" outside member (totaling 1 ½" thickness). hus I could run the lamp cord inside the lamination and then bond the three members. I found some (+-) 0.1" spruce veneer at the required 10' length in our Technical Center. I ripped these down to 1 ½" wide and determined that 7 veneers each would give me the roughly the 5/8" thickness I was looking for in the inside and outside members. I further determined the ¼" center member would be walnut as a dark contrast to the much lighter spruce. With stock prepared I set out to build the bending jig. Two layers of ¾" MDF were laminated with WEST SYSTEM® G/5 Five-Minute epoxy and an 809 Notched Spreader using the 1/8" tooth to keep the jig lamination thickness constant at just a little greater than 1 ½". I transferred the grid from my design sketch to this jig blank. From the grid I laid out the series of known points from the design sketch and lofted the curve with a stif batten. I then cut carefully with a reciprocating saw and ine-tuned for fairness with a sanding block. I used a large hole saw in the drill press to make the clamping holes. Number 42, Spring 2016

With the jig ready it was time for the inside member lamination. I mixed a small amount of 406 Colloidal Silica iller into WEST SYSTEM 105 Epoxy Resin/207 Special Clear Hardener to maintain some glue joint thickness, and rolled it onto the veneers with an 800 Roller Cover. Once all the veneers were wet, I stacked them, wrapped them in polyethylene plastic sheeting and taped it snugly. he polyethylene wrap simpliied transportation to the jig and protected the jig and clamps from epoxy squeeze-out. Starting at one end, bar clamps were applied at logical intervals and tightened sequentially until epoxy squeezed out from between the veneers. his inside member was left to cure in the plastic sheeting. he next day I removed the sheeting and put the lamination back on the jig. he ¼" walnut accent strip was laminated to the inside member. he accent strip is comprised of two pieces of wood each ¼" thick but only ½" wide. When placed at the top and bottom of the lamination they would leave a ½" recess slot in the middle of the lamination for the future installation of the lamp cord. It is important to point out that each member or layer of the inished lamination has a diferent shape. he radius of the inside member is the smallest with the center member radius slightly larger and inally the

Cut-offs of the laminations showing the inside and middle member lamination ready for lamp cord and then outside lamination. 5

own custom iller putty. I knifed in this mix, let it cure, and continued sanding. When mixed very rich with sanding dust, and barely wet, a better iller putty cannot be found. I challenge you to ind the grain tear. After many sweaty hours of hand sanding and fairing I coated the nearly round piece in Sanding Sealer, let it dry and sanded down to 320 grit. Next I applied three coats of satin polyurethane and the woodwork was complete.

A Weighted Base

The inished lamination

outside member is the largest radius. Each successive member was laminated on the former rather than the jig itself. Next I prepared the outside member in the same fashion as the inside member including the polyethylene wrap. his was important because, in order to run the lamp cord, I needed to laminate against the now combined inner member and center member without actually gluing to it. Once this was cured I had two “halves” of my inished, laminated 1 ½" x 1 ½" blank. I prepared the blank for lamp hardware by square cutting the two ends and installing the hollow threaded lamp nipples. I ran the cord along the slot in the walnut accent strip and then took the pieces back to the jig to glue the two halves together again with my 105/207/406 laminating mix.

he lampshade holder and base were installed and ine itted to the wood piece. I checked for balance and could not have been more pleased. he light gauge and hollow aluminum base, at only 11" at its widest, provided for a very stable loor lamp. hat being said, the fact that this loor lamp was destined for a carpeted room with three young children inspired me to ill the aluminum base with a combination of 105 Epoxy Resin/209 Extra Slow hardener loaded with beach sand. he sand-illed base lowered the lamp’s center of gravity, ensuring it would not topple over if jarred during some intense game of hide-n-seek. I was able to cast such a large volume of epoxy without fear of excessive exotherm as the shop temperature was mild and the 209 Extra Slow Hardener produces very little heat as it cures. his allowed the thermal mass of the sand to absorb much of the heat generated by the slow curing mass of epoxy. With the base illed, the lamp was wired and the bulb installed. I found the unique frosted lower bulb shaped glass shade at our local antique shop to complete the lamp. Glass lamp shade found at an antique store on stock lamp hardware

Once the epoxy had cured I began sanding. I scribed some reference marks on the blank with a compass and began the process of turning a square blank into a round piece. I started with a course grit on a belt sander and changed to increasingly iner grits on an orbital sander. Finally I faired with a hand-held sanding block. During the course of my sanding marathon I got just a bit overzealous and experienced some grain tear-out where the inner most veneer was getting thin from being worked down toward something round in shape. his has happened on other projects so I have learned to save the ine sanding dust from the orbital sander’s dust bag. With some G/5 Five Minute Epoxy and the sanding dust, I made my 6


Warm Temperature Bonding By Don Gutzmer

During warm summer months, handling characteristics of WEST SYSTEM Epoxy will be diferent than at other times of the year. Our cure times are based on an ambient temperature of 72°F, but in warmer temperatures the epoxy will cure faster. here are some steps you can take to ensure good results when using WEST SYSTEM Epoxy in warm environments. Epoxy cures by a chemical reaction between the resin and hardener that releases heat, called an exothermic reaction. he larger the volume of epoxy the more heat that is generated. Many epoxy users have seen pots of epoxy uncontrollably exotherm. he good news is there are some things you can do to prevent this. A good rule of thumb for gauging cure speed is that for every 18°F increase above 72°F, the working time and pot life will be cut in half. To maximize the working time of the epoxy, consider how much time you need and what temperature you’ll be working at, then select the hardener accordingly.

substrate. his increases surface area so heat buildup (exotherm) can dissipate, slowing the epoxy’s reaction. To slow epoxy’s reaction in very warm temperatures, create a foam box that is glued together and sealed to hold your roller pan as shown in the picture. Fill the inside of the foam box with tap water that will act as a heat sink and increase epoxy’s working time. An ice cube or two can be added as long as you do not chill the epoxy too much. Chilling the epoxy too much can cause moisture in the air to condense on the epoxy. he moisture can cause the epoxy to cure at a faster rate, become cloudy and reduce its cured physical properties. he thicker the mass of epoxy, the quicker it will cure. For large bonding applications we recommend using a two-step bonding technique: 1.

he pot life on the WEST SYSTEM technical data sheets refers to a conined mass of 100 grams of epoxy at 72°F. Pot life is always shorter than working time because epoxy contained in a pot kicks of faster than epoxy spread into a roller pan (thin ilm). Spreading out the epoxy extends working time. Select either the 206 Slow or 209 Extra Slow Hardener for best results in warm temperatures. To maximize working time (and minimize waste), mix a batch size that you can use within half of the pot life. With 206 Slow Hardener that would be 10-12 minutes and for 209 Extra Slow Hardener it would be 20-30 minutes at 72°F. his approach lets you continue using the same mixing pot, mixing stick and roller cover or glue brush. he 300 Mini Pumps meter approximately 1 luid ounce per pump stroke so you can mix small batches quickly and accurately. After thoroughly mixing resin and hardener, pour the epoxy into roller pans or onto the

Number 42, Spring 2016

Wet out the surface with neat (unthickened) epoxy.

