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THE UNIVERSITY OF NICOSIA

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE THESIS ARCH 541

Participating Awareness, and Behavioral Manners of privacy and territoriality: Contributing to the Realization of the future home BY NIKOLAS TSAOUSIS

SUPERVISORS Professor Solon Xenopoulos Adjunct Lecturer Nicholas Patsavos Professor Petros Lapithis

JANUARY 2012


Abstract The idea of a member of the city starts when someone has the power in controlling his/her environment from the unit to the public spaces. Controlling ones environment is part of development. As Kevin Lynch said “Man is a territorial animal�, but how much territorial control can a Person have in an already given and constructed urban setting when others, without his/her participation construct their private units. This thesis will focus to set participation as the core for the users and the designers as to maximize their collaboration in the process of design. The aim of this paper is to present the role of participation in constructing the private units, which is associated as the private property of a Person and expressed as home; in order to activate and build a relation between the expert and non expert. The main behavioral factors associated with Participation are the ability of inhabitants to act in their private space free to choose and control their privacy, territory - territoriality, and flexibility of their spaces. The analysis will not only be based on the power or authority in someone controlling his/her environment, but will also address social issues carried out by other building program, such as Park Hill Sheffield in England, design by Jack Lynn and Ivor Smith, in 1960 and Elemental, Quinta Monroy, Iquique, in Chile; design by Alejandro Aravena, in 2001.

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A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LAW OF UNIVERSITY OF NICOSIA

BY NIKOLAS TSAOUSIS

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF PROFESSIONAL DIPLOMA IN ARCHITECTURE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

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Acknowledgments The research presented here was made possible with the guidance of Prof. Solon Xenopoulos and Adjunct Lecturer Nicholas Patsavos, both of whom I wish to thank. I would like to thank Prof. Petros Lapithis for the timeless discussions we had. I would like also to express my gratitude to my sister for her, undying kindness and support.

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Contents •

Introduction

Chapter 1 1 Participatory Planning •

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What is public participation?

1.3 Participatory Planning Projects

1.4 Conclusion

Chapter 2 2 Privacy •

2.1 Introduction

2.2 What is privacy

2.3 Privacy in the individual unit a) The flexibility of privacy b) Living together and the control of privacy in the unit

2.4 Conclusion

Chapter 3 3 Territory and territoriality •

3.1 Introduction

3.2 What is territory and territoriality

3.3 Ownership territory and territoriality

3.4 Territory and territoriality as behavioral manners

3.5 Conclusion

Chapter 4 4 Flexible space •

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What is flexible? 5


4.3 What is flexible space?

4.4 Different spaces for specific activities

4.5 The possibilities of flexible unit

4.6 Flexibility of privacy and territoriality through the individual participation

4.7 Conclusion

Chapter 5 5 Case study •

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ad-hoc housed the slums of Park Hill Sheffield

5.3 housed the slums families of Quinda Monroy Iquique in northern Chile

5.4 Park Hill and Quinda Monroy in the design process a) Park Hill Estate social housing b) Quinta Monroy social housing

5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6 Conclusion

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Introduction Participation is something that is occurring in the basic activities of our daily lives. It is a collaboration that takes place in the decision making of a family program to organize a holiday together or even to go for a small trip. These actions are procedures of realization in the different life styles of the members of a family, so everybody is happy with the outcome; this gives the control to the individual what he/she conceives as coresponding to their wants. However if the proposal is a matter of take it or leave it then the individual feels stressed to adapt to a program that doesn’t suit to his/her wants. However the participation that needs to make people aware of its existence is the one that take place in the design process for the better understanding of their living spaces. The designers through the year’-s under-estimate the role of the user; and their proposals were mostly to satisfying their personal believes by convincing the user to follow and adapt to the new way of life. On the other hand, sacrificing the user brought fantastic examples in the field of the domestic space and success for the new generations to progress or just to reproduce them; most of the times this social and architectural experiments, brought appalling results in the lives of human beings. An example of a result like this occurred in Park Hill in Sheffield and is presented in the case studies chapter Great thinkers like John Habraken and Yona Fiedman of the 50’s-60’s worked and support the idea of the empowerment of the user and his/her role in participation; even though Friedman dedicated a whole life in this process; with not much of success of sharing his believes. This didn’t allow him to apply the knowledge on actual visible projects; mostly on utopian projects; and maybe this was the best solution. Not another ideologist implying his amateur ideas on people. The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) differentiates between five levels of public participation: to inform the public, consult, involve, collaborate and empower the users. 1 The work of Nishat Awan, Tatjiana Schneder and Jeremy Till with the book “Spatial Agency Other Ways of Doing Architecture” support the idea of the empowerment and participation, but also other ways of doing architecture through theories or projects that happen around this notion.2

1

2

International Association for Public Participation. http://www.iap2.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=3

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print.

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This drive of constructing rigid spaces must come in to end. The different lifestyles and cultures of the users living or planning to live in the city need to have the chance to adapt their spaces according to their needs and not adjust their lives according to the space. This force that drives people today to be flexible comes from the daily behavioral manners for succeeding privacy in their private units; and the establishment of territory as ownership which is a human principle that sets the purpose of here and control, among people. The aim of this paper is to present the role of participation in constructing the private units, which is associated as the private property of a Person and expressed as home; in order to activate and build a relation between the expert and non expert. The main behavioral factors associated with Participation are the ability of inhabitants to act in their private space free to choose and control their privacy, territory - territoriality, and flexibility of their spaces. The methodology used throughout the paper is to set, participation as a starting point in the designing process and connecting it as the need for humans to feel and be able to have more control in the decision making in what concerns simple daily behavioral actions as privacy and territoriality in their private units. Participation, privacy and territory-territoriality are presented separately in the first three chapters so for us to understand their importance. Flexible space (chapter 4), is set as a connector of the first three chapters; and is the main factor that puts the first three in balance for the well-being of humans; allowing them to adapt to new needs through their lives. These ideas are addressed through two important case studies,(Park Hill; Sheffield, England; design by the young architects Jack Lynn and Ivor Smith, conceived in the 50’s and delivered in the 60’s. The second is ‘Elemental’; Quinta Monroy, Iquique, Chile; design by also a young architect Alejandro Aravena, in 2001) to reveal also the social issues carried out by their building programs and the success or failure of these ideas. In chapter 1 the approach to public participation has an aimed to provide an understanding of the value of this method in the decision-making process. Participatory Planning and individuals have identified a collaboration of the expert-non expert in the designing process. Through this way the participants were engaged in meaningful dialogue with one another, and also they suggested specific changes or improvements they would like to see.

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Architects such as John Habraken, had the basic idea of separating the physical infrastructure of buildings into support and infill; with his theories he placed empowerment and participation in the center, as result for the people to do the infill. He states that ‘the support is not neutral structure; on the contrary, it clears the way for outstanding talent in the field of design’. Although the ideas of Yona Friedman an Architect who worked for fifty years to explore and redraw again and again the ‘Ville Spatiale’ and his theories whose utopian project deals with issues of urban planning, infrastructure and the empowerment of the user. “The Ville Spatialle is an architectural mean of democratization of urban design built up by the citizens themselves”. 3 The realization of these ideas established with Lucien Kroll; when the students of medical university in Brussels, asked for participation in the way they wanted to live. Kroll decided to build the base infrastructure - structure and plumbing - as a platform for the students to do their own infill. An advance project of participatory planning was presented at 2010 Venice Biennale by the Korea team. The architects Hah and Tesoc presented the project ‘Differential Life Integral City, Collective intelligence urbanism’. They claim that in a city that citizens cannot reflect their opinions, they tend to act passively towards the given environment. The citizens of their proposal city participate to determine their own built environment. A member of the city gains power to recognize the whole city through controlling his own environment. 4 Chapter 2, privacy is not easy to be defined or under what umbrella it can be revealed. The main principles of privacy are on the one hand control of interaction, and on the other hand the physical distance, but both principles need different approach on design. The design should be able to accommodate the personal privacy, but also the group of a home. In the private property as domestic space, privacy allows architects to keep in equilibrium the opportunities for communication by the layout of the plan of the structure; and the position of rooms and the ones that are more accessible. A domestic circulation occurs from the most semi public spaces to the most private; which allows the occupants to adjust to their needs. Traditionally privacy has been connected with property and ownership of land, and any intrusion falls under the law. In the resent past physical barriers of walls, doors and fences are the spatial limitation that protected individuals from the external gaze. In chapter 3 personalizing a place allow a 3 4

FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011 Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 144

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person to be distinguished from others and support to a sense of uniqueness and identity. The continuous exertion of control over a particular part of physical space by an individual or a group, results in the establishment of territory. Territoriality, as closely associated with this process, has been defined by environmental psychologists as ‘a set of behaviors and cognitions a person or group exhibits based on perceived ownership of physical space’. 5 According to Altman (social psychologist well known for his research on Human Behavior and the Environment): first territory refers to objects, places and can vary in size from small to large and any shape. Second, most definitions include the idea of ownership and third, occupants personalize places. Territory is an organizer of behavior that a different type of people and places forms actions responding to our daily lives. The person who can act on his environment exerts a kind of power and emotional attachment and emotions to the property that he/she owns. As a result territory and territoriality are essential behavioral activities of individuals, which can constantly be capable of controlling the new conditions of their environment and the relation between themselves and society. In chapter 4 flexible spaces, is becoming more and more important. Flexible space is understood to be the ability to adapt to continually changing requirements and conditions of the environment; Flexibility is an indicator of adaptability. The need of more privacy to the creation of territory or the attachment we have with a space is defined as territoriality. The participation of the individuals’ members of a family; to control space, with any mean available according to their lifestyle. This clash of the diversity of their characters and lifestyles is produced mostly in the sphere of the home they choose to live. Nevertheless the question placed, is how much control the individuals can have; when in already constructed environments their living spaces are so rigid? The members of a family unit grow older, their habits, lifestyles, and use of space chance. Yet the standard unit is built as a highly static and immovable object. The private unit has played a major role in society where identities are shaped and memories are rooted. Sizeable changes in the space and new lifestyle was recognized and the individual of a family asserted the demand to live on their own. Functional differentiation and spatial specialization came from the demand for freedom within the house. Maybe the best idea is to facilitate flexibility in the unit. A system in which the 5

