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Transformation 2013 Design Challenge Planning Form Guide Design Challenge Title: “Eggcellent” Vehicle Safety Teacher(s): Pamela Miller School: Harlandale High School Subject: Momentum and Energy in Collisions Abstract: In this design challenge, students will use their knowledge of momentum and impulse to design and build a car that will successfully protect a passenger (raw egg) in a front end collision.

MEETING THE NEEDS OF STEM EDUCATION THROUGH DESIGN CHALLENGES

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Begin with the End in Mind The theme or “big ideas� for this design challenge: Students will have a basic understanding of momentum and impulse. They will be able to relate these concepts to real world situations. TEKS/SEs that students will learn in the design challenge: (4) Science concepts. The student knows the laws governing motion. The student is expected to: (C) demonstrate the effects of forces on the motion of objects; (5) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and recognizes that energy and momentum are conserved. The student is expected to: (C) calculate the mechanical energy and momentum in a physical system such as billiards, cars, and trains; and (D) demonstrate the conservation of energy and momentum.

Key performance indicators students will develop in this design challenge: Develop vocabulary(momentum, impulse, conservation, collision, elastic, inelastic) relate concepts of momentum and impulse to real world situations, calculate momentum and impulse, describe the law of conservation of momentum, use concepts and related calculations to solve word problems, design and build a car with effective safety features

21st century skills that students will practice in this design challenge: www.21stcenturyskills.org Written and oral communication, collaboration STEM career connections and real world applications of content learned in this design challenge:

Careers: Automotive engineer, automotive safety consultant, collision investigator (insurance, forensic) Connections: automotive safety, sports, using packing materials to protect breakables during shipment

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The Design Challenge You work for a local car manufacturer and have been asked to join a design team that is attempting to build the safest car of all time. To increase marketability, the car must also have an aerodynamic design and be visually appealing. The ultimate test of the vehicle will be to travel down the test ramp and crash into the wall while still protecting the passenger (a raw egg).

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Map the Design Challenge Taught before the project

Taught during the project

1. Vocabulary: momentum, collision, impulse, conservation, elastic collision, inelastic collision

X

X

2. Do calculations using equations for momentum, impulse, and conservation of momentum

X

X

3. Complete word problems involving momentum, impulse, and conservation of momentum

X

X

4. Design safety features for a test car that apply principles of momentum and impulse

X

X

Already Learned

Performance Indicators

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Team-Building Activity It is important that teachers provide team-building activities for students to help build the 21st Century Skills that are necessary for success in the workforce. Team-building helps establish and develop a greater sense of cooperation and trust among team members, helps students adapt to new group requirements so that they can get along well in a new group, serves to bring out the strengths of the individuals, helps identify roles when working together, and leads to effective collaboration and communication among team members so that they function as an efficient, productive group. Our students are often not taught how to work in groups, yet we assume that they automatically know how. Use team-building activities with your students so that you can see the benefits which include improvement in planning skills, problem solving skills, decision making skills, time management skills, personal confidence, and motivation and morale.

Helium Stick http://wilderdom.com/games/descriptions/HeliumStick.html 

This can be done as one big group or in pairs, depending on the length of the rod.

Line up in two rows which face each other.

Introduce the Helium Stick - a long, thin, light rod.

Ask participants to point their index fingers and hold their arms out.

Lay the Helium Stick down on their fingers. Get the group to adjust their finger heights until the Helium Stick is horizontal and everyone's index fingers are touching the stick.

Explain that the challenge is to lower the Helium Stick to the ground.

The catch: Each person's fingers must be in contact with the Helium Stick at all times. Pinching or grabbing the pole in not allowed - it must rest on top of fingers.

Warning: Particularly in the early stages, the Helium Stick has a habit of mysteriously 'floating' up rather than coming down, causing much laughter. A bit of clever humoring can help - e.g., act surprised and ask what are they doing raising the Helium Stick instead of lowering it! For added drama, jump up and pull it down!

The stick does not contain helium. The secret (keep it to yourself) is that the collective upwards pressure created by everyone's fingers tends to be greater than the weight of the stick. As a result, the more a group tries, the more the stick tends to 'float' upwards.

Processing Ideas 

What was the initial reaction of the group?

How well did the group cope with this challenge?