2. Apply epoxy thickened with high-density iller like 403 Microibers, 404 High-Density, or 406 Colloidal Silica. Wetting out the surface with a thin coat of neat epoxy will help ensure that it has contact with all the nooks and crannies before the epoxy starts to cure. he thin coat of epoxy will cure more slowly and have time to efectively wet out the surface. he thickened epoxy is applied to bridge gaps, and should be applied last to the places with the largest gaps (requiring more epoxy volume) to maximize assembly time.

Foam box holding water and a roller pan to help cool epoxy and increase working time.

To monitor the cure process from each batch, pour a small sample into a container to see how fast the system is curing in thin ilm. “Controlling Exotherm” by Mike Barnard in Epoxyworks 39 covers managing exothermic reaction when working with large quantities of epoxy.


1994 Four Winns 190 Horizon

Cockpit Sole Repair By Don Gutzmer Rotted and damaged wooden cockpit sole

Rotted stringer and damage done to the lotation during wood removal

As a technical advisor, part of my job is to guide our customers to the correct product selection and discuss proper repair procedures. Sometimes itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a fun challenge to take on my own projects to stay busy, and it helps me learn what my customers are up against when they do similar projects. his project was repairing the cockpit sole (loor) of a 1994 Four Winns 190 Horizon. he pictures will help tell the story.

I could see that the remaining lotation foam was dry and in good condition.

he fasteners that held the seats in place likely provided the main entry point for the water which eventually rotted the plywood in many diferent areas. Removing the rotted wood was a dirty, time consuming task and the hardest part of the repair. To remove the damaged wood I used a powered multi-tool, circular saw, pry bar, and hammer. he pry bar and hammer were what worked best for me.

Using pieces of cardboard, I created templates for the two stringers I had to replace, and the bulkhead. he templates were my guide as I cut the replacement stringers and bulkhead out of ½" marine-grade plywood. I paid special attention to ensure the end grain of the plywood was well sealed with WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin and 205 Fast Hardener. Using an angle grinder with a carbide wheel, I prepared the iberglass hull for good adhesion.

Because a majority of the wood had not fully rotted away, a lot of plywood came of the lotation foam in small sections, taking pieces of foam with it. When I had all the rotted wood removed,

Cardboard templates made for the new plywood sole and stringers 8

he boat was built with 4 longitudinal stringers. he two inboard stringers next to the fuel tank and the bulkhead between them had mostly rotted away and needed to be removed. he outboard stringers were surrounded by lotation foam and in good shape, so there was no reason to remove them.

I mixed 105/205, then thickened it with 403 Microibers to a mayonnaise-like consistency and used this to glue the stringers to the hull. hickening the epoxy ensured there would be enough material to prevent a glue-starved joint. With the replacement stringers in place, I then installed the bulkhead. I applied a layer of WEST SYSTEM 727 (17 oz.) biaxial iberglass tape to the stringer/bulkhead hull joint, like the existing tabbing, for added reinforcement. After the bulkhead was installed, I placed pieces of cardboard over the exposed lotation foam to create the template for cutting out the new plywood sole. I pieced the plywood in three EPOXYWORKS

The plywood stingers and bulkhead have been dry it. The backer panels for the butted plywood seams are set into the foam.

sections with the same veneer orientation. To create a backer panel for the butted plywood seam, I set a small section of plywood into the foam. I then used a little two-part, pourable lotation foam to level the surface of the original lotation foam (which I’d inadvertently removed with the rotted plywood). I mixed 105/205/403 to a mayonnaise consistency again and applied it to the bottom side of the plywood sole and the surface of the lotation foam to ensure a good bond when installing the sole. Once the epoxy had cured, I applied a layer of WEST SYSTEM 742 (6 oz.) iberglass cloth to the bare wood to provide additional wear resistance and prevent the wood from checking or splitting over time. I tabbed all of the edges that met the hull by applying a layer of 727 (17 oz.) biaxial iberglass tape for added reinforcement. I coated the plywood sole with 105/205 tinted with 503 Gray Pigment and sprinkled it with paint color lakes for a nice cosmetic inish. UV degradation doesn’t concern me because I’ll only be using this boat a handful of times throughout the year. To replace the old wooden center sole panel, which provides access to the fuel tank, I repurposed a composite panel made from 1"-thick high-density foam and thin iberglass skins. his was a leftover test panel from Gougeon Brothers. Checking the placement of the access hole to the storage compartment, using the wood hatch, before cutting the opening.

If that hadn’t been available, I would have made the replacement panel from wood like the original sole panel. he composite panel is very strong and stif and does not delect when walked on. Recycling it this way was actually an upgrade to the original construction. After reinstalling the fuel tank, I inished this panel to match the rest of the cockpit sole, then fastened it in place.

The plywood sole was covered with one layer of 6 oz. iberglass and a coat of epoxy tinted with 503 Gray pigment. The composite panel is being dry it in place.

I coated the original removable wood hatch for the storage compartment with 105 Resin/207 Special Clear Hardener to prevent water damage. I installed this hatch into the composite panel to provide additional access to the storage just forward of the bulkhead and fuel tank. he project overall was a fun challenge and turned out well. For detailed information on how to repair a cockpit sole, see our Fiberglass Boat Repair & Maintenance manual, pages 40–42. To download a free PDF of this manual, go to HowTo-Publications, and click on Download Fiberglass Boat Repair & Maintenance.

