Transformation 2013 Design Challenge Planning Form Guide Design Challenge Title: Going in Circles Teacher(s): Pamela Miller School: Harlandale High School Subject: 2D motion—Circular and Rotational motion Abstract: Students will apply concepts of circular and rotational motion to their design for an amusement park ride.

MEETING THE NEEDS OF STEM EDUCATION THROUGH DESIGN CHALLENGES

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Begin with the End in Mind The theme or â&#x20AC;&#x153;big ideasâ&#x20AC;? for this design challenge: Students will use their knowledge of circular and rotational motion to design an amusement park ride. TEKS/SEs that students will learn in the design challenge:

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the laws governing motion. The student is expected to: (B) analyze examples of uniform and accelerated motion including linear, projectile, and circular; Key performance indicators students will develop in this design challenge:

Vocabulary development (uniform circular motion, centripetal acceleration, period, angular position, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, tangential velocity, tangential acceleration, torque, angular momentum); calculate period in uniform circular motion; calculate centripetal acceleration; calculate angular velocity and acceleration; calculate tangential velocity and acceleration; apply concepts of circular and rotational motion to the design of an amusement park ride 21st century skills that students will practice in this design challenge: www.21stcenturyskills.org Collaboration, critical thinking, written and oral communication STEM career connections and real world applications of content learned in this design challenge:

Careers: Engineer, Ride Designer Connections: Students will see how circular motion applies to situations that they will encounter during their lives.

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The Design Challenge You have been recruited by a nearby amusement park to design their next thrilling ride. The park already has many roller coasters, and is hoping that you can design something new and different. You will be expected to design the ride that applies circular/rotational motion concepts and build a prototype and present it to the owners and board of directors. The owners of the park are definitely concerned about rider safety, and expect to see evidence of your rideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety.

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Map the Design Challenge Taught before the project

Taught during the project

1. Vocabulary development (uniform circular motion,

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centripetal acceleration, period, angular position, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, tangential velocity, tangential acceleration, torque, angular momentum) 2. Calculate period in uniform circular motion

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3. Calculate centripetal acceleration

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4. Calculate angular velocity and acceleration

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5. Calculate tangential velocity and acceleration

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6. Apply concepts of circular and rotational motion to the design

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Performance Indicators

of an amusement park ride

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5E Lesson Plan Design Challenge Title: Going in Circles TEKS/TAKS objectives: 112.47. Physics. 4B Engage Activity Waiter’s Tray Put a plastic cup of water on a waiter’s tray with a long handle, possibly threaded with sturdy string (this can also be done with a bucket of water). You may want to practice before doing this with your students. Ask the students if they think it is possible for you to swing the tray around in a complete vertical circle without spilling the water. Give students time to discuss or write down what they think will happen and why. Swing the tray a couple of times back and forth to build up speed before attempting the vertical loop. Briefly introduce the concept of centripetal force to explain why the cup was able to stay on the tray through out the vertical loop. Spinning with Weights Have a student volunteer (the lighter the better) sit on a spinning stool (preferably with a foot rest). Hand the student two dumbbells, light enough to hold at arm’s length. Spin the student (feet up but not extended if no foot rest) and arms out. After getting a good spin started, instruct the students to pull their arms and elbows in. They will experience an increase in speed. Instruct the student to extend their arms again and the student will experience a decrease in speed. Briefly introduce the concept of angular momentum to explain this phenomenon. Link this demonstration to figure skaters bringing their limbs closer to their bodies when trying to increase the speed of their spin, and how limb extension affects that spin Introduce the Design challenge (provide the students with the “Going in Circles” handout below) You have been recruited by a nearby amusement park to design their next thrilling ride. The park already has many roller coasters, and is hoping that you can design something new and different. You will be expected to design the ride that applies circular/rotational motion concepts and build a prototype and present it to the owners and board of directors. The owners of the park are definitely concerned about rider safety, and expect to see evidence of your ride’s safety. Students will work in groups of 3-4. Give students the opportunity at this point to do some research on the physics of amusement park rides and circular motion.