What skills did it take to be successful as a group?

What creative solutions were suggested and how were they received?

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What would an outside observer have seen as the strengths and weaknesses of the group?

What did each group member learn about him/her self as an individual?

Reference 

Booth Sweeney, L. & D. Meadows (1996). The systems thinking playbook: Exercises to stretch and build learning and systems thinking capabilities. The Turning Point Foundation.

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5E Lesson Plan Design Challenge Title: “Eggcellent” Vehicle Safety TEKS/TAKS objectives: §112.47. Physics 4C, 5CD Engage Activity www.brainpop.com Technology movie, “Airbags” Have students write down 5 interesting facts from the video OR students can take quiz after movie individually or as a class. Your school can subscribe to brainpop for a year or you can obtain an individual 5 day free trial. After video have students brainstorm other safety features of a car:  Bumpers  Padded consoles and interior  collapsible steering wheels  Crumple zones  Seat Belts Introduce design challenge: You work for a local car manufacturer and have been asked to join a design team that is attempting to build the safest car of all time. To increase marketability, the car must also have an aerodynamic design and be visually appealing. The ultimate test of the vehicle will be to travel down the test ramp and crash into the wall while still protecting the passenger (a raw egg). Students will work in groups of 2-3 to complete this design challenge.

Engage Activity Products and Artifacts Student notes or quiz results from video

Engage Activity Materials/Equipment BrainPop access, computer with internet access, projector, design challenge specifications sheet

Engage Activity Resources www.brainpop.com

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Explore Activity Warm Up Idea: Show students a Newton’s cradle. In their journals, have students predict what they think will happen if on ball is released, then two. Have students generate ideas about how it works. Activity 1: What is Momentum? This activity has three parts. It is meant to familiarize students with the concept of momentum, how to calculate it, and conservation of momentum. Part one uses the car and ramp equipment from Cambridge Physics Outlet. This part can be modified for use with other equipment, or omitted if no equipment is available. Do this activity in groups of no more than three students. Do Part 1 of Explain after this activity. Activity 2: Force Indicator Lab Present activity to students in this way: Materials Needed: • 2 “volunteers” • 1 “force indicator” • 2 “lab aprons” Rules: 1. 2. 3.

For a successful result, apply the principle of impulse to the lab. If the yellow light on the force indicator comes on, your team is OUT!!! Please return all lab equipment to your instructor.

Students will work in pairs to participate in an egg toss. The “force indicator” is the egg. The “yellow light” described in the rules represents the yolk of the egg. Students will stand outside, facing each other, approximately 2 meters a part. One partner tosses the egg to the other. If the toss is successful, one partner takes a step back. If the toss was not successful, then the pair is out. It is best to have all the students stand in two lines, facing each other and across from their partners. After the lab discuss which catching /tossing techniques were the most successful, and have students record their ideas in a journal entry. In the journal entry have students also discuss how they think this activity relates to momentum and how communication played a role in their success (or lack there of). Link this to the Part 2: Impulse portion of the Explain section. Do part 2 of Explain after this activity.

Explore Activity Products and Artifacts Warm Up journal entry “What is Momentum” lab sheet Journal entry after “Force Indicator” lab

Explore Activity Materials/Equipment CPO car and ramp, 2 photogates, photogate timer, 0.20 kg weights (2 per group), meter stick (2 per group), marbles (3 per group), triple beam balances, timer (1 per group), masking tape, eggs ( 1 per pair of students), “lab aprons”=black trash bags ( 1 per student), “What is Momentum?” handout, Newton’s cradle

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Explore Activity Resources Alternate virtual lab: http://physicsquest.homestead.com/Momentum_Lab.pdf Virtual Newton’s Cradle http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/ncradle.htm

Explain Activity Have students take Cornell notes. Part 1 of presentation should be done after Explore Activity 1. Information in presentation should be linked back to the lab. For Happy/Sad ball demonstration see: http://www.sciencefirst.com/vw_prdct_mdl.asp?prdct_mdl_cd=40416 In class or as homework, have students complete the “Momentum Practice” worksheet to reinforce calculation and problem solving skills. Part 2 of presentation should be done after Explore Activity 2. Information in presentation should be linked back to the lab. As homework have students complete “How does Momentum Relate to Me?” using information they get from their family’s vehicle.