Completed cockpit sole ready for use

Sea Ray 400 Seat Repairs By Sam Magruder

I have a 1996 Sea Ray 400 Express Cruiser that I purchased in April 2014. he vinyl is in excellent condition in the cockpit. However, when someone sat in the front passenger seat (45" wide) the back looked like it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t attached. I went to the Sea Ray Owners Club website to explore the repairs and a ix for the seat. I learned that if I waited until the seat back broke, the vinyl would be damaged, and it would be costly to replace. It took me several hours to remove the seat, the vinyl seat cover and the foam. he roto-molded seat shell was severely cracked on each edge. I contacted the manufacturer and learned that a new one could be purchased from Sea Ray for $523 delivered to Atlanta, Georgia. Ultimately I decided to repair the old seat instead and reuse the original vinyl. On Ship Shape TV I saw an ad about using G/lex Epoxy to glue together a kayak that was cut in half. I thought, maybe they could tell me how to repair my old seat shell! I downloaded the WEST SYSTEM manuals and read as much as I could before calling Gougeon Brothers, Inc., Technical Support oice. Gougeon Technical Advisor Don Gutzmer said my seats could be repaired if I followed all the steps and used the G/ lex hickened Epoxy Adhesive (G/lex 655) and some iberglass tape. I beefed up a few of those steps to make sure my project would be a success.

he seat shell was dirty from 18 years of use, and was also covered in foam glue. I used a lat razor blade scraper to remove the bulk of the foam glue where the repairs were to be done. I wanted the shell to appear like new where I would be doing the repairs. After cleaning the repair areas, I noticed the bottom of the seat had ive additional cracks that needed repairing. Alcohol would not remove the stubborn glue residue, so I cleaned the seat shell with MEKP (methyl ethyl keytone peroxide). his is a highly lammable solvent which I had to use outdoors, but it cleaned all of the old foam glue of the seat. I poured some on a white towel and rubbed it on the shell until the shell was spotless. In some cases I repeated the application multiple times. I used a white towel because MEKP can make the dye in a colored towel bleed onto the seat shell. Don Gutzmer advised that I should feather back 1" from the cracks for the 655 G/lex hickened Epoxy Adhesive to adhere correctly. Some of these cracks were 12" long. Because I was prepping a large area, I used a rotary tool (rather than a scraper) to feather the cracks. A faster, rougher tool resulted in the correct shape, and then a iner tool made the shape smooth. I did this for every crack I was repairing. I then drilled a â&#x2026;&#x203A;" hole at the end of each crack to prevent further cracking.

The seat has 18 years of accumulated dirt and residual foam and glue that needed to be removed.

Severe cracking had compromised the structural integrity of the seat.



I ordered the quart size (655-2QT) of the thickened G/lex along with WEST SYSTEM 732-10 iberglass tape (4" x 10'). I sanded each joint with 80-grit sandpaper and wiped the entire area surrounding the repair with alcohol to remove dust from sanding. To lex the seat back into shape I used two ratchet straps. hese worked perfectly to get the shell back to the correct angle. After getting the seat to the correct angle, I used the rotary tool to prepare the cracks. Don had advised that in addition to the epoxy I should use the iberglass tape to strengthen the repair. On each crack on the bottom of the seat, I used a 1", 3", and 4" wide strips all with the G/ lex 655 hickened Epoxy Adhesive. I used the 4" wide tape and cut 1" of the edge to produce a 1" wide and a 3" wide piece. his raised the thickness of the repairs to about ⅛"-3/16". For the side repairs (heavy stress areas) I used strips of 2" wide tape, staggered 2", and two each of staggered 4" wide pieces. Once the Epoxy arrived I prepped my work area with: • G/lex 655 Epoxy (1 quart cans of Part A and Part B) • 3 paint stir sticks about 1" wide (one for getting part A out of the can, one for Part B, and one for mixing) • Newspaper spread across a large area of loor to protect it from epoxy • Cut up cardboard (about 12" x 12") to use as pallets for mixing each batch of epoxy • Disposable latex gloves • A lat-bladed screwdriver for opening the cans • Pre-cut iberglass tape for each repair area

• Disposable 1" paint brushes for brushing the epoxy • 10 large rags for cleanup Now I was ready to get started. I wiped the seat repair areas, plus an extra 4" all around with isopropyl alcohol and let that dry for 10 minutes. I then used the blue lame of the propane torch moving at 12" a second over all the areas that were to be repaired, plus 4" wider than each side of the crack. he lame treating helps to oxidize the surface to improve adhesion.

The cleaned bottom of the seat shell. The circles highlight the areas where cracks need to be repaired.

I used separate paint stirrers to glop equal amounts of 655 G/lex Epoxy Resin and Hardener onto a cardboard pallet and worked these together for 3-4 minutes to make sure it was thoroughly mixed and uniform in color. I scraped the separate resin and hardener stirrers with a third stirrer and wiped them clean for reuse. I applied the mixed G/lex to each repair area way too thick over a 4"-5" wide area. I then applied the iberglass tape going from smallest to largest, applying the mixed epoxy between each layer. I used the stirrer to smooth out the epoxy and to apply more to the top of the tape. When I needed more epoxy I added it from the mixed batch on the cardboard pallet. I did this until all 3 or 4 layers were covered with epoxy. I used the paintbrush to smooth any lumps. Once I was done I scraped the

• Propane torch • Alcohol for the inal wiping • 2 ratchet straps for keeping the seat in shape while it was being epoxied • An old box to hold the seat bottom in the up position Number 42, Spring 2016

All the cracks were beveled with the use of a rotary tool with a tapered bit.


The bottom of the seat shell with cracks illed and reinforced with iberglass.

repaired area with the paint stirrer until all the tape was covered and fairly smooth. I made the repairs in two sessions: the bottom and the sides. To the side I applied only the G/ lex, not the iberglass tape. he bottom was lat and easy, but the side stress areas required moving the shell around. To prepare for the second repair session, I smoothed the cured epoxy using a palm sander with 80-grit sandpaper, alcohol wipe, and blue lame on the raw roto-molded parts. For the sides of the seat, high stress areas, I spread epoxy away from the crack 12" on each side. I also used 4 layers of iberglass tape. When completed these repair areas had a 3/16" buildup. I let the epoxy fully cure for 48 hours. With the palm sander I feathered each edge and the top of the repairs to smooth out any rough spots. When it was done it felt sturdy and solid. My cost to repair this was about $170 including the epoxy, tape, propane torch, and supplies. I have done some other iberglass repairs so I thought this would be similar. However, there are a few things I wished I had known beforehand:

The corners of the seat shell were reinforced with iberglass tape.

