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Recycling: Mycology, Materials Science and Architecture Tsvetomila Duncheva November 2013

AR521: Interdisciplinary University of Kent

Abstract My Interdisciplinary project is based on the development of a fungal building material, which would be produced from natural renewable resources and building site waste. To achieve this I have studied various patents and production methods by Eben Bayer and Gavin McIntyre at Ecovative (including tests of their samples), and artist Phil Ross’ Mycotecture Project. In addition I have conducted various experiments to determine a manufacturing process and test different growth methods. As a brief overview, the material is made from wood-chips, placed in a mold, and left for mycelium to grow from until colonisation binds the wood-chips and the material has a white spongy surface. The material is then dehydrated until moisture content falls bellow 30% and treated with beeswax. The future of this project would be a series of tests and experiments with one aim: to propose a new material with low environmental impact, which in its manufacture process would recycle buildings site waste. Crucial for this material would be the choice of substrate and fungal species. I want to explore the use of straw-bale as a substrate for growing Genoderma lucidum, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Stropharia rugosa-annulata and/or Hipsigus ulmaria to produce building materials. I propose the materials application in parasitic architecture through an architectural design, and analyse the its suitability for humanitarian relief architecture aimed at the urban poor of informal Roma settlements in Europe.

Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to Tobias van der Haar from the School of Bioscience, University of Kent for his invaluable assistance when conducting the mycological experiments described in this paper, and his great willingness to help me with the development of the project after my BA graduation. This project could not have been possible without the guidance of artist Phil Ross, who ever so kindly provided me with all the knowledge on growing fungi he has. The work on mycological materials of Dr Eduardo Gonzales gave me a precious insight on the structure of mycological materials. Of course, PDQ\WKDQNVJRWR+RZDUG*ULIÀQZKRZDV my tutor for AR521: Disciplinary for his support when I was in doubt and his efforts to push my research further. Also, I greatly appreciate the advice of Dr Henrik Schoenefeldt, Dr Richard Watkins and Carolina Vasilikou from Kent School of Architecture who helped me with brainstorming sessions on the properties and applications of mycological materials and provided me with suggestions on research methods. I remember the enormous encouragement of Andrew Tull, my tutor for AR533: Urban whose supported all of my wacky development ideas with sound advice. Karen Martin’s help with academic style of writing improved the quality of the applications section of this paper immensely, DQGJDYHPHFRQÀGHQFHWRFRQWLQXHP\ research. The experience I did with her and Dr Marialena Nikolopoulou helped me appreciate the rigour and systematic approach needed for any research and experimentation. I cannot forget the enthusiastic reaction of Dr Cristian Suau and Carmelo Zappulla to my short presentation on mycological materials at the Welsh School of Architecture. Thank you to Stephen from (FRYDWLYHIRUPRWLYDWLQJWRÀQGWKHLUSDWHQWV on my own with his decline to my request for information. And last but not least, to Gavin McIntyre for his friendly attitude when discussing a potential future collaboration with Ecovative.

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Essence of Mycelium 3. Ecovative Insulation 4. Phil Ross Bricks 5. Experiments and Proposal 6. Parasitic Architecture 7. Application 6.1.1. Hypothesis 6.1.2. Literature Review 6.1.3. Methodology Endnotes Bibliography Images Videos of Experiments Appendices Appendix1. Correspondence with Phil Ross Appendix2. Correspondence with Ecovative Appendix3. Ecovative Data Sheet Appendix4. Ecovative Patent Study US2012/0270302 A1 Appendix5. Ecovative Patent Study US20120227899 A1 Appendix6. Ecovative Material Details Appendix7. Phil Ross Reasoning. Appendix8. Phil Ross Study of Mycelium Brick Arch Appendix9. Experiment No.1 Growth in Domestic Conditions Appendix10. Experiment No.2 Petri Dishes Appendix11. Experiment No.3 Jars with Woodchips Appendix12. Experiment No.4 Microscopic Observations Appendix13. Lichen Field ,GHQWLĂ€FDWLRQDQG2EVHUYDWLRQV Appendix14. Fungi Field ,GHQWLĂ€FDWLRQ  Appendix15. Comparative Study of Fungal Species Appendix16. Glossary Notes

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4Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