(Definition by Bell et al., 1996: 304) Quoted by Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.50

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support is different from the infill gives the ability of many possible designs. An infrastructure which can be build both technical and social, gives the possibilities to the units which can be constructed to be taken down or changed and untouched by the others. Flexibility may extend the control of the architect from the one side, from another side, it could be dissolving it. Herman Hertzeberger defines as an architect someone who ‘can contribute to creating an environment which offers many opportunities for people to make their personal territorialities and identifications. 6 The idea of flexibility to offer the user privacy and territoriality is the choice as to how they want to use spaces instead of architecturally predetermining their lives. Participatory design is connected with flexibility because it gives the possibility to the users to take control of their environments, especially during the design process. In chapter 5 the role of the designer and the user it revealed through the case studies. The project of Elemental, (an architectural practice founded in 2000; from the desire to address the problem of social housing in Chile; In this case it was a partnership between a University (Universidad Catolica de Santiago), an oil company (COPEC, the Chilean energy company) and an architect Alejandro Aravena) it was a big challenge the project had to hold 93 houses, in a 5000 sqm, with the budjet of just US$7,500 per family. 7 Success was achieved by clearly identifying the restrictions and then working with the families themselves in participative workshops; these actions in the design process, made people to be able to double the square meters of their initial homes which was only 30 sq.m. By avoiding architectural predetermination of their spaces, this gave the choice to the users to be flexible and to adapt the space; each family according to their needs. Participatory design gave the possibility to the users to take control of their environments during the design process; which was of great help for the people of Iquique, since when they had been asked which parts of the buildings are hard for them to build and which ones they can build them to build themselves later on; they knew exactly what their abilities were. When people live in slums they are already practicing the skills of constructing their own homes, they learn how to be adaptable to times, to expand or even to reduce. Of course this reduced simply the production of an architectural object or even an aesthetic one, but that does not stop this from being an essential approach. As Freidman state for the citizens of 6 7

Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print.

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.143

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‘Spatial City’ “is a materialization of this theory, thus makes it possible to develop his/her own hypothesis”. 8 In the case of Park Hill, It was an over ambitious project from the architects back then which never invited people to participate or listen to their real needs or even ask if they can afford a lifestyle like this; and just moved them away from the slums of those times into a totally new world; the architects offered those people twenty years of a happy life. This fairytale ended with the families looking for a new home somewhere else, but in their memories they never moved from Park hill according of what they state on BBC. 9 This case study is used to observe the impact of modernist architecture in the lives of the actual users; and of what was successful or went wrong in the whole process.

8 9

FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011 BBC NEWS. http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/03/07/park_hill_feature.shtml

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Chapter 1 Participatory Planning 1.1 Introduction

A person is been called to move back in the city, or the one that already lives in the city to control his/her environment by working out the conditions through the diversity of their characters and cultural backgrounds. These attempts of living together in an urban setting, will present itself through Participatory Planning. The approach to public participation aimed at providing an understanding of the value of this method in the decision-making process. Participatory Planning and individuals have identified a relation of the expert-non expert as a key factor for improving the ability of a system of designing and constructing their private units. The users in negotiation with the expert trying to alter the benefits of a process of designing and constructing their units for the well being of them and their families. Too often ethics is associated with aesthetics, as if a beautiful thing will lead to a beautiful life. 10 By this way the participants were engaged in meaningful dialogue with one another, and also they suggested specific changes or improvements they would like to see. Going back to the late 1970s many failures of buildings of the modern movement, this resulted in some people to reexamine the relation between the architect and the user. Architects such as John Habraken, Yona Friedma, Luciel Kroll and advance projects like RE.PLACE.ING Documentary of Changing Metropolis Seoul; will be examined through their projects and ideas on participatory planning.

1.2 What is public participation? “Public Participation� describes a variety of relationships between the implementing group and its stakeholders. The nature of a planned public participation process depends on what is planned and the goal of the initiative. In some instances, the public only needs to be informed about certain initiatives or aspects of it. Other initiatives require public opinions and views in order to improve decisions. 11

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Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.51 11 Republic of South Africa, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2001. Generic Public Participation Guidelines. Pretoria. The Theory of Public Participation. p. 5 http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Other/GPPG/guide.pdf

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The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) differentiates between five levels of public participation 12: •

Inform: The objective is to provide the public with balanced and objective information to enable people to understand the problem, alternatives and/or solution.

Consult: The objective is to obtain public feedback on analysis, alternatives and/or decisions. It involves acknowledging concerns and providing feedback on how public input has influenced the decision.

Involve: The objective is to work directly with the public throughout the process to ensure that public issues and concerns are understood and considered at every stage.

Collaborate: The objective is to work as partner with the public on each aspect of the decision, including the development of alternatives and the identification of the preferred solution.

Empower13: The objective is to place final decision-making in the hands of the public. 14

Splitting public opinion into its two components, public and opinion, is perhaps the best way to understand the concept. Simply defined, public signifies a group of people who share a common interest in specific subject stakeholders, as community residents. The group concern about the new building or a new plant. When attitudes become strong enough, they surface in the form of opinions. When opinions become strong enough, they lead to verbal or behavioral actions. However attitudes may more likely be evaluations people make about specific problems or issues. Attitudes are described by Fraser P. Seitel in his book, “The Practice of Public Relations”. Attitudes are based on a number of characteristics: 1. Personal: the physical and emotional ingredients of an individual, including age, and social status. 12 13

International Association for Public Participation. http://www.iap2.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=3

In this context “empower” refers to a level of participation and not the concept of “empowerment” as defined under principle 5.12 Capacity and Empowerment in these guidelines. [5.12 (The principle of capacity building and empowerment requires that all stakeholders be granted both the opportunity and support to participate meaningfully. Capacity building is the ongoing process of increasing the ability of individuals, groups and organizations to control and manage all the important areas of their lives or operations (DWAF March 1999: Part 2.8 p1) Public participation empowers stakeholders because it offers them the opportunity to develop the knowledge, skills and resources necessary to control their own lives and operations (RSA 1998). 14 Republic of South Africa, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2001. Generic Public Participation Guidelines. Pretoria. The Theory of Public Participation. p. 5 http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Other/GPPG/guide.pdf

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2. Cultural: the environment and lifestyle of particular country or geographic area, such as Japan versus the United States or rural America versus urban America. 3. Educational: the level and quality of a person’s education. To appeal to the increased number of college graduates in the United States today, public communication has become more sophisticated. 4. Familial: people’s roots. Children acquire their parents’ tastes, biases and host of other characteristics. 5. Religious: a system of beliefs about God or the supernatural. 6. Social class: position with in society. As people’s social status changes, so do their attitudes. 7. Race: ethnic origin, which today helps shape people’s attitudes. 15 Attempts to change the attitude of people participating and move towards to a more aware state and finally to an active one becomes a matter of motivation. On the other hand when attempting to change an attitude; the public will never come to you, but you should go to them. Using means that people easily understand and involved in the process by recognizing their limits and interest, so that they can accept something that they might never see or know about it. There is a gap between these ideal situations and the reality of participation. The Hellenic etymology of “democracy” – the people’s rule – is an uneasy meaning to understand as is disturbed by the force of power and the right of a person to vote.16 A person is been asked to set an opinion but how clear his opinion is when the only access to decision-making is the political party that they vote, which most of the times is not representing them but represents the “common good”. But who can define by what?

1.3 Participatory Planning Projects The Dutch architect John Habraken had the basic idea of separating the physical infrastructure of buildings into support and infill. These ideas he developed in his book Supports: “An Alternative to Mass Housing”, first published in 1961. The support structure itself, can be seen as building land in the air, which contains connections for electricity, sewage, and other general facilities. The support structure, for which the community 15 16

Seitel, Fraser P. The Practice of Public Relations. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print.p. 54 Blundell, Jones Peter., Doina Petrescu, and Jeremy Till. Architecture and Participation. London: Spon, 2005. Print. p.20

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(government) bears responsibility, has a much longer life span than the dwellings assembled within it and must, therefore, be independent of these dwellings. The architect designs support structures, and the urban designer organizes them into a city. The support is not neutral structure; on the contrary, it clears the way for outstanding talent in the field of design. 17 An Architect who worked for fifty years to explore and redraw again and again the Ville Spatiale (figures 1, 2, and 3), the ‘Spatial City’ is Yona Friedman; a Hungarian-French architect and theorist whose utopian project deals with issues of urban planning, infrastructure and the empowerment of the user. In 1958-1962 the Lightweight structures of Ville Spatiale were raised above the ground and could span across existing cities presented, one of the most significant applications of mobile architecture. 18 In an interview to Leopold Lambert and Martin Le Bourgeois, Yona Friedman stated that: “The Ville Spatialle is an architectural mean of democratization of urban design built up the citizens themselves. It advocates for an architecture without plans that adapts to people desire and implement a negotiation between neighbors. The architect is only an adviser and in charge of designing the infrastructure that will provide space and necessary resources for the city to grow”. 19 An average area of 25-35 sq.m is the habitable space in the grid with in the “voids”. On the contrary, the form of their volumes depends exclusively on the occupants and how their patterns fill up the voids. From the spatial city only 50% actually corresponds to the dwellings, in order to permit the light to spread freely in the dwellings. “Mobile architecture” was the first manifesto by Yona Friedman in 1958. The mobility in question is not the mobility of the building, but the mobility of the user, who is given a new freedom. “The building is mobile in so much as any sort of use whatsoever by the user or a group must be possible and realizable”, Friedman explained. Mobile architecture is thus the “dwelling decided on by the occupant” by way of “infrastructures that are neither determined nor determining”. Mobile architecture thus meant an architecture that was available for a “mobile society”. 20 The architect in the 1950s in order to deal with this mobile society had invented “the Average Man” and the projects of architects were undertaken. Friedman believes in meeting the needs of this make-believe entity, and not to attempt to meet the 17 8

Spatial Agency http://spatialagency.net/ , http://spatialagency.net/database/john.habraken , visit at (9/12/2011)

Spatial Agency http://spatialagency.net/ , http://spatialagency.net/database/groupe.detudes.darchitecture , visit at 10/12/2011 19 FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011 20

FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011

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Sketches, models and kolaz are some of the means

that

Friedman represent

use his

Yona to ideas.