Engage Activity Products and Artifacts Journal activity reflecting on demonstrations Design Challenge Research Engage Activity Materials/Equipment Team Building Activity: 1 ball for each group, timer Engage activity: Waiter’s tray with long handle, plastic cup with water, spinning chair, 2 3-5 lb dumbbells Design challenge: “Going in Circles” handout, library/internet access for each student group Engage Activity Resources Team Building Activity http://wilderdom.com/games/descriptions/WarpSpeed.html Engage Activity: http://www.ap.smu.ca/demos/navigation/navigation_frames.html (click on mechanics, left side bar will have links for circular motion demonstrations) Conservation of angular momentum and figure skating http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/physbio/biomechanics/cam-intro.html Design challenge: http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/ http://library.thinkquest.org/2745/data/centrip2.htm http://library.thinkquest.org/C005075F/English_Version/index.html http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/streetfair/circular.html http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/amusement/centripetal.html

Explore Activity Complete “Exploring Centripetal Force in Uniform Circular Motion” worksheet (see below). Students should work in pairs. Students should wear goggles at all times and be given plenty of space to work. Explore Activity Products and Artifacts “Exploring Centripetal Force in Uniform Circular Motion” handout

Explore Activity Materials/Equipment (per pair of students) 2-hole stopper (not necessary that each group has the same size), 15 cm x 1 cm tube (can be Bic ® pen casings or ¼ in. PVC pipe), several large washers or hooked masses (should total approximately 200g per group), string for tying washers together, large paper clip, stopwatch, one meter of nylon cord or fishing line, meter stick Explore Activity Resources http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l2b.html

Explain Activity Students will take Cornell notes during the “Circular Motion” PowerPoint. Students will work in groups (3-4) to complete “Circular Motion Practice Problems”. Each student in the group works the problems individually. Each student is then responsible for explaining how to solve one of the problems to the group. Students should double check each other’s work and discuss any discrepancies. Explain Activity Products and Artifacts Cornell notes Circular Motion Practice Problems Explain Activity Materials/Equipment Computer with PowerPoint, “Circular Motion” PowerPoint presentation Explain Activity Resources Instructions for Cornell notes http://coe.jmu.edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes.html http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1e.html

Elaborate Activity Students will research and design their amusement park ride. All research and resources should be documented on a separate sheet of paper. Ride plans should include sketches and measurements. The prototype should be tested before the presentation. A record of these tests should be kept. Students should also calculate the centripetal force acting on the rider during their ride and the centripetal acceleration of the train/vehicle. Calculations will be done using prototype measurements, but a discussion of how these calculations will relate to a rider on a full size version of the ride will be necessary. Elaborate Activity Products and Artifacts Amusement park ride prototype Ride plans with sketches Ride test data and calculations Elaborate Activity Materials/Equipment Students will need to gather specific materials they want from home, but some generic building materials should be available, e.g. wood, cardboard, hot glue, etc. Elaborate Activity Resources http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l2b.html http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1e.html

Evaluate Activity Students will present their models, test results, and calculations to the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Board of Directorsâ&#x20AC;? (other members of the class). Students will be expected to emphasize how circular motion concepts are applied in their ride design and ride safety. Students will be expected to answer questions from their peers/teacher. Evaluate Activity Products and Artifacts Student Presentations Evaluate Activity Materials/Equipment Student Projects

Evaluate Activity Resources http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l2b.html http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1e.html http://www.learner.org/interactives/parkphysics/ridesafety.html

The Challenge: You have been recruited by a nearby amusement park to design their next thrilling ride. The park already has many roller coasters, and is hoping that you can design something new and different. You will be expected to design the ride that applies circular/rotational motion concepts and build a prototype and present it to the owners and board of directors. The owners of the park are definitely concerned about rider safety, and expect to see evidence of your rideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety. Important Information: All research and resources should be documented on a separate sheet of paper. Ride plans should include sketches and measurements. The prototype should be tested before the presentation. A record of these tests should be kept and provided to the Board of directors at the time of presentation. Calculations of the centripetal force acting on the rider during their ride and the centripetal acceleration of the train/vehicle should be included. Calculations will be done using prototype measurements, but a discussion of how these calculations relate to a rider on a full size version of the ride will be necessary. During the presentation, you will present your models, test results, and calculations to the Board of Directors. You will be expected to emphasize how circular motion concepts are applied in your ride design and ride safety. Be prepared to answer questions from the Board of Directors.

Exploring Centripetal Force in Uniform Circular Motion Use your textbook or the internet to answer the following questions. Pre Lab Questions: 1. What is centripetal acceleration (define in words and mathematically)?

2. What is centripetal force (define in words and mathematically)?

3. When analyzing the circular motion of an object, knowing the period (T) of the object is important. Define T in both words and a mathematical formula.

