Page 1


Planning for Life Planning for Life is a two and half year project implemented by IYF that aims to integrate reproductive health and family planning into youth development programs. Planning for Life is intended to raise awareness on the importance of YRH/FP and address capacity-building of IYF and its partners in India, Tanzania and the Philippines.

Project Samriddhi Š‡’”‘Œ‡…––‹–Ž‡†Ǯƒ”‹††Š‹ǯȋ ‹†‹–‡”ˆ‘”™‡ŽŽ„‡‹‰ƒ†’”‘•perity) was developed under the aegis of the Planning for Life Programme supported by USAID, World Learning and International Youth Foundation. Project Samriddhi seeks to equip 5000 disadvantaged youth in the age-group of 15-24 in Andhra Pradesh and National Capital Region of Delhi with accurate and age specific knowledge to prevent risky behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, unsafe abortions, and maintain reproductive hygiene. As part of the project a comprehensive youth centric, interactive curriculum on life skills with a focus on sexual and reproductive health has been developed which will be integrated into the youth development programmes like skills training, youth clubs that are conducted by our partner NGOs. Training aids like flip books, posters, games have been developed to overcome the hesitation that trainers in India often feel while discussing certain topics like sex which are considered taboo by society, and which the trainers themselves are not comfortable discussing. As an entry point, the curriculum will be integrated into already running NGO interventions like vocational training, entrepreneurship development programmes, youth clubs and self help groups, to enhance acceptance of the intervention by the youth and the community. Youthreach will anchor the project and will work with four implementing partners implementing innovative skill building programmes with youth. The four partner NGOs - ”Ǥ‡††›ǯ• ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ǡ›””ƒŒ— ‘—ndation, SAHARA in Andhra Pradesh and Prerana in National Capital Region of Delhi - will cover disadvantaged youth in urban and rural areas in Andhra Pradesh and urban slums in the National Capital Region of Delhi. A cadre of trainers and peer educators will be equipped with knowledge and facilitation skills on ARH to instill a health seeking behaviour amongst youth that would prevent poor health outcomes.

©2009 International Youth Foundation. All rights reserved. No portion of this curriculum may be reproduced in any form without written permission from IYF. Adolescent Reproductive Health curriculum adapted from Paro and Shankar methodologies developed in collaboration with CINI and CARE India ©2009 Thoughtshop Foundation.


Acknowledgements Project Samriddhi would not have been possible without the financial support of USAID and World Learning and the technical support received from International Youth Foundation. We are personally very thankful to Susan Brock and Rita Columbia from International Youth Foundation who provided us immense support in developing this project and in providing us frameworks for integration of sexual and reproductive health issues in our existing youth development programmes. We are very grateful to Vinita Nathani from Prerana who painstakingly designed and conducted the needs assessment to identify the prevalent sexual and reproductive health needs in the communities. Prerana has also designed the evaluation tools; they will be evaluating and assessing the impact of the Samriddhi Programme. We would like to extend a heartfelt thanks to Himalini and Santayan of Thoughtshop Foundation who have done a fantastic job in putting the manual together and in adapting the teaching aids, and for conducting a very exciting and energetic training of trainers workshop in Hyderabad. A special note of thanks goes to Crystal Hues for translating the manual into Telugu in record time. Youthreach would like to thank its partners Sahara, Byrraju Foundation, Prerana and ”Ǥ‡††›ǯ• ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”’”‘˜‹†‹‰—•ƒ‡š…‡ŽŽ‡–’Žƒ–ˆ‘”–‘”‡ƒ…Š‘—––‘ thousands of youth through their youth development programmes. Finally we would like to thank the trainers who have been so enthusiastic about the project, and their excitement to use the teaching aids was so palpable and the youth whose presence sowed the seed and inspired this project. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Udaan Life Skills Curriculum whose creation was supported by General Electric Foundation, and International Youth Foundation


Contents Notes for the Facilitator_________________________________________________ 1 Section 1:: Life Skills for Boys and Girls ___________________________________ 5 Session 1

6

Ball of String Game .........................................................................................................................6 Developing Confidence in Self and Others....................................................................................... 7 Respecting Self and Others ............................................................................................................. 8 Personal Values ............................................................................................................................. 11 Session 2

13

Managing Strong Emotions ........................................................................................................... 13 Responsibility................................................................................................................................ 15 Assertiveness: Speaking Directly, Honestly, and Respectfully........................................................ 18 Refusal Skills: Standing Up for Yourself ......................................................................................... 21

Section 2:: Reproductive Health for Adolescent Girls _____________________ 25 Session 3: Self Awareness and Changes during Adolescence

26

Card Game .................................................................................................................................... 26 Self-Realisation: Who am I? ........................................................................................................... 28 Body Mapping ............................................................................................................................... 29 Paro Begins a New Journey............................................................................................................. 31 Drawing the Changes .................................................................................................................... 32 Session 4: Menstruation

34

Blindfold Game ............................................................................................................................. 34 Menstrual Process Demo............................................................................................................... 35 ƒ”‘ǯ•‹•…‘˜‡”› ............................................................................................................................. 36 Coping with feelings ...................................................................................................................... 36 Session 5: Gender Roles, Conception and Sex Determination

37

Sex & Gender Game ...................................................................................................................... 37 Male & Female Bodies ................................................................................................................... 39 Paro Learns a Secret....................................................................................................................... 40 More about Conception................................................................................................................. 41 Early Pregnancy & Decision making .............................................................................................. 42 Session 6: Planning a Healthy Future

45

Paro Glimpses her Future................................................................................................................ 45 Contraception Concepts ................................................................................................................ 45 Negotiating Early Marriage / Pregnancy ........................................................................................ 46 Session 7: Staying Safe, and Family Spacing Methods

48

Paro increases her Knowledge......................................................................................................... 48 Happy Family Game ...................................................................................................................... 49 Talking about HIV & AIDS.............................................................................................................. 51


Section 3:: Reproductive Health for Adolescent Boys _____________________ 55 Session 3: Self Awareness and Values

56

Card Game .................................................................................................................................... 56 Self-Realisation: Who am I? ........................................................................................................... 58 Session 4: Exploring Relationship and Adolescence

59

What it means to be a true Man ...................................................................................................... 59 Adolescence .................................................................................................................................. 60 Drawing the changes ..................................................................................................................... 62 Session 5: Understanding Body Processes

64

Body Mapping ............................................................................................................................... 64 The Male Reproductive System .....................................................................................................66 Myths and Facts ............................................................................................................................ 67 Understanding Basic Body Processes ............................................................................................69 Session 6: Safe Sex, STI, HIV

71

About Being Safe ........................................................................................................................... 71 Early Pregnancy & Decision making .............................................................................................. 74 Exploring Emotions ....................................................................................................................... 76 Session 7: Pregnancy and Family Spacing

78

The Secret of Happy Families .......................................................................................................... 78 Contraceptives .............................................................................................................................. 80 Happy Family Game ...................................................................................................................... 83


Notes for the Facilitator Structure of the Kit This training curriculum is designed for use with adolescents and youth to help discuss reproductive and sexual health related issues. It comprises this training manual, a „‘›•ǯÂ?‹–Č‹ŠƒÂ?Â?ƒ”Â‹Â–ČŒƒÂ?†ƒ‰‹”Ž•ǯ kit (Paro Kit). Both kits contain sets of flipcharts, posters, games and models. This training manual is divided into three sections: Section 1: Life Skills for Boys and Girls Section 2: Reproductive Health for Adolescent Girls Section 3: Reproductive Health and Male Responsibility for Adolescent Boys Section 1 comprises life skills activities selected from the Udaan Life Skills curriculum, which is an integral component of the Life Skills program anchored by Youthreach. Section 2 and 3 cover the basic ARH training which can be conducted over 5 sessions. Sessions use stories, games and activities. This helps young people discuss issues in a manner that is both participatory and fun. The emphasis is on discussion and sharing rather than written work. Each session should take between 1 ½ to 2 hours to conduct. The entire curriculum is made up of 12 sessions; 2 on Life Skills, 5 on ARH for Girls and 5 on ARH for Boys. The facilitator must start at Section 1, and after completing the two sessions, move on to Section 2 or 3 depending on whether s/he is working with girls or boys. To cover the full curriculum with any one group (boys or girls), a facilitator would have to conduct just 7 sessions, which should take about 14 hours on the whole.

Using the Kit Here are a few guidelines to help facilitators use the kits effectively. In general: It is important to follow the order of the activities, without skipping any, because each activity leads to the next. Work with a group size of approximately 15 adolescents. Work with boys and girls separately. While forming groups, young people of similar age groups can be put together; for example, 10 to 14 year olds in one group and 15 to19 years in another group. Floor seating in a circular/oval arrangement - such that everyone can see each other is the most effective way of conducting the training. This will encourage participation from all young people and make the facilitator and participant relationship more equal. 1


Notes for the facilitator

Sometimes it may be necessary to extend the time limit of a session so that a crucial discussion can be concluded properly. Before the sessions start: Ensure that you have undergone training on the issue and how to use the kits. Do a baseline survey with participants to get an idea of existing knowledge and attitudes. Map the available health services in the community and make appropriate references to them while conducting the workshops. During each session: Start the session by setting some ground rules, so the group can work together comfortably. The ground rules can include: giving everyone a chance to speak; ”‡•’‡…–‹‰‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ǯ‘’‹‹‘Ǣ…‘ˆ‹†‡–‹ƒŽ‹–›; and so on. From Session 2 do a quick verbal recap to remind young people of the last session. After each session: Conclude by asking the group what the learning points for the session were. After the entire training, do an end-line survey to measure the shift in young ’‡‘’Ž‡•ǯ‘™Ž‡†‰e and attitudes. Revisit areas that need further clarification.

Issues raised in the Kit Gender The kits raise the issues around Adolescent Reproductive Health with a gender ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡ǤŠ‡„‘›•ǯ‹–Šƒ•ƒƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽˆ‘…—•‘ƒŽ‡”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ Our society values women less and right through their lives women experience violence (violation of their rights), simply because they are women. The violence often begins before girls are born, and continues through their lives. Very often, our society accepts, and even justifies violence against women. Alongside building an understanding of reproductive health: D—”‹‰–Š‡•‡••‹‘•™‹–Š‰‹”Ž•–Š‡‡’Šƒ•‹•‹•‘”ƒ‹•‹‰–Š‡•‡Žˆ™‘”–Š‘ˆ‰‹”Ž•ǯǡ challenging myths and stereotypes that promote girls feeling embarrassed about their bodies and body processes. During the sessions with boys, the activities help them recognize what constitutes violence against women, the need for boys and men to take responsibility and change traditional concepts of masculinity. Adolescent Reproductive Health (ARH) and Sexuality Talking openly about ARH issues helps reduce inhibitions and taboos that surround the subject of sexuality. This in turn helps young people to make informed choices and stay safe. 2


Notes for the facilitator

While working with young people on this subject we need to remember there are many variations of acceptable sexual behaviour. Tradition, culture, society, our own values, emotions and experiences condition our thinking. To help decide what acceptable sexual behaviour is, we can use the following criteria: Age: Both partners should be mature adults Informed and Consensual: Both partners should be aware of the consequences and both need to be willing to engage in sexual activity Safety: The activity should not cause physical or mental harm to anybody Private: The activity should be private, and not a public activity

Human Rights Sometimes the messages in the kits may seem to be in conflict with traditional values held by the facilitator or the community. We should be open to changing attitudes and practices that can improve the quality of all our lives and remember that change is a characteristic of every evolving society. It may be especially necessary to challenge traditional views if they are in conflict with human rights. Human Rights are based on the 4 basic concepts of: Equality: desire for all human beings to be treated equally Freedom: including freedom from Ȃ torture etc. and freedom to worship, participate, speech etc. Tolerance: willingness to accept, allow and respect differences Solidarity: we all share the same condition as human beings and we need to not only protect our own rights but also those of others.

Role of the Facilitator ‡ƒDzˆ”‹‡†dz”ƒ–Š‡”–ŠƒƒDz–‡ƒ…Š‡”dz This will enable young people to be more open and share their doubts and concerns frankly. Provide accurate information and options to young people. This will enable young people to make informed choices, help them be responsible and stay safe in their personal lives. Avoid imposing personal values on the group This will enable young people to share their own views and values more freely.

3


Notes for the facilitator

Be credible Often the facilitator becomes a role model for young people. Š‡ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‘”ǯ• credibility depends on whether his or her actions outside the sessions echo the messages given during the sessions. Maintain confidentiality If young people share personal information, the facilitator should be careful to not „”‡ƒ–Š‡›‘—‰’‡”•‘ǯ•–”—•–Ǥ Refer If a young person shares a problem that is beyond the capacity of the facilitator he/she should refer the young person to a medical doctor or counsellor. ‘ǯ–‘””› The facilitator need not worry if he or she does not have the answer to all the ›‘—‰’‡‘’Ž‡•ǯ“—‡”‹‡•Ǥ ˆ‡…‡••ƒ”›–Š‡ˆƒcilitator can do some research from a ”‡Ž‹ƒ„Ž‡•‘—”…‡ƒ†ƒ††”‡••–Š‡›‘—‰’‡”•‘ǯ•“—‡”‹‡•‹–Š‡‡š–•‡••‹‘Ǥ Keep it Simple It is also important for the facilitator to present the information simply and avoid using technical terms and unnecessary detail. Information overload may confuse participants and result in them forgetting even the basics. Make it fun Enjoy the sessions and make them interesting and memorable for the young people

4


Section 1:: Life Skills for Boys and Girls Life Skills

Time

Page

Ball of String Game

20

6

Developing Confidence in Self and Others

30

7

Respecting Self and Others

30

8

Personal Values

25

11

Managing Strong Emotions

30

13

Responsibility

30

15

Assertiveness: Speaking Directly, Honestly, and Respectfully

30

18

Refusal Skills: Standing Up for Yourself

30

21

Session 1

Session 2

5


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Session 1 Session 1 Activity 1

Ball of String Game Introduction Time: 20 min Material Required Ball of String Chart paper Markers

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Introduction Getting to know one another Become familiar with ‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ǯ•ÇŽÂ“Â—ÂƒÂŽÂ‹Â–Â‹Â‡Â•ÇŻ Setting Ground Rules

Self-awareness Interpersonal Communication Respect for each other Team work

All participants sit in a circle. Facilitator welcomes everybody and introduces the session. Perhaps we all know each other a little bit, but through the sessions today we are going to get to know each other better.

Facilitator starts the introduction process. She holds the ball of string, introduces herself along with any one positive quality that would best describe her. For example, she can say Dz ƒÂ?Â?‹Â?†”‹•ŠÂ?ÂƒÇł or Dz ƒÂ?ƒÂ?ƒœ‹Â?‰Â•ÂŠÂƒÇł She holds one end of the string and throws the ball of string to B, who gives her introduction, holds on to the string and throws it to C and so on. This continues till all participants are introduced. And everyone is part of the group, linked by the strings. Facilitator says: We ar‡ƒŽŽŠ‡”‡–‘‰‡–Š‡”ǥ™‹–ŠŽ‘–•‘ˆ’‘•‹–‹˜‡‡Â?‡”‰›„‡–™‡‡Â?—•Ǥ‡–ǯ• make the most of this opportunity. To work effectively together lets set some ground rules that we can all agree to. Everyone can brainstorm. Some examples of ground rules can be: Let us respect eƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ǯ•˜‹‡™•ƒÂ?†‘’‹Â?‹‘Â?• ‡–ǯ•„‡’—Â?…–—ƒŽ Speak in ŽƒÂ?‰—ƒ‰‡‘ˆ‡˜‡”›‘Â?‡ǯ•…‘Â?ˆ‘”– Switch of the cell phones. ÇĽ Sum up Š‹•™‹ŽŽ„‡ƒˆ‘”—Â?™Š‡”‡›‘—…ƒÂ?•’‡ƒÂ?›‘—”Â?‹Â?†‘—–ƒÂ?††‘Â?ǯ–Šƒ˜‡–‘™‘””›ƒ„‘—– being ridiculed or questioned.

6


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Objectives

Session 1 Life Skill 1

Developing Confidence in Self and Others

Participants will: Identify what is needed for a person to feel confident. Identify ways to build the confidence of self and others. Commit to doing one thing to strengthen their selfconfidence.

Time: 30 min Material Required

Discussion and Demonstration (5 minutes)

Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk) Small objects (e.g. stones /nuts) for each person.

