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Integrated Design Technology & Professional Practice UNIVERSITY OF GREENWICH

TSVETELINA TODOROVA UNIT 7

TUTORS: SHAUN MURRAY YORGOS LOIZOS TECHNICAL TUTOR: GEORGE WADE UNIT 7


Content

Integrated Technology

1. Unit Brief

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1.Structural Strategy

2. Project Introduction

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-3d model of the skeleton of the workshops -Advantages of the steel frame construction -Precedents

-Response to brief -Client brief

3. Site Context

2. Construction Strategy 10

- Location -Site acces -Legislative constraints and opportunities -Site photographs - History - Geology - Environmental conditions -Sun diagram -Pollution -Weather conditions

4. Conceptual Strategies and responses

-Precedents -Inspiration -Plans of the workshops -Sections of the workshops -Sections in context -Pottery factory plan in context

-1:10 details -Material samples -Precedents

3. Environmental Strategy

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-Sun path diagram with Building on site -Sunlight diagram -Heating strategy -Heating diagram -Ventilation diagram -Wind diagram 7.Client and the Design Team

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8. Procurement

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9. Programmatic and cost implications 117

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-Inital sketches -Initial drawings and ideas -Initial sections -Initial elevations -Cardboard models of the workshops -Plans of the workshops Design Proposal

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-Fire safety -Building regulations

-Terraforming the site -Island's photographs -Plans and sections of the model -Axonometric views of the model -Precents -Schedule of Accomodation -Accomodation Diagrams for both workshops -Kiln precedents -Kiln design strategy -Tunnel Kiln diagram of operation -Pottery process diagram

5.Design Development

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10. Conclusion

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11. Appendix

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Unit brief

Unit 7 Edgelands: On World (Earth) Archive Dr Shaun Murray & Yorgos Loizos Just outside London we journey into the edgelands where reclaimed islands seethes with a network of creeks, whilst the fastest growing seaside resort was devastated by a North Sea Flood of 1951. This is a pioneering site for the petrochemical industry, which has an influential assessment of risk to a population living within the vicinity. We will design an archive of the earth, on the earth, which will become a second creation village for frontiers of technology through the speculative fall of man. We aim to exhume a village and use it as a space for simulation and as a testing ground for new technologies with the understanding that the human program is interfaced with the ground program. The participants will design complex architectural environments with the poetic simulation of new technologies that are yet to find form.

Image: Dead calm: an untitled 2007 photograph from Gregory Crewdson’s ‘Beneath the Roses’ project

We will research new wave of energy resources – tar sands, fracking, and sub-salt deep-sea oil deposits are all coming on-stream already, with methane clathrates just up the road. The worlds on a burn, and it can’t go on (but it carries on), even though they really have to stop. This year our site will be in Essex. We will focus along Southend-on-Sea’s seaside amusement park, Leigh-on-Sea’s everglade and the oil city and suburbia of Canvey Island.

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Responce to brief

Why?

Main Building type: •­ Potery Factory -Public Pottery Workshop -Industrial/General Potteries workshop

Canvey Island is mostly known for its rich clay deposits and their historical value. Which is why the project is entirely linked to Canvey Island's clay and the possibilities of it.

Design approach: The site is first terraformed. After the terraforming stage the site will have its unique shape and will be especially designed for the Pottery Factory to nestle in. The site becomes an island into the (Canvey) island. The Organization of the island will include a small pottery factory with two main workshops(industrial/general potteries workshop and public workshop with cafe, shop, playgrounds,public spaces) and smaller facilities spread across the site for storage, excavation, transportation (follies). Near the Pottery Factory a small fire station will operate, with a separate training tower, and a test track for the fire trucks. The whole island will have a dynamic and constantly changing landscape, because of the many excavation and digging sites for materials , as well as the areas for public allotments, park space and playgrounds. The project has the aim to bring the clay industry back in Canvey Island, and meanwhile to develop new community spaces (parks,playgrounds,allotments) for leasure, and Public Pottery workshop with educational purpose for the people of Canvey Island.

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Site Context

The site is located in:

Site Context United Kingdom

London, Canvey Island

51째 30' 57.6" North latitude 0째 34' 58.8" East longitude Population 38,170 Density Civil Parish 2,031 /km2 (5,260 /sq mi) Urban Area 4,703 /km2 (12,180 /sq mi) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Canvey_Island

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Site Context

Site Context

London

Canvey Island

Source: http://www.thedigitalradiogroup.com/images/map.gif

Canvey Island is a civil parish and reclaimed island in the Thames estuary in England. It is separated from the mainland of south Essex by a network of creeks. Lying only just above sea level it is prone to flooding at exceptional tides, but has nevertheless been inhabited since the Roman invasion of Britain. Source: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Canvey_Island

River Thames

Site location

Canvey Island Plan 1:20000 11

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Site Context

Urban Strategies

Link to Railway Station

Urban Strategies

Access to site by water

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Main road access to site

The site was previously used by the Occidental Petroleum refinery, which was abandoned in the 90s.

Site location and access map Source: http://www.castlepoint.gov. uk/documents/Planning%2F1868%20 Canvey%20Island%20Report%20light%20 lowres.pdf

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Site Context

Site Context

Site landscape Site landscape

Photographs of the surrounding area of the site Source: http://www.panoramio.com/user/3612524?with_photo_id=49462374 Photographs of the surrounding area of the site Source: http://www.panoramio.com/user/3612524?with_photo_id=49462374

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Site Context

Site Context

History

History of Canvey Island Canvey Island was a centre of industry with salt making on a large scale and commerce with pottery being imported and exported from a wide area of Roman Britain and Europe. The Early story: Pottery finds indicate that the site at Canvey Point was occupied during the Iron Age ‘B’ period, possibly as early as 200 BC. This date coincides with a radio­carbon date of 180—40BC obtained from a piece of carbon­ised wood found at Osea Road, Peldon, North Essex by Mrs. Kay de Brisay. The Roman Period The site at Canvey would seem to have been in very early use. One of the cremation groups found included a rare lead glazed pot of a type known to have been used by the legions in 43 AD; first century St. Remy ware, Samian accurately dateable to approximately 75 AD all prove that Canvey Point was continuously used from the first days of the .Roman occupation. The Medieval Period Land deeds from the thirteenth century mention property on the western side of the island and the green glazed pots of that period are found broken on the red hill, presumably left by medieval shepherds sheltering from the tides oblivious to the 1500 years of mans endeavor represented by the soil beneath their feet. Fragments of early pottery Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canvey_Island

