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Volume 3

The role of prebiotics in pet food


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Volume 3

Trouw Nutrition USA, LLC P.O. Box 219 115 Executive Drive Highland, IL 62249 Phone: 618.654.2070 Fax: 618.654.6700

In this issue:

Customer Service: 800.365.1357

The role of prebiotics in pet food pg.4

Cover photo: istockphoto.com

Dedicated prebiotic solutions for cats and dogs pg. 8

Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

© Trouw Nutrition USA A WATT Global Media Publication


Photo: istockphoto.com

Welcome to the latest edition of Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook

Welcome to the latest edition of Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook. As consumers continue to treat their companion animals like family members, they are becoming more knowledgeable about pet nutrition. With trends in human food being replicated in the pet food industry, pet parents are relying on the same quality ingredients, nutritional components and balanced diet found in their own food so their pets can enjoy a long and healthy life. Throughout this issue, you will learn about BENEO inulin, a functional prebiotic fiber derived from chicory sources. Inulin helps improve the digestive health of pets by promoting beneficial changes in the microbiome and modulating the gut environment in a favorable manner. In addition, inulin

promotes mineral absorption and can even reduce litterbox odor. Inulin is beneficial to both dogs and cats during all stages of life. We are sure you will enjoy learning about the benefits of BENEO inulin for your pet food business, and we look forward to speaking to you further about its requirements.

Deborah Collier, National Sales Manager Trouw Nutrition USA

Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

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4 The role of prebiotics in pet food

The role of prebiotics in pet food

How prebiotics help maintain microbiome health Arguably, one of the most influential research topics in the 21st century thus far has been the investigation of the animal microbiome. This population of microorganisms, consisting of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, live in the large intestinal tract of animals. For decades, it was believed that the role of the microbiome was to ferment any undigested material that escaped the small intestine, but little was known about its impact on host health and metabolism. As genetic sequencing costs decreased, microbiome research dramatically increased, enabling quantification and classification of the microbiota and understanding the role they play in host metabolism and cognitive function.

Influence of the microbiome New correlations between the microbiome and host health are being discovered every day. One of Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3


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All images: istockphoto.com

the original findings indicated that the transplant of a lean mouse’s microbiome into a genetically predisposed obese mouse caused the obese mouse to obtain a lean phenotype. Surprisingly, the reverse was seen when the obese mouse’s microbiome was introduced into a lean mouse (Turnbaugh et al., 2006). This suggests that the microbiome greatly influences the metabolism and health status of the host and may even influence disease states. From that point forth, researchers have discovered numerous disease

states that may be influenced by the microbiome, including colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and even autism and Parkinson’s disease. In the emerging field of microbial endocrinology, researchers are proving that the microbiome is influential in the hormonal patterns of the host by producing hormones, responding to host hormones, and regulating host hormone levels (Neuman et al., 2015). Hormones produced by the microbiome may even influence eating and social behaviors of the host (Bercik et al.,

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Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

2011; Fetissov et al., 2008). This influence over metabolism and cognitive function stresses the point that the microbiome is very influential on animal health. Due to this effect, diet must be considered when developing nutritional strategies to improve health and well-being. The microbiome is at the mercy of its host for nourishment and well-being. The host’s diet has a direct impact on the microorganisms that live in the large intestine. This microbiome may be modified in number and diversity by factors such as intestinal pH, gut motility, substrate availability, and type of fermentable substrate entering the site (Roberfroid et al., 2010). These changes may either be beneficial or detrimental to digestive health depending on the species of bacterium and their main fermentative end-product.

Maintaining microbiome health Microbes such as the Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. are viewed as beneficial due to their ability to produce greater concentrations of


6 The role of prebiotics in pet food

beneficial metabolites (i.e., short-chain fatty acids). Substrate availability and type have noticeable impacts on the health of the microbiome. The two main nutrient types entering the large intestine are proteins (dietary or endogenous—i.e., enzymes) and carbohydrates (dietary fiber, resistant starches and mucins). Microorganisms have co-evolved by utilizing the remnants of the host diet, creating a symbiotic relationship. The host provides a secure, favorable environment for the microbes. The microbes utilize nutrients restricted by the host and ferment them into metabolites that can be absorbed by the host. Protein fermentation results in unfavorable, toxic compound production, such as ammonia, biogenic amines and phenols. Carbohydrate fermentation results in favorable compound production, such as short-chain fatty acids.