1. Give each participant a small object. Each person should have the same type of object, such as all stones or all nuts. 2. Ask participants to look at their object and identify the characteristics that are unique to their object and that make it special. 3. Gather all of the objects and place them in a pile at the front of the room.

4. Have participants come forward and find their own object based on its unique characteristics. Facilitatorǯ•Note: Participants may think it is impossible to distinguish between the object they originally found and all of the other objects. Encourage them to continue their search. Participants may also look at the objects already selected by other participants to make sure their original object has not be misidentified by another person.

5. After participants have found their object, ask a few of them to comment on what was special about their object. Summarize the activity by indicating that, just as each object is unique, each person is also unique and possesses unique talents and strengths. Recognizing their own talents and strengths can build their selfconfidence. Individual Activity (20 minutes) 6. Ask participants to create their personal self-confidence flag. Have them divide a piece of paper into three columns or use three sheets of paper and tape them together. In one column, have participants write or draw the skills, knowledge and talents they recognize in themselves. In the second column, have them list the people who appreciate their strengths. In the third column, have them write or draw strengths people appreciate about them.

7


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

7. Have participants walk around the room and share their flags with one another. Explain that they are to: ‡ƒ†‘‡ƒ‘–Š‡”ǯ•Ž‹•–•Ǥ If you appreciate something about the person, share what you appreciate about him or her. As others share appreciation with you, add their name and list the skill, knowledge or talent they mention. Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ It might be helpful if you create a sample personal self-confidence flag using your assessment of your own self-confidence as an example.

Personal Application 8. Encourage participants to act on their ideas for building their personal selfconfidence by doing the following: Notice the skills and talents they have. Add these skills and talents to their flag over the next few weeks. Notice when others say they appreciate something about them. Add these comments to their flag as they hear them. Develop a new skill. Add these skills to their flag over the next few weeks. Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡: The last step could be done as a homework assignment.

Session 1 Life Skill 2

Respecting Self and Others

Time: 30 min

8

Participants will: Identify situations that demonstrate respect. Identify ways to show respect for self and others. Discuss what respect is and is not. Identify expressing appreciation as one way to demonstrate respect. Identify the steps for expressing appreciation. Develop assertive statements of appreciation. Understand how respecting one another and expressing appreciation to others contributes to positive relationships

Material Required

Large and Small Group Activity (12 minutes)

Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

1. •’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•Š‘™–Š‡›™‘—Ž††‡ˆ‹‡Dz”‡•’‡…–Ǥdz Accept three or four ideas and record them on chart paper or the white/chalk board.

Paper, pencils/ pens for each student (optional)

3.

Objectives

2. Post the two signs, Agree and Disagree, on opposite sides of the room.

Tell participants that you will be describing some situations to them that involve a person or group of people acting in a way that may or may not show respect. They are to decide if they agree or disagree that the situation demonstrates


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

respect. Then, move to the side of the room with the sign that represents their choice. 4. Describe the first situation. Give participants a moment to think about their response; then, ask them to move. When participants have found their places, call on volunteers to explain their reasons for agreeing or disagreeing Situations Your group leader/teacher asked you to help carry some things to the office. You are already late fo”›‘—”‡š–…Žƒ••ƒ†›‘—–‡ŽŽŠ‹‘”Š‡”›‘—…ƒǯ–Ǥ An elderly woman who is walking home from the market is struggling with three large bags of groceries. This same woman has been critical to neighbors about how you and your friends dress and talk. You do not offer to help the woman. Your parents tell you to watch your younger sister while they go out for groceries. You had planned on going to the park with a friend. You decide to take your sister ƒŽ‘‰‡˜‡–Š‘—‰Š•Š‡†‘‡•ǯ–™ƒ––‘„‡–Š‡”‡ƒ†‹•„‘”‡†. 5. Thank participants for sharing their opinions on the issue of respect and indicate that you want to continue exploring this critical topic by thinking about ways to show respect for self and respect for others. 6. ”‘˜‹†‡†‡ˆ‹‹–‹‘•‘ˆDz”‡•’‡…–ˆ‘”‘–Š‡”•dzƒ†Dz•‡Žˆ-”‡•’‡…–dz–Šƒ–ƒ”‡•‹‹Žƒ”–‘–Š‡ following: Respect for others is to feel or show honor or regard for the worth of someone. Self-respect is when a person believes in his or her personal worth and is willing to stand up for himself or herself. Acknowledge the frequent dilemma of showing respect for self and others at the same time. Information to Share: Facilitator Input (3 minutes) 7. Refer to the definitions of respect that they suggested at the beginning of the •‡••‹‘Ǥ ˜‹–‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•–‘…Žƒ”‹ˆ›–Š‡‹”‹†‡ƒ•„›Ž‹•–‹‰™Šƒ–”‡•’‡…–Dz‹•dzƒ†Dz‹• ‘–Ǥdz”‡ƒ–‡ƒ•’Ž‹–-sheet chart on chart paper or the white/chalk board. It should resemble the chart In the next page:

9


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

‡•’‡…–‹•ǥ

Automatically given in some situations and needs to be earned in others Valuing oneself and others Showing honor for the worth of others Believing ‹‘‡ǯ•’‡”•‘ƒŽ™‘”–Š Standing —’ˆ‘”‘‡ǯ••‡lf

‡•’‡…–‹•‘–ǥ

Blind obedience Tied to whether or not you like someone Being selfish Mistreating others Blind respect for elders Automatically earned with age or authority

Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ Participants should understand that obedience is different from respect and blind obedience may negatively impact respect for self. Obedience is when someone chooses to ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹•–”—…–‹‘•‘”„‡Šƒ˜‡‹ƒ……‘”†ƒ…‡™‹–ŠƒŽƒ™ǡ”—Ž‡ǡ‘”‘”†‡”ǤDzŽ‹†‘„‡†‹‡…‡dz‹•™Š‡ someone obeys a higher order without thinking and making a clear choice.

Facilitator Input and Demonstration (5 minutes) 8. Tell participants there are many ways to show respect to self and others. State that one of the ways is to use statements of appreciation with others and with self. 9. Display the visual listing the two parts of a statement of appreciation. Explain the two parts: Describe what the person did. Tell why you appreciated what the person did. 10. Share a simple formula for including the two parts: When youǥ (†‡•…”‹„‡™Šƒ––Š‡’‡”•‘†‹†ǥȌ I appreciated it becauseǥ (–‡ŽŽ™Š›ǥȌ 11. Demonstrate making a statement of appreciation as a way to show respect for others. Use the following situation or a similar one. A friend noticed you were having trouble with a task you needed to complete. He or she came over to help you. ‘—•ƒ‹†ǡDzŠ‡›‘—Š‡Ž’‡†‡™‹–Š–Š‹•†‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž–Œ‘„ƒ†–ƒ—‰Š–‡ƒ‡ƒ•‹‡” ™ƒ›–‘†‘‹–ǡ ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‡†‹–„‡…ƒ—•‡ ™ƒ•ƒ„Ž‡–‘ˆ‹‹•Š‹–Ǥdz 12. Point out the two parts of the statement of appreciation. 13. Demonstrate making a statement of appreciation to yourself as a way to show self-respect. Note that this type of self-appreciation is made privately in your mind or in a personal journal. When making a statement of appreciation to yourself, you describe what you did and why it helped you build your self-respect. Use one of the following situations or a similar one. The youth leader is looking for people to act or dance in a local celebration. You like to dance and would like to join the group, but fear you will be rejected. You decided to tell the youth leader that you are interested in joining. 10


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Your statement of self-ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‹‘‹‰Š–„‡ǡDz ƒ•‡†–‘Œ‘‹–Š‡†ƒ…‹‰‰”‘—’ǡ even though I was afraid I might not be included. It took courage, but next time it will be easier for me to sp‡ƒ—’Ǥdz Your youth leader would like you to enter into a school or sporting competition. You already have other commitments and know that you will have to prepare a Ž‘–ˆ‘”–Š‡…‘’‡–‹–‹‘Ǥ‘—†‡…‹†‡–‘Š‡Ž’‘—–•‹…‡‹–…‘—Ž†Š‡Ž’–Š‡•…Š‘‘Žǯ•‘” groupǯ•”‡’—–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Your statement of self-ƒ’’”‡…‹ƒ–‹‘‹‰Š–„‡ǡDz Œ‘‹‡†–Š‡…‘’‡–‹–‹‘„‡…ƒ—•‡ ›’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘‹‰Š–Š‡Ž’‘—”•…Š‘‘ŽȀ‰”‘—’Ǥdz 14. Point out the two parts of the statement of appreciation. Personal Application 15. Encourage participants to begin a journal or diary of self-appreciation. Ask them to write or draw 16. One message to themselves each day. The message should be something they did well or something they appreciate about themselves. Session 1 Life Skill 3

Personal Values Time: 30 min Material Required

Objectives Participants will: Become aware of values and priorities. Articulate and explain personal values. Examine the relationship between values and behavior.

Information to share by the facilitator (15 min)

1. š’Žƒ‹–Šƒ–Ǯ˜ƒŽ—‡ǯŠƒ••‡˜‡”ƒŽ‡ƒ‹‰•Ǥ‡‹• actual monetary worth of an object and another involves a more personal measure of worth, such as how important certain things, beliefs, principles or ideas are to someone. Paper, pencils/ pens for Values are: each student (optional) Things you support o”›‘—†‘ǯ–•—’’‘”–Ǥ Things you have chosen on your own with no outside pressure; no one has forced you to choose your values, although your family, friends, teachers, the media and religious leaders may have influenced you. Things you believe in and are willing to stand up for in front of people. Things that you use to make choices and that can guide your behaviour in life. Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers / chalk)

2. Give examples of values such as: Be honest with yourself and the others. Treat everyone with respect. Girls have the same rights as boys and should be treated equally.

11


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Education and skills are important to get a job. 3. Invite participants to share their values with the group focusing on who or what was the most influential person or factor in shaping the values. 4. Summarize the discussion and highlight that: Values are things that we believe in and support. Our values are shaped by everything and everyone around us. Values often influence the decisions and choices we make. Personal Application, Discussion (10 min) 5. Ask participants to write their responses to the following questions on a piece of paper: ”‡›‘—”˜ƒŽ—‡••‹‹Žƒ”–‘›‘—”ˆƒ‹Ž›ǯ•˜ƒŽ—‡•ǫ Does peer pressure influence your values? If yes, how? Are your behaviors in line with your values? What influences people to behave in ways that are inconsistent with their values?

12


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Session 2 Session 2 Life Skill 1

Managing Strong Emotions

Time: 30 min

Objectives Participants will: Identify strong emotions. Understand that situations and people sometimes trigger strong emotions. Know ways to manage strong emotions, including anger. Understand how managing strong emotions positively contributes to positive relationships. Identify ways to manage their strong emotions, including anger, in a positive way.

Material Required

Small Group Work (12 minutes)

Small slips of paper for each participant

1. Direct participants to form small groups of three by counting off.

Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

2. Assign group roles within each small group. The person with the shortest first name can be the leader. The leader will keep the group working on the task. The person with the longest first name can be the spokesperson for the small group and will •Šƒ”‡–Š‡•ƒŽŽ‰”‘—’ǯ•‹†‡ƒ•™‹–Š–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡ group.

Paper, pencils/ pens for each student (optional)

Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ If you have participants who are able to write, it may be helpful to assign a recorder to write the responses of the small group.

3. Describe their task: Listen to a situation you, the Facilitator, will describe. Identify the feelings that might be experienced. Identify what might be done that would lead to a positive result. 4. Select one of the situations from the following to describe. Someone broke into your home last night when you and your family were away. The intruder stole all of your valuables and ransacked your home. You have just learned that you won a contest and will collect a lot of money. You were riding a bike or scooter with a good friend as your passenger. You took a risk trying to get between two objects and crashed. Your friend was seriously hurt and is being taken to a clinic/hospital for treatment. You have not mentioned this to anyone before. When your father gets drunk, he is often quite abusive towards your mother. Last night after your dad got home, you Š‡ƒ”†›‘—”‘›‡ŽŽ‹‰ǡDz–‘’‹–ǡdzˆ”‘–Š‡„‡†”‘‘Ǥ 13


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

You passed an important examination and want to celebrate. You have been falsely accused of stealing from your job. Even though you are innocent, you could not convince your boss of that fact and consider yourself Ž—…›–Šƒ–›‘—™‡”‡ǯ–ˆ‹”‡†Ǥ‘—†‘ǯ–‘™™Š‘Šƒ•„‡‡•–‡ƒŽ‹‰ˆ”‘›‘—” employer, but there is one employee of whom you are suspicious. 5. After a few minutes of small group discussion, have each spokesperson share his ‘”Š‡”‰”‘—’ǯ•‹†‡ƒ•™‹–Š–Š‡…Žƒ••ǤŽƒ”‹ˆ›ƒ•‡‡†‡†Ǥ Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ Some participants may suggest some negative actions. Accept those as possible reactions to strong emotions without discussing the advantages and disadvantages.

Large Group Discussion (5 minutes) 6. Ask participants to list three or four helpful hints for managing strong emotions. Encourage them to think about ways they manage strong emotions positively or consider others who manage strong emotions in a positive way. 7. Record the list on the board. If the following ideas are not mentioned, be sure to add them: Think before you act. Calm down. Write or draw a picture. Play a sports game. Get involved in a hobby. Listen to music. Pause to take a drink of water. Do yoga exercises. Do deep breathing exercises. Pray (where culturally appropriate). Count from 1 to 10 slowly. Beware of overly strong emotions and †‘ǯ–‘˜‡””‡ƒ…–Ǥ

Detach yourself from the situation. Decide to respond to the situation later, giving yourself time to think and settle down. Ask yourself how someone else you admire might respond if he or she were in the same situation. Go for a walk. Go out into nature. Talk with someone you trust or who has expertise to help.

8. Ask participants to discuss the possible consequences when strong emotions are not managed well. Use these or similar questions. What might happen if someone is very angry and he or she yells at others frequently? What might happen if someone is very sad and he or she withdraws from others? What other strong emotions might be harmful if they are not managed well? 9. Summarize that people who do not manage their emotions well may experience physical or emotional problems. It may impair their ability to work accurately or

14


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

quickly in school or on a job. They may also have trouble with their relationships with others. Small Group Practice and Discussion (15 minutes) 10. In their small groups, have participants think of a time when someone responded inappropriately to a strong emotional situation. Perhaps it is a personal example or something they have seen on television or in the movies. 11. Have participants describe their situations in their small group, identify the emotions, and suggest what could have been done differently to manage it in a positive way. 12. Tell participants that their next task is to role play one of the situations using a positive way to manage strong emotions. 13. Provide planning time. 14. Have each group of three describe their situation and present their skit. 15. As time allows, discuss how they changed the reaction to the situation and their rationale for the changes. Session 2 Life Skill 2

Responsibility

Time: 30 min

Objectives Participants will: Understand what a responsible person does and says. Identify the benefits of responsible behaviour and the consequences of irresponsibility. Understand three ways to demonstrate responsibility. Describe ways to demonstrate responsibility and irresponsibility in a variety of situations.

Material Required

Activity and Discussion (15 minutes)

Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

1. Direct participants to form three small groups by having them count off with each participant saying ‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡—„‡”•ǡDz‘‡ǡ–™‘ǡ–Š”‡‡Ǥdz ƒ˜‡–Š‡ Dz‘‡•dzˆ‘”‘‡‰”‘—’ǡ–Š‡Dz–™‘•dzˆ‘”ƒ•‡…‘† group, and –Š‡Dz–Š”‡‡•dzˆ‘”–Š‡–Š‹”†‰”‘—’Ǥ

Paper, pencils/ pens for each student (optional)

2. Assign group roles within each small group. The person who traveled the longest distance to get to the center or school will be the leader. The leader will keep the group working on the task. The person who traveled the shortest distance to get to the center or school ™‹ŽŽ„‡–Š‡•’‘‡•’‡”•‘ˆ‘”–Š‡•ƒŽŽ‰”‘—’ƒ†™‹ŽŽ•Šƒ”‡–Š‡•ƒŽŽ‰”‘—’ǯ• ideas with the large group.

15


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣIf you have participants who are able to write, it may be helpful to assign a recorder to write the ideas suggested by the small group.