The "Red Hills" — General Introduction Around the coast of Essex are an estimated two hundred "Red Hills": these are low, flat-topped mounds, which are very variable in shape and size and are situated on or near saltings. In extent they vary from less than a quarter of an acre to many acres and stand two to five feet high above the surrounding saltings. The body of a "Red Hill" consists almost entirely of loosely packed burnt earth of an orange or red colour. Mixed with this are many pieces of large, crude pottery vessels and fragments of clay bars of similar material. There are four different types of bars: "wedges", "firebars", "pedestals" and "T-pieces". All these, together with the pottery vessels, are collectively known as "briquetage." Sherds of Iron Age 'C and early Romano-British pottery, together with lumps of green vitreous slag, are also found in the burnt earth. The widely accepted view on the purpose of the "Red Hills" is that they were industrial sites, producing salt from sea water by a process of evaporation. The crude pottery required for this purpose was produced on the site; slight traces of possible kilns and furnaces have been observed. Sources: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

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Site Context

Site Context

A 'Salt Kiln' from Canvey Island The excavation showed that the fired oval was in fact the top of a typical Roman period pottery type kiln, one of a pair of perfectly preserved structures of fired clay. The individual firing chambers were practically identical in construction and symetrical, being approximately five feet long and 2'6" wide, the combined unit which appeared to have been built in one stage was thus about five feet square. Both chambers were fired from a common stoke-pit, the stoke-pit was sampled but full excavation was prevented by the deep overburden as the pit extended under the present edge of the marsh. Source: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

Simplified map of Canvey Island, showing important Roman sites/ Warwick J. Rodwell Sources: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

The kiln as found in near perfect condition after nearly 2000 years buried in the mud of the point. Source: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

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Sources: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

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Site Context

Site Context

History of the Occidental Petroleum refinery on site Planning permission was granted in the following years for Occidental Petroleum and the Italian oil company, United Refineries Ltd to develop a site further west for the construction of an oil refinery, but a report in 1975 by the Health and safety executive concluded that the residents of the island faced an unacceptable risk, which led to the permission being revoked. The issue of risk was again highlighted in an attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in January 1979 on a storage tank at the island's Texaco oil terminal. A bomb was detonated at a tank containing aviation fuel, but failed to ignite with the fuel escaping into a safety moat.[27][28] The Occidental site was abandoned in 1975 leaving a half-built oil refinery, storage tanks, and an unused mile long jetty which cost around ÂŁ10 million of the approximate total of ÂŁ60 million spent on the project.[29] However, in the following years the disused and undisturbed site flourished as a haven for wildlife, and in 2003, the final storage tanks were removed in a clean-up operation, and the site was renamed as Canvey Wick and opened as a nature reserve. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canvey_Island#Geography

Modern day examples for the quality of the Canvey clay Sources: http://www.canveyisland.org/index.aspx

The disused storage tanks of the Occidental site at Canvey Island in 1997.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Disused_storage_tanks_Canvey_Island_1997.jpg

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Environmental Site Influences

Environmental Site Influences

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Geological Map and Section 1:20000


Environmental Site Influences

Environmental Site Influences

Topography map of the area of Canvey Island Source: The Thames Gateway South Essex Green Grid Strategy

The geological data helped defining the best place for site location Source: ESSEX ROCK A Look Beneath the Essex Landscape ,Gerald Lucy Essex Rock and Mineral Society © 1999

The geological section above shows all soil deposits under Canvey Island making it the better choice than the rest of the South-end area for site location and clay excavation. Source: ESSEX ROCK A Look Beneath the Essex Landscape ,Gerald Lucy, Essex Rock and Mineral Society © 1999

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Environmental Site Influences Environmental Site Influences

Environmental Site Plan 1:30000 Drains Main Roads Bathymetry Shipwrecked sites Archaelogical sites Wind direction

Flood and Coastal risk management- indicative funding Flood and Coastal risk management- Funded scheme Flood warning area Flood from rivers or sea without defences Extent or extreme flood

Sun diagram Map Source: Google maps Section Line Test track Fire station location Pottery Factory location

Island's shape (Site location)

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Environmental Site Influences

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Environmental Site Influences

Air Pollution Source: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/

Pollution Source: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/

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Environmental Site Influences

Environmental Site Influences

Climate and weather conditions Source: http://www.canveyweather.org.uk/

Landfill Source: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/ 31

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Legislative Constraints

The site is located in a green belt zone with a shopping center nearby and high employment zone, next to the residential area of Canvey Island. castle coutry park.

Green Belt

Oil storage/gas

Seafront entertainment area

School

Site of specific scientific interest

Employment

Green lung

Open space/cemetery

extension to hadleigh castle country park Residential

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Long term employment Shopping

Long term residential

Local government

Community facilities

Football ground

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Terraforming the site/Island's formation

Conceptual strategies and responses

Footprints from the oil tanks of the Occidental Petroleum Refinery have been modified as well.