• G/lex 655 Epoxy is messy, so change your disposable gloves often. • G/lex 655 Epoxy could be worked easily for about 30 minutes. Multiple batches may be needed. • I ordered the quart sized containers of the G/lex 655 Epoxy and I only have about ⅓ of each can left. • G/lex 655 Epoxy takes several hours to cure and 24 hours to fully cure. he 655 Epoxy ixed the cracked seat and it is very sturdy. If you follow the directions, the repair is simple. I want to thank Don Gutzmer of Gougeon Technical Support for all of his help with the repairs. He made it simple and easy.

• G/lex 655 hickened Epoxy Adhesive is thick—almost like sheetrock mud.

The completed seat installed and ready for use.



Applying Polyester Gelcoat Over Epoxy By Mike Barnard

Andy Miller has a great understanding of WEST SYSTEM Epoxy, having used it for years as owner and chief repairman of Miller Boatworks in Herbster, Wisconsin. Andy also maintains, a website featuring instructional boat repair videos. Having watched, veriied and referred people to the videos on Andy’s website over the last few years, I know that Andy knows his stuf. What’s even better is that, when he’s unsure about a detail, he contacts us for the right answers. his gives me a lot of conidence in the methods featured in the videos at the Boatworks Today website. Andy wanted to conduct some experiments to either validate or debunk what most people in the marine industry are taught; that gelcoat cannot be used over epoxy. I relayed the information that we’ve gathered over 30 years of in-house testing. While he found that interesting, he didn’t want to mimic our experiments. He chose to take a diferent approach, replicating the variables the average service technician faces while doing a repair in the real world. We know polyester gelcoat can be used over WEST SYSTEM Epoxy. As Jef Wright wrote in “Polyester Over Epoxy” in Epoxyworks 22: “As with many products, the surface must be prepared properly: if it is not, then poor curing and adhesion may result. Polyester

materials can be afected by amines in the epoxy hardener. If the hardener has not fully reacted with the epoxy resin or the amine blush is not removed from the cured surface, problems can occur. Proper surface preparation will prevent these problems. (See our Fiberglass Boat Repair & Maintenance manual, Section 16.4.1 for details.)” To ensure the amines won’t compromise the cure of the polyester gelcoat, standard mixing and curing instructions apply. Before coating a fully cured layer of epoxy with polyester gelcoat, prepare the surface properly to remove any amine blush.

Surface Preparation Steps 1.

Allow the epoxy to cure to the point where sanding produces a ine powder.

2. Wash away amine blush with water and an abrasive pad such as a 3M #7447 Hand Pad. 3. Dry the surface with paper towels, or rinse well and allow it to air dry. 4. Sand the epoxy with the sandpaper grit level recommended by the gelcoat manufacturer. I asked Andy to follow these steps and do some testing to prove to himself that it is possible to gelcoat over epoxy. He videotaped the steps as well as the testing he did.

A screen capture of the accompanying video to this article explaining the tests. archives/1668 13

To ensure thorough mixing and that the epoxy would completely cure, he took the additional steps of pouring the mixed epoxy into a new container and stirring it again before applying it. He then allowed the application to cure for 3-4 days. his wasn’t required but would help ensure consistent results, especially if there are multiple people doing this in a repair or manufacturing environment.

Real World Testing Andy focused on three common factors in repair work: ine edge bonding, lexing stress, and cleavage strength. All of these tests were done comparing the three WEST SYSTEM hardeners he commonly uses with 105 Resin: 205 Fast Hardener, 206 Slow Hardener and 207 Special Clear Hardener. he iberglass used for all the tests was 738 Biaxial Fiberglass Fabric with Mat.

Fine Edge Bonding Fine edge bonding is important when inishing of a gelcoat repair. As the gelcoat is sanded down and feathered into the surrounding area, the perimeter of the patch becomes very thin, almost translucent depending on the color you’re working with. What Andy is looking for here is to see how well this ine edge stays intact. When gelcoat gets this thin it tends to lift or chip if not bonded solidly to the substrate. All three epoxy samples performed as well as the polyester sample. When sanded to a ine edge and picked at with a razor blade, no lifting or separation of the gelcoat was noticed.

Flexing Stress Boats lex while in use. In order to prevent stress cracks in the gelcoat, this material needs to be able to move with the boat without delaminating or peeling apart from the substrate. Andy made three samples of single layer 738 Biaxial Fabric wet out

Fine edge bonding test. Scraping the edge of the gelcoat with a razor tests how well the ine edge of the gelcoat stays attached to the epoxy layer below. 14

Flex stress test. The panel was intentionally broken in half looking for bond failure along the fracture point.

with 105 Epoxy Resin and either 205, 206 or 207 hardener. He inished each with a polyester gelcoat to test how well it would bond. he gelcoat was sealed with PVA and allowed to fully cure. Here again, all of the epoxy samples performed as well as the polyester sample. Each of the samples were bent and twisted to varying degrees far beyond what would normally happen on a boat underway. Stress cracks were noticed as he intentionally broke the iberglass sample in half looking for bonding failure along the fracture point, but there was no lifting or separation of the gelcoat from the cured epoxy.

Cleavage Strengths While it’s good to have cleavage strength data, it can be helpful to simplify that into something more concrete and easily understood. Andy made sample pieces with each of the three hardeners, then made identical polyester samples. When the epoxy samples were cured, water washed and sanded, he bonded the epoxy and polyester samples together with polyester gelcoat. When the samples were fully cured, he ripped them apart to determine a clear pass/fail on the bonding strength. Whichever side broke free from the gelcoat, comparatively, did not have as strong of a bond. he results surprised Andy. he samples showed that the polyester gelcoat bonded to the epoxy laminate but the amount of force to break the samples and failure mode varied between the diferent systems. Our experience from many years of testing has taught us that WEST SYSTEM hardeners all achieve similar cured properties so there should not be a diference. Andy’s work illustrates the strength and weakness of shop loor testing. He was able quickly determine if the adhesion of polyester gelcoat to an epoxy laminate was acceptable, but he was unable to EPOXYWORKS

The MTS machine pulled apart samples to determine the amount of force needed to cause failure.