1. Introduction The world can be perceived as a series of connections on all levels and scales: from the forces between celestial bodies to the constant orbit of electrons around a proton in an atom (1). There are numerous interdependencies in our own planet which maintain a delicate HTXLOLEULXPLQQDWXUHDQGHQVXUHOLIHFDQà RXULVK as majestically as it does. Out of all the organisms WKHUHLVDVSHFLÀFW\SHZKRVHVROHSXUSRVHLV precisely to establish connections and spread nutrients, thus infusing the soil with the power to VXVWDLQDOOWKHPDJQLÀFHQWà RUDDQGIDXQD7KLV highly complicated ubiquitous web is called mycelium, in essence a mass of fungal hyphae (2). The aim of my project is to propose a scheme which would utilize the properties of mycelium as nature’s recycling and life-spreading entity to transform construction and demolition site waste into a natural building material. This would allow for existing and future buildings to be converted from threats to the natural world, to an integral part of it. To demonstrate my ideas I will produce mycelium prototype materials in different forms, analyse their properties and discuss their commercial applications and manufacture process. As support I will use data gathered during a lengthy research stage, which I will outline in this essay, arranged according to author and relevance of the separate ideas to my proposal.

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destroy timber structures, and dismantle munitions LQROGPLQHÀHOGV3OHDVHUHIHUWR$SSHQGL[ for a study of relevant fungal species, mycelium properties and growing conditions. In addition to their outlined uses, Fungi are impressive because of their immense diversity and ability to survive in the most harsh of conditions. From these I was inspired WRFRQVWUXFWDZD\WRWXUQGLIÀFXOWO\GHJUDGDEOH currently non-recyclable building materials into new, fungal-based natural ones. A fascinating project with a similar emphasis on fungi’s natural capacities to degrade matter, only in this instance RUJDQLFLVWKH,QÀQLW\%XULDO3URMHFWE\-DH5KLP/HH started in 2009. Its concept of decomposture can be summarised in the immortal quote : ... when we die our bodies become the grass, and the antelope eat the grass, and so we are all connected In the great circle of life. Mufasa. The Lion King. (1994). Another intriguing, much more architectural project is the Lichen Concrete developed in Barcelona by Sandra Manso for a Doctorate’s thesis. This patent utilises lichen’s ability to grow on concrete and thus creates a structural concrete green-wall of three layers, designed for a Mediterranean climate.

2. Essence of Mycelium Fungi are believed to be our closest ancestor in terms of evolutions, with the branches of kingdoms Fungi and Animals dividing about 650 million years ago (3)$FFRUGLQJWRVFLHQWLĂ€FDVVXPSWLRQV WKH\KDYHVXUYLYHGWKHĂ€UVWPDMRUFDWDVWURSKH of 250 million years ago (between the Permian and Triassic periods), as well as the second 65 million years after, which marked the extinction of dinosaurs (4). From the mists of natural disaster and mass extinction, these creatures weaved their way through the decaying matter and eventually formed the vast network of incomprehensible to us complexity which allowed for plants to evolve. Flora began to feed off the nutrients the mycelium transferred throughout the Earth’s crust as it grew. What is so different about mycelium is that it reacts with other materials on a molecular level (5), therefore it doesn’t evolve ‘on’ rocks, or ‘on’ trees, but through them, piercing their cells ZLWKLWVĂ€QHZHERIRXWVWDQGLQJGHQVLW\RIPLOHV cubic inch (6). One man who understands and is truly fascinated by this living organism is Paul Stamets, the leading mycologist of today and author of Mycelium Running (2005). In his book he suggests various ways that mushrooms can ‘help save the world’. Although perhaps too optimistic, the statements he makes are argued with data from experiments conducted during a life solely devoted to fungi. According to his knowledge and research, mushroom species can be used in almost any aspect of life, but those that grabbed my attention were their abilities to restore wildlife habitats, clear toxic waste sites, intentionally

Image 1. Lichen concrete facade visualisation

3. Ecovative Insulation A more practical enterprise which focuses on new fungal materials is Ecovative, established in the United States by the young scientists Eben Bayer and Gavin McIntyre. Their initiative is highly market-orientated and provides the public with DODUJHYDULHW\RIVXVWDLQDEOHP\FHOLXPĂ€EUH products. The research and production of their products are executed in a highly controlled laboratory environment, where humidity, temperature, purity of air /not contaminated with fungal spores/ can be regulated at ease. In the process, they make use of local raw biological waste to feed the bio-engineered mycelia and to produce packaging, automobile foam replacement materials and others, shaped to