From above: fig.1, 2, 3 Ville Spatialle

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From left top to right (figures 4, 5, 6, 7). In fig. 4, 6 the special computer of Ville Spatiale. In fig. 5 how people participate to build their units but also a community. In fig. 7 a series of diagrams how might the Ville Spatiale it might look like. The last diagram write: It cannot be planed it can only happen

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needs of the actual user. The architect is largely responsible for the under-estimation of the role of the user. He also proposed teaching manuals for the fundamentals of architecture for the public. “If a theory is well constructed and spread abroad, it has the advantage of no longer being the property of specialists, but of stemming from the public domain. The present-day monopoly of the architect has to do with the fact that there is no real theory, but merely a set of pseudo-theoriesä in other words, observations which only reflect the preferences of their authors”. “A theory must be general and valid for anybody”. “Everyone has their hypotheses. The general theory that I am trying to propound underpins all individual hypotheses”. The spatial city, which is a materialization of this theory, thus makes it possible for everyone to develop his or hers own hypothesis (figure 5, 7). This is why, in the mobile city, buildings should: 1. touch the ground over a minimum area 2. be capable of being dismantled and moved 3. and be alterable as required by the individual occupant” 21 In 1970, he worked with a team from the MIT to create a special computer that would organize the democratic organization of the Ville Spatiale. The computer was asking a person his spatial preferences for his house, then advised him depending on his way of life, studied the possibilities depending on the neighbors and eventually adapted the plan to the restrictions of structure, light, access and ventilation (fig4, 6). Although, the computer itself is not important and was then rejected by him as it was not considering enough the long process of decision accomplished by humans. 22 On similar lines of participatory planning was Lucien Kroll; when the administrator at medical university in Brussels had presented the new dormitories to the students. They refused the proposal and asked for participation in the way they wanted to live. Kroll decided to build the base infrastructure - structure and plumbing - as a platform for the students to do their own wall infilling; using prefabricated modular panels and windows (figures 8, 9, 10, 11). 23 The assorted image of the MéMé, on the other hand, according to its architect Lucien Kroll, is the fruit of an assemblage by “empathy” of its diverse parts. An open process becomes the 21 22 23

FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011 FRAC Centre http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm , visit at 15/12/2011 Community Organizations Development Institute (CODI) http://www.codi.or.th/housing/Prefab.html , visit at 15/12/2011

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From top to bottom (figures 8, 9, 10, 11)

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motivation for its form and complexity. This can't be reduced simply to the production of an architectural object or even to an aesthetic, but if anything is the prototype of a radical overturning of architecture. The MéMé would thus be a manifesto - building: recognized as an "icon of democratic architecture", it consecrated Kroll as the champion of participatory architecture. 24 Communication through architecture is an eminently political act, Kroll maintains: the architect is the catalyst of a creative process and social dynamic, in respect to which they make their knowledge available for the translation of interpersonal relationships into a suitable space. The participatory process therefore has to be set in motion; or at least, architects must step out of themselves and put themselves in the shoes of future residents. 25 An advance project of participatory planning was presented at 2010 Venice Biennale by the Korea team. The architects Hah and Tesoc presented the project ‘Differential Life Integral City, Collective intelligence urbanism’. The Project initiator is the condition, existing in Seoul where throughout history the city transformed many times with the contribution of many people, but things today are different and there is a need to build a new city through a modern urbanization process. They claim that in a city that citizens cannot reflect their opinions, they tend to act passively towards the given environment. These ongoing productions of mass and uniform housing; is dead end for citizens who don’t live an average life and as result they will end up losing their own identity. 26 The exhibition suggests a city which can be generated and changed by the contribution of many citizens over a short period of time. According to Hah and Tesoc the citizens of the Integral City participate to determine their own built environment and the building of the city becomes customized to the lifestyle of citizens. “In this way architecture exists as medium that links human beings and the city. A member of the city gains power to recognize the whole city through controlling his own environment”. 27 Integral City residents are provided with a range of housing unit (fig. 14, 16) to cover the needs of one’s own lifestyle. The participants submit information about their lifestyle preferences and the way they prefer their units in terms of space. The data consists of family

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The MIT Press Architecture of Complexity Lucien Kroll Translated by Peter Blundell Jones http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=4669 , visit at 15/12/2011 25 Milgrom, R., (2011) LUCIEN KROLL Design, difference, everyday life. http://itsderivative.com/5/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/milgrom.pdf , visit at 15/12/2011 26 Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 144 27

Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 144

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From left to right (figures 12, 13, 14)

22


From top to bottom (figures 15, 16)

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members and their lifestyle preferences. What differentiates the integral city system is that the participants had the chance to choose from a variety of housing types, than a reductive method in which only a few types of housing units define everybody’s life (fig.12, 15). The differential system has a six lifestyle axes and it produces so much diversity within constrains (fig. 12). Each lifestyle is defined architecturally and spatially, as entertainment, work, art/music, outdoor, education and party have architectural definitions like: internally closed space, shared utility space, a studio space inside of a living space, partitioned spaces, and the creation of open spaces. These architectural and spatial definitions are useful to generate a housing unit with differences according to the level of the individuals lifestyle input. This process generates many spatial variations of housing units. 28 The city will change depending on the input data set, from the people who live there. Each individual’s information and lifestyle will create a different city. Open master planning will open flexible future instead of a rigid result. The integral city is generating and changing by people. If small numbers of people participate the city will be homogeneous. The more people participate, the more the city differentiates to suit each individual’s lifestyle. 29

1.4 Conclusion One of the problems identified in participation is that the channels of communication between the expert and non expert are not transparent, and so participation remains dominated by the experts who initiate the communication on their own terms, by acting independently in this process through professionally coded drawings and language. This problem was addressed in the early 1970s when a strange alliance was formed between systems theory, computer programs and participatory rhetoric. The proponents agreed that one of the barriers to participation in architecture is the dimness of the design process. They argued that by explicating the process through rational means, and through the use of computers, design will become transparent and the non-expert will be able to engage more fully in the design process. 30

28 29 30

Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 148 Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 158

Jones, B P et al., (2005) Architecture and Participation. (Chapter 2: The negotiation of hope by Jeremy Till p. 20-25) Spon Press, 270 Madison Ave, New York.

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Chapter 2 Privacy 2.1 Introduction

The main principles of privacy are on the one hand control of interaction, and on the other hand the physical distance, but both principles need different approach on design. Traditionally privacy has been connected with property and ownership of land, and any intrusion falls under the law. This is how it is not possible to see the house as an entirely private space, as it is organized with two distinctive characters. First, it is expected to be open to the outside world in a controlled way. Second, it is meant to be suitable for communication between residents, which can have a public dimension, especially as the number of resident’s increases. In the contemporary architecture most of the times, the right of control is absent, thus the right for privacy is absent; and the only chance to succeed, is through flexible barriers to filter and control the privacy they desire.

2.2 What is privacy? The definitions of privacy according to the Oxford English Dictionary are ‘the public attention; freedom from disturbance of intrusion; seclusion; absence or avoidance of publicity or display; secrecy; a private or personal matter; a secret’. Another way is the data protection of a person. 31 Therefore privacy is not easy to be defined or under what umbrella it can be revealed. On one hand, it is the legal aspect, connected with property and land ownerships, so that any actions of intrusion, invasion and irritation have been under the law. In urban design terms, privacy is usually defined in terms of selective control of access (to individual or group) and of interaction (especially that which is unwanted). Need for privacy and interaction varies among individuals, with respect to personality, life stage, etc., and across different cultures and societies. In many eastern cultures, concern for privacy has often been a major structuring element of urban area. 32 Another definition by Gavison (quoted in Madanipour 2003), sees privacy as limited accessibility’, with three independent but related components: secrecy (information known about an individual); anonymity (attention paid to an individual); and solitude (physical 31 32

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.41

Carmona, Matthew. Public Places, Urban Spaces: the Dimensions of Urban Design. Amsterdam: Architectural/Elsevier, 2010. Print. p.219

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access to an individual). 33 The main principles of privacy are on the one hand control of interaction, and on the other hand the physical distance, but both principles need different approach on design. When any of these principles is sullied, then a loss of balance in the rights of privacy occurs. These violations of privacy bring up issues as social and psychological convulsion to a person, as well issues of space and how the principles of privacy can be spatially controlled. A private sphere may also occur in a public space where the invasion of privacy might not be considered as breaking the law which regulates privacy, but more the rules of good manners. For example, if a couple spends some time alone in a reading area accompanied with a book, the couple establish a very private mood as they read, and they do not like to be interrupted. But approaching the couple and asking questions, is not by any means breaking the law. In these conditions, because there is no clear definition for privacy, any law cannot apply.