3. Assign each small group one of the following categories of people. Friends People in the workplace, such as other workers and supervisors. Family members (substitute school teachers or youth workers if more appropriate). 4. Explain that each group will have five minutes to think about the category of people assigned and to discuss the following two questions. What behaviors might we see or hear from a responsible person from your category? How is being responsible beneficial in relationships with friends, at work, or with family members, school teachers, and youth workers? 5. ˆ–‡”ˆ‹˜‡‹—–‡•ǡ…ƒŽŽ‘‡ƒ…Š‰”‘—’ǯ••’‘‡•’‡”•‘–‘•Šƒ”‡Š‹•‘”Š‡”‰”‘—’ǯ• ideas. 6. ‡…‘”†’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ǯ‹†‡ƒ•‘…Šƒrt paper or the white/chalk board. 7. —ƒ”‹œ‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ǯ‹†‡ƒ•‹–‘–Š”‡‡ƒ‹™ƒ›•–‘†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–›ǣ Do your best. For example: Participate in discussions, Finish what you start, †‘ǯ– give up.

Help others. For example: Include others in discussions, be willing to do your share or more, Show respect to others by respecting their views.

Accept the consequences of your actions. For example: Admit when you are wrong, †‘ǯ– blame others when things go wrong, Repair any damage that you do.

8. Ask participants: Who do you know that demonstrates the three qualities of a responsible person? The people could be friends, family members, other peers or adults, or famous people. Why do you think people choose to be irresponsible?

16


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Personal Application: Discussion (5 minutes) Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ Use OPTION #1 if your participants can write, else use OPTION #2. OPTION #1

Have participants: Write the initials of five people they know who are not in this group. Write his or her own initials as the sixth person. Think about how responsible each person is. Next to each set of initials, write a number using the following code: ` If the person is responsible most of the time, record a 1. ` If the person is sometimes responsible and sometimes not, record a 2. ` If the person is irresponsible most of the time, record a 3. Next to each number indicate a reason for their ranking of that person. Discuss the reasons participants ranked people as responsible. Then discuss the reasons participants ranked people as irresponsible. OPTION #2

Have participants think about one thing they can do to be more responsible. Have them share their ideas with a partner. Call on several participants or ask for volunteers to share their ideas with the large group.

17


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Objectives

Session 2 Life Skill 3

Assertiveness: Speaking Directly, Honestly, and Respectfully

Time: 30 min Material Required Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk) Paper, pencils/ pens for each student (optional)

3.

Participants will: Identify the difference among passive, aggressive, and assertive communication and behaviours. Understand the impact of passive, aggressive, and assertive communication and behaviour on self, others, ƒ†ƒ‰”‘—’ǯ•ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘™‘”™‡ŽŽ–‘‰‡–Š‡”Ǥ Express annoyance in a direct, honest, and respectful way. Improve their ability to make assertive statements to express annoyance. Express appreciation in a direct, honest, and respectful way. (optional) Improve their ability to make assertive statements to express appreciation. (optional) Identify a personal situation where they can use an assertive statement.

1. Ask participants to think of a time when someone did something that hurt their feelings or made them angry. 2. Ask them to raise their hand if they had one of these two responses: Š‡›†‹†ǯ–†‘ƒ›–Š‹‰ǡ„—–ˆ‡Ž–„ƒ†Ž›Ǥ They did something to get back at the person, such as shouted or threatened the person.

•’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•™Šƒ–Dzƒ‰‰”‡••‹˜‡dz…‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘‹‰Š–Ž‘‘‘”•‘—†Ž‹‡Ǥ Record their ideas on chart paper or the white/chalk board. Encourage them to include verbal and nonverbal characteristics. Augment their ideas with the following as culturally appropriate: AGGRESSIVE Verbal

Yells Threatens Gives orders Asks questions to pressure •‡•–Š‡™‘”†Dz dz‘ˆ–‡„‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆ self-centered focus ƒŽŽ•’‡‘’Ž‡Dz‡ƒdzƒ‡•

AGGRESSIVE Nonverbal

Glares Uses aggressive hand gestures Face looks angry Stomps foot Bangs fist on table

4. Ask participants: What might happen to your relationship with a person if either you or the other person responds aggressively when your feelings are hurt or you are angry? Add the ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰’‘‹–•‹ˆ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•†‘ǯ–‡–‹‘–Š‡ǣ 18


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Builds resentment Shows lack of respect Shows lack of cooperation Loses confidence 5. Ask ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•™Šƒ–Dz’ƒ••‹˜‡dz…‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘‹‰Š–Ž‘‘‘”•‘—†Ž‹‡Ǥ‡…‘”† their ideas on chart paper or the white/chalk board. Encourage them to include verbal and nonverbal characteristics. Augment their ideas with the following as culturally appropriate: PASSIVE Verbal

PASSIVE Nonverbal

‘‡•ǯ–•ƒ›‡šƒ…–Ž›what they want Apologizes for self Does not give opinions Does not disagree Gives in easily

Speaks softly or mumbles Eyes look down (in cultures where making direct eye contact is appropriate) Looks away (in cultures where making direct eye contact is appropriate) Makes nervous gestures with hand

6. Ask participants: What might happen to your relationship with a person if either you or the other person responds passively when your feelings are hurt or you are angry? ††–Š‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰’‘‹–•‹ˆ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•†‘ǯ–‡–‹‘–Š‡ǣ Makes it difficult to build a good relationship Builds resentment Shows lack of respect for self and/or the other person Tell participants there is a more effective way to communicate than being aggressive ‘”’ƒ••‹˜‡Ǥ –‹•…ƒŽŽ‡†Dzƒ••‡”–‹˜‡…‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥdz Information to Share: Facilitator Input, Demonstration and Discussion (15 minutes) 7. Describe the ˜‡”„ƒŽƒ†‘˜‡”„ƒŽ„‡Šƒ˜‹‘”•‘ˆDzƒ••‡”–‹˜‡dz…‘—‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ•‡ culturally appropriate characteristics. Create a visual listing the characteristics of assertive communication as you describe them: ASSERTIVE Verbal

Gives opinions without forcing people to accept them Uses a calm voice Asks questions to understand

ASSERTIVE Nonverbal

Listens as well as talks Maintains comfortable eye contact as culturally appropriate Justifies ideas with facts

19


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

8. Tell participants there are three parts to an assertive statement when you want to tell someone he or she has hurt your feelings or annoyed you. Display the visual listing the three parts to an assertive statement. Explain the three parts. Describe what the person did. Tell why it is a problem or annoying you. Tell what you wish the person would do. 9. Share a simple formula for including the three parts: When youǥ (describe what the person didǥȌ It is bothersome becauseǥ (tell whyǥ) I wish you wouldǥ (tell what to do insteadǥ)

.

10. Discuss with participants the impact of assertive communication on the relationship. Include the following points: Builds a positive relationship Promotes respect for self and others Builds teamwork and cooperation Group Activity/Practice: Paired Practice (15 minutes) 11. Divide the group into two groups of equal size. Then, ask participants to find a partner in the opposite group. Ask each pair to decide which person will be the spokesperson and tell the large group their assertive statements. Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ If you have participants who are able to write, it may be helpful for them to record their responses before sharing ideas.

12. Display the visual listing the three parts of an assertive communication statement. Ask the pairs to develop an assertive statement for the situation below. You have told your friend that you like someone and would like to find out if he or she feels the same way about you. Later, you see that same friend flirting with the person you like. 13. After the pairs have developed their assertive statements, ask for volunteers to tell their statements. Ask the other participants to listen for the three parts of an assertive statement. Clarify or correct any of the statements as needed. 14. Ask participants: Why do you think this situation is important to address or discuss? 15. Summarize by stating that this type of situation can impact how people get along. If conflicts are not resolved or managed, individuals may feel angry toward one another, and their anger will hinder their friendship and their ability to work together. 16. Have the pairs develop another assertive statement for the following situation. Use the wording of the statement that most applies to the participants. Tell the pairs that you will call on some of them to hear their statements.

20


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

Your teacher (or supervisor) criticizes you for talking when you were supposed to be working. Actually, you were helping a new student understand the assignment (or a new worker understand his or her job). 17. Call on a few pairs to hear their statements. Ask the large group to help you check for the three parts of an assertive statement. Clarify as needed. Personal Application: Paired Practice and Discussion (5 minutes) 18. Have participants think about someone who has annoyed them and what he or she did. Ask them to develop an assertive statement they might use with this person and share it with their partner. 19. Encourage participants to practice assertive communication with as many classmates, co-workers, supervisors, friends, and family members as possible in situations where something is bothering them. Session 2 Life Skill 4

Refusal Skills: Standing Up for Yourself Time: 30 min

Objectives Participants will: Identify ways to stand up for themselves when asked to do something they think is wrong or when asked by a ’‡‡”‘”ˆ”‹‡†–‘†‘•‘‡–Š‹‰–Š‡›†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘Ǥ Commit to asking questions and refusing to comply if asked to do something they think is wrong or when asked by a peer or friend to do something they †‘ǯ– want to do.

Material Required

Discussion (5 minutes)

Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

1. Begin the session by asking participants to turn around in their chairs and look at the back wall. Then, ask them to turn around in their chairs and face the front of the room. Ask them once again to turn around in their chairs and look at the back wall. Again, have them turn around and face the front of the room. Continue doing this until the participants become frustrated and refuse. If they continue many times, stop the activity and ask them how many times they would turn in their chairs before they would refuse.

Paper, pencils/ pens for each student (optional)

2. State that this lesson will help them say no when they are asked to do something –Š‡›†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘Ǥ 3. Ask participants to raise their hands if someone has ever asked them to do something they did not want to do. 4. Ask participants for reasons why they may not want to do something someone asks them to do. Augment their ideas if needed.

21


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

It violates the rules of the school or workplace or the laws of the government. You think it is wrong.

–‹‰Š–Š—”–•‘‡‘‡ǯ•ˆ‡‡Ž‹‰•‘”†‹•ƒ’’‘‹–ˆƒ‹Ž›‡„‡”•‘”ˆ”‹‡†•Ǥ It is dangerous. It violates one or more of your personal values. It goes against your religious beliefs. ‘—•‹’Ž›†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘‹–Ǥ The situation could lead to an inappropriate sexual situation or contact. 5. Explain that everyone should know how to refuse to do something he or she thinks ‹•™”‘‰‘”•‘‡–Š‹‰Š‡‘”•Š‡†‘‡•ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘Ǥ 6. Discuss situations when it might be appropriate to do something, even if they †‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘ǡƒ•Ž‘‰ƒ•‹–‹•ǯ– wrong nor strongly violates your personal values. Some examples are listed below. Your school or job requires it. A respected authority requires it. It would be helpful to someone in need. Information to Share: Facilitator Input and Role Play (10 minutes) 7. Display the visual of the four ways to respond when asked to do something you are uncomfortable doing because you think it is wr‘‰‘”›‘—†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘‹–Ǥ Name the four ways. Ask questions to be sure you understand what is being asked. Stand up for yourself and –‡ŽŽ–Š‡’‡”•‘Dz‘dz if what is being asked is not required by your school or job, or you think it is wrong. If the person keeps pressuring you, leave the situation - walk away. If you want, suggest something else the person could do or the two of you could do together. 8. Explain that asking questions is one way to respond. Review the six types of questions: How, What, Where, Why, When, How Much. 9. Reinforce the skill of asking questions by describing a situation and asking participants to suggest possible questions. Select one of the situations below, or choose a situation that is appropriate for the culture in which you are teaching. Use the sample questions as needed to begin the discussion. ‘‡‘‡ƒ••›‘—–‘Ž‡ƒ˜‡•…Š‘‘Žȋ‘”™‘”Ȍ‡ƒ”Ž›•‘–Šƒ–›‘—…ƒ‰‘–‘ƒˆ”‹‡†ǯ• house together. You think it is wrong. ` What will we †‘ƒ––Š‡ˆ”‹‡†ǯ•Š‘—•‡ǫ ` Why do we need to leave school (or work) early? ` Š›…ƒǯ–™‡‰‘–‘–Š‡ˆ”‹‡†ǯ•Š‘—•‡ƒˆ–‡”•…Š‘‘Žȋ‘”™‘”Ȍǫ A friend asks you to do his or her school assignment (or work) for him or her. What do you want me to do on the project? ` Š›ƒ”‡ǯ–›‘—‰‘‹‰–‘†‘‹–ǫ `

22


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

10. Explain the second way as you display the chart of the four ways to respond. Have participants imagine that, as a result of asking the questions, they think the person ‹•ƒ•‹‰–Š‡–‘†‘•‘‡–Š‹‰™”‘‰‘”•‘‡–Š‹‰–Š‡›†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘†‘Ǥ ˆ•‘ǡ they mus–”‡ˆ—•‡‹ƒ…Ž‡ƒ”ƒ††‹”‡…–™ƒ›Ǥƒ›‹‰ƒˆ‹”ǡ’‘Ž‹–‡Dz‘dz‹•–Š‡„‡•– way. 11. Explain the third and fourth ways to respond if the person continues to pressure them. Walk away and leave the situation. Suggest something else to do. For example, in the first situation above, you …‘—Ž†•—‰‰‡•–‰‘‹‰–‘ƒˆ”‹‡†ǯ•Š‘—•‡Žƒ–‡”‹–Š‡†ƒ›‘”™Š‡›‘—ƒ”‡‘–‹ school or scheduled to work. Facilitatorǯ•‘–‡ǣ You might want to discuss how to respond to a request that might lead to an inappropriate sexual situation or inappropriate sexual touch. In these cases the participants should seek the advice or help from a respected adult who is not involved or connected to the situation or person.

12. Point out that it is not necessary to use all four ways in each situation. You can use one or more ways to stand up for yourself. Remind them that saying a firm, polite Dz‘dz‹•–Š‡„‡•–™ƒ›Ǥ 13. Ask the volunteer to come to the front of the room. Explain to the group that the volunteer has agreed to role play a situation with you. You, the adult Facilitator, will demonstrate how to use the four ways to stand up for yourself. Ask the observers to watch for the four ways. Use one of the situations suggested in step #9. 14. Ask observers which of the four ways they noticed you use. Discussion (5 minutes) 15. Ask participants why they think it can be difficult to refuse to do something requested by a friend. Augment their ideas, if needed, with the ideas below. Fear of being rejected by the friend or a group of friends Fear an argument could result Fear the friend or a group of friends might tease you or put you down Fear you will be alone while others are doing something together Difficulty of making a choice between two options that are important to you, such as doing something with friends and being loyal to your family Group Activity/Practice: Paired Practice (15 minutes) 16. Have participants find a partner whose clothing is a similar color and who is not •‹––‹‰‡š––‘–Š‡Ǥ ƒ˜‡‡ƒ…Š’ƒ‹”†‡–‡”‹‡™Š‹…Š‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹•Dzdzƒ†™Š‹…Š one ‹•DzǤdz 17. š’Žƒ‹–Šƒ–›‘—™‹ŽŽ”‡ƒ†ƒ•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ǤŠ‡Dzǯ•dz™‹ŽŽƒ•–Š‡Dzǯ•dz–‘†‘™Šƒ–‹• •—‰‰‡•–‡†‹–Š‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ǤŠ‡Dzǯ•dz™‹ŽŽ’”ƒ…–‹…‡–Š‡ˆ‘—”™ƒ›•–‘•–ƒ†—’ˆ‘” themselves and refuse to do it. 23


Life Skills for Boys and Girls

18. Select two situations from the following examples. Choose those which are appropriate for the culture and situation in which you are teaching. Your friend asks you to tell your parents that he or she spent the night at your Š‘—•‡ǡ„—–Š‡‘”•Š‡†‹†ǯ–Ǥ Your friend found a jacket. You know it belongs to another friend, but the person who found it asks you not to tell the owner it has been found. One of your friends asks you to tell your teacher he or she is ill and will not be at school today. She or he is not sick, but wanted to take the day off. Your friend has to go to the store to get something for his or her mother. He or she ƒ••›‘—–‘‰‘ƒŽ‘‰Ǥ‘—†‘ǯ–ˆ‡‡ŽŽ‹‡‰‘‹‰Ǥ 19. ‡ƒ†‘‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‰‹˜‡–Š‡Dzǯ•dz–‹‡–‘”‡•’‘†—•‹‰‘‡‘”‘”‡‘ˆ–Š‡ four ways to respond when asked to do something wr‘‰‘”•‘‡–Š‹‰›‘—†‘ǯ– ™ƒ––‘†‘Ǥˆ–‡”ƒ‹—–‡‘”–™‘ǡƒ•–Š‡Dzǯ•dz–‘–‡ŽŽ–Š‡Dzǯ•dz™Š‹…Š‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘—” ways they noticed. 20. ‡˜‡”•‡–Š‡”‘Ž‡••‘–Šƒ––Š‡Dzǯ•dzŠƒ˜‡ƒ‘’’‘”–—‹–›–‘’”ƒ…–‹…‡Ǥ‡’‡ƒ––Š‡ procedure using a different situation. Personal Application: Discussion (10 minutes) 21. Ask participants Which of the four ways seem easiest and for what reasons? Is it easier to stand up for yourself with some people than others? Friends? Family members? Teachers? Employers? Why do you think this might be the case? How can standing up for yourself help you have better relationships? …‘—”ƒ‰‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•–‘‘–‹…‡–‹‡•™Š‡–Š‡›†‘–Š‹‰•–Š‡›†‘ǯ–™ƒ––‘ do or are uncomfortable doing. Have them identify which of the four ways they can use to stand up for themselves in these situations. Encourage them to try these strategies the next time a similar situation occurs. Ask them to notice the impact these strategies have on others and on themselves. If the group will be reconvening, ask them to be prepared to share their observations with the group.