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

unique consumer needs. From our correspondence (refer to Appendix 2) I was left with the impression that they are highly protective of their progress, with a great emphasis put on ‘company secrets’, something which is natural to any innovative business enterprise. The developed dehydrated mycelium insulating materials indeed praise great TXDOLWLHVVXFKDVĂ€UHUHVLVWDQFHZLWKRXWDGGHG chemicals, improved energy dissipation, a closed loop life-cycle due to the materials being 100% biodegradable, ‘very good’ acoustic performance (7)$OORIWKHVHDUHIRFDOIRUHIĂ€FLHQWVXVWDLQDEOH insulation. I performed various tests with samples of the Ecovative products, the results of which proved to fall within the later obtained via e-mail Material Properties Data Sheet (refer to Appendix 3). A full analysis with sample experiments can be found in Appendix 5, as well as in images 7-10. Curiously, there have been no publications regarding the (FRYDWLYHPDWHULDOLQVFLHQWLĂ€FMRXUQDOVDQGWKH material has not been released on the market as a building insulator (8). The reasons for this I suppose are health and safety regulations, rigorous testing for human allergic reactions, effect on indoor air quality, humidity protection to prevent rehydration, reaction of pets. A major drawback would be that all of the aforementioned focal points cannot be tested in the long-term without immensely delaying the product’s release date. However, this is valid a statement for any new material in history, a current H[DPSOHLVWKHZLGHO\XVHGĂ€EUHJODVVLQVXODWLRQ which causes severe inhalation problems (9).

emissions released by the facility, the origin of the materials that comprise the machinery themselves, etc. The future of aim of Ecovative is to develop structural mycological materials.

4. Phil Ross Bricks Although Ecovative have proposed a patentawaiting scheme for SIP panel construction, Phil Ross, a US-based artist, takes the concept of structural fungal building material much further in his Mycotecture project (10). Having explored the possible application and engineering properties of mycelium as a furniture material (11), he has recently triumphantly grown and constructed a self-supporting arch. This is how Ross, P (2012) summarises the process in a Reasoning (12): ...These artworks were created by infusing live fungal cells into a pulverized cellulose based medium (sawdust). The cellulose serves as both food and framework for the organism to grow on, and in about a week WKLVDJJUHJDWHVROLGLĂ€HVDVDUHVXOW of the fungi’s natural tendency to join together smaller pieces of its tissue into a larger constituent whole. This project uses Reishi fungus Genoderma Lucidum because of the wide availability of the species for medical use, the fact that it is harmless to humans, its relatively easy cultivation, and its properties as a tough yet lightweight material when dehydrated. Designed to be exhibited in a museum in DĂźsseldorf, Germany, the structure constitutes a ‘tea house’ made of over 400 mycelium bricks. These are of standard brick size, grown into moulds and then left to dry at higher temperature. The whole process, which can be observed in Appendix 7, spanned over a period of four weeks (13). According to his report, the fungal bricks performed poorly under linear forces (snapped)(14), but showed great dynamic resistance when struck with a blunt force.

Image 2. Ecovative SIP panel prototype

Albeit the Ecovative products are slightly P\VWLÀHGDQGœJUHHQLÀHG¡WKHSDWHQWVIRUWKHVH newly proposed products , and descriptions in Connexion (the world’s largest innovative material database and collection), have given me great insight into the technical, precise aspect of their manufacture process. Along with an understanding of the real-life production cycle, these have provided me with guidelines for my own scheme. I also perceived new aspects that need to be considered, such as the provision of controlled environments and whether this can be avoided through a more natural, less bio-engineered approach. The latter is important due to the fact WKDWWKHVSHFLDOL]HGVFLHQWLÀFHTXLSPHQWUDLVHV questions of the true sustainability, such as CO2

Image 3. Phil Ross: Mycelium furniture experiment

6Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

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Image 5. Phil Ross: Mycelium brick sample

Image 4. Phil Ross: Mycelium arch in DĂźsseldorf. 2009

The structure of the bricks, as he describes it, is VSRQJHOLNHZLWKGHQVLW\LQFUHDVLQJVLJQLĂ€FDQWO\ towards the periphery of the prisms. Surprisingly, WKH\DUHDOVRYHU\GLIĂ€FXOWWRVKDSHDQGFXWRQFH GU\GHVWUR\LQJĂ€OHVDQGVDZV(15).

5. Experiments and Proposal To test these and my own theories on recycling problematic concrete building site waste, I conducted four experiments with an aim to produce and examine personal samples $SSHQGLFHV 7RVXPPDULVHWKHĂ€UVWRQH whose purpose was to demonstrate that fungus can be grown in everyday conditions, was colonised by the common household mold in 7 days, with a grim outcome. The second and third experiments were conducted in the school of Biosciences to prevent contamination, but the obtained conifer ZRRGFKLSVSUHYHQWHGWKHJURZWKRIWKHVSHFLĂ€F Genoderma Lucidum fungus (16). However, the rye grains proved to be a highly suitable medium, as the microscopic observations demonstrated the mycelium was identical to the one growing from the laboratory agar. Personally, I was struck by the FRPSOH[LW\RIWKHĂ€QHZKLWHZHEVWUXFWXUHZKHQ, distinguished the individual hyphae (17). When the material was observed at 8.0+ magnitude settings each slight change in the focus settings revealed a new layer of interconnections. On comparison of the alive mycelium web to the dehydrated sample, the resemblance lead me to conclude that the properties of the insulation/building material are derived from the binding strength of the mycelium and the substrate. 7KHVSHFLĂ€FVRIWKHPDWHULDOZRXOGWKHUHIRUH depend on the substrate materials (the mycelia properties are a determined constant according to species), and the density to which the mycelia are left to colonise the mixture. If the substrate is constituted from easily bended elements, such as replacing wood-chips with branches, the fungal material would have a greater bending moment than the wood-chip sample. Analogically, thermal mass properties, for example those of concrete, would also be transmitted onto the dehydrated fungal building material if pulverised concrete is

