Page 1


activity book on water, sanitation and hygiene

Note for the facilitator : This page has to be photocopied. Each student must answer the questionnaire twice, once before the session, once after, using the “before“ and “after” columns respectively.

Write your Name, Class and Date

Read the 10 statements below and... ...put a

against those you believe are true

...put a

cross against those you believe are false

...put a

against those that you are unsure about before


There is no link between people falling sick and an unhygienic lifestyle.


Many illnesses come from germs that are found in the human faeces.


Faeces of infants or animals do not pose any risk to adults.


If we do not wear shoes, worms can enter our body through the feet.


Even when our hands look clean, it can be full of invisible germs.


Rivers, ponds and open wells are natural sources of clean water.


Defecating near water sources can result in polluting the water.


Drinking water can be made safer by boiling.


If food is kept covered, it keeps flies from spreading germs.


Household waste is not dangerous, so it is not important to dispose it of safely.


Household work is the responsibility of women only.


It is our responsibility to keep our environment clean.


1 LetÂ’s map our neighbourhood On a large sheet of paper, draw a coloured map of your village or community. The map must have all the important trees, roads and buildings. Add up points for any of these that you have correctly drawn in the map. for each water source places where garbage is thrown for places where people go for toilet

This is what a part of your map may look like

Discuss with your group and share these thoughts with the rest of the classHow does making a map help us understand water, hygiene and sanitation? If you could make one change in the way things are organised in your village / community, what would it be?


2 Why are people falling sick?

People in this village are worried because men, women and children are suffering from diarrhea! Look at the picture below and help find all the reasons for sickness.



3 Germs take many routes !

Danger! Germs are getting to the mouth! From the red arrow below, and ending at the blue arrow diagonally opposite, germs can take many routes. Find all the different routes the germs can take. Circle all the pictures that are touched on the way. Explain how the things shown in the pictures help carry the germs to the mouth.




Identify all the pictures that are not in the path of the germs. Using the pictures as clues, explain how we can stop the germs from getting to the mouth. Draw a picture on a separate sheet of paperWhat do we need to keep a toilet clean.

Name any 4 things we must do when we use a toilet.


4 Worms at our feet! Different kinds of worms are found in human and animal faeces. These are very small and hard to see. Some worms get into the body by biting through the skin, usually when someone walks without shoes over wet and dirty ground. This pair of feet is protected. Join the dots and find out what is protecting it.

1 33







30 34




31 26



24 49




23 35




21 19






18 47



16 15

14 12



11 10



What are the other ways of preventing worms from entering our body?


5 Magic glasses reveal a secret!

Use the special red goggles to find what is hidden in this hand. Then complete the sentences below. Our hands _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________________________________ Washing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________________________________

ith m s w fro s nd us sease ha cts y di te an ro

our hands are co ms that are vered h ger i wit o the naked eyenvisib le t

so wash ap in p g m

Show & Tell Show how to wash hands correctly using soap, ash or mud. Explain the process step-by-step. Note for the facilitator: You will need to keep a basin, towel, soaps etc. handy for this activity.


6 More about hand-washing

It is important to wash our hands to keep germs away. Washing hands properly with soap, ash or mud helps prevent many diseases. We must wash our hands after we do certain things. Put those pictures in the blue box by drawing a line as shown. We must wash our hands before doing certain things. Put those pictures in the red box by drawing a line as shown.

Activities after which we must wash our hands


Activities before which we must wash our hands

7 LetÂ’s prevent water pollution Polluted water causes serious illnesses. We must keep our water sources clean! Blue circles show water sources, while red squares show different causes of pollution. Look at the blue circles. Mark the source likely to get the most polluted; explain why. Look at the red squares. Put a cross on squares that show pollution you can prevent; explain how.


8 Drinking-water, Handle with care!

Germs are getting into drinking water! How can we keep drinking water free of germs?


This is what we can do to stop the germs

This is how germs get into the water

Match each red circle to the correct action shown in the green circle. Explain how these actions help keep drinking water germ free.

9 Spot the differences

There may be dangerous germs in our food. Unless we take precautions, we can get very sick ! Washing, peeling, cooking, and reheating are ways to keep food germ free. Keeping our kitchen and eating areas clean is very important.

How many differences can you find between the two pictures? Write your answer in the space below.