The samples after failure. The results of the maximum loads are listed in the table below.

measure it quantitatively. Experienced epoxy users like Andy also know that they have to evaluate the results achievable in their shop but may need testing results from a lab to reach a inal conclusion. We always encourage our customers to test materials in their shop to gain conidence, and we remind them we are willing to support them with additional testing in our Technical Center.

glue joint. I prepared the pieces for testing by applying iberglass and epoxy on each of the four sides that had exposed end grain. When they cured, I cut this laminate with a razor blade directly on the gelcoat line. his iberglass and epoxy reinforced the plywood, and cutting through the fabric on the gelcoat line forced the failure to occur in the bond line between the pieces of plywood. he results are recorded on the Tensile Strength table, and as you can see the strength is nearly identical for all four samples. Each of these samples (including the polyester-to-polyester sample) failed in the polyester/ glass laminate. his more quantitative tensile adhesion testing conirms that polyester gelcoat will properly cure and adhere to epoxy.

Tensile Adhesion Strengths While this wasn’t “shop loor testing” like Andy did, a couple of us analytical types at WEST SYSTEM wanted to put some hard numbers to this data. When Andy made up the cleavage strength samples, he made several more for us so we could do some of this testing ourselves.

Andy Miller’s Conclusion

Using an ASTM standard that is typically used for cored composites, and our MTS load frame, a force was exerted perpendicular to the bond line in order to cause failure. To determine the strength of the various bonds, we compared the amount of force required to cause each sample to fail.

Based on Andy’s and our own testing and experience, I am conident saying WEST SYSTEM Epoxy is a suitable substrate for polyester-based material such as gelcoat. Gelcoat-to-epoxy adhesion will be as reliable, if not better than, a polyesterto-polyester adhesion, providing proper steps are followed throughout the repair process.

Because we expected the plywood glue to fail before the polyester and epoxy, I reinforced the plywood edges without reinforcing the polyester or epoxy

For further details of Andy’s tests, see the video documentation of his testing process at

Tensile Strength Sample

Area (sq. in.)

Max. Load (lbs)

Peak Stress (psi)

Polyester / Polyester




Polyester / 105/205




Polyester / 105/206




Polyester / 105/207




Number 42, Spring 2016


Hog Tide Project By Bruce Neiderer

J22 Hog Tide at the Gougeon Brothers shop, getting a new bulkhead.

Last summer we partnered with Sail Magazine to produce a series of short videos showing how to repair an older J22 I had arranged to be brought into the Tech shop. he boat, named Hog Tide, needed the types of repairs we wanted to cover. he videos can be found at both and If you’re wondering about the name, all the J22s that race in East Tawas, Michigan out of the Tawas Bay Yacht Club have ‘pig’ names—Pork Bellies, Pigs in Space, Pygmalion, Evil Dr. Porkchop, The Other White Meat, and my favorite, Notorious P.I.G, are notables. his article features still pictures taken while the videos were being shot. I’ll comment as we walk through the process.

The bulkhead has been removed and the tabbing that was on the back side was left in place. Inset, the intact bulkhead that was removed.

he back side tabbing was left in place to make the alignment process a no-brainer when we installed the new bulkhead. Had the bulkhead not come out so cleanly, we would have needed to make a template from scratch for the bulkhead. Tom demonstrates how to make an accurate template by itting some cardboard loosely then stapling small wooden strips extending to meet the hull of the boat to deine the exact shape needed. Tom laid out

The bulkhead we were replacing, looking from the companionway towards the bow.

he bulkhead we were replacing had a lot of checked and rotten areas around each chain plate. here was rot just about everywhere except for the trim piece, which we removed and saved to re-install on the new bulkhead. To remove the bulkhead intact, I used a vibrating side cutter with a diamond grit blade. his allowed the bulkhead to be removed full size so we could trace the shape for the new bulkhead.


Tom double checking the it of his template. The inset shows the wooden strips measuring the hull. EPOXYWORKS

Tom transfers the template points to the plywood.

the template and made tick marks at the end of the wooden sticks on the sheet of marine grade plywood. hen, using a lexible batten, it was simply a game of connect the dots to deine the shape of the bulkhead. Once our new bulkhead was cut out, it was ready for 6 oz. iberglass to be laminated to both sides. After curing overnight, all surfaces that would receive epoxy were prepped using an abrasive pad so as to not damage the ibers of the iberglass, but still scuf up between the weave of the fabric.

The new bulkhead clamped to the tabbing from the old bulkhead to hold it in place, and the new illet applied.

Once the illets got a bit tacky, the 727 glass tape tabbing was installed—again using 105/206. Note that we used several shorter lengths of glass tape to make the curve and overlapped them a bit. his kept the glass from buckling around the curve and eliminated the need to cut pleats in the glass. Shortly after we’d completed the transom replacement (along with some other repairs) Hog Tide was returned to her owner and took irst place out of eight J/22s racing on Lake Huron’s Tawas Bay just a few weeks later.

New bulkhead with a layer of 6 oz. iberglass cut to size

To install the new bulkhead, I precut enough 727-4 Biaxial 4" Tape for the tabbing then shanghaied Tom to be my “ground crew” while I worked inside the boat.

To watch the complete series of videos covering all the repairs we accomplished, visit or sailmagazine. com/videos.

The new iberglass tabbing applied.

Tom supplied me with 105 Resin/206 Slow Hardener illed to a non-sag consistency with 403 Microiber iller. We chose to use the 403 because it thickens fast without much airborne dust while mixing. he resulting graininess of the illet would be glassed over anyway, so cosmetics were not an issue. We applied thickened epoxy to the lange (original tabbing) we’d left intact, then clamped the bulkhead to the lange drawing it into perfect position. his allowed me to apply a illet to the perimeter of the part—with the exception of the limber hole along the centerline—water still needs to low into the bilge from the bow area. Number 42, Spring 2016

The cabin of the J22 fully reassembled. 17

Strings' Float By Greg Bull

When Jan Gougeon built Strings in 2010 one of the most interesting features he included, at least from my point of view, was the loat that goes on top of the mast. Due to its zeppelin-like shape, this is also called a blimp or a dirigible. he purpose of the loat is to make the boat self-rescuing: if the boat tips, the loat prevents it from going any farther than lying on its side. he mast and loat are then used to right the boat. Jan developed this system when designing the Gougeon-32 back in the late ’80s, so he thought it would work for Strings. Jan built the loat by making a half mold to build the two halves from, then gluing the sections together. He simply used pink insulating foam board (Owens-Corning Foamular® InsulPink®)

