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WEIGHT LOSS REVELATIONS FROM SCIENCE What are the secrets to successful weight loss? And, what is the secret to keeping the weight off once it’s gone? According to members of the National Weight Control Registry in the United States, a group of 10,000 people (mostly women) who lost at least 30 pounds and have kept the weight off for a year or more1, it’s no surprise— maintain a positive attitude; keep track of what you eat; weigh yourself once a week; and exercise regularly. These obvious lifestyle factors appear to be good predictors of success. But what else can you do to successfully lose the weight and keep it off? What are the latest scientific findings on this very important topic? In this particular issue of News You Can Use we’ve highlighted just that. We’ve got the latest scientific breakthroughs to share with you about how 7 simple changes to your diet and lifestyle can help you and those you care about achieve a new body and a better life!
High Protein Diets for Weight Loss, Increased Satiety, and Healthy Metabolism You’ve probably heard this before but to lose weight you need to create an “energy deficit” – consume less or burn more calories than your body needs to maintain its current weight. However, in recent years scientists have become just as interested in what to eat as they are in how to eat to facilitate weight loss. In other words, the composition of your meals – the amount of protein, carbohydrate, and fat you take in is now considered to be just as important of a factor.
satiety / sa·ti·e·ty Noun The feeling or state of being fully satified. Over the years a strong body of scientific evidence has found that higher protein diets are helpful for weight loss2. They help increase satiety to a greater extent than both carbohydrate and fat and promote positive changes in body composition (greater fat loss and retention of lean muscle mass) than traditional standard protein diets3. And now there’s more good news! Higher protein diets may also prevent the
decrease in calorie burning potential (resting energy expenditure) that is typically seen after weight loss. In a new meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers systematically evaluated 24 well-designed studies that compared a total of 520 and 543 individuals who consumed a high protein and standard protein diets, respectively. They found that those consuming a high protein diet significantly reduced the associated decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) typically seen with weight loss diets4. In fact, researchers found high protein diets helped prevent the reduction in REE by almost 600 calories! That in itself could make a big difference in your weight loss success.
Muscle Up with a Combination of Soy and Milk Proteins When it comes to weight management and athletic performance, protein consumption has been one of the most researched areas in the field of nutrition. Some athletes swear by whey protein for muscle building, while vegans rely on soy protein for a high quality, plant based protein source.
Studies have also discovered that although soy and milk proteins are both considered to be high quality, complete sources of amino acids, they appear to have different rates of digestion5. This in turn affects how fast their respective amino acids appear in circulation and their ability to stimulate muscle protein building. Soy and dairy proteins also have different amounts of leucine, a branched chained amino acid that serves as a key signal in muscle tissue to stimulate protein synthesis. And studies also suggest that dairy proteins, like casein play an important role in preventing muscle protein breakdown. Findings like these have raised the question by researchers and athletes alike “What is the best source of protein to maximize muscle building?” Well, an ever-expanding area of research comparing the effects of different protein sources on performance is suggesting a combination of both soy and dairy proteins may in fact be best. In a one-of-a-kind, double blind, placebocontrolled clinical study, researchers from the University of Texas provided 20 healthy young athletes with either a protein blend (a combination of soy, whey and casein) or whey protein drink immediately after a one-hour bout of high *These statements have not been evaluate d by the Food and Drug Administrati on. This Product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
intensity leg resistance exercise6. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and twice during the post exercise period. What researchers discovered was that muscle protein synthesis rates were stimulated by both protein treatments but to a greater extent by the protein blend. Researchers concluded that the protein blend which provided both fast
and slowly digested proteins may have prolonged the delivery of amino acids to muscle tissue thus extending the period of muscle protein synthesis. To maximize your muscle building potential consider consuming a protein shake made with both soy and dairy proteins.