Dietary changes cause shifts in microbial population, due to the niche diet of each microbe. If an imbalance in nutrients enters the large intestine, microbe populations can flourish and others die, causing a microbial imbalance and leading to possible acute or chronic disease states. Evidence suggests that a higher fiber diet may enhance the microbiome, since typical beneficial bacteria thrive on a carbohydrate-rich diet (Deehan and Walter, 2016). But it is not just the quantity of dietary fiber that elicits a benefit; the types of dietary fiber greatly impact the microbiome as well. Insoluble dietary fiber affects gut motility and provides intestinal bulk to ease laxation. In addition, insoluble fiber dilutes toxic compounds being produced in the large intestine, most importantly in the distal colon. On the contrary, soluble fiber tends to be more fermentable and serves as an important energy source Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

for the microbes. Of course, the characteristics of the fiber may affect physiological parameters as well (e.g., gut motility and pH). Select soluble fibers have proven to provide a greater benefit than others. These fibers have been defined as prebiotics. Prebiotics are defined as fermentable carbohydrates that “allow specific changes, both in composition and/ or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora, that confer benefits upon host well-being and health” (Roberfroid, 2007). Microbes ferment prebiotics into metabolizable energy for themselves and release end-products utilized by the host. Fermentative end-products include short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gases (Roberfroid et al., 2010). The main SCFA produced are acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These fatty acids serve as an energy source for the epithelial cells in the large intestine, with butyrate being the primary


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source (Topping and Clifton, 2001). In addition, butyrate has proven to act as an anti-inflammatory compound and enhances intestinal barrier properties (Inan et al., 2000; Peng et al., 2009). An important benefit of shortchain fatty acids is their ability to decrease intestinal pH and create an environment conducive to growth stimulation of beneficial bacteria while suppressing growth of perceived pathogenic bacteria (Topping and Clifton, 2001; Wang and Gibson, 1993). Only a few fermentable carbohydrates have repeatedly demonstrated prebiotic benefits when fed to animals, including fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and resistant starches, to name a few. One of the most researched prebiotics are the fructans, which are known by several different forms: short-chain FOS (scFOS), polyfructose or inulin. This class of fermentable carbohydrates has repeatedly been shown to be an effective microbiome modulator when fed at efficacious levels.

David, L. A., C. F. Maurice, R. N. Carmody, D. B. Gootenberg, J. E. Button, B. E.Wolfe, A. V. Ling, A. S. Devlin, Y. Varma, M. A. Fischbach, S. B. Biddinger, R. J. Dutton, and P. J. Turnbaugh. 2014. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature 505: 559-563. Deehan, E. C. and J. Walter. 2016. The Fiber Gap and the Disappearing Gut Microbiome: Implications for Human Nutrition. Trends Endocrinol Metab 27: 239-242. Fetissov, S. O., M. H. Sinno, Q. Coquerel, J. C. Do Rego, M. Coëffier, D. Gilbert, T. Hökfelt, P. Déchelotte. 2008. Emerging role of autoantibodies against appetite-regulating neuropeptides in eating disorders. Nutrition. 24: 854-859 Inan, M. S., R. J. Rasoulpour, L. Yin, A. K. Hubbard, D. W. Rosenberg, and C. Giardina. 2000. The luminal short-chain fatty acid butyrate modulates NF-κB activity in a human colonic epithelial cell line. Gastroenterology. 118: 724-734. Neuman, H., J. W. Debelius, R. Knight, and O. Koren. 2015. Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system. FEMS Microbiology Rev. 39: 509–521. Peng, L., Z-R. Li, R. S. Green, I. R. Holzman, and J. Lin. 2009. Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers. J. Nutr. 139: 16191625.

Resources Bäckhed F., R. E. Ley, J. L. Sonnenburg, D. A. Peterson, and J. I. Gordon. 2005. Hostbacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science. 307:1915-1920. Bercik, P., E. Denou, J. Collins, W. Jackson, J. Lu, J. Jury, Y. Deng, P. Blennerhassett, J. Macri, K.D. McCoy, Elena F. Verdu, Stephen M. Collins. 2011. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology, 141: 599–609. Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

Roberfroid, M., G. R. Gibson, L. Hoyles, A. L. McCartney, R. Rastall, I. Rowland, D. Wolvers, B. Watzl, H. Szajewska, B. Stahl, F. Guarner, F. Respondek, K. Whelan, V. Coxam, M.-J. Davicco, L. Le´otoing, Y. Wittrant, N. M. Delzenne, P. D. Cani, A. M. Neyrinck, and A. Meheust. 2010. Prebiotic effects: Metabolic and health benefits. Br. J. Nutr. 104: S1-S63. Roberfroid, M. 2007. Prebiotics: The concept revisited. J. Nutr. 137: 830-837. Rumney, C. J., S. H. Duncan, C. Henderson, and C.S. Stewart. 1995. Isolation and characteristics of a wheatbran-degrading Butyrivibrio from human faeces. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20: 232-236. Topping, D. L. and P. M. Clifton. 2001. Shortchain fatty acids and human colonic function: Roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol. Rev. 81: 1031-1064. Turnbaugh, P. J., R.E. Ley, M. A. Mahowald, V. Magrini, E. R. Mardis, and J. I. Gordon. 2006. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature. 444:1027–1031. Wang, X. and G.R. Gibson. 1993. Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J. Applied Bacteriol. 75: 373-380.