part of the substrate. This would allow for purposeVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FYDULHWLHVWREHSURGXFHGIRUGLIIHUHQWXVHV LQEXLOGLQJV²ZHDWKHULWZRXOGEHĂ&#x20AC;UHUHVLVWDQFH insulation, structure, decoration, sound absorption, exterior application, etc. However, the issue of sterile conditions and the emitted CO2 emissions to achieve them, the sourcing of substrate materials and their adequate preparation and storage still question the true sustainability of this natural material. As a possible solution, I propose that mycology is combined with straw-bale techniques. Straw is a perfect medium for growing most of the fungal species, as described in detail by Stamets, Paul (2005) p.191, even in unsterilised, natural (full of thousands of enemy-spores) surroundings. The two fungal species naturally occurring in straw and utilised in strawbale gardening, Stropharia rugosa-annulata and Hypsigus ulmaria, could be used for inoculation via spore injection, or granulated spores (18). If this method is developed for use in the manufacture process of the fungal material, its embodied CO2 emissions would decrease greatly, and more importantly, it would be made much more widely available. In addition, if pulverized concrete is added to the mixture, it may not need to be sterilized prior to being added to the substrate, and would be absorbed by the mycelia in a natural way. A fully developed production method, a range of material varieties, and hopefully an overall negative carbon footprint would be the ultimate outcomes of this project: a new material, consisting of countryside and urban waste material, binded by the power of nature. Theoretically, an economic niche for such a material is already evident â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the eco movement is LQWHJUDWHGLQRXUHYHU\GD\OLYHVDQGLVRIVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F interest to architects, politicians and lawyers around the world. In terms of details and moisture issues, further research is needed, but a variety of dampproof membranes exist on the market. A potential risk that needs to be researched and resolved is the event of reactivated fungal growth and the development of fruiting bodies once put in a building. At the moment the assumption employed for the commercial mycelium products is that if they are dehydrated to a moisture content <30%, the hyphae become entirely inactive and the growth process cannot be triggered again (Appendix 4).

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Image 6. Mycelium structure explained. Duncheva.

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

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Image 7. Microscopic photographs of petri dish experiment containing 1g Genoderma Lucidum spores, 5 g concrete and laboratory cellulose substrate. Unfortunately, this sample, despite sterilisation at 160 degrees celsium, was contaminated by Stachybotrys Chartarum. These images show the infected fungus at

zooms 1.6, 5.0, 15.0 using Leica 10446261 0.63x. What becomes clear from then is that the dark colour of the contamination is due to the numerous fungal mold spores in dark colour, awaiting to be released in the environment. Duncheva.

Image 8. Microscopic photographs the sample obtained from Ecovative, taken at zooms 0.8, 3.2, 5.0 using Leica 10446261 0.63x. What becomes evident is the structure of the material, the wood-chips are clearly visible in the Ă&#x20AC;UVWLPDJHWKHZHEVVWUXFWXUHRIWKHELQGLQJP\FHOLXP

becomes more clear in the second, and is the focus of WKHWKLUGLPDJH(DFKĂ&#x20AC;QHVWULQJFRQWDLQVQXPHURXVFHOOV arranged in a tight microscopic web, with hyphae at their ends. Hyphae are the cells that split to develop new strings of cells. Duncheva.

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Image 9. Insulation properties, showing the density of the Ecovative sample and a comparison to other natural insulation materials. Duncheva.

Image 10. A selection of the performed tests with Ecovative samples and summarised outcomes. Duncheva.

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Image 11. Presentation cases produced for AR521:Interdisciplinary. Each measures 600/1800 mm.

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These are currently on display by the entrance of the new award-winning crit space of KSA. Duncheva.