PROPRIETARY PROTEIN BLEND ··18g of high quality protein ··Biologically complete with all 22 amino acids ··Natural sources of protein for superior amino
·· SOY ·· WHEY (rich in muscle·· MILK retaining branched chain ·· CASEINATES amino acid—Leucine)
PROPRIETARY FIBER BLEND Creamy Vanilla #3840 Berries n’ Cream #3844
··5g of fiber per serving ··From whole food sources—
soy, oat and guar ··Promotes satiety, digestion,
and heart health*
LEUCINE // amino acid Consuming foods containing Leucine have been shown to help build and retain lean body mass by stimulating protein synthesis. 5
Fill up on Fiber to Prevent Weight Gain According to studies, the average American adult gains 1-2 pounds per year. Might not seem like much but, from year to year that could add up. Before you know it you’ve gained 15 to 20 lbs and are showing signs of weight related diseases like Type 2 Diabetes. The good news is there are ways to prevent this weight gain or even encourage weight loss. The secret? Eating more fiber. In a study published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers at Brigham Young University in Utah followed the eating habits of 252
Soybeans are an excellent source of fiber. Looking for ways to boost your fiber intake? Eat more berries, beans and whole grains and consider adding a NeoLifeShake to your day. You’ll get 5 grams of fiber per serving from whole food sources like soy, oat and guar!
middle-aged women for nearly two years and found that those who increased
Appetite and Weight Control – The Role of Gut Hormones Feelings of fullness after eating are believed to be regulated by a sensory system that sends messages from our gut to the appetite-regulating centers in our brain. In our brain, the hypothalamus responds to our nutrient and energy intake, while in the gut, specialized cells produce several different hormones that control our appetite. An understanding about the role these hormones play in appetite control has increased exponentially over the last decade leading to a growing interest among scientists in finding ways to modify these hormones to prevent and treat obesity8. The hormones that have intrigued scientists the most have been leptin, ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CKK). However, new gut hormones have been recently identified such as GLP-1, PYY and OXM, all of which
appear to play a role in inhibiting food intake and are currently the subject of many research studies. Australian researchers examined the effects of meal composition (varying amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate) on gastrointestinal hormones, appetite and subsequent energy intakes in a group of lean and obese men9. When it came to hormone levels, CCK and ghrelin levels were sustained in response to the high protein and adequate protein meals but not with the other test meals in both lean and obese men. Overall, this study confirms the satiety-enhancing effects of diets with higher protein content and suggests that gut hormone response may be partially responsible for these effects.
APPETITE SUPPRESSOR SECRETOR
Pancreas...................I N S U L I N Fat Cells....................L E P T I N Intestines...................CCK, PYY, GLP-1, OXM
their fiber intake lost weight while those who decreased their fiber intake gained weight7. The scientists found that for every 8 grams of fiber per 1,000 calories consumed, women lost 4 ½ pounds over
the course of the study. This held true regardless of how much fiber the women ate prior to the start of the study, which ranged from 3 to 25 grams a day. 6
Stomach...................G H R E L I N
How can you keep muscle mass as you age?
Consider Omega-3 Rich Fish Oil to Help Keep Your Muscle
benefits ··All eight omega-3 fatty acids including EPA, DHA, and more ··Ultrapure, high potency fish oil
THE PERFECT COMPLEMENT TO YOUR WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
and even if you are active, research suggest you too will experience some Who would have thought that omega-3 muscle loss. Loss of muscle can also fatty acids, well known for their cardio- make it more difficult to lose weight vascular, brain health and anti-inflam- because when you lose muscle mass, matory benefits could also help us you also slow down your metabolism. retain muscle mass thereby enabling So why do we lose muscle as we age? Well, a major cause of age-related weight management? muscle loss is thought to be due to the inability of our aging muscle to adequately boost the rate of muscle building in response to a diet rich in sar·co·pe·ni·a Noun protein and amino acids. New research Age-related loss of muscle mass published in the American Journal of and strength. Clinical Nutrition suggests that omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil may help.
Around the age of 30, you begin to lose muscle mass and function, a condition known as age-related sarcopenia. In fact, people who are physically inactive can lose as much as 3% to 5% of their muscle mass per decade after age 30
In this study, healthy older adults were randomly assigned to receive either a dose of fish oil containing 1.9g of EPA and 1.5g of DHA or an equal amount of corn oil daily for eight weeks10. Key measures of muscle protein synthesis 7
were evaluated before and after supplementation and with and without an infusion of amino acids. What researchers found was that corn oil had no effect on muscle protein synthesis rates but that fish oil supplementation did with an infusion of amino acids. In fact, it more than doubled the response, suggesting a stimulatory effect on muscle tissue building. Although the exact mechanisms are unclear, this study provides some compelling evidence that omega-3 fatty acids play a role in muscle metabolism and that supplementation may not only help combat the loss of muscle mass that occurs as we age, but may help with weight loss by preserving your lean muscle mass. Stay tuned for more research!