2.3 Privacy in the individual unit The need for privacy and the ability for protecting it are, consequently, the trepidation of its intrusion and loss of control. Traditionally privacy has been connected with property and ownership of land, and any intrusion falls under the law. The historically established, socially institutionalized form of private sphere, however, is private property, which ensures exclusive access to space for known individuals. Private sphere is part of life that is under the control of the individual in a personal capacity, outside public observation and knowledge or state and official control. It is a sphere of freedom of choice for individuals, protected from the external gaze. 34 a. The flexibility of privacy In the resent past physical barriers of walls, doors and fences are the spatial limitation that protected individuals from the external gaze. The everyday events which occurred in the inner world of the private property was known only by the ones who lives in it; and can be shared in specific times of the day only by neighbors or friends of the users. These spatial barriers could control public and private quite successfully. Now in our days the private sphere is violated by the electronic devices such TV, radio, and computers. Even though 33 34

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.43 Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.230

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computers are connected to internet which gives the possibilities to interact and communicate with other individuals in a very global manner; in the very private spaces without even passing through their physical barriers walls, doors etc…; all this can be done with the click of a button. This is how it is not possible to see the house as an entirely private space, as it is organized with two distinctive characters. First, it is expected to be open to the outside world in a controlled way. Second, it is meant to be suitable for communication between residents, which can have a public dimension, especially as the number of resident’s increases. The variety of activities and the ability to live separate lives by the people who live as a family or individuals who share an apartment, meant that their units had to accommodate the different lifestyles and activities without the visitors. Under this circumstances, the design of their spaces should be able to accommodate the personal privacy but also the group of the unit, as an extent the friends of the family or individual visiting their unit. b. Living together and the control of privacy in the unit In a visit that I had in a friend who lives and shares a two bedroom apartment with a couple in the center of the city in an old modernist building of apartments, I tried to see how he controls his environment and what issues of privacy arise of living in the center of the city, in terms of acoustic and visual privacy. The apartment has two bedrooms, one living room, a kitchen and a single bathroom. The apartments are connected with an open large corridor passing from the exterior doors of each floor with orientation the backyard where in the ground level are the parking lots. The façade of the building is oriented in the main street which is one of the busiest streets with traffic in the city (fig 17). On the façade the private balcony of each apartment is situated. Panayiotis (fig 19) lives on the fifth floor and in a meeting which I had with him, the questions concentrated on privacy in the relation to visual and acoustic control. Nikolas. You share an apartment with a couple how easy is it to keep your visual privacy meaning when you don’t want to see each other? Panayiotis. Well if I did not want to be seen I would rent an apartment on my own, but of course the rent would be double and that is not an option. We have the common spaces as living room, kitchen and bathroom, sometimes sharing bathroom can be difficult and that because of our timing of using the toilet at the same time, but that does not happen often. 27


Figures: from top left (snake path) to bottom – 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 17 Picture taken from the north, on the left is the main street to left the parking area. 18 The main circulation. Front doors of the apartment 19 Panayiotis. 20 The living room, the main door which control the access to the private sphere 21, 22 The room of Panayiotis; a control environment only by the owner of the room. The room is where he passes the most of his time.

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Our timing through the day it could not be programmed better; one of us or even two is at work. It’s like sharing the house with only one person; sometimes you have the place on your own. Nik. So that means; where you spent the most of your time or host a friend? Pan. (Laughing) Here in my bedroom (fig 21, 22) from the time I wake up, to the time I’m going to work I spent it in this room, as you see here is my computer were I look at the stock markets and listen to music or talk through Skype some times. Although when I have day off and my roommates are home we meet in the common spaces. They mostly they spend their time in the common spaces. Nik. The door of your room stays closed or open? Pan. No the door is always closed and if they want something they knock. On the other hand this doesn’t allow me to ventilate the air in my bedroom and I have to use mechanical air-conditioning for cooling and ventilation all the time. Sometimes I leave the balcony door open but it’s too noisy from the cars. Nik. What about your neighbors how do you deal with them? Pan. It has not been long since I have moved in the apartment, and already I met some of my neighbors, but after you pass the door of your apartment, everyone stays out. Nik. You control your visual privacy from the doors, however how can you do that with the acoustic? Pan. The only sound I can control is the one coming from the street, by closing the wooden and double glazing doors the cars’ sound is almost eliminated, and after some time here I get used to the cars sound; it is steady and it’s not bothering me anymore. Except the nights that the clubs here are very busy I can hear the sounds of girls’ and boys’ screaming as they leave from the clubs and that is annoying. The first time that this happened to me I thought that a car hit someone and I get out to check, but I realized that they were just drunk. Nik. What about your roommates? Pan. The problem is that they are very quiet, (laughing), because I can’t get noisy during the time I am awake and I have five to six hour to listen to music or just talk on the phone before going to work. I can’t do that because it is the time that one of the couple is returning from

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work and go to bed, is the span of time that someone is sleeping and whatever I do it has to be in silence. That starts bothering me. The issues of visual privacy deal mostly in the private property realms, in particular, the physical and visual permeability between these realms. Rather than privacy/no privacy, it is more in the scale of the individuals needs. 35 In the private property as domestic space privacy allows architects to keep in equilibrium the opportunities for communication by the layout of the plan of the structure, the position of rooms and the ones that are more accessible. A domestic circulation from the most semi public spaces to the most private and ordering that, allows the occupants to adjust to their needs. While controlling the domestic space position to the access from the public spaces of an apartment block, to the outdoor public, the street. 36 Therefore it is the sounds ‘noise’ that can disturb and invade one’s privacy. Recent research shows that acoustic privacy is an even higher priority than visual privacy. The sounds transmitted from the one space to another through common walls and common floors are now matter of technical specification dealt with under Building Regulations. 37 Noise annoyance has to do with the time that it occurs; the same type and level of noise is more acceptable at some times of the day or week and less acceptable at others. On the other hand people adapt to noise depending of the time spent in a noisy environment and disturbed when an extra ordinary or different sound occurs to break the balance of the steady sound. 38

2.4 Conclusion Private property is still the bastion of privacy, and the despatialization of the public places of the city. 39 The control of private borders, should be controlled by private barriers, should be controlled by the users. In the contemporary architecture most of the times, the right of control is absent, thus the right for privacy is absent; and the only chance to succeed, is 35

Carmona, Matthew. Public Places, Urban Spaces: the Dimensions of Urban Design. Amsterdam: Architectural/Elsevier, 2010. Print. p.219 36 Carmona, Matthew. Public Places, Urban Spaces: the Dimensions of Urban Design. Amsterdam: Architectural/Elsevier, 2010. Print. p.219 37 Levitt, David. The Housing Design Handbook: a Guide to Good Practice. London: Routledge, 2010. Print. p.140 38

Carmona, Matthew. Public Places, Urban Spaces: the Dimensions of Urban Design. Amsterdam: Architectural/Elsevier, 2010. Print. p.220 39 Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.49

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through flexible barriers to filter and control the privacy they desire. The right to privacy has been interpreted by some as the right to be let alone. Private space, therefore, is part of space that belongs to, or is controlled by, an individual, for his/her exclusive use, keeping the others out. This may be established through patterns of use which create a sense of belonging and provoking territorial behavior. 40

40

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.230

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Chapter 3 Territory and territoriality 3.1 Introduction

Man is territorial animal: he uses space to manage personal interchange and asserts rights over territory to conserve resources. People exercise these controls over pieces of ground, and also over volumes that accompany the person. 41 In the resent past physical barriers of walls, doors and fences are the spatial limitation that protected individuals from the external gaze. Users personalize places; animals by secretions, excretions, and noises and humans by the use of symbols and artifacts such as fences and signs. 42 Personalizing a place allow a person to be distinguished from others and support to a sense of uniqueness and identity. Territory controls – territoriality developing from emotional attachment. Territory and territoriality are essential behavioral activities of individuals.

3.2 What is territory and territoriality The continuous exertion of control over a particular part of physical space by an individual or a group, results in the establishment of territory. Territoriality, as closely associated with this process, has been defined by environmental psychologists as ‘a set of behaviors and cognitions a person or group exhibits based on perceived ownership of physical space’. 43 The idea of territory is not new; it has been applied to animal behavior for centuries. For Altman (social psychologist well known for his research on Human Behavior and the Environment); their several definitions of animal and human territorial behavior, whose examination of these definitions suggested several central themes. First territory refers to objects, places, or geographical areas that can vary in size from small to large and can have any shape, such as toys, seats at a table, rooms, homes, and nations (fig 24). Second, most definitions include the idea of ownership or control over use of a place or object. 41 42

Lynch, Kevin. Good City Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1984. Print. p.205 Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1980. Print.p.121

43

(Definition by Bell et al., 1996: 304) Quoted by Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.50

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Figures: from top left - 23, 24, 25 – 23-25 Wooden placed by the owner for limited entry to only members of the family. The owner as he stated did this wooden limitation to protect his two little girls when they out. This gave the chance to do it as it’s the last apartment on the floor and is not blocking the circulation. 24 An old couple live in the adjust apartment. As they comment they like the afternoon sun and by the same time watch the passers by going home after work.

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Figure: 26 - the use of symbols and artifacts such as fences and signs

Figures: from left (snake path) – 27, 28, 29 27-28 The area that the 93 families squatter for over 30 years 29 The houses where the families settled

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Control can cover the range from others not being permitted in limited entry or use to others being permitted in limited ways (fig 23, 25). Third, many definitions suggest that occupants personalize places in some way – for example, animals by secretions, excretions, and noises and humans by the use of symbols and artifacts such as fences and signs (fig 26). Fourth, various definitions suggest that territories can be controlled by individuals, small groups, or large groups. Fifth, some definitions suggest that occupants often resort to defense and protection of territories in the face of actual or potential invasion by others. 44

3.3 Ownership territory and territoriality However ownership is a human principle that sets the purpose of here and control, among people. It can be considered permanent for a period of time and change and adapt every time to the new owner. Nevertheless, ownership is the only right of controlling a property. It is likely to set up territories without legal ownership, for example the area in an office where an employ treats, as his/her personal territory. As Madanipour set the control in many layers, where each layer has a different sense of territory: from one who owns the land, it might be different to the one that owns the building, to the one that owns the company, to the section managers of each floor, to the workers and their personal spot on the floor or even the one, who frequently visit the office and thus feels a sense of belonging there. Wherever their location and hierarchy is, these individuals felt the sense of territoriality, the degree of ownership and control over the space. 45 On the other hand ownership can occur by occupying a piece of land for a long period of time. In the case of squatter families who had occupied and lived the last 30 years in the same plot of land, in one of the largest port cities of Chile in Iquique area (fig 27, 28). There was an attempt to re-house them in another area, but they refused to be moved away from their neighborhood and their territory where they lived for several years now. As a result the government offered a small amount of US dollars, which they give in occasions, like these; for the land to be bought and construct their new houses. The amount of money left was 7,500 US dollar for each of the 100 squatter families. Alejandro Aravena, architect of the project, managed to construct their new houses in very intelligent way and today the