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

6. Parasitic Architecture â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Parasitic architecture can be GHĂ&#x20AC;QHGDVDQDGDSWDEOHWUDQVLHQW and exploitive form of architecture that forces relationships with host buildings in order to complete themselves. Parasites cannot sustain their own existence without siphoning energy from the surplus supply demonstrated in host buildings.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Taylor, 2006)

Image 12. Perspective of the proposed parasitic hip-hop centre, looking southward. Cardboard, wood and metal

wire model. Scale 1:250. Viewpoint: Most Northern point. Post-edited in Adobe Photoshop. Duncheva.

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Image 13. Explanation, diagram and conceptual perspective of the parasitic hip-hop centre produced for

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AR533: Urban as an architectural design accompaniment to my mycological materials research. The idea was

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

directly derived from the parasitic character of fungi. The perspective captures the street given to the youth to

practice street sports, which are usually prohibited in cities. A proclamation of freedom of movement. Duncheva.

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Image 14. The most complex parasitic structure is explained here. The structure self-supporting, constructed

from a timber frame and Ecovative insulation. It is environmentally orientated. Duncheva.

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

7. Applications 7.1. Hypothesis I want to apply my mycological research in a prototype shelter for the urban poor of Europe, in particular for the inhabitants of informal Roma settlements in Bulgaria. Adequate shelter is a basic human right according to Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948). Despite international policies aimed at urban slum abolition very little has practically been done for the Roma of Europe (Bulgaria, 2012; Council of Europe, 2012; Amnesty, 2013). My determination to improve the Romani peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s daily lives is derived from my personal observations of their systematic discrimination. I want to design and prototype an DIIRUGDEOHHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWDQGFRPIRUWDEOHVKHOWHUIRUWKH Romani people, with an aim to end their constant IRUFHGHYLFWLRQV7RP\NQRZOHGJHWKLVVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F problem has not yet been analysed in a robust academic environment. My hypothesis is that the problem can be resolved through a participatory approach and with the application of innovative mycological building materials. Their composition RISXOYHULVHGEXLOGLQJVLWHZDVWHĂ&#x20AC;UPO\HQWDQJOHG LQDĂ&#x20AC;QHP\FHOLXPZHEJURZQIURPDFHOOXORVH substrate makes them ideal for this purpose.

7.2. Literature Review 3RRULQIRUPDOVHWWOHPHQWVZHUHĂ&#x20AC;UVWDGGUHVVHG in international legislation as an obstacle to sustainable urbanisation during the Habitat I United Nations conference on human settlements (1976, Vancouver). The escalation of the problem is conspicuous in the Habitat II conference (1996, Istanbul) during which the Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements and the Habitat Agenda Adequate Shelter for All and Sustainable Human Settlements were signed by 171 countries, including Bulgaria. I intend to study the reports of these and other international conferences, e.g. the more

Image 15. Slum Population by region. 1990-2020. Thousands. Source: Produced by UN-Habitat based data.

recent World Urban Forum III (2006, Vancouver), as a basis of the proposed application of my research. I will also analyse through comparison the main humanitarian architectural precedents implemented as a reaction to these documents, mainly executed by NGOs Article 25, Architecture for Humanity and the Shelter Centre which collaborates with the University of Cambridge. 6SHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDOO\,DPLQWHUHVWHGLQ(PLO\/R*LEVRQ¡V E-Luma project, the work of Sandra Drummond on upgrading slums through participatory approach programmes and of Kenya Acharaya who at WUF III stresses the importance of appropriate materials for construction (Grundstroem and Jere,2006). Of importance will be the publications of Dr Filipe Hernandez on informal settlements in Latin America which share many qualities with the Roma urban areas of Europe. I will then focus on EU and national legislation texts on the integration of the Romani people in society. The National Roma Integration Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria and the accompanying Action Plan (Bulgaria, 2012) hold focal data collected through surveys and state the strategies of the (past) government to resolve the Roma problem. These goals expressed will be compared to the achievements of the European Decade of Roma Integration (UN, 2011), the National Council for Cooperation on Ethic and Integration Issues and the Bulgarian Red Cross. Reportedly 50-70% of the Roma population live in illegal settlements and are the victims of a closed loop of violent forced evictions (UN 2011, para. 46). This forces the mass unemployed Romani people to survive in marginal unsanitary living conditions. Having witnessed their struggles and conversed with them about their daily IHDUV,DPFRPPLWWHGWRĂ&#x20AC;QGLQJDQHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWVROXWLRQ for this particular eviction problem. The third part of my literature review will constitute of architectural theories and practical precedents. The main reason for slum formation according to (Jacobs, 1961) is their inhabitantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; constant