24


Section 2:: Reproductive Health for Adolescent Girls

Activity

Description

Time

Page

Session 3: Self Awareness and Changes during Adolescence Card Game

Warm up debate

30

26

Self-Realisation: Who am I?

Discussion: Poster side 1

15

28

Body Mapping

Discussion: Poster side 2

10

29

Paro Begins a New Journey

Flipchart 1 story sharing, discussion

30

31

Drawing the Changes

Recap

10

32

Blindfold Game

Warm up

10

34

Menstrual Process Demo

Understanding menstruation process

15

35

ƒ”‘ǯ•‹•…‘˜‡”›

Flipchart 2 story sharing, discussion

40

36

Coping with feelings

Personal story sharing, discussion

30

36

Session 4: Menstruation

Session 5: Gender Roles, Conception and Sex Determination Sex & Gender Game

Activity

15

37

Male & Female Bodies

Jigsaw game

10

39

Paro Learns a Secret

Flipchart 3 story sharing, discussion

45

40

More about Conception

Conception model demo

10

41

Early Pregnancy & Decision making

Life Skill

30

42

Paro Glimpses her Future

Flipchart 4 story sharing, discussion

30

45

Contraception Concepts

Exploration with model

10

45

50

46

Session 6: Planning a Healthy Future

Negotiating Early Marriage / Pregnancy Life Skill

Session 7: Staying Safe and Family Spacing Methods Paro increases her Knowledge

Flipchart 5 story sharing, discussion

20

48

Happy Family Game

Recap Board game

30

49

Talking about STI, HIV & AIDS

Discussion

30

51

25


Session 3: Self Awareness and Changes during Adolescence Session 3 Activity 1

Card Game Warm up debate

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Warm Up, Icebreaker and Debate Exploring gender issues through the life cycle

Social realities and gender issues Critical Thinking

Time:30 min Material Required Card Game set

This game is played between two teams, with the facilitator acting as the "—’‹”‡dzǤŠ‡ reference card shows a girl's life divided into 6 stages: Pre-birth Infancy Early childhood Childhood Adolescence and Adulthood.

The picture cards depict various situations for each stage. The situations may be "unacceptable" or "acceptable" depending on how the players interpret the pictures. The winning team will be that which collects "acceptable" cards for each of the six stages in a woman's life. The facilitator can choose cards (situations from each stage) that she feels would be relevant to her group and place them on top of the pile. How to play Divide the participants into two teams, A and B. The facilitator should take care to balance the teams in terms of age and awareness level of the participants. Place the reference card in the centre. Deal 6 cards to each team. The facilitator must pre-select the cards so that both teams get ƒ…ƒ”†‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š…‘Ž‘—”ǡ•‘‡Dzacceptabledz and some DzunacceptabledzǤThe remaining cards should be kept in the centre, face down The teams should arrange the cards stage-wise, using the reference card as a guide. Members must discuss their cards and identify which ones they feel are acceptable and which are not. Team A must choose any one card to throw. They should show the card, and explain to team B why they feel the card is unacceptable. Team B must then challenge team A's choice. They have to raise reasons why such situations happen in our society and try to justify the situation in the card. Team A

26


has to come up with reasons to convince team B as to why they find the card absolutely unacceptable. If Team A manages to convince team B then they can pick up a fresh card from the centre, and prepare for the next round. Otherwise, they will have to take their card back. Next is team B's turn. They must select an unacceptable card to throw, team A challenges their choice, and the process is repeated. The facilitator needs to make sure the various issues related to each card come up during the discussions and help the group have a healthy discussion. Whichever team gets acceptable cards for all the six stages wins. Before the game ends, both teams should present their cards to the opposite team, sharing their thought process. Sum up The facilitator must explain that all the situations shown in the cards exist in our society. Just because we find reasons to justify them they do not become acceptable. Note: The focus of this game is to help the girls discuss various gender and related issues critically. By debating each issue the girls explore the situations from different perspectives. Once teams warm up they usually participate actively which reduces their inhibitions. Technical issues will be explored over the next few sessions, so the focus of this session should be more to set a context of gender issues and encourage a healthy debate rather than a transfer of knowledge on any particular issue.

27


Session 3 Activity 2

Self-Realisation: Who am I?

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To build self esteem To reflect on oneself

Self-awareness Interpersonal Communication

Discussion: Poster side 1 Time: 15 min Material Required Poster

Hang up the poster such that all the girls can read the poem. Ask a volunteer to read out the poem. Tell the group that the poem represents what a young girl just like them is thinking. Then read the poem verse by verse and ask the young people questions to help them reflect: I am a person I am a girl I am a promise For my country, for my people I too want to strive I will read, write Look and learn I will know and understand myself I will keep my body, mind and spirit In good health and bright I am of my country, of my people I am proud to be me I will awaken society And a new dawn will break with me

Ask the group to individually share: Who am I? What am I doing? What do I want to do?

Ask the group to individually share: What is special about me? New thoughts, new Why am I proud to be me? words, new light What is going to be my A new path I will forge I will toil with all my might special contribution to And fill the future society, to my country? With hope and joy

28


Session 3 Activity 3

Body Mapping Discussion: Poster side 2

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Understand how the body works Recognize the reproductive system as one such body system

Various body systems including reproductive system

Time: 10 min Material Required Poster

Hang up the poster such that all the girls can see the body systems. Ask the group to name various visible parts of their body such as their eyes, hands etc. After some brainstorming, share that these are connected to, and even controlled by, a number of organs and systems inside our body. The poster shows some of the important systems inside our body. Ask the group to identify and point out the various systems based on the clues given below. After the group shares, add any information that may have been missed. Which system helps us to think and act; move our hands and legs; write and speak?

Nervous system helps us see, feel and understand things. The brain is the most important part of this system. Which system helps us to breathe? Respiratory system helps us to breathe air in and out through the nose. Besides the nose, the throat and the lungs are important parts of this system. Which system enables blood to circulate in our body? Circulatory system enables blood to circulate in our body through the various arteries and veins. Its most important part is the heart. Which system helps us eat? Digestive system: Food from our mouth travels down the gullet goes into the stomach where certain digestive juices help in the absorption of the food into the body. This is the digestive system. Which system helps the other systems work well? Endocrine system comprises various glands located in different parts of our body. These glands secrete hormones which help in the coordination of all other systems and enable them to perform their functions.

29


For example: Glands in the mouth secrete saliva which helps in the digestion of food. Similarly, the physical changes experienced by teenage boys and girls are caused by this system through certain hormones. Which system helps us run? Muscular system : Running, swimming, playing, washing clothes, drawing water from the well Ȃ all these activities involve the use of hard or semi-hard fleshy parts of our body. These parts are called muscles and make up the muscular system. Which system gives us structure? Skeletal system is made up of many bones in our body. The bones give the body a shape, structure and size. The skeletal system also helps us to move around and protects the organs such as the heart, lungs inside our body. Which system helps us get rid of waste liquid or urine from our body? Urinary system helps us in passing urine. This system is connected to the reproductive system. Which system helps a woman bear a child? Reproductive system helps in the conception of a baby in the woman's body, and later (after a period of nine months) in the birth of the baby. Sum up It is the reproductive system we are going to learn more about. Why? ‡…ƒ—•‡‹–‹•…Ž‘•‡Ž›”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘–Š‡’Š›•‹…ƒŽƒ†‡‘–‹‘ƒŽ…Šƒ‰‡•ƒ†‘Ž‡•…‡–•ǯ experience, and also to childbirth, which is important for us to learn about.

30


Session 3 Activity 4

Paro Begins a New Journey Story sharing, discussion

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Understand physical, emotional changes during adolescence in boys and girls

Physical, Emotional Changes during Growing Up Why changes during adolescence happen Exploring Feelings

Time: 30 min Material Required Flipchart 1

Flipchart 1 introduces the story is a twelve-year old girl, Paro. The flip chart focusses on the physical and emotional changes experienced by Paro and her friends (including the boys) typical at the onset of puberty. Ask the group to recap the various physical and emotional changes experienced by Paro. Ask the group to recap what were the various emotions and feelings experienced by Paro in the story. (Refer to the picture pages again if necessary)

Then ask the group to individually share various emotions (embarrassed, sad, happy, attracted, in love, joyful, depressed, lonely etc.) they have felt in the recent past. Ask them to share whether they discussed their feelings with anyone or they kept them hidden. Sum Up These changes, the feelings, the confusion and the curiosity are all a normal part of the growing up process. It is important to be able to recognize ones feelings and share them rather than keep them suppressed.

31


Session 3 Activity 5

Drawing the Changes

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Recap changes during adolescence

Application to Self

Recap Time: 10 min Material Required Copies of Outline drawing Markers / felt-pen

Make photocopies of the outline drawing given here, and distribute them to each participant. Ask them to think about all the physical, emotional and other changes that they have experienced during adolescence. Ask them to draw, write and fill those in on to their drawings using coloured pens. They can add their thoughts and feelings as well. Drawings can be displayed and presented (if necessary) so everyone can see. Sum Up Facilitator can sum up by drawing attention to the fact that everyone is going through similar experiences. The drawings can be then returned to the girls.

ƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‘”ǯ•Note: Please DO NOT leave the drawings behind at the training space.

32


33


Session 4: Menstruation Session 4 Activity 1

Blindfold Game Warm up

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Warm Up To become familiar with reproductive system and its position in the reproductive system

Reproductive system and its position in the body

Time: 10 min Material Required Poster Dupatta Reproductive system drawing

Hang up the poster so the body systems are facing the group. Divide participants into two or three teams. Ask Team A to send a volunteer. Blindfold the volunteer and hand her the picture of the reproductive system (cut out from the last page of flipchart 2). Tell her she has to identify its position on the body systems poster.

While she finds her way, her team will shout out instructions to help her, while the other teams will mislead her. Whichever team is able to come closest to the right position, wins. Sum Up Facilitator can sum up that the reproductive system plays an important role in several biological processes such as menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth Č‚ all of which are of great relevance to girls; especially menstruation, which they may already be experiencing and which is going to be discussed next.

34


Session 4 Activity 2

Menstrual Process Demo

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand the purpose of menstruation

The process of menstruation

Warm up Time: 15 min Material Required Menstruation-book

Hold up the menstruation booklet so that the group can see it. Tell the group that this is an illustration of the female reproductive system. Hold up a fist to show the group the real size of the system. Point to the lower abdomen to indicate its position in the body. Turn to the first page.

Tell the group that if we were to slice it in half (like an apple) this is what it would look like. Using the guide on the left side, point out the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vaginal passage. Simply explain the functions of the four parts using the guide as a reference. Position the magnet near the ovary within the fallopian tube. Point out the magnet, explaining that it represents an egg. Explain to the group that after puberty, every month the ovaries release a single egg that travels down the fallopian tube. Move the magnet halfway along the groove representing the fallopian tube. Explain that as the egg travels through the fallopian tube, the uterus gets ready for its arrival by preparing a soft lining of tissue and blood. Turn the page and point out the blood lining that has been formed in the uterus. Move the egg (magnet) towards the uterus. Explain that ‹ˆƒ™‘ƒǯ•‡‰‰‹•‘–ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œ‡†„›ƒƒǯ••’‡”ǡ–Š‡–Š‡—–‡”—•‰‡–• rid of the egg and soft lining through the vagina as a trickle of blood. This is called menstrual period. Turn the page, place the magnet lower down in the vagina and pull the projection slowly outwards Ȃ the magnet will move along with the blood lining.

35


Sum up This is a normal process. It lasts from 2-5 days. It is not bad or polluted blood that is leaving the body. Session 4 Activity 3

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

ƒ”‘ǯ•‹•…‘˜‡”›

To deepen understanding and address myths related to menstruation issues.

Menstruation Ȃ myths, hygiene, problems, white discharge etc.

Story sharing, discussion Time: 40 min Material Required Flipchart 2

•–Š‡‰”‘—’–‘„”‹‡ˆŽ›”‡…ƒ’ƒ”‘ǯ••–‘”›ˆ”‘ flipchart 1 and then move on to Flipchart 2. Flipchart 2 shows Paro experiencing the start of menstruation and feeling disturbed about it. She is comforted and guided by a teacher in her school, who helps Paro and her friends discover that menstruation is a part of growing up and nothing to be worried about.

Ask the group: To ”‡…ƒŽŽ›–Š•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘‡•–”—ƒ–‹‘–Šƒ–ƒ”‘ǯ• teacher had clarified. To ƒ††–‘ƒ†…‘’ƒ”‡–Š‡•‡–‘–Š‡†‘•ƒ††‘ǯ–•”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘‡•–”—ƒ–‹‘–Šƒ– exist in their communities. Clarify myths and facts. To recall hygiene issues discussed in the story. To share what measures they use for protection and to maintain hygiene. Session 4 Activity 4

Coping with feelings Story sharing, discussion

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To recall first menstrual experience and related feelings

Exploring and coping with feelings and how these change with more information

Time:30 min Material Required This Manual

36

Ask the group to recall their own experiences and feelings during their first menstruation. Ask the group to share how they may have felt if they had been better informed. Ask the group what would have helped them cope with feelings better.


Session 5: Gender Roles, Conception and Sex Determination Session 5 Activity 1

Sex & Gender Game

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand the difference between sex and gender

Gender Concepts

Activity Time: 15 min Material Required

Preparing for the activity

This Manual Prepared chits Prepared placards

The facilitator needs to prepare a set of chits beforehand, each containing one word from the list given below.

1. Admiring self in the mirror 2. Being a detective 3. Being a homemaker 4. Being a Leader 5. Being a Nurse 6. Being a Scientist 7. Being Shy 8. Wearing jewellery

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Climbing a mountain Crying Driving a motorbike Joining the Army Lifting weights Putting baby to sleep Running a big business Washing Clothes

17. Growing a beard 18. Being pregnant

Žƒ…‡Íš’Žƒ…ƒ”†•ƒ–‘’’‘•‹–‡…‘”Â?‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡”‘‘Â?Ǣ‘Â?‡Â?ƒ”Â?‡†DzMENdzǥ–Š‡‘–Š‡” marked DzdzǤ‡‡’ ƒ’Žƒ…ƒ”†Â?ƒ”Â?‡†Dz ÇłŠ‹††‡Â?ƒ™ƒ›ˆ‘”Žƒ–‡”Ǥ How to Play Invite participants to come forward one by one. The facilitator will call out the activity from one of the prepared chits. The participant must decide whether Men or Women usually do that activity in our society. The participant should take the chit and move towards the corresponding corner of the room. After all the participants have been sorted in this way, the facilitator introduces a third placard marked Dz dzǤ Facilitator tells the participants that those who feel their activity can be done by both men and women can shift to the new area if they like. Some participants will move ˆ”‘Â?–Š‡‹”…‘”Â?‡”•–‘™ƒ”†•Dz dzǤ

37


Those who remain must read out their chits one at a time. The rest of the group must then vote if they agree or not. The situation can be thrown open for the group to discuss. Eventually all the participants should be standing in the BOTH corner; only one participant standing with the Ǯ ”‘™‹‰ƒ‡ƒ”†ǯ…Š‹–•Š‘—Ž†”‡ƒ‹ in the MEN corner ƒ†‘‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–™‹–Š–Š‡Ǯ‡‹‰”‡‰ƒ–ǯchit should be in the WOMEN corner. Thank participants, collect the materials and ask them to return to their seats. Ask the group what they learned from this activity. Sum Up Given the opportunity both men and women are capable of doing most things. There are only very few activities that are linked to our biological differences like having a baby, breastfeeding, growing a beard etc. Biological differences between men and women are fixed and constant. But our Gender roles are variable. They are determined by society and they changes from time to time, culture to culture, even family to family. Stereotyping and division of roles creates its own pressures on both men and women: Society expects men to be physically strong (lift weights!) and aggressive; get into conventional careers such as engineering, medicine, army; bear the responsibility for earning etc. Society also conditions men to hide their emotional sensitive side and looks down upon those men who wish to be different. Similarly women are expected to get married, look after the home and children and take charge of all unpaid household responsibilities. If society was more open and accepting then men and women could do what makes them happy and share roles and responsibilities and this would reduce the pressure for both.