44

Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1980. Print.p.121

45

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.p.50

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families they enjoy their new houses and feel for the first time in their lives the sense of belonging to a place. 46 (fig 29) The sense of territoriality has been developed from emotional attachment and familiarity, positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant, through the past experience from childhood spaces, to the one that we dream of living in and where? The house in which we live or lived, a certain spot in the room of the house, or the neighborhood, the city, the country, is familiar with peculiar aspects. 47 Territory is an organizer of behavior that a different type of people and places forms actions responding to our daily lives. Furthermore, territory provides feelings of distinctiveness, privacy and sense of personal identity. 48

3.4 Territory and territoriality as behavioral manners Table 1-1, deals with human territoriality as a key idea that territorial behavior is one of several mechanisms used to regulate privacy and self accessibility. Territoriality allows people to make, themselves, more and less accessible to others. 49 Table 1-1. Aspects of territorial behavior. Actors

Scale of Territories

Types of Territories

Individuals Small Groups

Objects Rooms

Primary Secondary

Large Collectives

Homes Communities Nations

Public

Functions of Territories Personal Identity Regulation of Social Systems

The first two columns in Table 1-1 indicate that territories can be occupied and controlled by a variety of actors (individuals, small groups and larger collectives) and that territories vary in scale, from small to large. The third column points to three types of territories: primary, 46

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.143 The project was a bet, and the enrolment of an remarkable practice between a University (Universitad Catolica de Santiago), an oil company ( COPEC, the Chilean energy company) and an Architect (Alejandro Aravena). Alejandro Aravena took the project and use intelligent approaches because of the lack of money. The project will present in chapter 5 as a good example of participation, flexibility and behavioral manners; conditions that contribute to the absolute success of the project; 47 Bonnes, Mirilia, Terence Lee, and Marino Bonaiuto. Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print. p. 137 48 Bonnes, Mirilia, Terence Lee, and Marino Bonaiuto. Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print. p. 140 49 Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1984. Print. p.127

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secondary, and public. Human territories vary in their importance in the lives of the occupants. Some territories, such as homes, are primary territories and are extremely important to the well-being and lives of their occupants. Pubic territories, such as seats on a bus or places in line, are generally not very important: they do not occupy a central role in the lives of their users. 50 The last column functions of territories, is useful for territoriality. Personalizing a place allows a person to be distinguished from others and support to a sense of uniqueness and identity. Regulation of relations within and between groups is an important goal served by territorial behavior, and it contributes to the smooth functioning of social systems. 51 However, in the private property sphere someone can find the control and establishment of his/her territory. The line between the public and private allow a person to control their privacy and territoriality by material and immaterial borders. During these processes individuals regulate their social interactions, and choose between being alone or among others. The person who can act on his environment exerts a kind of power and emotional attachment and emotions to the property that he/she owns. These have as a result the psychological development of their personal identity which is experienced in a bond, positive or negative, pleasant or unpleasant, with some place or other. The importance of these bonds relies on qualifying our existence; not as an individual but also as a group, community. 52

3.5 Conclusion One way of lessening spatial conflict is to clarify and enlarge the social consensus about rights in space, so that everyone knows who controls a place and how to act properly there. 53 The control of their private units offers people the ability to communicate with the others on their will, and the sense of an identity and belonging that they earn through control of their territoriality. These means allow individuals to adjust the balance of privacy and exposure, 50 51 52

Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1984. Print. p.128 Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1984. Print. p.128

Bonnes, Mirilia, Terence Lee, and Marino Bonaiuto. Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print. p. 137 53 Lynch, Kevin. Good City Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1984. Print. p.214

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but as well to protect from the intrusion of others. Territory and territoriality are essential behavioral activities of individuals, which can constantly be capable of controlling the new situation of their environment and the relation between themselves and society.

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Chapter 4 Flexible space 4.1 Introduction

In our society, flexibility in our spaces is becoming more and more important. Flexible space is understood to be the ability to adapt to continually changing requirements and conditions of the environment. Flexibility is an indicator of adaptability. As stated by John Habraken in his definition of Open Building, the built environment is the product of an ongoing, never ending design process in which environment transforms part by part. 54

4.2 What is flexible? The word flexible is derived from the Latin word “flectere” which means bend, curve or bow. The Webster Dictionary describes it as the “capability to adapt to new, different or changing requirements”. From the Metapolis dictionary of advanced architecture, Manuel Gausa describes “flexibility as the possibility of providing a more fluid and transformable space has led, in certain cases, to research into systems based, preferably, upon serried and industrialized elements, of sliding (folding or removable) panels, working fittings, or removable partitions etc… The single-use space yields to a multi-use space made up of successive reversible subspaces.”

4.3 What is flexible space? Throughout this paper we have so far discussed; cases that could translate from the need of more privacy to the creation of territory or the attachment we have with a space defined as territoriality. The participation of the individuals members of a family, to control with any means is available the space according to their lifestyle. This clash of the diversity of their characters and lifestyles is produced mostly in the sphere of the home they choose to live. Nevertheless the question placed, is how much control the individuals can have; when in already constructed environments their living spaces are so rigid? The members of a family unit grow older, their habits, lifestyles, and use of space chance. Yet the standard unit is built as a highly static and immovable object. But to alter or renovate 54

N. John Habraken. http://www.habraken.com/ visit 08/01/2012

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a unit it can become a highly costly and not even achievable target. As a result, these people would rather change their habits, change a house, but not carry out such a work. 55 Flexible space can accommodate and adapt to the needs of the users. However, according to Professor Jeremy Till and his team, this definition is deliberately broad. Flexible space should include the possibility of choosing different layouts according to the needs of the occupants and the ability to adjust to the changes through the years. New technologies can incorporate over time, to adjust to changing demographics, or to change the use from the private unit of the individuals to something else. 56

4.4 Different spaces for specific activities The private unit combines the behavioral activities as privacy, territory. But it also is a place for being protected from natural elements, to keep the others out, and a location in the social world. The private unit has played a major role in society where identities are shaped and memories are rooted. The individual units can be seen as unique spaces where individuals get together in intimate relation, claiming the control of these spaces for privacy and territoriality. 57 According to Madanipour the factionalist principles used to analyze the inner arrangement of the house and to suggest changes followed by the process of functional differentiation of space. To make functional differentiation feasible, standards for size and density apply to the house. 58 Sizeable changes in the space and new lifestyle was recognized and the individual of a family asserted the demand to live on their own, as a result of the big amount of time they spend at the house. Functional differentiation and spatial specialization came from the demand for freedom within the house. These freedoms to live separate lives by the users of the house and the new variety of activities make the users to accommodate their different interest and activities in the new house. Therefore the design was such as to contain the group interest, although keeping the 55

Flexible housing. Conducted at the University of Sheffield School of Architecture in 2004-06, by Professor Jeremy Till & Sarah Wigglesworth, and Dr Tatiana Schneider. http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/about.php visit at 8/01/2012

56

Flexible housing. Conducted at the University of Sheffield School of Architecture in 2004-06, by Professor Jeremy Till & Sarah Wigglesworth, and Dr Tatiana Schneider. http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/about.php visit at 8/01/2012 57 Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.76 58

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.91

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Figures: 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 Apartment Block, Weissenhofsiedlung, Germany (architects: Mies van der Rohe and Schweizer Werkbundkollektiv, 1927).

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individual interest and activities for privacy, but also to open up in a shared space for the visitors. 59 Even though, privacy and the establishment of small territories, was successful for functional differentiation as a process of providing different spaces within the house for diverse activities; in contrast with the medieval house where many activities which could take place in one space. Yet the house from one single space to several spaces did not allow for flexible changes and new accommodations do be proposed. Except from small changes as the bedroom of a house; which the member of the family moved away from the house, then his/her bedroom become the office and play room for the younger member of the family.

4.5 The possibilities of a flexible unit The houses pass over time several changes in their spaces, but architects in the 1920s were reexamining the plans and introduced the open plan which could allow a larger flexibility, with a variety of uses and that could change over time. Madanipour states that these appeared to reconstruct the communal space of the medieval house where many functions could take place in one space. 60 In Mies van der Rohe’s apartment block for the Weissenhofsiedlung, the initial floor plans are completely open plan, apart from one or two internal structural columns (fig 30). Van der Rohe then called on other architects and interior architects to finish these raw spaces with internal partition walls, demonstrating both the ideological basis and the real practicality of his approach to flexibility. He states that the frame construction was the most appropriate form of construction for the occupants and their needs, proposing different floor plans (fig 31). 61 “For the present, I only build the perimeter walls and two columns within, which support the ceiling. Everything else ought to be as free as possible. Were I to succeed in producing cheaper plywood walls, I would only design the kitchen and bathroom as fixed rooms, and the remaining space as variable dwelling space [Wohnung], so that I would be able to subdivide these spaces according to the needs of the occupant. This would also have advantages insofar as it would provide the possibility to change the layout of a unit 59 60 61

Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.92 Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. p.94

Flexible housing. Conducted at the University of Sheffield School of Architecture in 2004-06, by Professor Jeremy Till & Sarah Wigglesworth, and Dr Tatiana Schneider. http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/about.php visit at 8/01/2012

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Figures: 35,36 - Molenvliet, Papendrecht, The Netherlands (architect: Werkgroep KOKON, 1977). Molenvliet- Wilgendonk was a project submitted for a competition for the design of 2400 dwellings in 1969.