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent strive to leave. However, in the Roma case the aforementioned inhumane forced evictions cause constant relocation to worse habitats and prevent the Romani peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s access to education, healthcare, public and social services (Bulgaria, 2012). According to (EU FRA and UNDP 2012: 23) seventy seven percent of the Roma surveyed in Bulgaria lacked one of the following basic housing amenities: indoor kitchen; indoor toilet; indoor shower or bath; or electricity. To solve this I will SURSRVHDQHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWDQGFRPIRUWDEOHVKHOWHU the design of which will take under consideration the Roma way of life (Le Bas and Acton, 2010) and recent strategies for social sustainability (Nikolopoulou, 2012-2015). I am familiar with the notion of comfort as an abstract characteristic of the home as explored in (Rybczynski, 1968), as well as with the basics of environmental comfort depicted in (Burrbery, 1997). Precedents in the area of emergency shelters and lightweight construction (Serrats, 2010) are another sub-topic of importance.

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7.3. Methodology I envisage the design of the shelter as a process RIPHWLFXORXVUHĂ&#x20AC;QHPHQW,WZLOOWDNHWKHIRUPRID standard architectural design project from concept WRSURWRW\SH0\DLPIRUWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWSKDVHZLOOEHWR FRQGXFWWKHOLWHUDWXUHUHYLHZDQGĂ&#x20AC;QDOLVHDUHĂ&#x20AC;QHG GHVLJQIRUWKHVKHOWHUEDVHGRQP\Ă&#x20AC;QGLQJV,Q the second phase will constitute of prototyping, parallel to devising a precise strategy for the implementation of the shelters in collaboration with the local government and NGOs. Thus the Ă&#x20AC;QDORXWFRPHRIP\DSSOLHGUHVHDUFKZLOOEHDIXOO\ prototyped shelter. When ready for exploitation, the shelter will be distributed among Roma settlements with the approval of local authorities. I hope to thus set in motion the gradual improvement of the Roma neighbourhoods, leading to their integration in the urban system.

Image 16. Example of Roma discrimination. Note some of the better, brick Roma houses in the background. Image 18. Initial proposal for a dwelling with one/two bedrooms. Plans. reGenerate Boston. Duncheva.

,PDJH([DPSOHRIVRFLDOKRXVLQJIRUWKH5RPDLQ6RĂ&#x20AC;D Note the Horse in the foreground, which probably resides in the communal corridor space.

Image 19. Section through communal spaces of the initial proposal with highlighted environmental factors. reGenerate Boston. Duncheva.

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Image 20. Exploded axonometric of the initial dwelling proposal with affordability factors highlighted.

Simultaneously with the design process, I will conduct experiments in an available biological laboratory on the mycological materials to be used for the construction of the shelter. The composition of the discussed materials allows them to be HQJLQHHUHGDQGSURGXFHGSXUSRVHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDOO\ with an optimum relative quantity of building site waste : mycelium web : cellulose substrate. The fungal species I have chosen for experiments are Pleurotus ostreatus, Coprinus comatus and Stropharia rugoso-annulata. My choice is based on their abilities to grow naturally from compost, rapid spawn run of 8-28 days, and the available information from research and industry on their growth, qualities and applications (Stamets, 1983; 1993; 2005; Bayer and McIntyre). These systematic H[SHULPHQWVFRQGXFWHGGXULQJWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWSKDVH of my applied research, will lead in the second SKDVHWRWKHSURGXFWLRQRIDĂ&#x20AC;QDOPDWHULDOIRUWKH shelter prototype which will have three variations: VWUXFWXUDOLQVXODWLRQDQGĂ&#x20AC;QLVK The predicted possible dangers are numerous, EXW,DPFRQĂ&#x20AC;GHQWWKH\FDQEHRYHUFRPH)LUVWO\ I will have to conduct the copious literature review with rigour to avoid time wastefulness. The cooperation of both the Roma population and the ORFDOJRYHUQPHQWFRXOGSXWWKHĂ&#x20AC;QDOVXFFHVVRI the project at risk, thus these will be on the agenda from the outset. Importantly, I will have to consider the requirements and desires of the Romani people and become familiar with their culture (Art Digital Studio, 2013). I will also have to balance my time between shelter design and mycological materials production. If my attempts to produce a satisfactory material are not successful, I could employ the commercial mycological materials company Ecovative for the purpose, or resort to appropriate conventional building materials for initial prototypes. On the other hand, the major advantage of my proposal are my Bulgarian origin

and detailed understanding of the problem which cannot be obtained from survey data alone. In addition, I would be happy to collaborate with LQWHUHVWHGDFDGHPLFVWRDFKLHYHEHWWHUĂ&#x20AC;QDOUHVXOWV I realize this proposal for application could be subject to amendments and improvements during the progress of the applied research.