Objective: To analyze the relationship between centripetal force, mass, and velocity for an object undergoing uniform circular motion. Materials: 2-hole stopper, 15 cm x 1 cm tube, several large washers or hooked masses, string for tying washers together, large paper clip, stopwatch, one meter of nylon cord or fishing line, meter stick Procedure: 1. Put on your goggles and do not remove them until you have completed the lab. 2. Mass the rubber stopper. Record its mass in kilograms. 3. Attach one end of the nylon cord to the rubber stopper. 4. Thread the cord through the tube. 5. Bend a paperclip into a hook and attach it to the cord on the end opposite of the rubber stopper. Rubber Stopper

Tube

Washers or weight

6. Take the mass of the hook, string, and the washers together. Add washers until the mass just exceeds 100 g. Record the mass in kilograms. 7. Tie the washers together with the string. 8. Attach the washers to the hook. 9. Pull the cord through the tube so that there is approximately 0.75 m of cord between the tube and the stopper. 10. Support the washers in one hand and begin moving the tube in a circular motion. 11. Increase the speed of the movement and slowly release the washers. Maintain the speed of the movement at a point where the washers are neither rising nor falling. 12. Have your partner time how long it takes for the stopper to complete twenty revolutions. 13. Before stopping the movement, place your finger at the top of the tube to catch the string. 14. Measure the length of the exposed string caught by your finger. This is the radius. 15. Complete two more trials varying only the radius. The radius should not be less than 0.50 m or greater than 0.90 m for any trial. 16. Complete three more trials varying only the mass of the stopper. Attach a marker to the cord at the point of the desired radius to make it easier to see. 17. Complete three additional trials varying only the mass of the washer stack. Data: Trial

Trials with Varying Radius Mass of Stopper Mass of Total time (kg) Washers (s) (kg)

1 2 3

Trial 4 5 6

Trials with Varying Stopper Mass Mass of Stopper Mass of Total time (kg) Washers (s) (kg)

Trials with Varying Washer Mass Mass of Stopper Mass of Total time (kg) Washers (s) (kg)

Trial

7 8 9 Analysis: Use the pre lab questions and the following equations to complete the calculations table. a. Circumference = 2Đ&#x203A;r b. Period, T = total time/number of revolutions c. Force of weight (hanging mass) = Centripetal Force d. Velocity, v = d/t

Trial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Centipetal force, Fc (N)

Calculations Period, T (s)

Circumference (m)

Velocity (m/s)

Conclusion: 1. Describe the relationship of the velocity of an object with uniform circular motion and the centripetal force exerted on it.

2. Describe the relationship between the radius of an object’s revolutions and the velocity of an object exhibiting uniform circular motion.

3. Describe the relationship between mass and velocity of an object exhibiting uniform circular motion.

4. What does the assumption “Force of weight (hanging mass) = Centripetal Force” assume concerning centripetal acceleration?

Circular Motion Practice Problems Directions: Draw and label a diagram for each situation. Show all work. 1. A ladybug lands on a vinyl record making 33 1/3 revolutions per minute. What is the magnitude and direction of the ladybugâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s centripetal acceleration if she is 9.0 cm from the recordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center.

2. An amusement park ride has a radius of 2.0 m and completes a revolution every 0.85 s. Calculate the speed of the rider.

3. Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the rider in #2.

4. You ride your bike counterclockwise 10 times around a circular track. It takes 607s for you to do this. The track has a radius of 70 m and your bike tires have a radius of 0.33 m. What is the angular velocity and acceleration of the bike as it moves around the track?

5. What is the angular velocity and acceleration of the tire about its axis for the bike in #4?

Plan the Assessment Engage Artifact(s)/Product(s): Journal entry, Design challenge research

Explore Artifact(s)/Product(s): “Exploring Centripetal Force in Uniform Circular Motion” handout

Explain Artifact(s)/Product(s): Cornell notes, “Exploring Centripetal Force in Uniform Circular Motion” conclusion questions, Circular Motion Practice Problems

Elaborate Artifact(s)/Product(s): Amusement park ride prototype, Ride plans with sketches, Ride test data and calculations

Evaluate Artifact(s)/Product(s): Student presentations

Rubrics Building A Structure : Going in Circles! Student Name:

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CATEGORY Information Gathering

4 Accurate information taken from several sources in a systematic manner.

3 Accurate information taken from a couple of sources in a systematic manner.

2 Accurate information taken from a couple of sources but not systematically.

1 Information taken from only one source and/or information not accurate.

Plan

Plan is neat with clear measurements and labeling for all components.