Explain Activity Products and Artifacts Cornell Notes Part 1 and 2 “Momentum Practice” worksheet “How does Momentum Relate to Me?” homework assignment

Explain Activity Materials/Equipment “Momentum” PowerPoint, computer with PowerPoint, Projector, “Momentum Practice” handout, “How Does Momentum Relate to Me?” handout

Explain Activity Resources Understanding Car Crashes: It’s Basic Physics video – www.highwaysafety.org How to take Cornell notes: http://coe.jmu.edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes.html

Elaborate Activity

Students will plan and develop vehicle for the design challenge “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety”, using specifications on the “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications” sheet

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The specifications sheet assumes the use of CO2 cartridges as a means of propelling the vehicles. If these materials are not available, a simple ramp set up can be used. The same ramp (or identical ramps) should be used for all student groups. The ramp should lead to a straight, structured track on the floor that dead-ends into a wall. Always provide students with project rubrics before they begin a major project. Have students collect possible building materials from around their homes, but have some materials available.

Elaborate Activity Products and Artifacts Completed “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications” sheet Completed Student Vehicles

Elaborate Activity Materials/Equipment Crash test dummies (plastic eggs), building materials (paper, Styrofoam, weather stripping, cardboard, cotton balls, bubble wrap, plastic wrap, etc.), “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications” sheet, Vehicle Rubric

Elaborate Activity Resources http://www.carsdirect.com/features/safetyfeatures http://www.car-safety.org/carguide.html http://auto.howstuffworks.com/

Evaluate Activity

Students will present their cars to the class, emphasizing the safety features included in the design. Students will then test their cars on the track with CO2 cartridges as propellant. Students will record their results and watch the test runs for other groups, making note of successful design features that were not included in their own design. After all groups have completed test runs, students will complete the analysis section of “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Vehicle Testing and Analysis” individually.

Evaluate Activity Products and Artifacts Crash test results Project Analysis

Evaluate Activity Materials/Equipment Student cars, track leading to crash wall, CO2 cartridges (size is ¾ in X 2 ½ in), goggles, “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Vehicle Testing and Analysis”

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Evaluate Activity Resources How to use the CO2 cartridges http://blog.makezine.com/archive/2006/10/whizzing_on_fiz.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CO2_dragster

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What is Momentum? An object’s momentum is related to its mass and its velocity. Momentum (p) represented by the equation p=mv, and is measured in kg m/s. Part 1: Momentum, Mass, and Velocity Materials: CPO Car

CPO stand

CPO Car masses

CPO Ramp

2 CPO photogates

CPO photogate timer

Procedure: 1. Set up the CPO ramp at a 45 angle. 2. Set up photogates approximately 0.15m apart. 3. Take mass of car in grams. Convert this to kilograms. 4. Place car at the top of the ramp. 5. Release car and measure the time it takes to travel between the two photgates. 6. Calculate the velocity and the momentum. 7. Repeat the procedure twice, adding a 0.20 kg weight each time. Distance (m)

Total Mass (kg)

Time (s)

Velocity (m/s)

Momentum (kg m/s)

Trial 1 Car alone Trial 2 Car + 1 weight Trial 3 Car + 2 weights Analysis: What happens to the car’s momentum as the mass is increased?

Part 2: Transfer Momentum! Materials: Marbles

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2 meter sticks

Masking tape

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Directions: 1. Tape the meter sticks to a flat surface parallel to each other and between 2cm and 2.5cm apart. This will be our “track”. 2. Put two marbles in the center of the track approximately 2cm apart. 3. Flick one marble so that it rolls and hits the other. What happens?

4. Put two marbles in the track so that they touch. Repeat step 3 with a third marble. What happens? Analysis: 1. Besides a game of marbles, what is another game that relies on a transfer of momentum?

2. Describe how a Newton’s cradle works.

Part 3: Conserve Momentum! Materials: Marbles Masking tape

2 meter sticks timer

triple beam balance

Directions: 1. Take the mass of each marble. 2. Using the track from part one, put two marbles in the center of the track about 2cm apart. 3. Mark the starting point of both marbles. 4. Be ready to time each marble’s movement. 5. Flick one marble so that it rolls into the other. 6. Record the time and distance each marble travels. 7. Calculate the velocity and momentum for each marble. 8. Perform 3 Trials.