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according to changes within a family, without large modification costs. Any joiner or any down-to-earth laymen would be in the position to shift walls (fig 32, 33, 34)”. 62 John Habraken, whose theory of ‘Supports’ was to stand against the current condition in the Dutch housing sector of the 1960s, as we refer in chapter 1 for the role of participation. Maybe the best idea is to facilitate flexibility in the unit. A system in which the support is different from the infill gives the ability of many possible designs. An infrastructure which can be build both technical and social, gives the possibilities to the units which can be constructed to be taken down or changed and untouched by the others. A project submitted in a competition for the design of 2400 units in 1969 for Molenvliet, Papendrecht, The Netherlands (architect: Werkgroep KOKON, 1977), (fig 35, 36). The idea was a support structure of cast-in-place concrete framework, with openings in the slabs for vertical mechanical chases and stairs. The design allows the variation and changeability in unit designs, the façade was prefabricated wooden framework. The project also involved individuals’ participation in various levels in the design process of the units. These ideas develop the approach as generally known as Open Building. 63 Habraken, and the current Open Building movement, is an approach to the design of buildings that is recognized internationally to represent a new wave in architecture; new wave in the way ordinary build environment grows. Emphasizing the use of modern construction techniques and prefabricate elements (factory-produced columns, beams and floor elements), but also the separation of the infrastructure from the infill, and manufacture and design for ease of assembly and disassembly. 64 Another example of this process in 1949, based on Friedman’s experiences during World War II, where two or more families had to share a single room that was commonly divided with furniture. The project ‘movable boxes’, is based on a shell whereby the interior layout of the home was left to the inhabitants to determine. The designed structure could be used to build houses of one or more floors and consisted of two party walls, two end walls with window and door openings, and a roof. All sanitary and kitchen units and closet partitions in 62

Tatjana Schneider and Jeremy Till. Flexible housing: opportunities and limits. This is a copy of a paper originally published in Architectural Research Quarterly, 9 (2). pp. 157-166, June 2005.Cambridge University Press 2005 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=arq visit at 8/01/2012 63 Tatjana Schneider and Jeremy Till. Flexible housing: opportunities and limits. This is a copy of a paper originally published in Architectural Research Quarterly, 9 (2). pp. 157-166, June 2005.Cambridge University Press 2005 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=arq visit at 8/01/2012 64 CIB W 104 Open Building Implementation. http://www.open-building.org/ visit 11/01/2012

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Figures: 37, 38 - Architect: Shigeru ban, ‘naked house’, in 2000 Location: Kawagoe, Saitama prefecture

Figure: 39 - Yona Friedman, Movable Boxes, 1949

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the house were lightweight boxes that could be positioned by the inhabitant as desired (fig 39).65 Similar to these, almost 50 years after, in 2000, the project of Shigeru ban ‘naked house’ consisting of a large open plan, in which cubical room units can be wheeled into various positions according to the needs and the moods of the family. The client wanted a house with as little privacy as possible, a house which does not separate family members from each other, but allows them space for their individual activities while retaining an atmosphere of togetherness (fig 37, 38). 66

4.6 Flexibility of privacy and territoriality through the individual participation If flexibility may be about extending the control of the architect from the one side, from another side, it could be dissolving it. Herman Hertzeberger, defines as an architect someone who ‘can contribute to creating an environment which offers many opportunities for people to make their personal territorialities and identifications, in such a way that it can be suitable for the conditions for their units and create the territory by all as a place that truly “belongs to them’. 67 In the same way, Jean Renaudie states that ‘the important thing, for me, is to give everyone the possibility to express that which is not determined, but which remains hidden in the force of power for the use of a space’. 68 The idea of flexibility to offer the user privacy and territoriality is the choice as to how they want to use spaces instead of architecturally predetermining their lives. The French architect Arsene-Henri, stated that a flexible housing provides ‘a private domain that will fulfill each occupants expectations’. The idea is not to design correct plans, but the aim is to provide a space which can accommodate the unexpected changes of everyday activities and the use over the long term. 69 65

Quoted Jessica Hartany, Angelina.Le On flexible spaces and modularity. http://nextgenhousing.wikispaces.com/file/view/05_On+Flexible+Spaces+%26+Modularity.pdf visit 10/01/2012 Lebesque, S. and H. Fentener van Vlissingen, Yona Friedman. Structures serving the unpredictable, Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1999. Source: Flexible Housing. 66 Shigeru ban talk. http://www.designboom.com/history/ban.html 67 68

Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print.

Scalbert, Irènèe. A Right to Difference: The Architecture of Jean Renaudie. London: Architectural Association, 2004. Print. p.40 69 Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print.

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Participatory design is connected with flexibility because gives the possibility to the users to take control of their environments, but also during the design process. Flexible units are designed to be adaptable over time; these allow the architect and the user to participate together in the design in future changes by the users. However, participation, if considered as the best solution of designing buildings to the exact needs of an individual at one point in time, this process can be understood as the collaboration of the user and the architect.

4.7 Conclusion Private spaces and territories are defined as the areas that users are in control of; these enclosed units with a number of spaces, were in control, protected or exposed. Though all these spaces that individuals have control over, are in reality open to influences from the outside. On the other hand as the users of these units have the tendency to feel in control and can open them whenever they decide, therefore, this control is more an idea of an empirical reality of feeling in control, as investigate and understand for the well-being of the humans. Architects, policy makers, housing developers, providers and most of all users cannot afford to overlook any of these issues. Despite the long record of lost opportunities and current difficulties, much has already been done to test existing conditions and much can be done to lever the issue of flexibility into the wider public realm.

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Chapter 5 Case Studies 5.1 Introduction

To understand the collaboration of the designer and the user will be present through two case studies in different times. Throughout this process will be able to see that not has been changed in the behavior of the user in what concern space; and more precisely his/her private unit. The first project is ‘Park Hill’; Sheffield, England; design by the young architects Jack Lynn and Ivor Smith, conceived in the 50’s and delivered in the 60’s. The second is ‘Elemental’; Quinta Monroy, Iquique, Chile; design by also a young architect Alejandro Aravena, in 2001. These two projects carry out qualities of the idea of participating awareness, behavioral manners and the need for flexibility; some of these qualities are established in one or the other of the projects as successful or unsuccessful process. Another important aspect it’s the social demand to housed the squatter people in the slums; communities of that area. Time and money was important as always, but what separates these projects is the design process, so as to affects the life span of the projects and mostly the individuals in their units. The aim of this is to present the positives aspects of participation and flexibility in the design process and reveal the benefits that humans can receive from this process. On the other hand the conditions of privacy and the establishment of their territory and territoriality and the sense of belonging. What stop or allow these conditions to be established; not only for small period of time?

5.2 Ad-hoc housed the slums of Park Hill Sheffield It was dramatic need for housing people just after the war all over England and most of who need a house was the people were lived in Victorian back-to-back slums houses. 70 (fig 40-42) The immediate need bring the modernist architect of the time to establish all the thoughts that were discussed around buildings to solve social problems through housing. 71 The idea behind the Park hill Estate was to replace these slums with ultra modern living; maintaining

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The telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/3304188/Making-the-grade-Park-Hill-estate-Sheffield.html visit at 15/12/2012 71 Park Hill Reborn. http://www.parkhillflats.co.uk/history.html visit at 15/12/2012

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Figure: 40, 41, 42 - The slums areas of Sheffield, just before the War II

Figure: 44 – Site Plan of the Park Hill

Figure: 45 – Bird view picture of Park Hill date back to the time of 70’s

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the sense of community but allowing residents modern facilities that they had never yet experienced (fig 44-51). Park Hill apartments are an outstanding example of almost 1000 apartments extends out over a hillside close to the centre of Sheffield. Its historic importance is reflected in the fact that it holds a listed building status of 2* grate from 1998 and no one can demolish it; and not much can be done in the renovation. 72 The structure was inspired by the famous architect Le Corbusier, and as Ivor Smith said mostly from his writings. Both of the architects before they start designing Park Hill they visit “Unite d’habitiation” in Marseille. The building constructed of reinforced concrete combined with yellow, orange and red brick curtain walling; and it demonstrates 'brutalist' modernism on a European scale 73 (fig 46). Although this is habitually a matter of disbelief to the local population, many of whom see it as an eyesore and would like it to be demolished as soon as possible. Among planners and fans of modern architecture though; much discussed of not demolish the building, but keep it, for the reason that is a treasured example of brutalist design. 74 It was an enormously popular place to live, with its 'streets in the sky' and innovative external decks for access. The original brutalist design created three different types of apartment above, below and adjacent to the deck to suit the full range of home owners from single pensioners to families of six or more.75

5.3 Housed the slums families of Quinta Monroy Iquique in northern Chile Since the 70’s, there was a camp in Iquique that grew by taking over land. It was called ‘Quinta Monroy’. Almost 100 families lived there very preciously, for a long time. The attempts to improve this situation found main difficulty the cost of the land. They were offered the option to relocate to a new dwelling away from Iquique; in another area, but they rejected it. People thought that because of the time they had lived there and the social networks they had created, they had the right to settle in the same place.76 In 2001, the Chile Bario program, arrive there and asked Elemental, (an architectural practice founded in 72 73 74

Park Hill Reborn. http://www.parkhillflats.co.uk/history.html visit at 15/12/2012 Streets in the Sky Pt 1.wmv – YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmZdY2nQrs0 visit at 15/12/2012

BBC Home, Park Hill. http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/03/07/park_hill_feature.shtml visit at 15/12/2012 75 Streets in the Sky Pt 1.wmv – YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmZdY2nQrs0 visit at 15/12/2012 76

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.143

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2000; from the desire to address the problem of social housing in Chile; In this practice it’s a partnership between a University (Univrsidad Catolica de Santiago), an oil company (COPEC, the Chilean energy company) and an architect Alejandro Aravena) to come with building proposal accommodating the families of Quinta Monroy. It was a big challenge the project had to hold 93 houses, in a 5000 sqm, with the budjet of just US$7,500 per family. 77 Success was achieved by clearly identifying the restrictions and then working with the families themselves in participative workshops, proving feasibility on a local level. By these actions in the design process, people were able to double the square meters of their initial homes; 30 sqm; for only US$1,000 per family. In five years later, any house produced by Elemental, in Iquique area; is now valued at over US$20.000. 78

5.4 Park Hill and Quinta Monroy in the design process These two case studies try to reveal the positives or negative aspects of participation in the design process and the benefits that human can earn from this process. What humans proved by living in the slums that are able to construct their houses, be adaptable and flexible according to their needs and also create privacy in their private property and the establishment of territory and territoriality; as much they can because their borders they are not so adequate and legal define.

a. Park Hill estate social housing What went wrong with Park Hill; when everything in the beginning look more than perfect, with new community enjoy all the amenities that is been given to them for a new life. It was an over ambitious project from the architects back then which never invite people to participate and listen to their real needs and if they can afford a lifestyle like this; and by just moved them away from the slums and move them in a new total world? The architects offer those people twenty years of happy life. This fairytale end up for the families by looking for a new home somewhere else, but in their memories they never moved they stayed there in Park hill according of what they state on BBC. 79 To understand better what went wrong,

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Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.143 78 Alejandro Aravena Architect. http://www.alejandroaravena.com/obras/vivienda-housing/elemental/ visit at 15/12/2012 79

BBC NEWS. http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/03/07/park_hill_feature.shtml visit at 15/12/2012

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Figure: 46 – The building constructed of reinforced concrete combined with yellow, orange and red brick curtain walling it demonstrates 'brutalist' modernism on a European scale.