Timing of Meals May Be Important for Controlling Weight
“Researchers found that late-eaters lost significantly less weight and had a slower rate of weight loss than the early-eaters.” by researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in collaboration with the University of Murcia and Tufts University, 420 overweight study participants who followed a 20-week weight loss program were divided into two groups based on the timing of their main meal of the day (lunch in this particular population)11. Early8
eaters were defined as those who ate lunch anytime before 3pm and late-eaters were defined as those who ate lunch after 3 pm. Researchers found that lateeaters lost significantly less weight and had a slower rate of weight loss than the early-eaters. Late-eaters were also found to have a lower level of insulin sensitivity, a risk factor for diabetes. Although the timing of their other meals did not seem to play a significant role, late-eaters also consumed fewer calories during break-
fast or were more likely to skip breakfast altogether, which may have influenced their weight loss results. It’s important to note that the researchers also looked at other factors that play a role in weight loss such as total calorie intake and expenditure, appetite hormones leptin and ghrelin, and hours of sleep in study subjects. Researchers found no significant differences among these factors, suggesting, that timing of meal consumption was an independent factor for successful weight loss.
AMOUNT OF WEIGHTLOSS
New research suggests that in addition to balancing calorie intake with calories burned to maintain a healthy weight, the timing of your meals may matter. In a large-scale prospective study conducted
EARLY 3pm LATE eaters eaters
NEWS YOU CAN USE n Glycemic Control Zone
8am 10 12 High-glycemic meal
2 4 6 8pm Controlled glycemic response
energy expended by a person at rest and total energy expenditure (TEE), the amount of energy a person burns during daily activities, were measured before and after consuming the test diets. What researchers found was that the decrease in REE was greatest for the low fat diet, followed by the low glycemic diet and then followed by the very low carbohydrate diet. Although the very low carbohydrate diet appeared to produce the best results in terms of its effects on metabolic
Keeping the Weight Off – A Low Glycemic Response Diet May Help When it comes to achieving a healthy weight, losing the weight is just half the battle. The other half is learning how to keep the weight off for years to come. New research suggests adopting a diet composed of high fiber, low glycemic response carbohydrates may help keep those pounds off. Researchers from Harvard Medical School found diets that reduce the surge in blood sugar after a meal – either a low glycemic diet or very low carbohydrate diet, may be preferable over a low fat diet when trying to achieve lasting weight loss. This four year study evaluated the effects of three different diets: a low glycemic diet; a very low carbohydrate diet; and a low fat diet on energy expenditure in 21 overweight and obese adults who previously lost weight and were placed on a 6 month maintenance plan12. Resting energy expenditure (REE), the amount of
rate, it was not without some important caveats. The very low carbohydrate diet was also found to raise cortisol levels, a stress hormone associated with insulin resistance and increased C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in the body. Although more studies are needed to confirm effects on REE, a low glycemic response diet appears to have metabolic advantages over other diets when it comes to keeping the weight off long-term.
REFERENCES 1. Kraschnewski JL, Boan J, Esposito J, et al. Long-term weight loss maintenance in the United States. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010;34(11):1644-1654. 2. Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, Mattes RD, et al. Protein, weight management and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(suppl):1558S-61S. 3. Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ, LangkampHenken B. Effects of variations in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a metaregression. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:260-74. 4. Wycherley TP, Moran LJ, Clifton PM, et al. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low fat compared with standard protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012:96-1281-98.
7. Tucker LA, Thomas KS. Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. Journal of Nutrition 2009:139:1-6. 8. Perry B, Wang Y. Appetite regulation and weight control: the role of gut hormones. Nutrition and Diabetes (2012)2, published online 16 January 2012. 9.
Brennan IM, Luscombe-March ND, Seimon RV et al. Effects of fat, protein and carbohydrate and protein load on appetite, plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY and ghrelin and energy intake in lean and obese men. Am J Physiol Gastointest Liver Physiol (May 3, 2012). Doi:10.1152/ ajpgi.00478.2011.
10. Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN et al. Dietary omega 3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:402-12.
5. Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW et al. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol 2009;107:987-992.
11. Garaulet M, Gómez-Abellán, Alburquerque-Béjar JJ et.al. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. International Journal of Obesity 2013;29.
6. Reidy P, Walker DK, Dickinson JM et al. Effect of protein blend vs whey protein ingestion on muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. The FASEB Journal. 2012;26:1013.9.
12. Ebbeling CB, Swain JF, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance. JAMA 2012;307(24):2627-2634. 9