One of these kitchens belong to a family who keeps quite ill. Which one, and why they are ill? Decode the secret messages below, and write them in the space provided.



10 Clean Habits for Good Health

This woman is throwing garbage in a proper place. This is a good habit. Pictures below show “clean habits” and “dirty habits”. Draw arrows from “dirty habits” to the sick face. Draw arrows from “clean habits” to the happy face.

Show & Tell From head to toe, make a list of things we must do to keep the body clean and healthy. From the list, identify those activities that can save our lives.


11 Men and Women are equal Women, more than men, are affected by the lack of water or toilet facilities. To share the responsibility for cleanliness and safety, it is important for men to contribute more. Make a list of problems that women face when there are no drinking-water or toilet facilities nearby. Circle the pictures that show work that both men and women can do.

Write the number of pictures showing work that a man usually does at home.

Write the number of pictures showing work that a woman usually does at home.

What can you do to make sure that Men and Women share work equally at home?



Ho This is a game for 2 to 4 players or groups.

To win, the player must take all the counters home (diagonally opposite corner), always avoiding unhealthy habits on the way.

g n i

S t ar t


Each player chooses a colour and starts with all the counters in that colour corner.

How to Play






e m




b i ts

thy Ha

Counters in these squares can be sent back to start in these cases: 1. By another player passing through the square during a move 2. If a player is found reaching home from such a square

1. 2.


Beware of squares showing “unhealthy habits”.


Players can start on any throw of the dice. The counters can move diagonally in any direction. If the counter stops on an “unhealthy habit“, the player can move it to any adjacent “healthy habit“ A square can be occupied by the counters of only one player.




St a


The water, sanitation and hygiene in our area affect us all. Making a map of our environment helps us think of our surroundings, how we affect it, and how it affects us. It also gives us ideas on how we can improve our situation. If we become conscious of it we can protect our surroundings and ourselves.


Often our own actions result in the spread of diseases - the picture shows a few such harmful actions: defecating, washing clothes or animals, using pesticides near a pond, and using water from the same pond; disposing garbage in the open, eating food that is exposed to flies, walking without shoes, waste water collecting near homes, etc.


You should know! Every year about 5 lakh children in India die from diarrhea. It is mainly because of open-air defecation, unhygienic habits, and lack of safe drinking water. Diarrhea drains the body of water and nutrients. The best home- treatment for diarrhea is to give ORS (oral rehydration solution) repeatedly, so that the loss of water from the body is replenished. Routes for germs to travel from faeces to food: 1) faeces > flies > food, 2) faeces > dirty hands > food, 3) faeces > dirty hands > drinking water, 4) faeces > pond > drinking water. Ways to prevent germs: 1) washing hands with soap, 2) using a toilet. Things we need to keep a toilet clean: bucket of water, mug, tough broom, hand-washing soap.


You should know! Using soaps, acid, phenyl or other chemicals to clean the toilet is NOT recommended. That is because these chemicals kill even the useful bacteria in the soak-pits, affecting the process that converts harmful faeces into useful fertiliser. Things we must do when we use a toilet: 1) wet the pan with some water so that faeces does not stick, and is easier to wash off. 2) wash the pan well after use with enough water. 3) clean the pan and the adjacent area with a tough broom at least once a day. 4) keep the toilet and surrounding area dry, and prevent any water from collecting nearby. This pair of feet is protected by slippers, so that worms can be kept away. Other actions to prevent worms: use a proper toilet, prevent waste-water from collecting near home, wash hands properly and often, make sure any food is washed well or cooked thoroughly before eating.


Answers & Explanations

You should know! These symptoms indicate that there may be worms in the body: itchy anus, stomach ache, diarrhea, nausea, lack of appetite, sleeplessness, anemia, weakness. Our hands are covered with germs that are invisible to the naked eye. Washing hands with soap protects us from many diseases.


You should know! Even though our hands may look clean, they are usually home to thousands of different kinds of germs that can be seen only through a microscope. The germs come from things like human and animal faeces, rotting stuff and dirty water. We unknowingly pick them up while playing and touching things. Germs on our hands can cause serious illnesses of the stomach, eye or skin. Some illnesses can be fatal. To keep germs away, we must regularly wash our hands thoroughly with soap, ash or mud, and enough water. We must wash our hands after: handling cowdung, cleaning the toilet, working in the field, playing in the dirt or with animals, defecating.