Figures: from top right to left 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 – The pictures showing the everyday life in Park Hill, which everything seems to work perfectly and the idea of leaving in all as community. From the slums with no toilet and hot water; to the daily milk delivered on your door, with all the amenities they desire was a heaven for more than 3000 people. Shops pup’s, bars and disco was everything you needed there.

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should look up the architectural and social language that the architects use designing Park Hill, but also its history trough time. The architects’ vision was to create ‘streets in the sky’, 3.5 meters wide (fig 47, 48, 49) every third floor, providing the communal area where children could play and families can socialize. The architects use the ideas of John Habraken that the support and infill is two different things (fig 52) but mostly the ideas borrowed from Le Corbusier with the ‘Bottle Rack Principle’. “The rack is erected first, into which a complete dwelling unit can be inserted like a bottle. The suggestion is that the dwelling units are prefabricated and interchangeable over time”. 80 Of course the realization of this idea came closer with the system use in Marseille by use prefabrication, but diverse parts of concrete column and beam structure, which is divided in three-storey-high units separated by cast concrete slabs that act as a fire breaks. 81 Similar to this approach was used to Park Hill. design approaches examined in ‘chapter 4’ that give the possibilities to people for flexibility in their spaces. In the building program there was also a residents' association with a club for young mothers on a Wednesday afternoon, a ladies club in the evening, tombola on Thursday and a youth club on Friday. A survey conducted by the housing department a year after the flats had been officially opened was overwhelmingly positive. Most residents said that they felt "better off" in the flats and talked about the magnificent views over the city. 82 Grenville Squires was caretaker at Park Hill for 24 years and lived in the flats. "When you moved in you were not a stranger for very long," he says. "On a summer's evening people would sit outside their flat nattering until 10, then at 11 we collected all the rubbish from the landings. It was a nice place to live. I was called 'Mr Park Hill' because I had taken care of so many, changing light bulbs, moving furniture and keeping an eye on the elderly." 83 However, participation did not occur and people never asked, but as presented they seem to more than like it. Their units seem that was well design to control their privacy and territoriality; the way the building construct allowed for changes in the initial plans if was needed; then; what went wrong? By the 1970s problems were accumulating. The closing down of the steel factory leave around 54000 unemployed in Sheffield. The garchey sewage

80 81 82

Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print. p.168 Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print. p.168

The Independent News Paper. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/architecture/sheffields-park-hill-estateexpectations-2297385.html visit at 15/12/2012 83 BBC NEWS. http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/03/07/park_hill_feature.shtml visit at 15/12/2012

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Figure: 52 – The concrete support structure. Units they will position in the grid.

Figure: 53, 54, 55 – The erosion of the concrete from the exterior elements was obvious in many parts of the building.

Quinta Monroy social housing figures Figure: 56, 57, 58 – Diagrams to arrange the 93 families

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system that used in the apartments to control the waste and placed them in large pits and drawn through pipes to a central location for dehydration and burning in a furnace to create heat, the system didn’t really work and apart from heat, cost an army of cockroaches had invaded the estate. Increase in rape attacks had led to headlines in the papers. 84 By the 1980s, social problems began to multiply. The communities break down and families move away. The erosion of the concrete support structure was obvious in many parts of the building (fig 53, 54) from the exterior elements and areas where the concrete totally damage and sloping of (fig 55). The older residents, who would chat and gossip on the walkways, had instead locked their doors. 85 However the major problem of Park Hill which brought the closing down of the building was the cost of refurbishing the flats and the cost of maintenance they were getting out of any control and the council try to keep Park Hill but the increasing problems didn’t help. The well-being of humans in the case of Park Hill, went out of their hands not because some bad behavioral action, but because of economical crises couldn’t keep the massive building alive. The families in Park Hill sacrificed for the monumental architecture and probably thousands of families over the world. Even though from the beginning of the design process was taken under consideration participation; they were listed down the lifestyles of the families and their economical abilities. Park Hill probably wouldn’t exist, but something that would allow the people to upgrade the way they were living and be able to support their unit in any economical crises might occur through time. This over ambitious idea it will continue with the urban splash purchasing Park hill for the nominal sum of £1 pound and assigned the project to architects Studio Egret West, Hawkins Brown and Grant Associates have taken on board the delicate challenge of regenerating this building whilst retaining the brutalist strength of its original design. This is an experiment we don’t know yet the results, but what it look, it might not be able to complete regenerate; the reason, luck of customers due to economical crises all over the world. Up to today they regenerate 100 apartments and there 900 more to be done; who

84

The Independent News Paper. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/architecture/sheffields-park-hill-estateexpectations-2297385.html visit at 15/12/2012 85 Streets in the Sky Pt 3.wmv. You-Tube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IlBGbmKxG1E&feature=related visit at 15/12/2012

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ever buy this expensive dream of ÂŁ90,000 English pounds the single bedroom apartment, there is a big possibility for a long period of time to live in a construction site.

b. Quinta Monroy social housing Dealing with housing might be some of the most common over write and research through the centuries, but it’s always something new to learn out of this feel. Creating housing is complicate because it deals with living spaces and when trials to hold the behavioral manners of privacy and territoriality; furthermore to be adaptable through the years of his life and change every time to the new lifestyle of its tenants. The reason the project of Elemental choose to be present in this paper is because it carryout all the good qualities of housing people. In the case of this project is dealing again with social housing which has a negative image in societies since they were many negative housing projects, but the most important it can push to the limits the architects because of the many restriction and mostly budget to prove the qualities of a unique and intelligent living unit. 86 As mentioned before the project should be worked in the framework of the current housing policy, and in the budget of US$ 7,500 per family, with which in this money they were had to pay for the land and the construction of the building. With this money could build only 30 sqm of build space. The land that the families occupy for several years now it was three times more expensive than the land that they use in cases like this, but because the people refused to be move in another area the case were to house them there. The architect and his team had to deal with the problem to be able to fit in the plot 93 families. With the contemporary ways used up to now it was not possible; to pile the families in a high-rise building it is not an option, because of the typology of the area, the difficulty for the poor families to support a high-rise building, but also the families to be able to expand at least double the initial built space 87(fig 56, 57,58) They try to use the land efficiently and they reach up to 66 families. The problem was with the expansion, whenever a family wants to add a new room; it was blocking access to

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Recycled architecture. http://recycledarchitecture.blogspot.com/2011/07/sustainable-home-build-your-own.html visit at 15/12/2012 87 David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University http://www.drclas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/710 visit at 15/12/2012

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ventilation and light of previous rooms. Furthermore it was compromising their privacy because circulation has to be done through other rooms; instead of efficiency, is overcrowding and indiscriminate sexual intercourse, as stated by the architect. 88 The answer came when they shifted their ideas what is the best possible arrangement for the budget of 7,500 dollars; and multiplied the 100 families to the amount of 7,500 to give them a project of US$ 750,000 scale building capable enough to accommodate 100 families and their expansions. 89(fig 59) The approach of the design method that Elemental use is categorized in the book ‘Flexible Housing’; as slack space and is typically a space outside the housing units that can be appropriated by the users over time, providing more flexibility in use. Slack space is not just any space, but areas which ready to occupy by the future residents. These spaces there on flat roofs that can be built later, in courtyards, communal stairwell when there big enough, an exterior wall with a roof or other covering structure that turn into a storage. Slack space can be successful when the designers think of various ways of possible uses. 90 This approach is had examined and worked well for Elemental (figures from top left: 1, 2 ). The 3D representational diagrams they show the design process how from the ground floor (1) as unite space separate by infilling walls the units and can be recognize the slack space in the between. The same procedure it continues on the upper floors (2). 91

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David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University http://www.drclas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/710 visit at 15/12/2012 89 Arch Daily, architecture website. http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/ visit at 15/12/2012 90 91

Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print. p.185

Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012

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(Figures from top left: 3, 4). The flat roofs of the units below become the entrance of the top floor units as the main access to their unit (3); and by the same time the floor of the future expansion. 92 The materiality of the exterior wall now it will the inner wall in the future so it’s made by wood to allow the residents to cut out pieces or totally remove it; but the wall of the adjacent unit is from concrete blocks for better for more control of their private property and privacy. In the figure 4 we can see with color the future expansion, which in fact is the 50% of each unit’s volume; and eventually will be self-built. The building had to be permeable enough to allow each unit to expand within its structure. 93 The initial building must thus give a supporting, rather than a constraining framework in order to avoid any negative effects of self-construction on the urban environment over time, but also to facilitate the expansion process; and to the families to adaptable in the future with new interpretations. Alejandro Aravena state that ‘social housing been seen as an investment and not as an expense. So we had to make that the initial subsidy can add value over time. All of us, when buying a house expect it to increase its value. But social housing, in an unacceptable proportion, is more similar to buy a car than to buy a house; every day, its value decreases. So if that subsidy can add value over time, it could mean the key turning point to leave poverty’.94 Elemental choose to use participation in the rest of the project instead of design the rest of the parts in an office. The small part of the house (30sqm) is the first face of the project, which it will be built and deliver to the owners; and the families they should finish the rest (42sqm), in total the whole house will reach the (72sqm). 95 This meant adjust the standard parts of the house, but the same time to have in mind when place the (kitchens, bathrooms, stairs, partition walls and all the difficult parts of the house) had to be designed for final