38


Session 5 Activity 2

Male & Female Bodies

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Warm up

Male and Female bodies

Jigsaw game Time: 10 min Material Required

Divide participants into 2 teams.

Jigsaw pieces

Give one team the male jigsaw pieces and the other team the female jigsaw pieces. Ask both teams to quickly put the jigsaw pieces together. Whichever team finishes first wins. To make the activity more challenging both sets can be mixed up. Each team then can try to put together the male and female bodies; and for this they would have to exchange pieces with the other team.

Sum Up So far we have been focussed on the female body, but now that we are going to discuss the process of conception we will need the male body as well.

39


Session 5 Activity 3

Paro Learns a Secret

Story sharing, discussion Time: 45 min Material Required Flipchart 3

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To learn how a baby is born To understand that sex of a child is not determined by the woman To understand that boys and girls are equal

Conception Pregnancy Rest and Nutrition for pregnant woman as the key to a healthy pregnancy Gender Roles: boys and girls are equal but society discriminates

Ask the group to briefly ”‡…ƒ’ƒ”‘ǯ••–‘”›ˆ”‘ flipchart 2 and then move on to Flipchart 3. Flipchart 3 shows Teacher Didi helping Paro and her friends discover: how a baby is born, how the mother is not responsible for the sex of a child and that as girls they deserve as much love and care as the boys and that they can be as capable as boys in any sphere of life. Ask the group to share any anecdotes, incidents that they know of: In which they have heard the woman being blamed for the birth of a girl In which boys have been given preference over girls Explore why does society treat men and women differently?

Sum Up Men and women are both human beings and except for the biological differences that are fixed, all other differences are created by society and vary from culture to culture and time to time. Yet society values women less than men. And men and women do not get equal rights and opportunities. In our society woman experience violence simply because they are women. The violence begins before they are born and continues through their lives. Our society accepts and justifies violence. But change is possible, and with awareness, people's attitudes can change, as we saw in the story. Personal Application: Observe roles of men and women in your family and among your friends, and how we relate this to our values.

40


Session 5 Activity 4

More about Conception Conception Model Demo

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To learn how a baby is born To understand that sex of a child is not determined by the woman

Understand process of conception and sex determination

Time: 10 min Material Required

Step 1 Conception Model Show the 2 parts of the conception model to the group separately. Let them identify the female reproductive system: the ovaries, the fallopian tube, the uterus and the vagina. Point out the egg that is attached to the wall of the fallopian tube. Next show the group the male reproductive system. Point out the testes, the penis and the beads that represent sperms. Remove the cap from the male body and carefully slide it into the female body. Hold the model at an angle to facilitate the movement of sperms into the female body. Tell the group that if and when a sperm meets the egg then fertilization will take place and it will be the beginning of a new life. Shake the model so the sperm enters the egg. Explain to the group that this is how conception takes place. The fertilized egg will Â?‘™‰”‘™‹Â?–Š‡™‘Â?ƒÂ?ǯ•—–‡”—•ˆ‘”ÍĄÂ?‘Â?–Š•ǤŠ‡—–‡”—•ƒÂ?†˜ƒ‰‹Â?ƒ™‹ŽŽ‡š’ƒÂ?† to hold the growing foetus. Hold the two units tightly together so as to not allow the sperms to fall out. Step 2 ‘™†”ƒ™–Š‡‰”‘—’ǯ•attention to the colour of the beads that represent sperms. ‘‹Â?–‘—––Šƒ––Š‡™‘Â?ƒÂ?ǯ•‡‰‰‹•™Š‹–‡ȋ”‡’”‡•‡Â?–ƒ–‹˜‡‘ˆ…Š”‘Â?‘•‘Â?Â‡Â•ČŒƒÂ?† constant. The sperms from the man are of two kinds Č‚ black (representative of Y chromosomes) and white (representative of X chromosomes). Depending on which type of sperm meets the egg, the sex of the child is determined. Pass the model around and ask participants to guess whether they have created boys or girls by examining which sperm meets the egg. At the end of the game carefully slide the sperms back into the male body, replace the cap and slide the model back into its original position.

41


Sum Up Emphasize that the woman therefore is not responsible for the sex of the child. It is –Š‡ƒǯ••’‡”–Šƒ–†‡–‡”‹‡•–Š‡•‡š‘ˆ–Š‡…Š‹Ž†Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”–Š‡ƒƒŽ•‘…ƒ‘– control which sperm will meet the egg. So in fact it is a matter of chance. Session 5 Activity 5

Early Pregnancy & Decision making

Objectives Participants will: Recognize consequences of early pregnancy. Understand risky behaviors. Practice decision-making and refusal skills

Life Skill Time: 30 min Material Required

Information to Share: Facilitator input (10 min)

1. Share information about the risks of early and teenage pregnancy: Emphasize that pregnancy can have a negative impact on the health of girls who are under 20 because their bodies are not ready yet for Posters with male and childbearing. female reproductive Early childbearing may be life-threatening to both system the mother and the child. Mothers younger than 17 Situations for small face an increased risk of maternal mortality group practice because their bodies are not yet mature enough to bear children. These young women may not recognize the symptoms of pregnancy or may not wish to acknowledge conception, delaying prenatal care and endangering the health of the child and mother. ‡‡‘–Š‡”•ǯ†‡Ž‹˜‡”‹‡•ƒ”‡‘”‡‘ˆ–‡…‘’Ž‹…ƒ–‡†„›‘„•–”—…–‡†Žƒ„‘”‘”‘–Š‡” problems, which may lead to death of the mother and/or child, or to maternal infertility. Children born to teenage mothers are more likely to be premature, be of low birth weight, and suffer from retarded fetal growth. Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

2. Tell participants that now when they understand how pregnancy happens, it is important to understand how to reduce risk of teenage pregnancies. 3. Ask participants to brainstorm about situations and factors that can lead to risky behaviors resulted in unintended pregnancy. Write down their ideas on flipchart. For example: Peer pressure to have sex or forced and unwilling sexual intercourse because of sexual abuse. 42


Curiosity to have sex Drinking alcohol and using drugs Not knowing about the risks related to unprotected sexual intercourse Exchanging sex for money or presents 4. Continue the discussion with a question on what can be done to reduce the risks of teenage pregnancy. Refer them to the list of risky behaviors they identified earlier. Give participants five minutes to discuss the issues. Possible answers may include: Abstain from sexual relationships until you ready to have a family Practice safer sex (use of condoms and other methods of contraception) Resist peer pressure to drink alcohol or use drugs that can lead to poor decisions such as having unprotected sex 5. Continue with a message that abstinence for adolescents should be the first choice. However, if young people have already engaged in sexual relationships, they should protect themselves from unintended pregnancy and STIs including HIV/AIDS. Small Group Practice for Decision Making (15 min) 6. Divide participants into small groups, with four people in each group. 7. Each small group will receive a situation. Participants will discuss the situations and come up with a decision. ƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‘”ǯ•‘–‡: The situations should be adapted to be relevant and appropriate to ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ǯƒ‰‡ƒ†…—Ž–—”‡Ǥ

Sharda got married at the age of 17yrs to Sohail who is 25yrs old and who lives in the same village. On their wedding night they had unprotected sex. Sharda has now learnt that she is pregnant. She has been feeling very weak over the last few weeks. Puneet lives alone in the town. He is doing his graduation in the city and is in first year college. Rashi who lives in the same building as Puneet is in class XII. Rashi and Puneet are friends and are also attracted to each other. They spend a lot of time together and Puneet also helps her with her Math tuitions, as she is preparing for her board exams. One day she goes to his place to study and they both have unprotected sex. Rashi and Puneet are now worried about the fact that Rashi might get pregnant. What should they do? Raj and Saba are studying in Class XI and are class mates. They are 17 years old. They have been in love with each other for six months now. Recently Raja has insisted ‘Šƒ˜‹‰•‡š–‘Dz’”‘˜‡dz–Š‡‹”Ž‘˜‡Ǥƒ„ƒ†‘‡•‘–™ƒ––‘Ž‘•‡ƒŒƒ•ƒ boyfriend and agrees with him but she is not sure that she is ready and she is afraid of becoming pregnant. What should she do?

43


ƒ–ƒƒÂ?†ƒ†Šƒƒ”‡„‡•–ˆ”‹‡Â?†•ƒÂ?††‘Â?ǯ–Šƒ˜‡•‡…”‡–• from each other. Latha has noticed that Radha has become nervous and depressed. Latha asks her friend what is going on. Radha tells her that she is nervous about getting pregnant because she has started having sex with her boyfriend. What can Latha advise her? 8. After ten minutes of discussing situations in small groups, ask participants to share the decisions they have made. Personal Application Discussion (5 min) 9. Discuss with participants the following questions: What are the things I should think about before getting pregnant? To be ready emotionally To be ready physically To be ready financially What is the best way for me to prevent early pregnancy? Abstinence Contraception What is the difference between being in love and having sex? Being in love with someone involves feelings of romance, caring, commitment. Having sex is an event or physical act.

44


Session 6: Planning a Healthy Future Session 6 Activity 1

Paro Glimpses her Future

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand what makes a healthy, happy family. Understand ways in which to ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby

Need for family spacing, advantages of a small family Delaying age of marriage, birth of first child, spacing between children Key health issues for a woman during pregnancy and the „ƒ„›ǯ•ˆ‹”•–›‡ƒ”Ǥ

Story sharing, discussion Time: 30 min Material Required Flipchart 4

•–Š‡‰”‘—’–‘„”‹‡ˆŽ›”‡…ƒ’ƒ”‘ǯ••–‘”›ˆ”‘ flipchart 3 and then move on to Flipchart 4. In Flipchart 4 Teacher Didi and a newlywed young woman help Paro and her friends learn what it takes to be responsible parents. Ask the group to:

Share any incidents that they know of where a girl under 18 has gotten married. Share any challenges that large families (with lots of children) face. Recap the key requirements for a mother to have a healthy pregnancy Recap the key requirements for a healthy baby during the first year Session 6 Activity 2

Contraception Concepts

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand the idea of birth control

The concept of contraception

Conception Model Demo Time: 10 min Material Required Conception Model, Makers / felt pens

Use the conception model to show where in the male and female bodies "barriers" can be set up so that the egg and the sperms are prevented from meeting. The facilitator can indicate (on the conception model) 45


the passages along which the egg and the sperms move, and then encourage participants to indicate the possible points where "barriers" can be set up to block the passages. As the participants point out the "barrier points" correctly, the facilitator can use a felt pen to mark the points on the conception model. In the next session we can name these barriers.

Session 6 Activity 3

Negotiating Early Marriage / Pregnancy

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand the risks related to early marriage and pregnancy

Negotiation Skills

Life Skill Time: 50 min Material Required Selected Cards (depicting early marriage and early pregnancy) from card set

Ask the group whether they have thought about their future in terms of: If and when they want to ‰‡–ƒ””‹‡†ǥ If and when they want to have their first child Next ask the group to:

Recap the risks involved with an early marriage and early pregnancy. Share what they could do if they were being pressured to get married early by their family. Tell the group that there are some typical ways in which people resolve conflicts: Avoid (withdraw) or pretend there is no conflict Win at all costs Compromise And have a WIN/WIN negotiation Share that the best option is to have a win/win negotiation. In such a resolution both parties feel that the solution is acceptable to them.

46


Tell the group that this involves 4 steps: 1. –ƒ–‹Â?‰‘Â?‡ǯ•’‘•‹–‹‘Â?ÇŁ Â?‡‡†Ǽ 2. ‹•–‡Â?‹Â?‰–‘–Š‡‘–Š‡”’‡”•‘Â?ǯ•’‘•‹–‹‘Â?ÇŁČ‹ƒÂ?‹Â?‰•—”‡‘Â?‡—Â?†‡”•–ƒÂ?†•–Š‡‘–Š‡” point of view) 3. Brainstorming win /win solutions: Taking into account both parties views 4. Agree on a solution. Try it out. If it does not work repeat the process. Divide the group into 2 teams: Tell Team A to do a role play in which a 16 year old girl who wants to study is being pressurized by her poor parents to get married. Tell Team B to do a role play in which a 21 year old married girl who wants to work is being pressurized by her husband to have a child. •Â?–Š‡Â?–‘†‡Â?‘Â?•–”ƒ–‡ƒDz™‹Â?™‹Â?Â?‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘Â?Çłˆ‘”„‘–Š–Š‡•‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘Â?•Ǥ

47


Session 7: Staying Safe, and Family Spacing Methods Session 7 Activity 1

Paro increases her Knowledge

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Break inhibitions and expose young people to contraceptives

Different contraceptives, how they are used, and in what context. Risks related to abortion Permanent contraceptives

Story sharing, discussion Time: 20 min Material Required Flipchart 5

•–Š‡‰”‘—’–‘„”‹‡ˆŽ›”‡…ƒ’ƒ”‘ǯ••–‘”›ˆ”‘ flipchart 4 and then move on to Flipchart 5. In Flipchart 5 Teacher Didi talks about various contraceptive methods and how they work. Also the dual role condoms can play (contraception and protection against STIs and HIV infection) and the risks involved in MTP (especially in relying on it as a means of contraception). She also explains that the initiative for planning a happy family can be taken by a woman too and not necessarily by her husband.

Let the group look at the samples of various contraceptives and recap how they are used. Ask the group to share any incidents they may have heard of related to unwanted pregnancies. The facilitator should show the conception model and remind the participants about the discussion held earlier (see Session 6 Activity 2 on page 45). This time, the real contraceptives can be matched against the marks made on the model before.

48


Session 7 Activity 2

Happy Family Game

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Recapping issues related to family spacing

Family Spacing methods

Recap board game Time: 30 min Material Required Happy Family Board Game set

The game consists of a triangular board, a regular dice, playing counters. There is a special wooden dice, marked with numbers, which is …ƒŽŽ‡†–Š‡Dzƒ‰‡-dicedz. Players have to move along the course on the triangular board using the playing counters and the dice. The one to finish the course first wins, that is, that team has been successful in planning a happy family. Participants can be divided into 4 teams. Players must select their counters and place them on the board at the start position, marked with a yellow arrow

A player can begin moving on the triangular board only when she "reaches the right age of marriage". Each team takes turns in throwing the age dice. Whoever gets the right number (18 or more) can start moving on the board by throwing the regular dice. The player moves as many steps as the number obtained. If the age dice lands with the blank face up, the player can her age, but she can start moving on the triangular board only if she has chosen 18 years or more. The facilitator should explain the significance of the chosen age in the context of the game and the concept of the right age of marriage. Once a player starts moving on the triangular board she will encounter various situations related to contraception, pregnancy and abortion. The contraception situations (blue panels) allow the player to move on rapidly. The pregnancy situations (yellow panels) and abortion situations (red panels) represent obstacles or penalties, which slow down her progress. Note: The facilitator could discuss information about services available on health and family planning in the community.

This list explains the significance of each of the situation: Condom use: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. The educator must point out the double benefit of condom use as it provides protection against STI/HIV/AIDS Oral contraceptive pills: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. 49


Copper T: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. Abortion: Abortion endangers the health and not a method of contraception. The player must return to € or  sign, as indicated. Tubectomy: This is a permanent contraceptive method for women who do not want any more children. The player can move ahead to the  sign in the game board. Vasectomy: This is also a permanent contraceptive method for men who do not want any more children. The player can move ahead to the  sign in the game board. Pregnancy: This indicates that player has become pregnant. The player must miss the next 3 turns. This is to emphasize that a pregnant woman must ensure a threeyear gap before she conceives again. ƒ…Š–‹‡ƒ’Žƒ›‡”‰‡–•Ǯ’”‡‰ƒ–ǯǡ•Š‡—•–…‘ŽŽ‡…–ƒ‡š–”ƒ…‘—–‡”‘ˆŠ‡” colour, and play with her counters stacked one upon the other, so that at the end everyone ‘™•Š‘™ƒ›Ǯ…Š‹Ž†”‡ǯ‡ƒ…Š‘‡Šƒ•…‘…‡‹˜‡†‹–Š‡…‘—”•‡ of the game. The player who finishes the course first is the winner, implying that she has been successful in planning a happy family by following the norms of child spacing and by choosing contraceptives wisely. The facilitator should encourage participants to explain the various situations they encounter on the board and how they can deal with them if they were to face them in real life.