2" thick that he picked up at our local home improvement store. To create the desired thickness he glued the pieces of foam together with WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin/206 Slow Hardener with 410 Microlight iller mixed to a catsup consistency. He roughed out the shape with a rasp followed by a coarse ile and 36-grit sandpaper on a wooden sanding block. When it reached the shape Jan was looking for, he added a thin coat of thickened epoxy over the entire surface and let it cure. He smoothed this down irst with 36-grit sandpaper on a sanding block, then moved up to 80-grit and inally 220-grit. his completed the mold. He waxed the mold surface then laid a layer of carbon iber fabric over the mold with 105/205 and allowed it to cure until tacky. Next the surface was coated with epoxy illed with 410 Microlight. he next day the sanding started again—this time to smooth the outside of the dirigible. It was easier to sand the outside with the part still stuck to the male mold surface and get it really close to the inal smoothness. When the fairing was done, Jan made a stuing jig. he stuing jig served a couple of purposes: 1. To hold the half-round part so work could be done on the inside and 2. to create a lat plane to trim the half dirigible to. he stuing jig would also help in the inal assembly. When the jig was completed, the irst half of the dirigible was pulled from the mold and put into the stuing jig. It had been left on the mold during the jig building process to maintain the correct shape. Jan laid up the second half the same as the irst, again fairing the outside.

The completed dirigible atop Strings’ mast as it's being stepped for the season. EPOXYWORKS

Installing carbon iber tows inside the dirigible

With the irst half of the dirigible held in place in the jig, the structure could be installed on the inside. his is where Jan came up with the great idea of using just tows of carbon to create a grid work on the inside of the dirigible half, like small frames or ribs on 2" centers. he tows were laid length wise irst (the long way) then across (the short way). his added a lot of structural reinforcement with minimal weight.

made a smooth bonding area on both halves and provided a larger surface area for joining the two halves. Having more bonding surface area allowed him to apply a thinner coat of thickened epoxy to create minimal squeeze-out when he joined the two halves. he squeezed out thickened epoxy was smoothed over the surface of the seam. Carbon iber tape, 2" wide, was then applied along the seam, adding strength.

Where the pivot tube goes through to attach the dirigible to the mast, more reinforcement was added. Strips of 1/8" x 1/2" thick clear spruce function as stringers positioned on or next to the carbon tows bracing the area around the tube to help carry the load.

For fairing, 105/205 thickened with 410 Microlight was again spread across all surfaces. Most of this fairing compound was sanded of so that you could see black carbon through the fairing, but he didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sand into the carbon. his took a couple of applications to reach the desired smoothness. Once this was achieved, paint was applied to match the rest of Strings.

Putting an internal lange on the inside perimeter of the dirigible halves allowed the assembled dirigible to be smooth on the outside. he temporary backer for the lange was made of plywood covered with plastic, then screwed down to the jig with the plywood protruding into the inside of the dirigible half by about 1". Jan applied 105/205 mixed with 407 LowDensity iller to a peanut butter consistency. He used the rounded end of mixing stick to illet the corner formed by the plywood and the edge of the dirigible. After the illet cured, the temporary plywood backer was removed. his

Wooden sticks serve as stringers inside the dirigible.

The dirigible surface during the fairing process

Left, the temporary plywood backer for the lange screwed onto the jig. Far left, thickened epoxy was applied to the underside of the wooden backer to create the lange. 19

Shiloh, an Argie 15 By Craig Bousquet

I didn’t know what I was getting myself into when I decided to build my own boat. While not exactly a novice—I have owned a 21' sailboat and am a tall-ship model builder—I'm not experienced in building sailing vessels. I looked through various plans and decided on the Argie 15 from Dix Designs. his is a stitch and glue boat which looked easy to build, but also gave me a variety of options. I ordered the plans and started to acquire the materials needed to construct and assemble this boat. he Argie 15 is designed to be rowed, sailed, or used with a small outboard motor. I lofted the lines from the plans and cut out the panels from marine grade plywood. he Dix Design plans called for the joints to be butt itted and covered with 2"-wide iberglass tape and epoxy. I opted to scarf the joints to provide better strength in the panels (two side panels per side and one for the loor). he irst step was to align the loor panel and the two lower side panels, and to drill the holes for the wire ties, or stitches, that would hold the panels in place. he next step was to do the same with the upper panels on each side. At this point, it actually looked like a boat. Now the fun really started. he tasks turned to tightening all the stitches to close any gaps between the panels, and to check for proper alignment and symmetry. As a novice in iberglass techniques I knew I was in for an experience, and boy was that correct. I began by laying the dry iberglass on the inside seams I was eager to get out on the water and start enjoying my work. The barrier coat is holding up very well.


using WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin and 205 Fast Hardener. he irst batch worked correctly. But when I did the same seam on the opposite side I must have taken just a tad too long as the epoxy uncontrollably exothermed in the mixing cup. In both cases it was about 70°F in my workspace. I’d used pumps to correctly meter the resin and hardener and it had cured within the time frame listed in the WEST SYSTEM User Manual & Product Guide. I realized I needed to use the 206 Slow Hardener instead to give myself more working time. his required me to make another trip to my local West Marine, where they now greet me by name—shades of Norm in Cheers. he most important lesson learned on the irst go around: Don’t think you have more working time than what the WEST SYSTEM User Manual & Product Guide states; you really don’t. Now that I woke up and smelled the epoxy uncontrollably exotherming in the mixing cup, I knew that I had to move quicker and have the strips of glass laid out and taped into position. I inished epoxying the seams on the inside, then turned the hull over and removed the stitches so they wouldn’t interfere with glassing the outside seams. I had great luck pulling the stitches all the way out from the outside without having to cut the iberglass tape on the inside. I mixed more 105/206 and blended in 403 Microiber iller to ill in gaps between the seams, and to lair of the edges of the side panels and loorboard. I epoxied a narrow layer

of iberglass on each outside seam and allowed it to fully cure. I then sanded the iberglass and epoxied a second, wider iberglass strip to each outside seam. he increased bonding area of the wider iberglass improved the strength of the seam reinforcement. I turned the boat over and repeated this process on the inside. he Dix Designs plan required me to stitch and glue the seat supports to the hull side panels. I didn’t agree with this and decided to fasten stifeners to the seat supports, and then screw them into place. After all interior panels were in place and attached to the hull, I mixed a batch of epoxy with 405 Filleting Blend and used that to seal any small gaps and illet the corners. I applied several coats of epoxy to all of the enclosed interior seat areas to seal the wood against moisture. At this point the chill of winter had set in, and my garage is not heated so I stopped working on the project from November until the following April. Upon the return of warmer temperatures, I sanded my previous epoxy coats to make them fair. I applied two layers of epoxy over the outside and inside of the hull to seal the wood. he epoxy was rolled on with a foam roller. he hull will be painted in the near future, but I was eager to get it into the water to start enjoying my work. The panels have been stitched and some seams iberglassed