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Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012 93 Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012 94 Arch Daily, architecture website. http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/ visit at 15/12/2012 95

Alejandro Aravena Architect. http://www.alejandroaravena.com/obras/vivienda-housing/elemental/ visit at 15/12/2012

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scenario of a (72sqm) house. 96 All these happen in the participation process where people in the end, knew how much money they offer them for their houses which was enough for just half of the house. The key question was which half can be done first. The answer was not difficult and the participant gave it. The half, which any family alone will never be able to achieve on its own; no matter how much money, energy or time they spend 97 (fig 60, 61, 62) In this process many other professions as sociologies e.t.c… invite to offer their assistance. After the first meetings the families separated in 4 groups accordingly to their common interest backgrounds and, the formation of their future neighbors 98 (fig 63) A very basic question rise from the team to the participant and the architect refer many times in his interviews is when they asked the families if they want a bath-tap or hot water boiler; 100% of the families choose a bath-tap and the reason is that and if had chosen hot water they wouldn’t have the money to pay for the gas, but also bath-tap allow them to do more things as to wash clothes and play the kids in the summer. 99 A last part is the layout of the houses where they introduced the collective space which is confronts around 20 families (fig 64). The provision of such a space as ‘small neighborhood’ is to develop relations and that is a key issue for a poor family. This space in the between private property and public space is an intermediate level of association that allows surviving fragile social conditions. 100

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Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012 97 Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012 98 Small Scale Big Change, New Architecture of Social Engangement. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/quinta_monroy_housing visit at 15/12/2012 99 2010 Curry Stone Design Prize Winner Elemental.mov. You-Tube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jnIBR50APQ visit at 15/12/2012 100 Elemental. http://www.elementalchile.cl/viviendas/quinta-monroy/quinta-monroy/# visit at 15/12/2012

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Figure: 59 - Final arrangement. The last diagram the white box represent two units and the grey it’s the expansions that the user they will do by themselves

Figures: 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 Elemental project. Its very obvious the

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5.5 Conclusion Home is important for humans and their identities. Weather the unit supports all the amenities of a contemporary lifestyle demands. The architect, developers, and constructors they should orient their customers not for the new facilities that their buildings and units offer, but to the needs and lifestyle of the new users. Their spaces should be flexible, adaptable to each individual requirement for a basic or not lifestyles. The designers they should always have in mind for who they are designing. The size of the building is important and when is necessary for a bigger in scale buildings. The building should separate in smaller groups of units, to be able for the users to communicate and keep in well shape their units and their building as one entity.

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Chapter 6 Conclusion The experts for years have collected information by observing and registering behaviors of people in all the aspects of their lives. This data collection is analyzed by experts in each field and rewritten with more information by other experts; and this process continues for centuries without a stop. However this information in the last decades has been shared only under the umbrella of universities, where their passionate youngsters from all fields of studies continue to grow, argue or even - the most genius ones - put something new in their field. This information as we know or as we can predict will continue to grow in the academic world. On the other hand we reach a point where the expert should share the knowledge that is been earned with the non-expert; and what I mean by this? Let’s establish a base of communication with the non-expert, so he/she will earn the basics from different fields. This will give them the chance to be able to control their lives; and not be self-abandoned to ideas that the market is implying to them; in order to be more vernacular and creative. In the field of architecture which is the focus of this paper; let us re-think what has been produced up to now, and what has been earned or went wrong; stop, think for whom the architects design for; the user or the actual body of architecture. Re-think our lives as part of the architecture and design as if we were the actual users. But again, what the expert might consider beneficial for his/her life, to the actual user might not fit to his/her lifestyle. Pedagogy, not the one that performs the same ritual; but the one that will transfer the knowledge and educate the expert and the non-expert, even though sometimes it is much easier to educate the latter. Collaboration is a benefit action of transmitting information’s. This paper tried to bring awareness of participation in the designing process and to inform more people about the field, so to be able to control the ‘spatial’ in their lives. The architectural and social experiments brought appalling results in the lives of human beings. Participatory planning is set, as a starting point and connected with the need for people to have more control in the decision making. The Korean team states: ‘a city that citizens cannot reflect their opinions, they tend to act passively towards the given environment. The citizens of their proposal city participate to determine their own built environment. A

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member of the city gains power to recognize the whole city through controlling his own environment. 101 People, when they are involved in the process of participation, will not only benefit in the decision process of their spatial qualities, but will also recognize behavioral events as the need for privacy and how these can controlled or opened; and the importance of their territory that should be loose on their borders so to earn the benefits of social interactions. This sense of territoriality is what has been developed from emotional attachment and familiarity and through the past experiences of childhood spaces, to the one that we dream of living in. This drive of constructing rigid spaces must come to an end. The different lifestyles and cultures of the users living in the city need to have a chance to adapt their spaces according to their needs and not adjust their lives according to their spaces. Flexible space is understood to be the ability of the user to adapt to continually changing necessities and conditions of their environment; a behavioral act as indicator of adaptability. The idea of not predetermining their spaces architecturally, gives the choice to the users to be flexible to adapt the space; each family according to their needs. Participatory design gives possibilities to the users to take control of their environments during the design process; mostly to share information with the expert and gain knowledge of future interpretation of their spaces. The system of participation gives power back to the people and should be applied in other fields as well. As stated by the ‘Spatial Agency’ “these approaches are not of a prescriptive imposition of knowledge, but of drawing out of the vernacular intelligence that the communities already possess”. 102

101 102

Hah, Tesoc, RE.PLACE.ING, Korean Pavilion 2010, p. 144

Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. p.48

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Works cited Altman, Irwin, and Martin M. Chemers. Culture and Environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1980. Print. Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, and Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture. Abingdon, Oxon [England: Routledge, 2011. Print. Blundell, Jones Peter., Doina Petrescu, and Jeremy Till. Architecture and Participation. London: Spon, 2005. Print. Bonnes, Mirilia, Terence Lee, and Marino Bonaiuto. Psychological Theories for Environmental Issues. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2003. Print. Carmona, Matthew. Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Amsterdam: Architectural/Elsevier, 2010. Print. Levitt, David. The Housing Design Handbook: A Guide to Good Practice. London: Routledge, 2010. Print. Lynch, Kevin. Good City Form. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1984. Print. Madanipour, Ali. Public and Private Spaces of the City. London: Routledge, 2003. Print. Scalbert, Irènèe. A Right to Difference: The Architecture of Jean Renaudie. London: Architectural Association, 2004. Print. Seitel, Fraser P. The Practice of Public Relations. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print. Schneider, Tatjana, and Jeremy Till. Flexible Housing. Oxford, UK: Architectural, 2007. Print.

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"2010 Curry Stone Design Prize Winner Elemental.mov - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jnIBR50APQ>. "About IAP2." International Association for Public Participation. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.iap2.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=3>. "Cambridge Journals Online - Arq: Architectural Research Quarterly." Cambridge Journals. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=arq>. "Elemental - Architecture for a Difficult Equation." Re Vista: Harvard Review of Latin America Spring (2004). David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.drclas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/710>. "ELEMENTAL." Alajandro Aravena. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <www.alejandroaravena.com/obras/vivienda-housing/elemental/>. "Flexible Housing." Flexible Housing. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/about.php>. Generic Public Participation Guidelines. Pretoria: Republic of South Africa, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2001, 2001. PDF. "The History of Parkhill." Parkhill A Phoenix From The Flames. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.parkhillflats.co.uk/history.html>. Home Page John Habraken. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.habraken.com/>. Kelly, Stephen. "Sheffield's Park Hill: Estate Expectations - Architecture - Arts & Entertainment - The Independent." The Independent | News | UK and Worldwide News | Newspaper. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://www.independent.co.uk/artsentertainment/architecture/sheffields-park-hill-estate-expectations-2297385.html>.

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Kroll, Lucien, and Peter Blundell Jones. "Architecture of Complexity." The MIT Press. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2&tid=4669>. "Making the Grade: Park Hill Estate, Sheffield - Telegraph." Telegraph.co.uk - Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph and Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/3304188/Making-the-grade-Park-Hill-estateSheffield.html>. "MoMA | Small Scale, Big Change | Quinta Monroy Housing." MoMA | The Museum of Modern Art. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/smallscalebigchange/project s/quinta_monroy_housing>. Open Building Implementation, CIB W104. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. <http://www.openbuilding.org/>. "Park Hill's History." BBC - Homepage. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/03/07/park_hill_feat ure.shtml>. "Quinta Monroy / Elemental | ArchDaily." ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental/>. "Quinta Monroy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ELEMENTAL." ELEMENTAL. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.elementalchile.cl/viviendas/quinta-monroy/quinta-monroy/>. "Shigeru Ban Talk." Designboom. Web. 19 Nov. 2011. <http://www.designboom.com/history/ban.html>. "Streets in the Sky Pt 1.wmv." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmZdY2nQrs0>. 66


"Streets in the Sky Pt 3.wmv - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IlBGbmKxG1E>. "Sustainable Home, Build Your Own: Elemental, Chile." Web log post. Recycled Architecture. 13 July 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://recycledarchitecture.blogspot.com/2011/07/sustainable-home-build-yourown.html>. "Yona Friedman - Collection Frac Centre." FRAC Centre. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.frac-centre.fr/public/collecti/artistes/friedman/noti01en.htm>. "Yona Friedman." Spatial Agency. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://spatialagency.net/database/groupe.detudes.darchitecture>.

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