8. Conclusion To summarise, applying natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;own recycling systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to reuse the waste of our habitats, especially the problematic concrete buildings, I EHOLHYHWREHDSURVSHFWIRUWKHIXWXUH7KHĂ&#x20AC;UVW steps in the development of such a system have already been made, with products reaching the free market. The full potential of the material is still to be grasped, students around the world are already exploring itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possibilities in a creative VFLHQWLĂ&#x20AC;FZD\0\SURSRVHGDSSOLFDWLRQWRSURYLGH DIIRUGDEOHHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWDQGFRPIRUWDEOHKRXVLQJIRU the Romani of Europe would greatly contribute to improving their lives. It would be an integral part of international legislation which proclaims the right to shelter as a basic human right. I hope to be given the opportunity to develop these ideas further in a robust academic environment, and afterwards collaborate with humanitarian relief organisations implicate them.

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

Endnotes: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

(6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)

Eames. (1977). Powers of Ten. mycelium(pl. mycelia): the network or mass of discrete hyphae that forms the body (thallus) of a fungus. (Cammack,R. 2012.) University of California Berkley.(2012). Biology Lecture 1B: Fungi. 20:00 Stamets. (2005). P.3 This is because instead of forming an outer layer we know as skin, or epidermis, fungi took another route in evolution to retain nutrients, forming a web structure. Alexopoulos. (1996) Stamets. (2005). Ecovative (2012). Ecovative website/ applications http:// automotive/ Ecovative website/ building materials applications/building-products/ Yves. (2010). Mycotecture. (2009). Phil Ross. http://phil mycotecture/ Workshop. (2009). Phil Ross. http://philross. org/projects/mycotecture/#2012/10/01/ the-workshop-residence/ This document was obtained on November 30th 2012 via e-mai. Ross, P. (2012) Ross, P. (2012) p.3 Ross, P. (2012) p.3 This is partially due to the fact that he didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have access to laboratories when he started off as a fungus enthusiast. Sterry, Paul. (2009) Hyoha, Hyohae: The individual fungal cells. Stamets, Paul (2005) p.306

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Toadstools. Baydon: D&N Publishing. Gonzales, W. (2010). Growing Architecture through Mycelium and Architectural Waste. GSSAP: Columbia University. Bayer, E and McIntyre, G. Method for producing rapidly renewable chitinous material using fungal fruiting bodies and product made thereby. US Patent US20090307969 A1. Bayer, E and McIntyre, G. Method of producing a chitinous polymer derived from fungal mycelium. US Petent US20120227899 A1. Bayer, E and McIntyre, G. Method for making dehydrated mycelium elements and product made thereby. US Patent US20120270302 A1. Callister, W and Rethwisch, D (2011). Materials Science and Enginering. Asia: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Berge, Borne. (2003). The Ecology of Building Materials. Oxford: Architectural Press. Callister, William Jr. (1997). Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction. Canada: John Wiley and Sons Everett, Alan. (1994). Materials. 5th Edition. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Ltd. Anderson, Jane. (2009). The Green Guide  WR6SHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLRQ2[IRUG2[IRUG%URRNHV  University Press. Beylerian, George M. (2005). Material Connexion. London: Thames and Hudson. United Nations (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Geneva: UN. United Nations (1996). Report of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II). Istanbul: UN. United Nations (2011). Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues: Mission to Bulgaria. A/HRC/19/56/Add.2. UNEP (2006). Global Water Resources. Report. Council of Europe (2007). Second Report Submitted by Bulgaria Pursuant to Aticle 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Strasburg: Council of Europe. Immigration and refugee Board of Canada (2012). Bulgaria: Situation of Roma, including access to employment, housing, health care, and education; state efforts to improve the conditions of Roma (2009-September 2012). BGR104200.E. European Union (EU) Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP)(2012). The Situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States. Survey Results at a Glance. Amnesty International (2013). End Forced Evictions of Roma in Europe. London. Bulgaria (2012). National Roma Integration Strategy of the Republic of Bulgaria (20122020). Bulgaria (2012). Action Plan for Implementation of National Roma Integration Strategy of

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Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent

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Motion Pictures and Lectures: Art Digital Studio (2013). Rom Quixote. [Motion Picture] Janine Benyus.(2010). University of California Berkley. Visualizing the Future of Enviromental Design: Biomimicry in the Built World: Consulting Nature as Model, Measure, and Mentor. CED 50th Anniversary Series. com/watch?v=yVHtAjQoWmg University of California Berkley. (2012). Bioengineer ing 200 Lecture Series. com/view_play_list?p=-XXv-cvA_iBiOpo1VZ M0IdEzZbMPkdze University of California Berkley.(2012). Biology Lec ture 1B: Fungi. watch?v=Jlt712a4pys David Attenborough. (2007). BBC. The Private Life of Plants. Fingi Growth. http://www. ture=watch-vrec Charles and Ray Eames. (1977). Powers of Ten. vDjuy0 Paul Stamets. (2008). Mushroom Lecture for Taste. ture=player_embedded&v=oJw5mMPax Mk#! Paul Stamets. (2008). 6 Ways Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. TED Talks. id/258 Paul Stamets. (2011). How Fungi can Boost the Hu