Plan is neat with clear measurements and labeling for most components.

Plan provides clear measurements and labeling for most components.

Journal/Log Content

Journal provides a complete record of planning, construction, testing, modifications, reasons for modifications, and some reflection about the strategies used and the results. Clear evidence of troubleshooting, testing, and refinements based on data or scientific principles.

Journal provides a complete record of planning, construction, testing, modifications, and reasons for modifications.

Journal provides quite a bit of detail about planning, construction, testing, modifications, and reasons for modifications.

Plan does not show measurements clearly or is otherwise inadequately labeled. Journal provides very little detail about several aspects of the planning, construction, and testing process.

Clear evidence of troubleshooting, testing and refinements.

Some evidence of troubleshooting, testing and refinements.

Little evidence of troubleshooting, testing or refinement.

Construction Materials

Appropriate materials were selected and creatively modified in ways that made them even better.

Appropriate materials were selected.

Inappropriate materials were selected and contributed to a product that performed poorly.

Construction - Care Taken

Great care taken in construction process so that the structure is neat, attractive and follows plans accurately.

Appropriate materials were selected and there was an attempt at creative modification to make them even better. Construction was careful and accurate for the most part, but 1-2 details could have been refined for a more attractive product.

Construction accurately followed the plans, but 3-4 details could have been refined for a more attractive product.

Construction appears careless or haphazard. Many details need refinement for a strong or attractive product.

Modification/Testing

Scientific Knowledge

Function

Explanations by all group members indicate a clear and accurate understanding of scientific principles underlying the construction and modifications. Structure functions extraordinarily well, holding up under atypical stresses.

Explanations by all group members indicate a relatively accurate understanding of scientific principles underlying the construction and modifications. Structure functions well, holding up under typical stresses.

Explanations by most group members indicate relatively accurate understanding of scientific principles underlying the construction and modifications. Structure functions pretty well, but deteriorates under typical stresses.

Explanations by several members of the group do not illustrate much understanding of scientific principles underlying the construction and modifications. Fatal flaws in function with complete failure under typical stresses.

Oral Presentation Rubric: Going in Circles! Student Name:

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CATEGORY Content

4 Shows a full understanding of the topic.

3 Shows a good understanding of the topic.

2 Shows a good understanding of parts of the topic.

1 Does not seem to understand the topic very well.

Preparedness

Student is completely prepared and has obviously rehearsed.

Student seems pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals.

The student is somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking.

Student does not seem at all prepared to present.

Collaboration with Peers

Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together. Stays on topic all (100%) of the time.

Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause "waves" in the group.

Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member.

Stays on topic most (99-90%) of the time.

Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member. Stays on topic some (89%-75%) of the time.

Comprehension

Student is able to accurately answer almost all questions posed by classmates about the topic.

Student is able to accurately answer most questions posed by classmates about the topic.

Student is able to accurately answer a few questions posed by classmates about the topic.

Student is unable to accurately answer questions posed by classmates about the topic.

Vocabulary

Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Extends audience vocabulary by defining words that might be new to most of the audience. Listens intently. Does not make distracting noises or movements.

Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Includes 1-2 words that might be new to most of the audience, but does not define them.

Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Does not include any vocabulary that might be new to the audience.

Uses several (5 or more) words or phrases that are not understood by the audience.

Listens intently but has one distracting noise or movement.

Sometimes does not appear to be listening but is not distracting.

Sometimes does not appear to be listening and has distracting noises or movements.

Stays on Topic

Listens to Other Presentations

It was hard to tell what the topic was.

Story Board  Week 1 Activities 50 min. class periods

Week 2 Activities 50 min. class periods

Day 1 Team building Activity (30 min) Engage demonstratio ns (20 min)

Day 6 Complete design challenge research (20 min Begin planning ride (30 min)

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Day 2 Introduce design challenge (15 min) Design challenge research (35 min)

Day 7 Finish plan (20 min) Build prototype (30 min)

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Day 3 Explore lab ( 45 min)

Day 8 Finish building (20 min) Tests and calculations (30 min)

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Day 4 Explain PowerPoint with Cornell notes (45 min)

Day 9 Finish Tests and calculations (20 min) Plan presentation (30 min) Finish presentation for homework (give more than one day)

Day 5 Circular motion and rotational motion calculations practice with peer teaching (45 min)

Day 10 Presentations to board of directors (50 min)

Circular Motion
Circular Motion

TSTEM PBL for Physics