50


Session 7 Activity 3

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Clarify basic concepts related to HIV

What are STIs, HIV and AIDS How HIV spreads Blood Test only way to find about HIV Avoid HIV infection by using a condom and safe sex Do not stigmatise people living with HIV/AIDS

Talking about STI, HIV & AIDS

Discussion Time: 30 min

Ask the group to share what they know about STI, HIV and AIDS. If the following issues do not come up then clarify the following points for the group. What are STIs? STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) are infections that can be spread from one person to the other through sexual activity. STIs can be very painful and cause a lot of damage to the body, often resulting in illness, infertility, various disabilities and sometimes-even death! In pregnant women, some STIs can infect babies in the womb or, during delivery, causing handicaps or death of the newborn child. What are the signs of STIs? Most common signs of infection are: Burning sensation while urinating, Itching, redness, rash or sores in the genital area, Unusual discharge and foul smell from the genital area. However, it is important to know that there are some STIs that have no outward signs. Are STIs easily curable? Some of them are easily curable if caught at the early stage. But some can cause complications later, while some others can be fatal. What should one do if he has an STI? As soon as any symptom of STI appears, one must see a good doctor or a health worker. There are many quacks that claim to treat STIs, but may in fact worsen matters; these quacks must be avoided.

51


The treatment of STIs usually involves medicines that must be taken in courses. These courses must be completed, because otherwise the medicines lose their power to fight the disease and infections may reappear. It is necessary to avoid any sexual contact during the time of treatment, until the disease is completely cured. Otherwise the sexual partner may be infected and the disease remains uncured. It is a good practice to take along the sexual partner for STI treatment as well, so that the disease can be wiped out of the body systems of both people at one go. Is there a link between getting an STI and HIV? STI, if left untreated increases the risk of HIV infection through the sexual route. The genital sores or ulcers caused by STIs can provide easy entry points to the HIV. The risk of both Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV is high in people who have unprotected multi-partner sex. What is HIV & AIDS? AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). †ƒƒ‰‡•–Š‡„‘†›ǯ•defenses against other diseases. Medication can help people live longer, but the disease so far has no vaccine or cure. Worldwide, HIV affects over 5 million people. Prevention is the most effective strategy against the spread of HIV/AIDS. How does HIV spread? The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV spreads when certain body fluids of an infected person pass into the body of another person. By certain body fluids we mean blood, seminal fluid and vaginal fluid. In most cases, HIV is passed from one body to another through unprotected sexual intercourse. …ƒƒŽ•‘•’”‡ƒ†ǥ Through transfusion of unscreened (untested) Blood Through sharing of contaminated syringes or needles Through an HIV infected mother to her child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding How can one avoid the risk of HIV infection? Some ways of avoiding the risk of HIV infection through the sexual route of transmission are: Using a condom correctly and consistently Practicing safer sex where there is no penetration or exchange of body fluids Having a single uninfected faithful partner Not having sex

52


How can one tell if one is infected? You cannot tell by looking at a person whether he or she is infected. The only way to tell is through certain blood tests which should be done at counselling and testing centres. Is there any risk in interacting with a person who has HIV and AIDS? HIV does not spread through casual social contact (like holding hands, sharing food, swimming in the same pond etc.) and it is important to treat people who are living with HIV/AIDS with empathy and love.

Note: The facilitator should share information on HIV related counseling testing services available in the community.

53


Notes

54


Section 3:: Reproductive Health for Adolescent Boys

Activity

Description

Time

Page

Session 3: Self Awareness and Values Card Game

Warm up debate

45

56

Self-Realisation: Who am I?

Discussion: Poster side 1

20

58

Session 4: Exploring Relationship and Adolescence What it means to be a true Man

Flipchart 1 story sharing, discussion

30

59

Adolescence

Flipchart 1 story sharing, discussion

30

60

Drawing the changes

Recap

10

62

Session 3: Understanding Body Processes Body Mapping

Discussion: Poster side 2

10

64

The Male Reproductive System

Male body model demo

15

66

Myths and Facts

Discussion

20

67

Understanding Basic Body Processes

Exploration with Models

30

69

About Being Safe

Flipchart 2 story sharing, discussion

35

71

Early Pregnancy & Decision making

Life Skill

30

74

Exploring Emotions

Activity with cards, discussion

50

76

Session 6: Safe Sex, STI, HIV

Session 7: Pregnancy and Family Spacing The Secret of Happy Families

Flipchart 3 story sharing, discussion

35

78

Contraceptives

Exploration with Models

20

80

Happy Family Game

Recap Board game

30

83

55


Session 3: Self Awareness and Values Session 3 Activity 1

Card Game Warm up debate

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Warm Up, Icebreaker and Debate Exploring gender issues through the life cycle

Social realities and gender issues Critical Thinking

Time: 45 min. Material Required Card Game set

This game is played between two teams, with the facilitator acting as the "—’‹”‡dzǤŠ‡ reference card shows a ƒǯs life divided into 6 stages, based on various stages and roles he plays: Childhood Adolescence Young Man Married man Father Father-In-Law

The picture cards depict various situations for each stage. The situations may be "unacceptable" or "acceptable" depending on how the players interpret the pictures. The winning team will be that which collects "acceptable" cards for each of the six stages in a man's life. The facilitator can choose cards (situations from each stage) that she feels would be relevant to her group and place them on top of the pile. How to play Divide the participants into two teams, A and B. The facilitator should take care to balance the teams in terms of age and awareness level of the participants. Place the reference card in the centre. Deal 6 cards to each team. The facilitator must pre-select the cards so that both teams get ƒ…ƒ”†‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š…‘Ž‘—”ǡ•‘‡Dzacceptabledz and some DzunacceptabledzǤThe remaining cards should be kept in the centre, face down The teams should arrange the cards stage-wise, using the reference card as a guide. Members must discuss their cards and identify which ones they feel are acceptable and which are not. Team A must choose any one card to throw. They should show the card, and explain to team B why they feel the card is unacceptable. Team B must then challenge team A's choice. They have to raise reasons why such situations happen in our society and try to justify the situation in the card. Team A 56


has to come up with reasons to convince team B as to why they find the card absolutely unacceptable. If Team A manages to convince team B then they can pick up a fresh card from the centre, and prepare for the next round. Otherwise, they will have to take their card back. Next is team B's turn. They must select an unacceptable card to throw, team A challenges their choice, and the process is repeated. The facilitator needs to make sure the various issues related to each card come up during the discussions and help the group have a healthy discussion. Whichever team gets acceptable cards for all the six stages wins. Before the game ends, both teams should present their cards to the opposite team, sharing their thought process. Sum up The facilitator must explain that all the situations shown in the cards exist in our society. Just because we find reasons to justify them they do not become acceptable. Note: The focus of this game is to help the boys discuss various gender and related issues critically. By debating each issue the boys explore the situations from different perspectives. Once teams warm up they usually participate actively which reduces their inhibitions. Technical issues will be explored over the next few sessions, so the focus of this session should be more to set a context of gender issues and encourage a health debate rather than a transfer of knowledge on any particular issue.

57


Session 3 Activity 2

Self-Realisation: Who am I?

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To build self esteem To reflect on oneself

Self-awareness Interpersonal Communication

Discussion: Poster side 1 Time: 20 min. Material Required Poster

Hang up the poster such that all the boys can read the poem. Ask a volunteer to read out the poem. Tell the group that the poem represents what a young man just like them is thinking. Then read the poem verse by verse and ask the young people questions to help them reflect: I am a boy I am the future For my land and my people I will strive, I promise. I will read, write, look and learn I will know and understand myself I will keep my body, mind, and spirit In good health and bright

Ask the group to individually share: Who am I? What am I doing? What do I want to do?

I will love others and myself Women and men will be equal in my eyes In the light of hope and knowledge I will take my land and my people ahead No longer shall we remain behind, but forge ahead With new thoughts and actions

58

Ask the group to individually share: What is special about me? What new (progressive) thoughts will I share with society? What is going to be my special contribution to society, to my country?


Session 4: Exploring Relationship and Adolescence Session 4 Activity 1

What it means to be a true Man

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To explore healthy relationships between men and women

Interaction between sexes Respect for women

Story sharing, discussion Time: 30 min. Material Required Flipchart 1

This flip chart is the first in a series of 3. It addresses relationships between boys and girls and focusses on the importance of respecting women. After sharing the flipchart story, ask the boys to reflect on their own experiences. Ask any one boy who is comfortable and willing to share an experience related to a relationship with a girl. Explore the story by asking the following questions.

Tell us about a girl you like. What do you like about her? What kind of interaction have you had so far? What are your feelings? What are her feelings? If you were one of the characters from the story, what would you do differently? Sum Up Often boys and girls misunderstand each other and their relationships are strained because they do not know how to interact with each other. Apart from biological differences, all other differences are created by society. We all need remember that boys and girls are equal. Society leads boys to believe they are more important than women and it gives them more freedom. But this is unfair and unacceptable. Boys and girls have the same rights. During adolescence both boys and girls go through changes that include attraction to each other. However boys need to remember that relationships mean being responsible and respec–‹‰‘‡ǯ•’ƒ”–‡”ƒ•ƒ‡“—ƒŽǤ Personal Application: Ask the boys to observe roles and responsibilities in their own families, identify stereotypes, and how stereotypes affect relationships. These could be discussed in the next session.

59


Session 4 Activity 2

Adolescence Discussion

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Understand physical, emotional changes during adolescence in boys and girls

Physical, Emotional Changes during Growing Up Why changes during adolescence happen Exploring Feelings

Time: 30 min. Material Required This Manual

Have a discussion with the group using the questions given below. Refer to the flipchart story if it helps to illustrate some of the issues raised

What is Ǯ’—„‡”–›ǯǫ —„‡”–›‹•ƒ•–ƒ‰‡‹ƒ›‘—‰’‡”•‘ǯ•Ž‹ˆ‡™Š‡–Š‡„‘†›ƒ†‹†‹••Ž‘™Ž›ƒ† steadily changing, and getting ready for adulthood. What are all the changes that boys experience during puberty? Some of the changes are in the body; these are: Increase in height and weight, development of muscles, Growth of hair under the armpits, on the arms, legs, chest and around the genital region, Increase in sweating, the face becomes oily and pimply, development of facial hair (moustache and beard) The genitals become bigger and darker in colour and start producing sperms Voice start breaking There are emotional and social changes as well: Struggle with sense of identity, moodiness Need for more independence and privacy Opinions of friends and media become more important than that of parents Formation of social values Start to feel sexual attraction, love and passion More concern with appearance and with ‘‡ǯ• own body Greater level of concern for the future Do girls also experience changes? Yes, girls also experience changes but slightly different from that of the boys: Their breasts start developing Their hips become bigger They start menstruating

60


And just like boysǥ Girls also start growing taller and heavier Hair starts growing under the armpits, around the genitals and on the arms and legs and they start sweating a lot Both boys and girls go through similar emotional and social changes during puberty. Why do these changes take place? These changes take place because of secretions from the pituitary gland, which is a small gland, located in the middle of the skull. The secretions from the pituitary gland trigger off the release of certain fluids called hormones from the genital organs. These hormones are responsible for both physical and emotional changes. Do these changes take place at the same time for all the boys and girls? Each individual follows his or her own biological clock of development. Some people experience these changes at an earlier age whereas some do at a slightly older age. There is no need to worry if changes in your body do not coincide with that of your friends. Some boys experience these changes at 10 or 11; some others may experience them at 13 or 14 years. Physical changes in girls occur slightly earlier than boys, generally between 9 and 13 years. Why do girls have breasts? ‘‡ǯ•„”‡ƒ•–•ƒ”‡ƒ†‡‘ˆˆƒ––›–‹••—‡–Šƒ–…‘–ƒ‹•ƒ‹Ž†—…–ǤŠ‡–Š‡ woman bears a child, this duct gets activated and the woman can feed the baby with milk from her breasts. Breasts are sensitive and respond well when they are gently stimulated. Why do women bleed for a few days every month? ˜‡”›‘–Šǡ‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘ƒǯ•ƒ›‡‰‰•ƒ–—”‡•ƒ†”‹’‡•‹Š‡”‘˜ƒ”‹‡•Ǥ– the same time, the uterine lining becomes thicker to receive the egg. When a mature egg leaves the ovary, it takes 4 to 6 days to move through the fallopian tube and into the uterus. If the egg is not fertilised, the hormones tell the uterus that the uterine lining is not needed to feed the egg. In this case, the uterine lining sheds and comes out of the uterus, and then out of the vagina as menstrual flow, which consists of blood, mucus, and fragments of the uterine lining. This event is called menstruation. Menstruation averages between 3 and 7 days, varying from women to women. The flow on the first couple of days tends to be heavy. It gets lighter on subsequent days. What does one have to do to maintain personal hygiene? Have regular baths with soap to prevent body odour caused by overactive sweat and oil glands

61


Wash your face often and avoid touching it with unwashed hands to avoid pimples. Avoid sharing towels and underclothes with friends. Boys should use their own razor blades and avoid sharing shaving sets. Boys, who are uncircumcised, should clean under their foreskin and wash the exposed glans (tip of the penis). Why do boys scratch their genitals often? Genitals start growing bigger during adolescence and boys involuntarily fondle them, which is natural. Poor hygiene may cause sweating and accumulation of dirt/germs, which makes boys scratch the genital area. Session 4 Activity 3

Drawing the changes

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Recap changes during adolescence

Application to Self

Recap Time: 10 min. Material Required Copies of Outline drawing Markers / felt-pens

Make photocopies of the outline drawing given here, and distribute them to each participant. Ask them to think about all the physical, emotional and other changes that they have experienced during adolescence. Ask them to draw, write and fill those in on to their drawings using coloured pens. They can add their thoughts and feelings as well. Drawings can be displayed and presented (if necessary) so everyone can see. Sum Up Facilitator can sum up by drawing attention to the fact that everyone is going through similar experiences. The drawings can be then returned to the boys.

ƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‘”ǯ•Note: Please DO NOT leave the drawings behind at the training space.

62


63


Session 5: Understanding Body Processes Session 5 Activity 1

Body Mapping Discussion: Poster side 2

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Understand how the body works Recognize the reproductive system as one such body system

Various body systems including reproductive system

Time: 10 min. Material Required Poster

Hang up the poster such that all the boys can see the body systems. Ask the group to name various visible parts of their body such as their eyes, hands etc. After some brainstorming, share that these are connected to, and even controlled by, a number of organs and systems inside our body. The poster shows some of the important systems inside our body. Ask the group to identify and point out the various systems based on the clues given below. After the group shares, add any information that may have been missed.

Which system helps us all the other systems work well? Endocrine system comprises various glands located in different parts of our body. These glands secrete hormones which help in the coordination of all other systems and enable them to perform their functions. Which system helps us to think and act; move our hands and legs; write and speak? Nervous system helps us see, feel and understand things. The brain is the most important part of this system. Which system helps us to breathe? Respiratory system helps us to breathe air in and out through the nose. Besides the nose, the throat and the lungs are important parts of this system. Which system enables blood to circulate in our body? Circulatory system enables blood to circulate in our body through the various arteries and veins. Its most important part is the heart.

64


For example: Glands in the mouth secrete saliva which helps in the digestion of food. Similarly, the physical changes experienced by teenage boys and girls are caused by this system through certain hormones. Which system helps us eat? Digestive system: Food from our mouth travels down the gullet goes into the stomach where certain digestive juices help in the absorption of the food into the body. This is the digestive system. Which system helps us run? Muscular system : Running, swimming, playing, washing clothes, drawing water from the well Ȃ all these activities involve the use of hard or semi-hard fleshy parts of our body. These parts are called muscles and make up the muscular system. Which system gives us structure? Skeletal system is made up of many bones in our body. The bones give the body a shape, structure and size. The skeletal system also helps us to move around and protects the organs such as the heart, lungs inside our body. Which system helps us get rid of waste liquid or urine from our body? Urinary system helps us in passing urine. This system is connected to the reproductive system. Which system helps a woman bear a child? Reproductive system helps in the conception of a baby in the woman's body, and later (after a period of nine months) in the birth of the baby. Sum up It is the reproductive system we are going to learn more about. Why? Because it is closely related to the physical and ‡‘–‹‘ƒŽ…Šƒ‰‡•ƒ†‘Ž‡•…‡–•ǯ experience, and also to childbirth, which is important for us to learn about.