I recently started on the dagger board and rudder and anticipate using G/lex Epoxy, as it is designed for constant shifting loads. Currently, I am rowing about four hours a week. he epoxy coat has held up very well, with boat launching and recovery every trip. he instructions in the WEST SYSTEM User Manual & Product Guide were a great help. I called WEST SYSTEM Technical Support several times with technical questions and they were very accommodating. One of my mixing pumps came apart while dispensing the epoxy and the company sent me a set of new ones. I named my boat Shiloh which means “peace.” When on the river it’s mostly silent and you can hear the birds and other delightful sounds of nature. Within the next year, the hull will be painted and the mast and sails will be in place, but for now, I have had great fun rowing up and down the Mohawk River in the Albany area of New York.

Number 42, Spring 2016

The boat after the epoxy coating was rolled on.

Glassing of the inside seams


Testing out GADABOUT 's performance at 70% throttle

GADABOUT By Susanne Altenburger

he US Navy asked Phil Bolger & Friends Inc. (PB&F) to develop a container-transportable power cruiser. his was a rather irresistible opportunity. We had been developing a modest sequence of design concepts to match a variety of unusual requirements for the Navy. his time they wanted us to design this craft, and manage the prototyping of the project from the earliest stages of construction to inal testing. While our design oice had never built anything bigger than perhaps 16 feet, we understood the basics of how any design would be built. In pursuit of a collaborative model, the US Navy would put up a modest budget which would then be matched by the City of Gloucester. he Navy would stretch its limited research funds, and the City would get to explore working with this most potent marine industrial partner — a rare opportunity for marine-industrial development. If successful, this irst modest step might result in increasingly more ambitious collaborations in the future.

Starting with the many smaller pieces, learning how to measure three times and cut once, then onto epoxy coating and iberglassing sessions. 22

his was the brief: • Can this patrol craft design be built as a prototype for the US Navy by Gloucester low-income non-boatbuilders to adequate quality and performance? • If so, the US Navy would take these plans and the well-illustrated construction manual overseas to help poorer nations build their own riverine and inshore patrol craft. • Later these crews could repeat the efort on larger or smaller scales to match their particular needs. he US Navy has an extensive network of friendly overseas partners, including those who cannot necessarily aford to buy boats built in highly industrialized, high-wage nations. By selecting plywood, epoxy, iberglass and closed-cell foam core as construction materials, an untrained building crew can complete the project under rudimentary conditions with little industrial infrastructure. To support the project development, the Navy would irst build the #2 hull on a US naval base as a test of the construction manual, and an opportunity for Navy staf to learn the process so they could eventually serve as instructors overseas. For the hulls built far away, the Navy would ill containers with all the materials, hardware and consumables necessary, slide the #2 hull into its own 40' ISO container, and these steel boxes would be shipped to the partners’ locations. Once these containers had arrived, the instructors would ly in, pull the materials out and demonstrate the remaining construction process. EPOXYWORKS

Learning how to join full-length pieces, here are her near 40' topsides laminated to match the design’s plan view curve and panel twist. Instead of attempting to learn scaring with Douglas ir plywood we used modiied "Payson joints" for all long or wide panels, with the joint stronger than the wood.

his would build motivation among the local Navy/Coast Guard boatbuilding apprentices, and they’d get going on the irst local copies. Apart from the convenience of shipping the #2 hull as a model for overseas partners, the Navy wanted the general tactical utility to ship fully assembled boats anywhere. his way they could open innocuous looking containers and quickly launch a military craft. herefore, the design had to match the internal dimension of the standard 40' box, starting with the door-opening. Getting the most boat into the box would be one of the leading design goals, leaving just enough room for low-key insertion and extraction. To match a standard ISO 40' shipping-container, the boat would measure: • 39' 1" length (vs. 39' 6" available) • 7' 5" width (vs. 7' 8") • 7' 3" height (vs. 7' 6") • 6500 lbs empty and dry • 225 hp outboard and 200 gal of fuel for 2025+ kts depending upon load As an inshore and coastal craft, patrolling for days on end with a crew of two to four, this boat called for two bunks, a modest galley and a private head. On shorter runs, eight additional troops would be carried, deployable to the beach via the bow gate. Her bow cockpit was designed to carry a swivelmounted .50-cal MG or Mk.19 40 mm grenade launcher system and gunner. Additional weapons would be carried by military crew members.

Number 42, Spring 2016

What had started as a promising collaboration between the US Navy and the City of Gloucester began to sufer under the increasingly severe iscal consequences of the Great Recession. here would never be more than 55% of the original budget for the project. Soon, instead of four, only one person remained on the job. hen, without any more funds for even a boat shop, the partially inished project had to be moved outdoors in the New England winter. Without a matching budget our bills for materials, hardware and labor would really add up.

This was the irst dry assembly of the kit, with the pieces coming together to look like a boat.

he project eventually became the property of PB&F. Before she was even completed, private interests snapped her up as a wellsubsidized good deal that was already demonstrating success: • She had indeed been built by non-boatbuilders from Gloucester in full public view. • She has been constructed using 90% sustainably sourced hull materials using US farm-grown Douglas ir marine-grade plywood.

Turning over the largest piece: – her completed bottom, with her V nose applied and everything iberglassed and painted.

Why does the latter matter? Beyond the US Navy interests, PB&F wanted to demonstrate that this low-carbon design and construction technology was also a reasonably “green” approach. 21st Century, lowcarbon, “green” commercial boat building could help reestablish Gloucester’s ishing leet and port sustainability. Fishermen would be eager to obtain an advanced boat while saving a lot of money. 23

slow and tedious to have to heat each fastener with an electric soldering iron to overcome the epoxyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tenacity before removing fasteners using a power screwdriver. An easier option would have been to wax the screw before fastening the laminates to prevent the epoxy from adhering to the screw when cured.