Alluvium layer

Clay Layer The Island shape after terraforming

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Photographs of the model of the terraformed and designed island where the architecture will sit Photographes of the model of the terraformed and designed island where the architecture will sit

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses Terraformed topography and landscape of the site (island) Clay layer (geology of site) Pottery Factory location on the island Formations of excavated clay/residual product from the pottery factory

Formations of excavated clay/residual product from the pottery factory

Terraformed footprints of the oil tanks from the Occidental Petroleum Refinery and turned into clay excavation sites

Pottery Factory location on the island

Overall shape of the island, Alluvium layer

Alluvium layer (geology of site)

Terraformed footprints of the oil tanks from the Occidental Petroleum Refinery and turned into clay excavation sites

Clay layer (geology of site)

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Axonometric view of the model of the Island

Exploded axonometric view of the model of the Island 38


Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Precent for the organization of the island and its landscape Source: http://www.oma.eu/

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Inspiration for the organization of the island and its landscape 1. http://24.media.tumblr.com/4e91de8cbf146e128335ad59f8c2de79/tumblr_ n38ygoflL91qinmt7o1_1280.jpg 2.http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_manmh7IrIt1qar3svo1_1280.jpg 3. http://tsvetelinat.tumblr.com/post/74616770885/jimmy-douglasdjohariah-by-jimmy-douglas 4. http://waithinktank.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/pkulper-davidsisland-strategicplotsm.jpg 5. http://tsvetelinat.tumblr.com/post/74616707308 6. http://tsvetelinat.tumblr.com/post/74616707308

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

The test track will be covered with different materials

The public allotments on site/ park and playground areas The public allotments on site/ park and playground areas

Photographs of the terraformed model with the test track and landscape 43

The location of the Pottery factory on the island

The test track will be covered with different materials

Photographs of the terraformed model with the test track and landscape 42


Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Terraformed footprints from the old oil refinery

Test track

Pottery Factory

One of the footprints becomes and excavation site for clay

Clay Layer Alluvium Layer

Pottery Factory location

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Deeper Geology of the site

Main Road access

Section of the Islad 1:2000 44


Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Schedule of Accomodation

Pottery Factory Precedents Public allotments External Break out area

Rest/Relax Area

Communal Park

Playgrounds

Reading area

Cafe

Pottery shop

Kitchen

Staff Rooms

Decoration/ Engraving house

Load house

Drying house

Slip house

Toilets

Glost house

Entrance area WORKSHOP AREA

Reception

Offices

Kilns Storage Rooms

Unknown floor plans for Pottery Factory from the 1950s. These floor plans show all the spaces a pottery factory needs to have and their organisation. Source: http://www.thepotteries.org/walks/burgess/2010_photos/plan_original.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-wKuWFjJFIOs/TjWNGPL0bJI/AAAAAAAACY4/7hj_OPD9sBM/s1600/ factfloorplan.gif

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Cloak room

Engine Room

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Accomodation Diagram for the Public Workhop of the Pottery Factory

Accomodation Diagram for the Public Workhop of the Pottery Factory

Ground Level

First Floor

Kilns

Toilets

Storage Rooms

Truck delivery entrance/Fire excit

Kilns

Cafe/Restaurant area

Visitors induction area Main staircase Main staircase Main workshop space for potteries

Pottery Shop Area

Relaxation/Reading area

Reading/relax area Reception desk area

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Entrance area/cloack rooms

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Accomodation Diagram for the Industrial/ General Potteries workshop

Accomodation Diagram for the Industrial/ General Potteries workshop

First Floor

Ground Floor

Kitchen/Relaxation area for the staff

Storage Rooms/Glazing/ Drying Rooms

Main walkway Offices

Offices/storage rooms

Main staircase

Materials delivery

Main workshop space

Kiln

Main walkway

Clay/Potteries preparation area

Main staircase Toilets

Entrance/Fire exit

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Entrance/Fire exit

Entrance/Fire exit

Storage Rooms

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Tunnel Kiln Precedent

Design for the Bottle Kiln

Design for the Tunnel Kiln

Wood-fired kiln (on the left) This wood-fired kiln operates on a cross-draft airflow with a fire at one end creating hot air that flows to a chimney at the other end. In this respect it is similar to the early “groundhog� kilns of the Piedmont. But this kiln is actually a modified version of a fourteenth-century kiln used by Chinese potters in what is now northern Thailand. This Piedmont version was designed and built by Mark Hewitt, the man who stands proudly in the left background. The Industrial/General Potteries workshop will use this type of kiln, but in bigger scale as the kiln will be like a big tunnel for bigger/industrial potteries. Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/cede_piedclay/247 Bottle Kiln (on the right) Drawing showing elevation of bottle-kiln from South, developed section and plan above Bag-Wall level, Thistle Pottery, Portobello, Edinburgh. Based on 1972 survey. This type of kiln will be used for the public workshop. Source: http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/en/details/357748/

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses Chimney

Outside air Natural Gas To drying house

Fuel Gases

Brick load

Drying air

Cart transport

Tunnel Kiln cart Preheating section

Temperature

Firing section

Cooling section

1000-1,200 C

The manufacture of bricks & tiles diagram (above) The basic material is clay of various kinds with mixtures of loams, shales and sand, according to local supply and needs, to give the required properties of texture, plasticity, regularity and shrinkage, and colour. Clay for wire-cut bricks is broken up by rollers; water is added in a mixer; the mixture is rolled again and then fed through a horizontal pugmill. The plastic clay extruded is then cut to size on a wire-cutting table. Semi-dry and stiff plastic material is produced by rolling and screening and is then fed to mechanical presses. Some bricks are still hand moulded. Whereplasticmaterialisused,thebrickshavetobedriedeitherbysunandair,ormorefrequentlyinregulatedkilns,beforefiring;bricksmadefromsemi-dryorstiffplasticmaybefiredimmediately.Firing may take place in ring kilns, often hand fed, or in tunnel kilns, mechanically fed. The fuels used will vary according to local availability. A finishing glaze is applied to some decorative bricks.

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Schematic diagram of a Tunnel Kiln In the tunnel kiln the structure is heated only at the kiln start-up and keeps operating for a long period of time. The load (bricks, roof tiles, tiles) assumes the temperature as it moves inside the tunnel, and the firing cycle is completed when the material leaves the kiln. The structure remains hot and an adequate insulation allows a reduction in the heat loss through the walls. The load and the car can keep the kiln at a satisfactory temperature, as the residual energy can be removed in the cooling zone. All the removed energy associated with the cooling air flow can be used to heat the combustion air or be used in the drying process.