65


Session 5 Activity 2

The Male Reproductive System

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Understand the structure of the male system

Various parts, how they are linked and their functions

Male body model demo Time: 15 min. Material Required Male body model

The facilitator must hold up the model so that it is visible to all the participants. She should point out to the different partsand explain their function briefly; first the external / visible parts, then those inside the body: Penis, Scrotum, Rectum Testicles, Vas deferens Urinary bladder, Prostate gland, Seminal vesicle Urethra The model can then be laid flat, all the coloured parts unplugged.

A volunteer from the group can be asked to reassemble them onto the model base. This will help the group understand how the various parts are connected. 1. Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicle: These organs secrete substances that make up the semen. Semen is a fluid that protects the sperms on their way into the ™‘ƒǯ•„‘†›Ǥ 2. Urinary Bladder: This is the organ where urine (produced by the kidneys) is stored temporarily before being discharged 3. Vas Deferens: This is a duct where sperms are stored and transported to the urethra 4. Penis: The organ that allows urine to leave the body. It also releases sperms and semen and has the ability to ‡–‡”–Š‡™‘ƒǯ•„‘†›†—”‹‰•‡š—ƒŽ‹–‡”…‘—”•‡Ǥ 5. Urethra: This is the channel through which the urine, sperm and semen travel. 6. Testicles: A pair of these organs produce all the sperm in ƒƒǯ•„‘†›Ǥ 7. Scrotum: This is a bag of skin in which the testicles are held. It is necessary that the testicles hang so that they can remain cooler than the rest of the body. 8. Epididymis: This is a thin, coiled tube located beside each testicle, in which sperms mature.

66


Session 5 Activity 3

Myths and Facts Discussion

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Clarify myths and misconceptions related to various body parts and processes

Clarity on Masturbation, Wet Dreams, Menstruation and Conception and Sex Determination

Time: 20 min. Material Required Paper Pens

The participants can be divided into 4 small groups. Let each group discuss what they have heard about the following topics. The groups can make two separate lists of myths and facts for each topic and share it with the larger group. Menstruation Wet dreams Masturbation Circumcision.

The facilitator should check if the listings are correct and then generate a discussion on why some of the statements are myths and why some of them are facts. For the reference of the facilitator, some common responses are listed below.

Menstruation Myths

During this phase, a woman is impure and should not enter the kitchen, prayer room etc. She should also sleep separately. She should not be allowed to handle food especially pickles. She should not bathe She should not eat or drink cold or sour things She is sick

Facts

The woman is not impure as this is a natural biological process in which the uterus sheds its lining every month. There is no harm if she handles food. Pickles do not go bad. She should bathe as usual. In fact, there is a special need now to keep her genitals clean. She can eat her regular diet She is not sick, but may have problems like pain in the abdomen, mood swings and general weakness.

67


Wet Dreams (Nightfall) Myths

Facts

It causes impotency. It causes weakness. Semen lost = blood lost. It is a sin Ȃ –Š‡”‡•—Ž–‘ˆ‘‡ǯ•„ƒ††‡‡†•Ǥ It is a loss of precious semen.

It has no effect ‘ƒ’‡”•‘ǯ•Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘” virility. It is a natural way of removing the excess semen from the body. It is a result of sexually exciting dreams. The body removes the semen, as semen cannot be stored in the body.

Masturbation Myths

Facts

It is a sin. It causes sexual problems in married life It causes the penis to get bent. It leads to a loss of precious semen. It leads to impotency. It leads to loss of memory. Only boys masturbate. It causes pimples.

It is a natural way of relieving oneself sexually. It causes no sexual problems It causes no physical deformation It is not a loss of precious semen as the body removes the semen, as semen cannot be stored in the body.

–Šƒ•‘‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ƒ’‡”•‘ǯ•Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘” virility. Masturbation has no effect on memory Girls also masturbate. So do older men and women. It is a natural activity. Pimples often sprout during adolescence because of hormonal activities in the body. Masturbation does not cause pimples.

Circumcision Myths

Circumcision can improve or ruin a ƒǯ• sex life. Circumcision is the same as castration.

Facts

Male Circumcision has no effect on his sexual life. It is a small operation that removes some, or the entire foreskin from the male penis. Castration is a severe operation involving removal of the entire genitalia or major parts of it.

ƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‘”ǯ•Note: Female Circumcision, or Female Genital Mutilation, involves partial or total removal, or injury to female genital organs. Unlike Male Circumcision, Female Circumcision …ƒ”—‹ƒ™‘ƒǯ••‡š—ƒŽŽ‹ˆ‡ƒ†Š‡”…Šƒ…‡–‘„‡…‘‡ƒ‘–Š‡”Ǥ This information may be given to the boys if the topic comes up during discussions and seems culturally relevant.

68


Session 5 Activity 4

Understanding Basic Body Processes

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Clarify concepts related to various body parts and processes

Clarity on Menstruation and Conception and Sex Determination

Exploration with Models Time: 30 min. Material Required

Part 1: What happens during Menstruation?

Menstruation booklet Conception model

Hold up the menstruation booklet so that the group can see it. Tell the group that this is an illustration of the female reproductive system. Hold up a fist to show the group the real size of the system. Point to the lower abdomen to indicate its position in the female body. Turn to the first page.

Tell the group that if we were to slice it in half (like an apple) this is what it would look like. Using the guide on the left side, point out the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vaginal passage. Simply explain the functions of the four parts using the guide as a reference. Position the magnet near the ovary within the fallopian tube. Point out the magnet, explaining that it represents an egg. Explain to the group that after puberty, every month the ovaries release a single egg that travels down the fallopian tube. Move the magnet halfway along the groove representing the fallopian tube. Explain that as the egg travels through the fallopian tube, the uterus gets ready for its arrival by preparing a soft lining of tissue and blood. Turn the page and point out the blood lining that has been formed in the uterus. Move the egg (magnet) towards the uterus. Explain that ‹ˆƒ™‘ƒǯ•‡‰‰‹•‘–ˆ‡”–‹Ž‹œ‡†„›ƒƒǯ••’‡”ǡ–Š‡–Š‡—–‡”—•‰‡–• rid of the egg and soft lining through the vagina as a trickle of blood. This is called menstrual period. Turn the page, place the magnet lower down in the vagina and pull the projection slowly outwards Ȃ the magnet will move along with the blood lining.

69


Sum up This is a normal process. It lasts from 2-5 days. It is not bad or polluted blood that is leaving the body. Part 2: What happens during Conception? Step 1 Show the 2 parts of the conception model to the group separately. Let them identify the female reproductive system: the ovaries, the fallopian tube, the uterus and the vagina. Point out the egg that is attached to the wall of the fallopian tube. Next show the group the male reproductive system. Point out the testes, the penis and the beads that represent sperms. Remove the cap from the male body and carefully slide it into the female body. Hold the model at an angle to facilitate the movement of sperms into the female body. Tell the group that if and when a sperm meets the egg then fertilization will take place and it will be the beginning of a new life. Shake the model so the sperm enters the egg. Explain to the group that this is how conception takes place. The fertilized egg will Â?‘™‰”‘™‹Â?–Š‡™‘Â?ƒÂ?ǯ•—–‡”—•ˆ‘”ÍĄÂ?‘Â?–Š•ǤŠ‡—–‡”—•ƒÂ?†˜ƒ‰‹Â?ƒ™‹ŽŽ‡š’ƒÂ?† to hold the growing foetus. Hold the two units tightly together so as to not allow the sperms to fall out. Step 2 ‘™†”ƒ™–Š‡‰”‘—’ǯ•attention to the colour of the beads that represent sperms. ‘‹Â?–‘—––Šƒ––Š‡™‘Â?ƒÂ?ǯ•‡‰‰‹•™Š‹–‡ȋ”‡’”‡•‡Â?–ƒ–‹˜‡‘ˆ…Š”‘Â?‘•‘Â?Â‡Â•ČŒƒÂ?† constant. The sperms from the man are of two kinds Č‚ black (representative of Y chromosomes) and white (representative of X chromosomes). Depending on which type of sperm meets the egg, the sex of the child is determined. Pass the model around and ask participants to guess whether they have created boys or girls by examining which sperm meets the egg. At the end of the game carefully slide the sperms back into the male body, replace the cap and slide the model back into its original position. Sum Up Emphasize that the woman therefore is not responsible for the sex of the child. It is –Š‡Â?ƒÂ?ǯ••’‡”Â?–Šƒ–†‡–‡”Â?‹Â?‡•–Š‡•‡š‘ˆ–Š‡…Š‹Ž†Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”–Š‡Â?ƒÂ?ƒŽ•‘…ƒÂ?Â?‘– control which sperm will meet the egg. So in fact it is a matter of chance.

70


Session 6: Safe Sex, STI, HIV Session 6 Activity 1

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

About Being Safe

Understanding risks of unsafe sex

Learning about Safe Sex, STIs and HIV Dealing with Unwanted Pregnancy, HIV & AIDS

Story sharing, discussion Time: 35 min. Material Required Flipchart 2

This flipchart focuses on responsible male sexual behaviour. In this context it talks about issues such as premarital sex, unwed motherhood, abortion, contraception, safer sex and STIs/HIV/AIDS. After sharing the story revisit the questions and discuss with the group. What can a boy do if he finds that his girlfriend is pregnant?

‹†‹‰‘—––Šƒ–‘‡ǯ•‰‹”Žˆ”‹‡†‹•’”‡‰ƒ–ƒ›…‘‡ as a big shock. However one should face it as one of Ž‹ˆ‡ǯ•…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•ƒ†‘–”—ƒ™ƒ›ˆ”‘‹–ǤŠ‡„‘›•Š‘—Ž†„‡„‘Ž†‡‘—‰Š–‘ accept his responsibility towards the girl and give her all the support she requires. The boy and girl should discuss the situation with each other and try and find the most suitable option for all. If necessary they should take the support of a friend or an older person, (e.g. a counsellor) who can guide them. If the boy is old enough and capable enough to get married and shoulder the responsibility of a family, he should get married to the girl. However if he is not of marriageable age the couple should contact a qualified doctor as soon as possible and arrange for an abortion. He should assure the girl that he is there for her and that everything will be okay. He should provide her with extra attention and care as well as give her a chance to express her feelings to him especially just before and after the abortion. After the abortion he should take the girl for regular checkups for as long as the doctor advises. What is abortion? Is it a contraceptive method? No, abortion is not a contraceptive method. An abortion is the medical termination of pregnancy and should only be a last resort. It is physically and mentally stressful for a woman and is not an easy way out.

71


Šƒ–‹•ƒDz•ƒˆ‡dzƒ„‘”–‹‘ǫ An abortion should always be done at an established clinic and never at a quack, as various physical complications may arise, including infections to the womb, heavy bleeding etc, even lifelong sterility. What is the right age of marriage for a girl who chooses to get married? In India the legal age for girls to be married is 18 years or later. Usually, a ‰‹”Žǯ• body and mind is mature enough for her to lead a healthy married life only after 18 years. However as girls are furthering their education and taking up jobs, they prefer to get married later. What is the right age of marriage for a boy who chooses to get married? For boys the legal age of marriage is 21 years and after. However, though the boy maybe physically ready for marriage, he should also be ready for the responsibility of marriage. This means he should be earning enough to support a family and also be aware of family spacing. What is the right age for a woman to get pregnant? Although a girl can get pregnant as soon as she starts her periods, early childbearing may be life-threatening to both the mother and the child. This is because a young girl does not have the physical or mental maturity to bear a child or look after a baby. ‰‹”Žǯ•„‘†›—•—ƒŽŽ›”‡ƒ…Š‡•–Š‡ƒ–—”‹–›–‘„‡ƒ”ƒ…Š‹Ž†‘…‡•Š‡‹•͙͠›‡ƒ”•‘” older, but It is best for a woman to bear her first child when she is in her early twenties. What is safe sex? Any sexual activity, which does not involve the exchange of blood, semen, vaginal ˆŽ—‹†•„‡–™‡‡’ƒ”–‡”•ǡ‹••ƒˆ‡Ǥƒˆ‡•‡š‹•ƒ™ƒ›‘ˆƒ†ƒ’–‹‰‘‡ǯ•Ž‹ˆ‡•–›Ž‡–‘ minimize the risk of getting or giving STIs, HIV and other infections. Having a sexual relationship with a single, uninfected partner, using a condom is considered safe. How does it matter if a person has more than one sexual partner? More than one partner increases the risk to many infections, including HIV Ȃ especially if safer sex practices are not followed. What are STIs? STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) are infections that can be spread from one person to the other through sexual activity. STIs can be very painful and cause a lot of damage to the body, often resulting in illness, infertility, various disabilities and sometimes-even death! In pregnant women, some STIs can infect babies in the womb or, during delivery, causing handicaps or death of the newborn child.

72


What are the signs of STIs? Most common signs of infection are: Burning sensation while urinating, Itching, redness, rash or sores in the genital area, Unusual discharge and foul smell from the genital area. However, it is important to know that there are some STIs that have no outward signs. Are STIs easily curable? Some of them are easily curable if caught at the early stage. But some can cause complications later, while some others can be fatal. What should one do if he has an STI? As soon as any symptom of STI appears, one must see a good doctor or a health worker. There are many quacks that claim to treat STIs, but may in fact worsen matters; these quacks must be avoided. The treatment of STIs usually involves medicines that must be taken in courses. These courses must be completed, because otherwise the medicines lose their power to fight the disease and infections may reappear. It is necessary to avoid any sexual contact during the time of treatment, until the disease is completely cured. Otherwise the sexual partner may be infected and the disease remains uncured. It is a good practice to take along the sexual partner for STI treatment as well, so that the disease can be wiped out of the body systems of both people at one go. Is there a link between getting an STI and HIV? STI, if left untreated increases the risk of HIV infection through the sexual route. The genital sores or ulcers caused by STIs can provide easy entry points to the HIV. The risk of both Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV is high in people who have unprotected multi-partner sex. What are HIV and AIDS? AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). †ƒƒ‰‡•–Š‡„‘†›ǯ• defences against other diseases. Medication can help people live longer, but the disease so far has no vaccine or cure. HIV affects over 5 million people worldwide. Prevention is the most effective strategy against the spread of HIV/AIDS.