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Distance (cm)

Time (s)

Velocity (cm/s)

Mass (g)

Momentum (g cm/s)

Trial 1 Marble 1 Marble 2 Trial 2 Marble 1 Marble 2 Trial 3 Marble 1 Marble 2 Analysis: The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum before a collision is the same as the total momentum after a collision. Does your data support this? Explain.

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Momentum Practice Momentum is the product of an object’s __________________ and _______________. Equation: A moving car has momentum. If it moves twice as fast, its momentum is __________ as much. Momentum is related to how much _______________ is needed to change an object’s motion. The force exerted by an object depends on the __________ of the object, the __________ of the object, and the ___________ over which the force is exerted. Like energy and mass, momentum in a system is ____________. This is called the law of conservation of momentum. The recoil momentum of a cannon that kicks is (more than/less than/the same as) the momentum of a cannon ball it fires. Momentum is measured in units of _______________. Example Problems 1. Two cars are heading east, car A is traveling 30mi/hr, car B is traveling 60mi/hr. Each car weighs 2000lbs. a. What is the momentum of car A? b. What is the momentum of car B? c. If car B crashes into car A, what is the total momentum?

2. Car X is traveling 30mi/hr east, car Y is traveling 60mi/hr west. Each car weighs 2000lbs. a. What is the momentum of car X? b. What is the momentum of car Y? c. If car X crashes into car Y, what is the total momentum?

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Practice problems

For the following problems, follow the steps below. You will get 50% credit for following steps and 50% for the correct answer. 1. Circle what you are solving for. 2. Label with a p, v, or m above what you circled. 3. Underline other numbers with units of measure that are in the problem. 4. Label with a p, v, or m above what you underlined. 5. Write the correct formula based on what you are solving for. 6. Plug in the numbers and units in the correct places. 7. Solve the problem! Don't forget units. 1. Tiger Woods hits a 0.05 kg golf ball, giving it a speed of 75 m/s. What is the momentum of the golf ball?

2. On April 15, 1912, the Titanic sank after running into an iceberg. What momentum would a 423,000,000 kg ship have imparted to the iceberg if it had hit the iceberg head on at a speed of 11.6 m/s?

3. If a 26 kg football player runs at you with a momentum of 250 kg m/s, what is the velocity of the football player as he approaches you?

4. A 620 kg moose stands in the middle of the railroad tracks, frozen by the lights of an oncoming 10000kg train that is traveling at 10m/s. What is the combined velocity of the train and moose after the train hits the moose?

5. Which has more momentum: a 300lb football player moving at 5m/s or a 200lb quarterback moving at 10m/s?

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How Does Momentum Relate to Me? Directions: For each of the problems below, follow the problem solving steps outlined during class (refer to “Momentum Practice”). As always, use metric quantities for both problems. Put a box around the numeric answer and write a one sentence summary of the problem and its final solution. 1. You are driving to the grocery store at a speed of 30 mph. A kid chasing his basketball runs out in front of you. You swerve and hit a tree, and you are not wearing a seatbelt. At what velocity is your body ejected from the seat of the car into the windshield? Look up the weight of your family car for the car in this problem (it should be on the inside of the driver’s side door). Hint: To find mass from weight in pounds, divide by 2.2.

2. For the situation in #1, the impact of the car with the tree takes place over a period of 1.25 seconds. With what amount of force did the car hit the tree?

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“Eggcellent” Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications The Challenge: You work for a local car manufacturer and have been asked to join a design team that is attempting to build the safest car of all time. To increase marketability, the car must also have an aerodynamic design and be visually appealing. The ultimate test of the vehicle will be to travel down the test ramp and crash into the wall while still protecting the passenger (a raw egg). Your vehicle will be expected to protect your passenger while being propelled by a CO2 cartridge into the crash wall. Specifications: 1. All test runs will be performed with as “crash dummy” (wooden or plastic egg). 2. The vehicle, not including the wheels, should not exceed these measurements: a. Length – 20 cm b. Width – 10 cm c. Height – 8.15 cm