Tsvetomila Duncheva I AR:521 Interdisciplinary I University of Kent man Immune System. TEDMED talks. DoROh2hA Eben Bayer. (2010). Are Mushrooms the New Plastic. TED talks. bayer_are_mushrooms_the_new_plastic. html Jae Rhim Lee. (2011). My Mushroom Burial Suit. TED talk. lee.html Tobias Revell. (2012). New Mumbai. http://vimeo. com/44168415 The Ecomist.(2012). Material Connexion Library. blogs/babbage/2012/07/library-new-mate rials?bclid=0&bctid=1730885096001 Discovery Channel. (2012). Future Tech. Material Connexion. cle.aspx?aid=35017 Tamar Haspel. (2011). How to Grow Shiitake Mushrooms at Home. com/watch?v=2369npAmYJo Steven Maxwell. (2011).Mepkin Abbey Mushroom Production by Cistercian Monks. http:// Jo Terence McKenna. (unknown). Mushrooms from Outer Space com/watch?v=AIMPX5aGCu8&fea ture=player_embedded#! Disney MGM Studios. (1994). The Lion King. Directed by Allers, R. and Minkoff, R. 00:09:35.

Sources used for the speacies comparison table: Stamets, Paul. (1983). The Mushroom Cultivator. Olympia: Agarikon Press. Kuo, M. (2013) .The Mushroom Expert. http://www. [Accessed 22/11/2013] Various. (2013). Mushroom Cultivation. Shroomery Forum. postlist.php/Board/2 [Accessed 22/11/2013]

Images Image 1. Science Daily. Accessed 05/03/2013 2012/12/121220080310-large.jpg Image 2. Ecovative. Accessed 05/03/2013 Image 3. and 4. Ross, P. (2010). Mycotecture. http:// [Accessed 05/02/2013] Images 6-10. Duncheva. 06/03/2013. Images 11-14. Duncheva. 20/11/2013. Image 15. UNEP (2006). Images 16, 17. Valsodar. (2009). About the ‘cigani’ and the Bulgarians. Accessed 20/10/2013 2009/09/08/za-ciganite-i-bylgarite.393678 Images 18-20. Duncheva. 19/10/2013. Appendices: Image 4.1. Bayer, E and McIntyre, G. Method for making dehydrated mycelium elements

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and product made thereby. US Patent US20120270302 A1. Images 5.1. - 5.7. Bayer, E and McIntyre, G. Method of producing a chitinous polymer derived from fungal mycelium. US Petent US20120227899 A1. Images 6.1. and 6.2. Gonzales, W. (2010). Growing Architecture through Mycelium and Architectural Waste. GSSAP: Columbia University. Images 8.1. - 8.12. Ross, P. (2010). Building Mycotecture. mycotecture/building-mycotecture/ #projects/mycotecture/buildingmycotecture/ [Accessed 05/03/2013] Imgaes in Apendices 9 and 10: Duncheva. 05/03/2012 ,PDJHV'XQFKHYD'DWHVSHFLÀHGLQ appendix. Image 13.6. Irish Lichens. Image 13.7. Images of British Lichens. www.lichens. Image 13.8. Irish Lichens. ,PDJHV'XQFKHYD'DWHVSHFLÀHGLQ appendix. ,PDJHV'XQFKHYD'DWHVSHFLÀHGLQ appendices. Apart from: Images 14. 4., 14.7., 14.11., 14.15., 14.19., 14.24., 14.29., 14.34., 14.39., 14.44. Sterry, Paul and Hughes, Paul. (2009). Colllins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms and Toadstools. Baydon: D&N Publishing. Images from Appendix 15: Genoderma lucidum. Lingzhy mushroom. http:// mons/8/81/Ganoderma_lucidum_01.jpg Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Chatama’s home. http:// mons/c/c2/Pleurotus_citrinopileatus_in_ Chatama’s_home.jpg Stropharia rugosa-annulata. Lelie’s land. http://les Pleurotus ostreatus. Mikoweb. http://www. _ostreatus(fs-03).jpg Coprinus comatus. Shaggu Cap. http://www.iwnha Ink_Cap_Firestone_Copse_KM.jpg Psilocybe cyanescesns. Mykoweb. http://www.myk cyanescens(fs-02).jpg

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