Flow chart by type of ceramic (on the right) Processing. The basic processes in the production of pottery include: -preparation of the body ingredients -forming and shaping -biscuit firing -application of glaze -glost firing -decoration

After shaping, the ware may be dried and finished by fettling, towing or sponging. Then it is ready for biscuit firing. After biscuit firing, glaze is applied by dipping or spraying; dipping may be by hand or mechanized. The glazed ware is then fired again. Sometimes, as with sanitary whiteware, glaze is applied to the dried clay article and there is only one firing. Decoration may be applied either under or over glaze and may be by hand painting, machine printing or transfer; over-glaze decoration involves a third firing; and sometimes separate firings for different colours are necessary. In the final stages, the ware is sorted and packed for shipping. The diagram on the right identifies the various paths followed by various types of pottery and ceramics during their fabrication. Source: http://www.ilo.org/oshenc/part-xiii/glass-pottery-and-related-materials/item/925-glassceramics-and-related-materials

A sketch with the main components of this kiln is shown in the diagram above. The complete kiln is divided into three zones, according to the thermal treatment to which the load is subjected: preheating, firing and cooling zone. Besides the movement of the load, the scheme shows the flows of gases after combustion and the cooling air, as well as a schematic diagram showing the temperature distribution through the entire kiln. Source: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1678-58782009000400003&script=sci_arttext

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Design Development

Initial sketches and ideas development

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Initial Long Section drawing 1:400 of the pits where the Pottery Factory will be situated. This is a continued study using Canvey Island's geometry and shapes, in order to define a way of design the pottery factory. The geometries used in the drawing illustrate different parts or machinery of the pottery factory, as well as supporting structure for the walls of the pits (not to collapse).

Initial study using cardboard laser cut pieces of Canvey Island's geometry and shape, and placing these pieces onto the section of the Pottery Factory pits to define a design strategy.

Section Line

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

The rest of the (Cross) Section drawings series of the pits where the Pottery Factory will be situated.

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The rest of the (Cross) Section drawings series of the pits where the Pottery Factory will be situated.

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses Pottery Factory initial section 1:200 scale

Domestic sector Industrial sector

Public sector

1. Industrial workshop 2. Domestic pottery 3. Public Workshop 4. Domestic pottery warehouse 5. Industrial pottery warehouse 6. Bottle kilns 7./8. Tunnel kilns 9. Material Elevator 10. Water tanks 11. Balconies 12. Public walkway 13./14./15. Elevators 16. Wall

Initial sketches for the pottery factory

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Conceptual strategies and responses

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Conceptual strategies and responses

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Pottery Factory cross section 1:200 shows the high-low pressure water tanks that will deliver water to the workshops. 1. Drains 2. Water tanks 3. Maintenance ladders and balconies 4. Fire hose drying tower 5. Fire station 6. Rain water collectors 7. Alluvium 8. Clay

Next stage of the design development sketch, shows the Pottery factory pits with the now two workshops for the public and for industrial/general potteries one. It also shows the high-low pressure water tanks and bits of the landscape of the island. 67

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

North Elevation of the Public workshop !:200

South Elevation of the Industrial/General potteries workshop !:200

Bottle kilns

Skins (cladding) attached to the steel framed skeleton of the building

Different skins (claddings) attached to the steel framed skeleton of the building

Industrial escalator for the delivery of the materials to the workshop from the pit

Tunnel Kiln

Main entrances/exits 69

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Model 1:100 of the Industrial/General Potteries workshop of the Pottery Factory

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Model 1:100 of the Industrial/General Potteries workshop of the Pottery Factory

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Model 1:100 of the Public Potteries workshop of the Pottery Factory Model 1:100 of the Public Potteries workshop of the Pottery Factory

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Initial collage of the Pottery factory pits' section and the elevations of the two workshop, in order to show how the two buildings will be situated in context of the site.

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1:200 Plans of the Pottery Factory workshops in context of the clay pits. 74


Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Skins(cladding) attached to the steel frame skeleton

Toilets/Storage Rooms Glost/Drying house/ Storage Space

Steel framed rings of the skeleton of the workshop

North Terrace

Storage space for potteries Truck delivery entrance and Fire exit

Pottery making space

Pottery making space Bottle kilns

Main staircase

Toilets

Industrial escalator for material transportation from the clay pit

North Terrace/Truck Deliveries area

Entrances Entrances

Tunnel kiln Main entrance/Deliveries

Reception/Reading/ Relax area Walking ramp

South terrace

Cladding that can be rotated during the summer

Ramp for trucks/ Deliveies

1:100 Plan of the Industrial/General Potteries Workshop 77

Model 1:100 of the1:100 Public Plan workshop of Public the Pottery Factory of the Workshop 76


Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Structural Precedents

1. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991 (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/i/446) 2. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991 (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/i/445) 3. http://cjcunney.tumblr.com/page/2

Design Proposal

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

Design Precedents

1. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991 (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/?designer=367) 2. (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/?designer=367) 3. http://www.rndrd.com/?designer=367 4. (Source: http://31.media.tumblr.com/a491633fe7329aafbf54813a86f1d21c/tumblr_ mkzv67vcrF1rs454yo1_1280.jpg) 5. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991(Source: http://www.rndrd.com/i/444)

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Design Inspirations

1. http://www.flickr.com/photos/26608745@N05/2835684494/ 2. http://31.media.tumblr.com/31d94fa898e5fb278cabec891725e00d/tumblr_ mn6dwpoITC1r0d8sko1_1280.jpg 3. http://25.media.tumblr.com/290b40b5f280e8bdd58a97174407ee7a/tumblr_ mv2pql7VAg1r4ath5o1_1280.jpg 4. (http://31.media.tumblr.com/d2d0485d85ae7da85608fda1b395d7db/tumblr_ n0g9d6Duj01r1urvvo1_1280.jpg 5. http://24.media.tumblr.com/e4df8e5e372728717ff9fda42e1180b1/tumblr_ mivm99AJDD1rruc14o1_500.jpg 6. http://devicesandcontext.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/neil-denari-solar-clock-london-002.jpg