3. The car’s mass should be approximately 150 grams and no more than 250 grams. a. Egg’s average mass = 50g b. CO2 average mass = 28g The egg’s mass and the CO2 mass are added to the total mass of your car. 4. The car must have a safety zone for the CO2 cartridge that acts as a barrier between the cartridge and the passenger compartment. The safety zone should not have a depth of no more than 1” from the back of the car. The floor below the CO2 and roof above must be secure to the other three walls surrounding the cartridge. This safety zone should be 2.8 cm from the bottom of the car and should be able to accommodate the ¾ in. X 2 ½ in. cartridge. 5. The car must include a windshield, secure roof covering, and two seats (not bucket style). 6. A spoiler may be incorporated, as long as the height of the spoiler does not exceed 8.75 cm. Planning: Further research of vehicle safety features may be necessary to complete your vehicle design. Safety features to include

Material(s) to use

_______________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________

__________________________________________

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Vehicle design (include measurements):

Top View:

Side View:

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Plan the Assessment Engage Artifact(s)/Product(s): Student notes or quiz results

Explore Artifact(s)/Product(s): Warm Up Journal entry, “What is Momentum” lab sheet, “Force Indicator” journal entry

Explain Artifact(s)/Product(s): Cornell notes for part one, Cornell notes for part two, “Momentum Practice” worksheet, “How does Momentum Relate to Me” homework

Elaborate Artifact(s)/Product(s): Vehicles for “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety” design challenge, “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications” planning sheets

Evaluate Artifact(s)/Product(s): Crash test results, analysis for “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety” design challenge

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Rubrics “Eggcellent” Vehicle Safety: Vehicle Design Rubric 1 Design meets one of the three dimensions specifications

2 Design meets two of the three design specifications

Design does Design is the Mass not fit into the minimum (#3 on acceptable mass (150 g) Specifications) range for exactly mass (150250g) Design does Safety zone is CO2 safety not include a not separated zone (#4 on safety zone from the specifications) passenger compartment

Design is the maximum mass (250 g) exactly

Dimensions (#2 on Specifications)

Roof, windshield, seats (#5 on specifications)

0 Design exceeds all dimensions specifications

Design does not include the roof, windshield, and two seats

Total Points Earned:

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Design includes one of the three design elements

Safety zone is separated from the passenger compartment and meets depth requirements Design includes two of the three design elements

3 Design meets all specifications for length, width, and height Design is within the acceptable range for mass (150g250g) Safety zone is enclosed with three walls, a top, and a bottom. Safety zone meets depth requirements Design includes all of the design elements

/9 total points

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“Eggcellent” Vehicle Safety: Vehicle Testing and Analysis Your vehicle will be expected to protect your passenger while being propelled by a CO2 cartridge into the crash wall. The total possible points that can be earned: 50 pts. Crash results (circle one): Intact

Small crack

Large Crack

Total loss

10 pts

5 pts

2 pts

0 pts Teacher initials ________

In the following section, provide an analysis of this project and an evaluation of your design. For full credit, be sure to include: The specific physics principles demonstrated

10 pts

How your initial design demonstrated these principles

10 pts

Modifications for the design after seeing actual performance

10 pts

Suggestions for applying your safety features to automotive safety

10 pts

Analysis: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ © 2008 Transformation 2013

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Story Board 

 Week 1 Activities (based on 50 minute periods)

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 Week 2 Activities

Day 1 “Helium Stick” Team building activity Engage: BrainPop “Airbags” video BrainPop quiz Safety feature brainstorming Design challenge intro and grouping Day 6 Part two of Explain PowerPoint with Cornell notes Assign Homework: “How Does Momentum Relate to Me?”

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 

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Day 2 Newton’s cradle warm up journal entry Explore Activity 1: “What is Momentum”

Day 7 Go over previous day’s homework Group students and have them begin “Eggcellent Vehicle Safety: Planning and Specifications” sheet Assign Homework: collect materials for car

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 

Day 3 Part one of Explain PowerPoint with Cornell notes

Day 8 Build car Assign homework: complete car for homework

Day 4 “Momentum practice”— model calculations and practice

Day 9 Each group presents their car and performs test run.

Day 5 Explore activity 2: “Force Indicator Lab”

Day 10 Students complete analysis of project.

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Momentum