8 Dedicated prebiotic solutions for cats and dogs

Dedicated prebiotic solutions for cats and dogs

OraftiÂŽ inulin and oligofructose provide numerous benefits when incorporated into pet food The strength of inulin and oligofructose can be found in their combination of technological, nutritional and health benefits. As a soluble dietary fiber, they are able to act as a texturizer, replace sugar and fat and enrich products with fiber without having an effect on the blood sugar level. In addition, prebiotics promote digestive health, stimulate natural defenses and calcium absorption and reduce odorous compounds.

What are inulin and oligofructose? Commercially known as OraftiŽ ingredients, inulin and oligofructose occur naturally in many plants and vegetables, including artichokes, asparagus, salsify, leeks, onions and garlic. The chicory root is a particularly wealthy source of inulin and oligofructose, which is why it is used as the basis of Orafti ingredients. Thanks to extensive scientific research, Orafti inulin and oligofructose have the most heavily documented nutritional benefits of all available sources. Prebiotics have shown to be the preferred ingredient for a large Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

Chicory root

number of applications, not only in human nutrition, but also in pet food. They are currently being used in a variety of specialized feed, ranging from cat milk to canned cat food to dog sticks. Orafti inulin and oligofructose can be used in many food and drink sources.


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How are they produced? Inulin is extracted from chicory roots using hot water, but the Orafti inulin and oligofructose are also refined to ensure only the best products are available for our customers. Orafti oligofructose is obtained through partial enzymatic hydrolysis, making our products 100 percent vegetable in origin. BENEO-Animal Nutrition offers a flexible product range, tailor-made to

specific customer needs and suitable for every animal life stage. Produced in a food plant with multiple quality certifications, Orafti products meet the highest safety standards and ensure high-quality end products.

Prebiotic properties Extensive research has shown that ingestion of moderate amounts of Orafti inulin and oligofructose results in a significant increase in the

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beneficial LAB (lactic acid bacteria) in the intestinal tract. At the same time, the presence of less desirable bacteria is greatly reduced. The shift toward a healthier intestinal microflora leads to a drop in luminal pH, an enhanced production of shortchain fatty acids such as butyrate and a more favorable nitrogen metabolism. The selective stimulation of LAB reduces the densities of potential pathogens, stimulates immune functions and protects the intestinal mucosa.

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Functional dietary fiber Orafti inulin and oligofructose are not digested but are completely fermented by the microflora in the colon. Since they are not hydrolised in the upper intestinal tract, they increase neither glycemia nor insulin levels in the blood. This makes them suitable for diabetic pets.

Orafti ingredients can have a N excretion beneficial effect on lipid metabolism 1 and reduce blood cholesterol levels 0.9 (Diez, 1997). 0.8 faecal excretion faecal excretion

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As a dietary fiber, faecal and excretion 0.6 Orafti inulin 1 0.5 oligofructose positively affect the 0.9 0.4 frequency, consistency and quality 0.8 0.3 of the stool, decreasing transit 0.7 0.2 time and adding bulk to the feces. faecal excretion 0.6 0.1 They provide a0.5 regular defecation 0 0.4 pattern with easily passed stools, Control 0.3 which is a cornerstone for an 0.2 animal’s comfort. 0.1 0 Control


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Improved nutrient absorption

Odor reduction The fermentation of Orafti inulin and oligofructose by beneficial (LAB) bacteria to decrease potentially harmful bacteria also results in the reduced formation of putrefactive substances. These malodorous substances are usually the end products of a proteolytic fermentation.

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The absorption of minerals is essential for the growth of the animal and the strength of its muscles and bones. Orafti inulin and oligofructose in the diet increase the absorptive surface of the gut and activate its uptake mechanisms for calcium. As a result, more calcium will be absorbed from the diet. This amount of extra calcium will be incorporated in the major supportive structures of the animal’s skeleton. Adding Orafti inulin and oligofructose to the diet is a matter of optimizing both quantity and efficacy of calcium uptake (Beynen et al., 2002).

Effect of different oligosaccharidesc on 57 calcium absorption in rats 59

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The fermentation of Orafti inulin and oligofructose produces more SCFA, resulting in a pH decrease in the colon. This creates an environment less favorable to proteolytic fermentation and thus to the fermentation of putrefactive (which are often also toxic) compounds. Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3

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Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook • Volume 3


Dedicated Prebiotic Solutions for Healthy Pets

Dedicated pet parents agree that keeping their pet happy and healthy begins with a diet that includes wholesome ingredients. BENEO inulin is a highly functional, chicory derived prebiotic fiber that improves intestinal well-being and ensures the healthy upbringing of pets. Inulin provides a variety of nutritional benefits for companion animals throughout all life stages. Trouw Nutrition USA | 800.365.1357 www.trouwnutritionusa-pets.com

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Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook - Inulin Vol3  

Trouw Pet Nutrition Outlook - Inulin Vol3  

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