We must wash our hands both before and after: Eating, touching food, feeding children, nursing sick people, touching our eyes Safe for drinking: water from taps and tubewells, because these sources are covered and cannot be easily polluted. Well water may get polluted with plastic, dead animals, garbage,dirty buckets etc. Water from rivers and ponds are the most polluted of all.


You should know! water drawn from taps and tubewells can also get polluted if stored badly, left uncovered or allowed to be touched by hands. If that happens, the water must be purified before anyone drinks it. Water can be purified by, boiling, filtering or adding special chemicals like“zeoline” or potassium permanganate. Pollution of water sources can be prevented by: 1) keeping garbage, dead animals, plastic from getting into water sources. 2) identifying a separate pond for bathing or washing clothes, utensils and animals. 3) using a clean bucket to draw drinking water 4) making sure that faeces does not wash into water bodies.

Drinking water must be stored and handled safely to prevent any germs from getting in: 1) draw water with a ladle, so that hands do not touch the water 2) keep the vessels covered to keep dust and insects away 3) clean the vessel regularly to prevent moss or algae from growing 4) keep the vessel in a clean place, at a height, so that it is out of reach of animals or little children.


What’s different in a clean kitchen: 1) food and water is kept covered, 2) no flies or cockroaches near the food, 3) utensils and instruments are clean, 4) cleaning rag is washed and sun-dried, 5) clean floor.


The dirty kitchen belongs to a family that keeps ill. Secret Messages: 1) left over food must always be reheated before eating, 2) meat or fish must be thoroughly cooked before eating. Healthy Habits - happy face: 1) disposing garbage in a pit, 2) or a proper garbage dump, 3) cleaning the house, 4) collectively cleaning around the tap, 5) cleaning the toilet.


Unhealthy Habits - sick face: 1) disposing garbage in a pond, 2) playing in a dirty area, 3) cooking in a dirty area, 4) neglecting a water source, or waste of water, 5) keeping a toilet neglected and dirty.

All the activities shown can be done by both Men and Women. Usually women are held responsible for all household chores. Very often women not only have to work at home, but outside as well. This results in extra work-load for women. Men and women are equally responsible for looking after children and ensuring the health of family members. Instead of defining work as “just for women“ or “just for men“, we must try to share all that needs to be done equally between men and women in the family.



Healthy habits / Unhealthy Habits

l keeping drinking water covered / uncovered l drawing water without touching with the hand

/ contaminating it with the hand

l keeping food covered / uncovered l using a toilet / defecating anywhere in the open l washing hands with soap / keeping hands dirty l using footwear / walking barefoot l keeping community taps clean / neglecting it,

keeping it dirty

l washing utensils away from a hand-pump /

washing utensils at the hand-pump

l keeping the toilet clean / leaving it dirty.

Notes for the facilitator l

These workbooks are reusable. Participants must use water-based markers so that, after the session, the pages can be wiped clean with a moist cloth.


Divide participants into 4 or 5 teams and give each team a workbook. Explain each activity well before the teams start their work.


At the end of each activity, teams can show and explain their work to the other participants. Allow the group to challenge or ask questions. If necessary, give some time for discussion. The answers given here are for the facilitator, to clarify doubts and sum up the activities.


All the activities need not be done in one day, especially if the group is large. Points are suggested for each correct response. The team with the highest score at the end of the session could be declared the winner. Afterwards, the workbooks must be collected and cleaned by the participants so that another group can use them.

This booklet is a part of a water, sanitation and hygiene education kit for schools. For more information email website © 2009 Thoughtshop Foundation

Inside this workbook LetÂ’s map our neighbourhood pg1 Why are people falling sick? pg2 Germs take many routes! pg4 Worms at our feet! pg6 Magic glasses reveal a secret! pg7 More about hand-washing pg8 LetÂ’s prevent water pollution pg9 Drinking-water, handle with care! pg10 Spot the differences pg11 Clean Habits for Good Health pg12 Men and Women are equal pg13 Bring home healthy habits pg14 Answers and Explanations pg16

Watsan Workbook  

Workbook for rural school children and their parents. Download from the website link.

Watsan Workbook  

Workbook for rural school children and their parents. Download from the website link.