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

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1:200 Plans of the Pottery Factory workshops (Ground floor) Industrial/General potteries Workshop 1. Main entrance 2. Pottery making space 3. Materials delivery escalator 4. Preparation tables 5. Preparation tables/sinks/ storage 6. Tunnel Kiln 7. Kiln trolley with potteries 8. Glost/Drying house/ Storage space 9. Glost/Drying house/ Storage space 10. Engine/Heating room 11. Storage rooms 12. Toilets 13. Storage Rooms 14. Side entrance/Fire exit 15. Side entrance/Fire exit 16. South terrace 17. Delivery trucks ramp 18. Entrance ramp

Public Workshop 1. Main entrance 2. Reception area 3. Cloak rooms 4. Rest area 5. Reading area 6. Delivery entrance/Fire exit 7. Engine/Heating room 8. Toilts 9. Storage rooms 10. Pottery making space 11. Kiln 12. Preparation tables/ sinks/storage 13. Preparation tables 14. Boxes/buckets with clay/materials 15. Delivery trucks ramp 16. North terrace/public ramp 17. South terrace/ relaxation area 18. Entrance ramp

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1:200 Plans of the Pottery Factory workshops (First floor)

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Industrial/General potteries workshop 1. Staircase to 1st floor 2./3./7./8. Offices 4./5./6. Storage rooms 9./10. Toilets 11. Staff kitchen 12. Staff dining area 13. Staff relaxation area

Public workshop 1. Staircase to 1st floor 2. Rest area 3.Cafe/kitchen area 4. Pottery shop reception 5. Rest area 6. Kiln 7.Shelves of the Pottery shop

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

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1:200 Long section of the Pottery Factory Public Workshop 1. Materials delivery ramp 2. Pottery making space 3. Engine/Heating room 4. Toilets/Storage space 5. Staircase to 1st floor 6. Rest area 7. Cafe/Kitchen area 8. Pottery shop area 9. Rest area 10. Bottle Kiln 11./12. Skins (Cladding) 13. Steel framed column 14. Reinforced concrete foundations 15. Steel frame construction 16. Site geology

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10

11

1:200 Long section of the Pottery Factory Industrial/ General potteries Workshop 1. Materials delivery escalator 2. Pottery making space 3. Tunnel Kiln 4. Toilets/Storage space 5. First floor/Offices 6. First floor/staff kitchen,dinning,rest area 7. SouthTerrace 8. Reinforced concrete foundations 9. -1 Level staircase 10. Steel framed column 11. Site geology

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Conceptual strategies and responses

Conceptual strategies and responses

1:400 Collage (long section) through the workshops and the Pottery Factory Pits. It shows the two workshops in context of the site.

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87

Close up of the Site Plan with the Pottery Factory workshops in context of the clay pits. 86


Structural strategy

Primary steel rings

Skins attached to the skeleton

INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY Structural strategy

Skins attached to the skeleton

Secondary steel rings

3D Model of the skeleton of the Public workshop

89

This is an axonometric drawing of the skeleton of the Public workshop(of the Pottery Factory), which shows the primary and secondary elements of the construction strategy. The construction strategy contains of primary steel frame rings with secondary rings going across forming the overall skeleton of the building. Series of skins(cladding) will be attached to the skeleton of the building. 88


Structural strategy

Structural strategy

Value Benefits of Steel Construction

Summarising the Advantages of Steel Construction

Steel frame construction offers many advantages over traditional reinforced concrete with lower costs, sustainability and flexibility being amongst the many benefits of choosing steel framed buildings over the alternatives. Steel construction utilising a prefabricated structural steel frame can reduce overall building costs by 2 - 3% when compared to reinforced concrete. When inflation is taken into consideration, the cost of steel build has reduced by 14% in real terms. Over the same period the real cost of the concrete construction has increased by 16%.

Secondary steel rings

Prefabricated steel buildings take advantage of offsite prefabrication to improve the speed or erection and cost predictability of the solution. Prefab steel buildings offer many advantages which are summarised below. Source for the whole page: http://www.reidsteel.com/ brochure.htm

Primary steel rings

3D Model of the skeleton of the Industrial/General potteries workshop This is an axonometric drawing of the skeleton of the Industrial/General potteries workshop (of the Pottery Factory), which shows the primary and secondary elements of the construction strategy. The construction strategy contains of primary steel frame rings with secondary rings going across forming the overall skeleton of the building. Series of skins(cladding) will be attached to the skeleton of the building. 91

90


Structural strategy

Structural strategy

How steel helps to achieve this:

Speed

Value for money: STEEL AS AN ECONOMIC CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL: -Increased productivity in steel manufacture and design, fabrication and erection has made steel a low cost way of building. -Steel usage allows new low cost approaches to fire and corrosion protection. -Steel building fabrication costs have fallen in real terms A SHORT CONSTRUCTION PERIOD: -Earlier possession of the building for use or rent. -Lower financing costs -Better site utilisation -Earlier access for following trades COST SAVINGS THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE PROJECT: -Early involvement of the steelwork contractor in the design process -Large unsupported spans -Smaller site footprint -Steel represents a durable form of construction which meets the building life requirements -Steel construction allows slender columns resulting in maximising floor area. -Steel advantages include excellent strength to weight ratio resulting in lower foundation costs -Offsite structural steel fabrication facilitating lower site costs during construction -Prefabricated steel building construction allows greater independence from the weather -Low cost and efficient approaches to fire protection -Easy integration of services -Prefab steel buildings allow greater flexibility in accommodating changes to the building Flexibility: IN DESIGN: -Steel's excellent strength to weight ratio creates an attractive and economic use of space when beams and columns have small profile areas. -New rolled and prefabricated steel section shapes. -Economic methods for shaping and curving. -Standardised solutions for floor systems and connections. -Opportunities to integrate large openings, for doors and windows -Enhanced Fire engineering. DURING CONSTRUCTION: -Complementary structural components can easily be accommodated, curtain walling readily and efficiently connected to the structure, and other modularised elements such as toilet pods, drycasing, M & E items easily fitted. -Steelwork connections, particularly bolted ones, can easily be released or re-made in whatever form necessary. IN USE: -The client may need to extend, to change the use of the steel framed building, to absorb changes in loading requirements, and to incorporate new installations. -Should an increase in loading requirements occur, then the structural steel elements can easily be individually strengthened, or additional members introduced or altered to suit. -Steel's relative lightness in weight allows adaptation in the future to be easily accomplished. -New connections can easily be introduced by bolting or welding enabling alterations for services or changes of use.

PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDINGS: -The construction preparatory phase enables the steel structure to be planned and connections to be selected for speed of erection. -Pre-engineered steel buildings can take advantage of Just-in-Time manufacturing techniques. -The steel frame of the building is designed and manufactured from computer models directly linked to the CNC machines thus ensuring high dimensional accuracy and speed of erection. -Quick drying coatings technologies are available. SHORT CONSTRUCTION PERIOD: -Economical foundations - steel's excellent strength to weight qualities result in small foundations which then take minimum time to construct. -Off-site manufactured elements, with steel components ready for immediate erection upon arrival on site, with no subsequent delays. This means following trades can carry out their work in parallel. -New erection techniques, e.g. use of mobile working platforms. AFTER OCCUPATION The steel frame is visible for ongoing inspection. The plastic behaviour of steel provides additional security in extreme loading situations, such as explosion, impact, terrorist attack and earthquake. Professional Approach Sustainability AT THE CONSTRUCTION STAGE Delivery of steelwork is relatively straightforward - requiring little space, time or inconvenience. The hours of delivery can be selected in order to reduce public nuisance. Because steelwork comprises prefabricated elements, there is as a result less site disruption with adjoining properties. Construction equipment normally used to erect steelwork is cranes and mobile platforms. These by their nature require little permanent or temporary space to operate. Noise when manufacturing, delivering or erecting steelwork is not a major problem. The speed of steelwork erection means inconvenience caused is reduced to a minimum period. AFTER COMPLETION Steel can be easily maintained so that colour and appearance can always be made to suit a constant or changing environment. Coatings developed through new technology last longer.

Source for the whole page: http://www.reidsteel.com/brochure.htm

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Structural Inspiration

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY STEEL CONSTRUCTION Steel is basically a clean, user-friendly material - no dust, no spillage, little waste etc - and consequently no equipment employed to counteract such problems. Steel can be reused, relocated or recycled once its use has been overtaken by events. Use is therefore responsible in environmental terms. Prestige AESTHETICALLY PLEASING Steel by its very nature has many advantages including: Clean lines Slenderness Large spanning Architectural possibilities It appeals to the client and his designer in terms of attractiveness as well as economy.

/http://www.reidsteel.com .2/.1 http://25.media.tumblr.com/cc749d055b9e8f472e0e28bb10860d5d/tumblr_ms7f6wXssu1rwrnz4o1_1280.jpg .3 http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1566/200810/PreviewComp/SuperStock_1566-449490.jpg .4 http://vesping.com/blog/media/mercado-santa-caterina.barcelona.jpg .5 http://24.media.tumblr.com/e17787967feffea755b7884318b27925/tumblr_muvbrlMJfB1sckoc4o1_1280.jpg .6 http://www.acegallery.net/images/Denari1FORWEB.jpg .7 http://www.topboxdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/London-Kings-Cross-Station-United-Kingdom-588x781.jpg .8 http://31.media.tumblr.com/2a583b4540a01cda7eb2f907259366b9/tumblr_n2i2azUlR61s5qhggo4_r1_1280.jpg .9 92


Structural strategy

Structural strategy

Structural Precedents

1. Fluoroscape: Illuminated perspectives on Neil Denari (Source: http://www.tropolism.com/2006/09/denari_illuminated.php) 2. Vertical Smoothouse (Source: http://designstories.ning.com/profiles/blogs/vertical-smoothhouse-denari)

Structural Precedents

1. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991 (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/i/446) 2. Neil Denari. A+U 246 March 1991 (Source: http://www.rndrd.com/i/445) 3. The Blur building,Diller & Scorfidio (Source: https://www.domusweb.it/content/dam/domusweb/en/ architecture/2012/05/31/past-forward/big_385126_8331_04-web_Blur_sections_900px.jpg)

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Construction strategy

Examples of Clay/Ceramic Rainscreen claddings

Rainscreen Cladding Rainscreen cladding is a construction facade rainscreen system which consists of the subframe and different finishes like cladding panels, brick, ceramic tiles, reconstituted stone boards, ceramic granite based on a natural stone, high-pressure laminates, composite aluminium panels, metal panels (aluminum, zinc, steel), fibre-cement board, or durable exterior woods.

INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY

Sources: 1. http://www.shildan.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Los-Angeles-Mission-College-1400x1065.jpg 2. http://amyfrankiesmith.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/dscf2217.jpg 3. http://www.rapidrainscreen.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/cladding23-450x250.jpg 4. http://www.barbourproductsearch.info/107784cs39a-file027282.jpg 5. http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/96/26/c9/9626c9dee78361c38b4f9cf3a3e8b600.jpg 6. http://www.steelconstruction.info/images/thumb/9/9f/K3a_Fig18.png/300px-K3a_Fig18.png

Construction strategy

97

Rainscreen cladding is the attachment of an outer skin of rear-ventilated cladding to a new or existing building. The system is a form of double-wall construction that uses an outer layer to keep out the rain and an inner layer to provide thermal insulation, prevent excessive air leakage and carry wind loading. The outer layer breathes like a skin while the inner layer reduces energy losses. The structural frame of the building is kept absolutely dry, as water never reaches it or the thermal insulation. Evaporation and drainage in the cavity removes water that penetrates between panel joints. Water droplets are not driven through the panel joints or openings because the rainscreen principle means that wind pressure acting on the outer face of the panel is equalized in the cavity. Therefore, there is no significant pressure differential to drive the rain through joints. During extreme weather, a minimal amount of water may penetrate the outer cladding. This, however, will run as droplets down the back of the cladding sheets and be dissipated through evaporation and drainage. By the

insulating the structural following benefits

wall are

externally achieved:

Thermal bridging is somewhat reduced because there are no interruptions caused by floor slabs, however vast thermal bridging is more than likely introduced by means of continuous furring strips. Options do exist to help reduce the amount of thermal bridging introduced or even eliminate the thermal bridging altogether by truly insulating continually across ALL structural members with not breaks or bridges in the insulation except for the finite fasteners used to attach the cladding to the building (negligible by ASHRAE 90.1 standards since their thermal bridging effect is so slight) Temperature fluctuations are minimized due the achievement of higher effective R-values (lower U-Values) therefore creating a much more efficient wall assembly and dramatically reducing the loads on HVAC systems. Interstitial condensation is prevented as vapor pressure and wall temperature restricts condensation to the ventilated cavity. Heat from the sun is dissipated so that the temperature is dispersed in the cavity and ventilated through openings. Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainscreen_cladding

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Construction strategy

Construction strategy

8 8

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5 2

6 1:10 Floor to wall detail of the Public Workshop

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2

3

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1. 200mm aluminium exterior panels 2. Steel bracket housing exterior panels 3. Rain screen Clay (tiles) panels 250x300mm 4.Vertical joist supporting horizontal cladding rails 5.Secondary steel structure with 55mm of external rigid insulations and damp proofing on exterior 6.130mm metal stud infill wall with acoustic slab insulation, rain drip cap on top 7. Primary steel beam 300x250mm in cross section 8. 40mm thick double glazed unit housed in nepreme junction with wooden sill support 9. Wood laminate floor panels 10. 55mm rock floor insulation 11. Slim deck steel formwork panels with 130mm(at deepest) of insitu cast concrete

3

1 9

1:10 Composite floor slab with deep trapezoidal sections

1 composite column (concrete infill between flanges) 2 steel beam 3 flange plate 4 end plate 5 closer plate 6 profiled sheet metal 7 shear studs 8 in situ concrete 9 longitudinal reinforcement in ribs

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The two workshops will have double glazing.

Construction strategy

Advantages of composite floors Decking craned into position prior to laying out manually. Composite floors offer significant advantages related to speed of construction and reduced overall construction depth.

Examples of Vertical cladding that can be rotated either for ventilation or entrance/exits

The principal advantage of composite floors compared with other systems is that of speed and ease of construction. A typical construction sequence would be as follows: -erect steel frame -position and fix sheeting (these are normally manhandled into place and require no cranage other than to lift them in bundles onto each floor) -fix supplementary reinforcement -cast concrete Once the units have been placed, a working platform is provided which facilitates the remaining stages of construction and also allows work to continue on lower storeys in relative safety. There is therefore a considerable improvement in speed of construction compared with traditional slab forms. A further implicit advantage of this system is that overall construction depth is reduced because of the relatively short spans used.

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Sources: (Text) http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com/en/reference/teaching_resources/architectural_studio_reference/elements/ composite_construction/advantages_of_composite_floors/ 1. http://www.steelconstruction.info/images/thumb/f/fc/C8fig2.jpg/300px-C8fig2.jpg 2. http://www.steelconstruction.info/images/thumb/f/ff/C5fig14.jpg/300px-C5fig14.jpg 3.http://techstudies.myblog.arts.ac.uk/files/2013/02/IPE-AA-Beam.jpg

Sources: http://www.timberawards.com.au/mingara-one-fitness-centre

Sources: http://www.gradywindows.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Double-Glazed-Unit-MakeUp-Clearfloat-with-Swisspacer.jpg

http://blog.everest.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/Benefits-of-double-glazing.jpg 100


Construction strategy

Construction strategy

Building Regulations Stairs (K)

All the public staircases in the building have maximum 12 steps before a landing. Meting the requirement of maximum 18 steps per landing. The dimension of the steps are: Rise 180 mm and going 290 Source: http://swinburnearchitect. com/wordpress/wp-content/ uploads/2009/03/hayes_stairs-2.jpg

Fire Safety Diagrams 1:200 All points have several escape routes and none are over 15 m. All public areas are wheelchair accessible

http://facedesign.com/log/ wp-content/uploads/facedesign-architecture-new-york091-steel-concrete-cantileverstair-components-foot.jpg

Fire exits

Fire exits Wheelchair acces ramp

Fire exits

Fire exits

Wheelchair acces ramp

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Environmental Strategy

INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY Environmental Strategy

1:500 Sun diagram with the Pottery Factory workshops in context Both Pottery Factory workshops are have most of their windows and openings facing south for maximum advantage of the natural light during the day and heating from the sun.

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Environmental Strategy

Environmental Strategy

Underfloor Heating System How it works Wet underfloor heating circulates warm water through a succession of continuously looped pipes beneath the floor. The result of this is that a large radiant surface is created; the entire floor area effectively becoming a heater, warming your home from the floor upwards. Underfloor-Heating requires only low temperature warm water and is ideal for use with modern condensing boilers and heat pumps. Comfort levels are high while running costs are low.

Diagrams showing how the sunlight enters the buildings throughout the day

The Benefits Economic – can save you between 15-30% on your heating bill Environmental – efficient and compatible with renewable energy sources Comfort – more warmth where you want it Aesthetics – allows you the freedom to design your rooms without radiators Space Savin g – removes the need for bulky radiators Health & Hygiene – eliminates dust mites and hard to reach space behind the radiator Source: http://www.underfloorheatingsystems.co.uk/ The workshops are going to use the heat from the kilns during the pottery process to heat the water in the pipes which will heat the buildings.

Source: http://www.underfloor-heating-london.co.uk/upload/images/ whyunderfloorheating.jpg http://www.boilerboy.co.uk/images/clip2.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Underfloor_ heating_pipes.jpg http://www.gasapplianceguide.co.uk/Cross%20section%20A.jpg

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Environmental Strategy

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Heating Diagram for both workshops of the factory (Ground floors 1:200)

Environmental Strategy

Heating Diagram for both workshops of the factory (First floors 1:200)

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Environmental Strategy

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Natural Ventilation Diagram Public workshop (Ground floors 1:200)

Environmental Strategy

Natural Ventilation Diagram Industrial/General potteries workshop (Ground floors 1:200)

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Design team

The design team produces a set of information that explains the building the client wants. The tendering process Forms the price given by the contractor.