Testing the it of the completed shipping container boat for low-key insertion and extraction into a standard ISO 40' shipping-container

We mimicked the non-industrial construction approach that would be the norm overseas. We used an unseasoned crew and worked ourselves into the construction process. We learned skills building the smaller pieces, which we applied building dozens of increasingly larger parts. We used WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin, 205 Hardener and the very portable 306 Metering Pump. he larger 305 Positive Displacement Pump was indispensable for large-area bonding operations such as rapidly adding plywood layers in one shot along the full length of her topsides and hull bottom panels, and for wet layup of several layers of iberglass cloth at once. he pumps allowed us to work quickly enough to get through the laminating process before the epoxy could cure. here were times when three crew members would rush to spread epoxy and handle the iberglass while the fourth produced a steady low of mixed resin and hardener. Any slow-down or interruption would have resulted in a waste of expensive materials and additional man-hours to clean up the mess and repair any damage. Because we needed to maintain a low-tech approach, instead of vacuum-bagging our laminates we installed lots of dry-wall screws to temporarily secure pieces and apply clamping pressure. his required us to make frequent late night runs to the project in order to unscrew the fasteners before the epoxy fully cured, grabbing them for good. We found it

Even the largest individual piece, the bottom and V-nose assembly, would be fully glassed and painted before we turned the boat right-side up to receive the prepared frames, bulkheads, transom, topsides, etc. Unfortunately, by that time the project crew was down to just me and one other person, and then to me alone. With such a small crew, assembly took longer than planned. Nevertheless, by the time she was done all of the outside surfaces had at least one layer of 10 oz. iberglass cloth, and the topsides and hull bottom had several layers. Even with all her plywood and a fair number of foam panels laminated into her structure, she would have over 2000 lbs of positive buoyancy ofsetting the heavier-than-water weight of iberglass, epoxy, outboard, batteries, ground-tackle, weapons, etc. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;making her harder to sink after taking bullets under her waterline. It was gratifying to inally see her come alive. We enjoyed feeling her out at increasing speeds, then taking her out into the bay, the assault-landing simulations with some local veterans, familyoutings and just plain showing her of to pleasure boaters and the working waterfront alike. Starting with a CAD-based design, built by nonboatbuilders using US-sourced plywood and epoxy, she was completed and is expected to serve her owners for as long as they will care about boating. Susanne Altenburger, Phil Bolger & Friends Inc. (PB&F), Boat-Design since 1952

Local veterans performing assaultlanding simulations



Contacts for WEST SYSTEM product and technical information

For information about WEST SYSTEM® products or technical information for a building or repair project, Gougeon Brothers offers a range of detailed publications that can help you get started. These publications are available at your local WEST SYSTEM dealer or by contacting Gougeon Brothers. They are also available as free downloadable PDFs at Free literature (US and Canada only) Visit to order online or call 866-937-8797 for the WEST SYSTEM free literature pack. It includes: 002-950 WEST SYSTEM User Manual & Product Guide —he primary guide to

000-425 Other Uses–Suggestions for Household Repair— Repairs and

safety, handling and the basic techniques of epoxy use. Includes a complete description of all WEST SYSTEM products.

restoration in an architectural environment. Many useful tips for solving problems around your house and shop with epoxy.

Also included are the current price list and stocking dealer directory.

North and South America, China and Korea GOUGEON BROTHERS, INC. P.O. Box 908 Bay City, MI 48707 Phone: 866-937-8797 or 989-684-7286 Technical Services/Health & Safety Phone: 866-937-8797 or 989-684-7286 Order Department Phone: 866-937-8797 or 989-684-7286 Europe, Russia, Africa, the Middle East and India WESSEX RESINS & ADHESIVES LTD Cupernham House, Cupernham Lane Romsey, England SO51 7LF Phone: 44-1-794-521-111 E-mail: Australia and Southeast Asia ATL COMPOSITES Pty. Ltd. P.O. Box 2349/Southport 4215 Queensland, Australia Phone: 61-755-63-1222 E-mail: New Zealand and Southeast Asia ADHESIVE TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 17 Corbans Ave./Box 21-169 Henderson, Auckland, New Zealand Phone: 64-9-838-6961 E-mail:

How-to publications For sale at WEST SYSTEM dealers, free downloadable pdfs on or by calling our order department, 866-937-8797. 002 The Gougeon Brothers on Boat Construction—A must for anyone building

002-550 Fiberglass Boat Repair & Maintenance — Illustrated guide

a wooden boat or working with wood and WEST SYSTEM Epoxy. Fully illustrated composite construction techniques, materials, lofting, safety and tools. 5th Edition, revised in 2005.

to repair iberglass boats with WEST SYSTEM Epoxy. Procedures for structural reinforcement, deck and hull repair, hardware installation, keel repair and teak deck installation. Also, procedures for gelcoat blister diagnosis, prevention and repair and inal fairing and inishing.

002-970 Wooden Boat Restoration & Repair— Illustrated guide to restore the structure, improve the appearance, reduce the maintenance and prolong the life of wooden boats with WEST SYSTEM Epoxy. Includes dry rot repair, structural framework repair, hull and deck planking repair, and hardware installation with epoxy.

Number 42, Spring 2016

002-898 WEST SYSTEM Epoxy How-To DVD — Basic epoxy application techniques, iberglass boat repair and gelcoat blister repair in one DVD.

Look for Epoxyworks online If you are a new subscriber to Epoxyworks or haven’t diligently saved every issue in a three-ring binder, you can ind back issues of Epoxyworks at You can also click on the “Epoxyworks” logo on the homepage. 25


Readers' projects

Epoxyworks reader Ted sent us these photos of the loor he installed with 105/207 at a restaurant in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Facebook Feature January 29, 2016

This in-progress cedar strip canoe was made with WEST SYSTEM 105 Resin and 207 Special Clear Hardener purchased from KC Sailing in Lawrence, KS.

Like WEST SYSTEM Epoxy on Facebook and share your latest WEST SYSTEM creations.

IIT Architecture students designed and built a building facade panel system. This project was meant to simulate a real-world challenge and give hands-on experience working with carbon iber. Their instructor also led the group of students who created the FIBERwave pavilion in Epoxyworks 40. EPOXYWORKS