73


Session 6 Activity 2

Early Pregnancy & Decision making

Objectives Participants will: Recognize consequences of early pregnancy. Understand risky behaviors. Practice decision-making and refusal skills

Life Skill Time: 30 min Material Required

Information to Share: Facilitator input (10 min)

1. Share information about the risks of early and teenage pregnancy: Emphasize that pregnancy can have a negative impact on the health of girls who are under 20 because their bodies are not ready yet for Posters with male and childbearing. female reproductive Early childbearing may be life-threatening to both system the mother and the child. Mothers younger than 17 Situations for small face an increased risk of maternal mortality group practice because their bodies are not yet mature enough to bear children. These young women may not recognize the symptoms of pregnancy or may not wish to acknowledge conception, delaying prenatal care and endangering the health of the child and mother. ‡‡‘–Š‡”•ǯ†‡Ž‹˜‡”‹‡•ƒ”‡‘”‡‘ˆ–‡…‘’Ž‹…ƒ–‡†„›‘„•–”—…–‡†Žƒ„‘”‘”‘–Š‡” problems, which may lead to death of the mother and/or child, or to maternal infertility. Children born to teenage mothers are more likely to be premature, be of low birth weight, and suffer from retarded fetal growth. Visual means for recording ideas (Chart paper or board, markers/chalk)

2. Tell participants that now when they understand how pregnancy happens, it is important to understand how to reduce risk of teenage pregnancies. 3. Ask participants to brainstorm about situations and factors that can lead to risky behaviors resulted in unintended pregnancy. Write down their ideas on flipchart. For example: Peer pressure to have sex or forced and unwilling sexual intercourse because of sexual abuse. Curiosity to have sex Drinking alcohol and using drugs Not knowing about the risks related to unprotected sexual intercourse Exchanging sex for money or presents 74


4. Continue the discussion with a question on what can be done to reduce the risks of teenage pregnancy. Refer them to the list of risky behaviors they identified earlier. Give participants five minutes to discuss the issues. Possible answers may include: Abstain from sexual relationships until you ready to have a family Practice safer sex (use of condoms and other methods of contraception) Resist peer pressure to drink alcohol or use drugs that can lead to poor decisions such as having unprotected sex 5. Continue with a message that abstinence for adolescents should be the first choice. However, if young people have already engaged in sexual relationships, they should protect themselves from unintended pregnancy and STIs including HIV/AIDS. Small Group Practice for Decision Making (15 min) 6. Divide participants into small groups, with four people in each group. 7. Each small group will receive a situation. Participants will discuss the situations and come up with a decision. ÂƒÂ…Â‹ÂŽÂ‹Â–ÂƒÂ–Â‘Â”ÇŻÂ•‘–‡: The situations should be adapted to be relevant and appropriate to ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒÂ?–•ǯƒ‰‡ƒÂ?†…—Ž–—”‡Ǥ

Sharda got married at the age of 17yrs to Sohail who is 25yrs old and who lives in the same village. On their wedding night they had unprotected sex. Sharda has now learnt that she is pregnant. She has been feeling very weak over the last few weeks. Puneet lives alone in the town. He is doing his graduation in the city and is in first year college. Rashi who lives in the same building as Puneet is in class XII. Rashi and Puneet are friends and are also attracted to each other. They spend a lot of time together and Puneet also helps her with her Math tuitions, as she is preparing for her board exams. One day she goes to his place to study and they both have unprotected sex. Rashi and Puneet are now worried about the fact that Rashi might get pregnant. What should they do? Raj and Saba are studying in Class XI and are class mates. They are 17 years old. They have been in love with each other for six months now. Recently Raja has insisted ‘Â?Šƒ˜‹Â?‰•‡š–‘Ç˛Â’Â”Â‘Â˜Â‡Çł–Š‡‹”Ž‘˜‡Ǥƒ„ƒ†‘‡•Â?‘–™ƒÂ?––‘Ž‘•‡ƒŒĥƒ boyfriend and agrees with him but she is not sure that she is ready and she is afraid of becoming pregnant. What should she do? ƒ–ƒƒÂ?†ƒ†Šƒƒ”‡„‡•–ˆ”‹‡Â?†•ƒÂ?††‘Â?ǯ–Šƒ˜‡•‡…”‡–• from each other. Latha has noticed that Radha has become nervous and depressed. Latha asks her friend what is going on. Radha tells her that she is nervous about getting pregnant because she has started having sex with her boyfriend. What can Latha advise her?

75


8. After ten minutes of discussing situations in small groups, ask participants to share the decisions they have made. Personal Application Discussion (5 min) 9. Discuss with participants the following questions: What are the things I should think about before getting pregnant? To be ready emotionally To be ready physically To be ready financially What is the best way for me to prevent early pregnancy? Abstinence Contraception What is the difference between being in love and having sex? Being in love with someone involves feelings of romance, caring, commitment. Having sex is an event or physical act. Session 6 Activity 3

Exploring Emotions Activity with cards, discussion

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To learn how to cope with emotions: anger Explore how to Resolve Conflicts

Understanding Anger/ Violence Ways of resolving conflicts without using violence

Time: 50 min. Material Required

Step 1: Exploring Anger and Violence

Selected cards from the card game set This Manual

Let the group separate all the cards in the pack that show anger, delinquency and violence. To help the group identify these cards, ask the following questions:

What is violence? Is violence only physical? Explain to the group that Dzviolencedzimplies a violation of rights. Often we only consider the physical forms of violence but violence can take many forms including emotional, economic and sexual forms of violence. Neglect and discrimination are also forms of violence.

76


Put all the selected cards in a row, in the order of age. Here is an example set.

Think of all the characters as the same person growing up, and give the person a name (preferably not the same name as anyone in the group) ƒÂ?‡‘Â?‡•‡Ž‡…–‡†ǎƒÂ?Â‰Â‡Â”Č€Â˜Â‹Â‘ÂŽÂ‡Â?…‡ǯ…ƒ”†ƒ–ƒ–‹Â?‡ǥ•–ƒ”–‹Â?‰ˆ”‘Â?–Š‡›‘—Â?‰‡•–ǥƒÂ?† discuss what the character is feeling. Choose from the remaining cards one that represent the opposite feeling, and keep it in an adjacent row. Discuss and choose cards until each negative card has a corresponding positive card. Think of the characters in the positive card as the same person growing up and give that character your own name. Take one positive card at a time and discuss what the character is feeling, and then take turns to answer the following questions: Which character do you think has a happier life? What makes the other character unhappy? Step 2: Resolving Conflicts Tell the group that there are some typical ways in which people resolve conflicts: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Avoid (withdraw) or pretend there is no conflict Win at all costs Compromise And have a WIN/WIN negotiation

Share that the best option is to have a win/win negotiation. In such a resolution both parties feel that the solution is acceptable to them. Tell the group that this involves 4 steps: 1. –ƒ–‹Â?‰‘Â?‡ǯ•position: Dz Â?‡‡†Ǽ 5. ‹•–‡Â?‹Â?‰–‘–Š‡‘–Š‡”’‡”•‘Â?ǯ•’‘•‹–‹‘n: (Making sure one understands the other point of view) 6. Brainstorming win /win solutions: Taking into account both parties views 7. Agree on a solution. Try it out. If it does not work repeat the process.

77


Session 7: Pregnancy and Family Spacing Session 7 Activity 1

The Secret of Happy Families

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand concepts related to male responsibility

Understanding Family Spacing Exploring issues such as sterility, adoption etc. Exploring Domestic Violence Male Responsibility

Story sharing, discussion Time: 35 min. Material Required

This flip chart is the last in a series of 3.

Flipchart 3

It deals with the roles and responsibilities of a married man. In this context it facilitates discussion about issues related to gender roles, sex determination, family spacing, impotency, sterility, adoption and responsible fatherhood. After sharing the story revisit the questions and discuss with the group. What is family spacing?

Family spacing is the intelligent use of contraceptive methods by married people to help them to have children only when they are ready to have them, and to help them decide for themselves how many children they want and when to have them. Family spacing is not only having small families, or avoiding having children; it is a way of life that safeguards the lives of mothers and children. How does family spacing benefit the mother? Pregnancy exerts a heavy strain on the body of the woman, especially if it is repeated too often and too soon. Family spacing can help the mother to space pregnancies so that the next child is born only after the mother has completely recovered her strength. The mother needs at least 2 years to recover fully before her next pregnancy. How does family spacing benefit the father? With a few children, the man will be able to give his children a good home, good food and will be able to educate them, so they can get a good start in life. His wife will also retain her youth and health. She will not live in the constant fear of an unwanted pregnancy.

78


What is the right time to start a family? Firstly, the married couple should take time to develop a relationship and understand each ‘–Š‡”ǯ• needs, feelings and expectations. Secondly, the financial condition of the couple should be stable and secure before they plan to bring up children. Most importantly, the woman should be at least 20 years old and healthy enough to take the strain of pregnancy. ‡ƒ”‹‰ƒ…Š‹Ž†‹•ƒ™‘ƒǯ•”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–›ǡ•‘™Š›•Š‘—Ž†ƒƒ‰‡–‹˜‘Ž˜‡† in the process? Leaving the mother alone to handle all the difficulties of having a baby puts the lives of both the mother and the child at great risk. If a man wants to ensure that the birth of his child does not turn into a calamity for the family, he should understand the process and take equal responsibility. What are the things that a responsible husband does when his wife is pregnant? A responsible husband provides his wife with all the help and assistance that she requires. He ensures that she gets enough rest and appropriate food, takes her for regular checkups to the doctor and gives her emotional support. He helps her with household work and does not smoke near her, as it may harm the baby. He saves money from the beginning of the pregnancy to be able to meet the cost of childbirth. What is gender based violence? Violence against women happens because our society values women less than men. Although men and women should enjoy equal rights, in reality society gives men the right to control women and this manifests violence. Violence against women can take many different forms only a few of which are visible. There are many forms of violence that are accepted by society and therefore go unnoticed. The violence begins before birth and continues throughout the lives of girls and women. Women are given less priority than men when it comes to nutrition, health, education and basic human rights. Female foeticide, sexual harassment, domestic violence - these are all results of this unequal relationship between men and women. Could a man be responsible if his wife is not conceiving? Men are equally responsible. If the man has low sperm count, if his sperm is absent, inactive or unhealthy, then his wife will not be able to conceive. There may be other factors too, such as: habitual smoking or drinking, wearing tight briefs, prolonged suffering from diseases such as mumps, occupations in which testicles are exposed to heat (truck drivers, for example, face this risk), If the

79


–‡•–‡•†‘ǯ–†escend in the scrotum at birth, sexually transmitted diseases and being too fat. What could be the reasons behind a woman not being able to conceive? A woman may be unable to conceive for reasons such as: blocked fallopian tubes due to infection in the past, hormonal disturbances, underdeveloped uterus or vagina, problems with ovaries or small opening of the uterus. Besides these, if the woman has had some illnesses, like uterine cysts, TB, severe anaemia, poor nutrition, lack of iodine or sexually transmitted diseases, she may be unable to conceive. What could a couple do if they cannot conceive? Couples that cannot conceive for some reason, but want to raise children have various options before them. They can explore medical treatment such as IVF and IUI which involve the egg and sperm being fertilized with external help in laboratories and through medical procedures. These however can be expensive and involve a long process of trial and error for the couple. They can also consider ƒ†‘’–‹‰•‘‡‘‡‡Ž•‡ǯ•child and leading fulfilled lives. They may adopt a child of a relative, or approach an adoption agency. Session 7 Activity 2

Contraceptives

Exploration with Models Time: 20 min. Material Required Conception Model Male Model Contraceptives

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

To understand how different contraceptive methods work Reduce inhibitions and increase skills to use a condom

Learning about temporary and permanent methods of contraception: vasectomy Learning the correct way of using and disposing of a condom

Share with the group the various contraceptive methods that can be used for family spacing. The different methods of contraception include Temporary methods and Permanent methods. Temporary methods are those that can be used by the couple when they choose not to have a baby; they include condoms, birth control pills and copper T. Used correctly, all these are quite reliable.

80


Permanent methods of contraception: vasectomy for men and tubectomy for women, are usually used by older couples that do not want any more children. ‡‘•–”ƒ–‡Dz„ƒ””‹‡”’‘‹–•™Š‡”‡ the temporary methods (condom and copper-T) work. Explain how the pills prevent the egg from being released and therefore prevent conception.

Using the male model point out where vasectomy is done.

Using the Conception model point out where vasectomy is done.

Clarify the following: What is vasectomy? Vasectomy is a simple, safe, convenient, economical and permanent method of contraception for males. In ˜ƒ•‡…–‘›–Š‡–—„‡•…ƒ””›‹‰•’‡”‹ƒƒǯ• scrotum are cut and tied. Thus, during ejaculation, only the semen flows out of the ƒǯ•„‘†›, and not the sperms. ‘‡•˜ƒ•‡…–‘›…ƒ—•‡’”‘„Ž‡•‹ƒƒǯ•Ž‹ˆ‡ǫ Vasectomy can be done in a few minutes at a clinic. Vasectomy does not lead to any long term side effect, loss of physical strength, loss of sexual ability or sensation, change in erection or ejaculation of semen, change in voice, increase or †‡…”‡ƒ•‡‹™‡‹‰Š–ǡ…Šƒ‰‡‹–Š‡‰”‘™–Š‘ˆ‘‡ǯ•„‡ƒ”†‘”‘—•–ƒ…Š‡ǡƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ in the risk of getting prostate cancer or heart disease later in life. What is tubectomy? Tubectomy is a process in which small cu–•ƒ”‡ƒ†‡‹–Š‡™‘ƒǯ•Ž‘™‡”„‡ŽŽ› and through them her fallopian tubes are tied. As a result of this the fallopian –—„‡•‰‡–„Ž‘…‡†ǤŠ—•–Š‡ƒǯ••’‡”•…ƒ‘–…‘‡‹…‘–ƒ…–™‹–Š–Š‡ ™‘ƒǯ•‡‰‰•‹‘”†‡”–‘ƒ‡Š‡”’”‡‰ƒ–Ǥ This is a permanent method of contraception and should therefore only be resorted to when the woman has decided that she will not have any more children.

81


Finally tell the group that the condom is the one they need to be really familiar with as it has a dual benefit of protecting the spread of HIV & STI as well as pregnancy. Divide all the boys in to small groups. Give each group a packet of condoms. Let them: Check the expiry date on the packet Tear the packet open carefully In turns roll the condom on to the model and also Roll it off, tie a knot and dispose it carefully. Then one person from each group can demonstrate to the larger group to show they have learnt how to use a condom correctly.

The male reproductive system model should be placed such that it is visible to all the boys.

A volunteer from the group can be asked to adjust the penis to its correct position for wearing a condom.

Note: ‘‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ƒ›Šƒ˜‡Š‡ƒ”†‘ˆDzƒ–—”ƒŽ‡–Š‘†•dz of contraception and ask question about them. Share the following information only if it comes up during discussions:

Natural methods refer to ways of preventing conception that were used at a time when reliable contraceptives were not easily available. There are two common methods; both are very unreliable: Safe period method: Having sex when the woman is at a certain point in her menstrual cycle, and she has the least chance of conceiving. This is unreliable because it involves calculation, and counting of days from her last period. Even then it remains a matter of chance. Withdrawal method: Withdrawing the penis from the vagina during sex, just „‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡ƒ‡Œƒ…—Žƒ–‡•ǡ•‘–Šƒ––Š‡•’‡”•†‘‘–‡–‡”–Š‡™‘ƒǯ•„‘†›Ǥ This is unreliable because it requires a lot of self control, and cannot be practically accomplished most of the time.

82


Session 7 Activity 3

Happy Family Game

Objectives

Info/Issues/Skills

Recapping issues related to family spacing

Family Spacing methods

Recap board game Time: 30 min Material Required Happy Family Board Game set

The game consists of a triangular board, a regular dice, playing counters. There is a special wooden dice, marked with numbers, which is …ƒŽŽ‡†–Š‡Dzƒ‰‡dz†‹…‡. Players have to move along the course on the triangular board using the playing counters and the dice. The one to finish the course first wins, that is, that team has been successful in planning a happy family. Participants can be divided into 4 teams. Players must select their counters and place them on the board at the start position, marked with a yellow arrow

A player can begin moving on the triangular board only when he "reaches the right age of marriage". Each team takes turns in throwing the age dice. Whoever gets the right number (21 or more) can start moving on the board by throwing the regular dice. The player moves as many steps as the number obtained. If the age-dice lands with the blank face up, the player can choose his age, but he can start moving on the board only if he has chosen 21 years or more. The facilitator should explain the significance of the chosen age in the context of the game and the concept of the right age of marriage. Once a player starts moving on the triangular board he will encounter various situations related to contraception, pregnancy and abortion. The contraception situations (blue panels) allow the player to move on rapidly. The pregnancy situations (yellow panels) and abortion situations (red panels) represent obstacles or penalties, which slow down his progress. Note: The facilitator could discuss information about services available on health and family planning in the community.

The following list explains the significance of each of the situation: Condom use: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. The educator must point out the double benefit of condom use as it provides protection against STI/HIV/AIDS

83


Oral contraceptive pills: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. Copper T: Prevents conception. The player can skip over the pregnancy situation. Abortion: Abortion endangers the health and not a method of contraception. The player must return to € or  sign, as indicated. Tubectomy: This is a permanent contraceptive method for women who do not want any more children. The player can move ahead to the  sign in the game board. Vasectomy: This is also a permanent contraceptive method for men who do not want any more children. The player can move ahead to the  sign in the game board. Pregnancy: This indicates that player has become pregnant. The player must miss the next 3 turns. This is to emphasize that a pregnant woman must ensure a threeyear gap before she conceives again. ƒ…Š–‹‡ƒ’Žƒ›‡”‰‡–•Ǯ’”‡‰ƒ–ǯǡ•Š‡—•–…‘ŽŽ‡…–ƒ‡š–”ƒ…‘—–‡”‘ˆŠ‡” colour, and play with her counters stacked one upon the other, so that at the end everyone knows how ƒ›Ǯ…Š‹Ž†”‡ǯ‡ƒ…Š‘‡Šƒ•…‘…‡‹˜‡†‹–Š‡…‘—”•‡ of the game. The player who finishes the course first is the winner, implying that she has been successful in planning a happy family by following the norms of child spacing and by choosing contraceptives wisely. The facilitator should encourage participants to explain the various situations they encounter on the board and how they can deal with them if they were to face them in real life

84


Adolescent Reproductive Health - Manual  

An updated manual on the use of the "Paro" and "Shankar" kits

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you