Client and the Design Team

Client brief Client: -Rotary Club of Canvey Island - Private sponsors -The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) Canvey Island is an area with great historical value. The Rotary Club of Canvey Island has won The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) to contribute to the community of Canvey Island . The club and and some private sponsors have in dialogue with the local people decided that they are going to build a public building, and bring back to life the pottery industry of Canvey Island. The building will be connected mainly with the production of clay products and entertainment as well. Given that the project and building is a generosity gesture to the local people, the most important aspect is the quality and the experience that the people of Canvey Island will get from visiting the building.

List of accommodation: Pottery Factory: - Public Workshop (Workshop space for pottery making, Storage units, Bar / Lounge , Cafe, Restaurant, Reading space, Toilets, Cloack room, Receptions) - Industrial/General Potteries Workshop( Workshop space for pottery making, Storage units, Toilets, Offices, Kitchen, Rest Area, Drying/Glazing Rooms) -Public space -Car Park -Public Allotments/Playgrounds -Fire station ( Office, Accomodation, Kitchen, Dinning Room, Rest Area, Toilets, Fitness, Changing Room/Showers, Hose Drying Tower, Truck Garage) -Test Track Funding: -Rotary Club of Canvey Island - Private sponsors -The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF)

The traditional contract illustrated on the right side, gives more control throughout the whole project, due to the complex nature of this project. Typically, the client retains the design consultants during the construction phase to prepare any additional design information that may be required, to review any designs that might be prepared by the contractor, and to inspect the works. Normally, one consultant (the architect) will be appointed to administer the contract. This means that the architect has to produce a comprehensive set of drawings. The Architect will assume design responsibility, and in this case will also be the Contract Administrator and lead consultant. This means that the architect will be able to make changes to the building ( with client approval) This form of procurement is suitable for both experienced and inexperienced clients. Fully developing the design before tender gives the client certainty about design quality and cost, but it can be slower than other forms of contracting, and as the contractor is appointed only once the design is complete, they are not able to help improve the buildability and packaging of proposals as they develop. The design team will assist the architect and produce a certin amount of information called the tender package. This is then sent to 6 different contractoros who are invited to give an overall price to the building. Under the traditional contract the architect produces a comprehensive set of information describing all aspects of the design and how it is constructed to RIBA stage F. The information usually comprises of: - 1:100 plans, sections and elevations - 1:20 sections describing how different building elements interface - 1:5 drawings describing the full detail work Schedule list all: - Windows - Doors - Sanitary ware (sinks, wcs, etc) - Ironmongery ( door handles etc) -Fixtures and fittings Specifications - A detailed written description of all building components and the standard workmanship required

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Procurement

Type of Contracts

Procurement possibilities and implications

Key Features:

Key Features:

- Tender (Employers Requirements) normally based on outline design but can be at schemedesign stage - D&B Contractor makes proposals and adopts (and completes ) the design - Tender price can be single action or negotiated (usually through two stage)

- Main contractor appointed early (at stage C or D) - Design Team novated to Main Contractor before fixed price is agreed - Target cost contract (e.g. NEC3) typicaly adopted -Initial appointment made on quality based assessment- pre construction agreement required

Pros:

Cons:

Pros:

Cons:

-Single point responsibility -Transfer of speculative risks to the Contractor -Earlier start on site - design can run in parallel - Cost certainty at outset -Programme responsibility with D&B Contractor (subject to post contract Client driven change) -Possibile to achieve a guaranteed maximum prioe (GMP) -Tied and tested -Original design team can be novated for continuity/ security of design

-Longer procurement and overall development process (compared to CM/MC) -Higher tendering costs for contractors -D&B Contractor prices design risk -Client losses influence over design control(Employers Requirements need to be precise clear and detailed -Quality of design and product needs to be closely monitored -Novation arrangements can create a conflict on the interest -Post constract changes can be mose expensive than traditional contracts with bills of quantities -More inflexible route ro accomodate change

-Integration of design and construction through collaborative approach -Overlapping of design and procurement without the risk of unpriced design development -Earlier start on site - design can run in parallel -Quicker overall process -Progressive co-ordination of design with the early integration of specialist contractors

-Less cost certainty than traditional/ D&B procurement routes -Good option in rising market potentially not offering best price in a falling market -Target cost and programme subject to change If they are not 'robust' -Setting the target cost at the right level -Requires a collaborative approach from the whole team -Target cost contracts (NEC3) REQUIRE extensive administration -Loss of design control-design needs to be developed to an appropriate level that is acceptable to the Client -Pre-selection of the 'right' contractor is key

Sequence

Brief

Sequence

Design Tendering

Design Tendering

Construct 115

Brief

Construct 114


Programmatic and Cost implications

Pottery Factory (Both Workshops) Floor area = 525 m2 each workshop Number of storeys=2 Project Location- South London/Southend-on-Sea/Canvey Island Build Quality= Excellent Contracted to: Main contractor+subsuppliers/builders The cost per m2 is £1,438. This means the average build cost for a floor area of 525m2 will be £754,950 For two storeys of one workshop: 2x £754,950= £1,509900

Overall: 2x £1,509900= £3,019800 for both workshops

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2013

RIBA STAGES

A

SEPTEMBER

DECEMBER

2014

JANUARY

APRIL

MAY

AUGUST

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT

B C

PLANNING

D

DESIGN+ CONSTRUCTION DRAWING

E

CONTRACT

START OF SITE

F

2 YEARS.....5 YEARS......

G I 1O WEEKS

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT 8 WEEKS

2 WEEKS

2 WEEKS 4 WEEKS

PLANNING

BUILDING REGULATIONS

3 WEEKS TENDER CONTRACT

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Appendix

Reference list All the sources are available in the text of the report after each photograph or text.

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Integrated Design Technology & Proffesional Practice