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DESIGN PROJECT II SYSTEMS DESIGN Systems Thinking and Systems Design Designing a system of functional clothing YOGAWEAR Abhilasha Tripathi Apparel Design 2013 Semester III Guide|Krishna Amin-Patel

What you think , you become What you feel, you attract What you can , imagine you create BUDDHA

Copyright Š 2015 Student document publication, meant for private circulation only. All rights reserved. Systems Design, Apparel Design, National Institute of Design, Gandhinagar, India. No part of this document will be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, xerography and videography recording, without written permission from the publisher, Abhilasha Tripathi and National Institute of Design. All photographs in this document are under Copyright Š 2014 by respective people/organisation. Photographer: Lakshmi Gupta Model: Bapuji Barik, Labakorcy War Helper: Mitali Kapoor Author, Editor and Designer: Abhilasha Tripathi Guide: Krishna Amin-Patel, faculty of Apparel Design Processed at: National Institute of Design Post Graduate Campus, GH-0, Extension Road, Near Infocity, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India THIS IS A DIGITAL COPY. Captions for preliminary pages: Cover page, Yoga at the beach in a column by Heidi McGall in Yoganonymous. Frontispiece, solar system planets earth psychedelic scheme chakra esoteric by Wall 321. Half title, Buddha statue wallpaper by desktop wallpapers 4 me. Content page, The Yoga Art of Ellen Brenneman


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At the outset, I wish to express my gratitude to everybody who has guided me in the formulation of this Degign Project i.e. System Design. There are many to whom expression of gratitude is inevitable, but there some special people who have to be given prominence, without whom I would not have reached the conclusion of this project so quickly and so efficiently. I would like to thank my mentor Krishna Amin-Patel for guiding me and helping me to understand the different parameters needed to complete this project. I would also like to thank Vashishtha Yoga Foundation, the sponsor of this project for their continuous cooperation in understanding yoga and drawing inferences for furthur design development. I would also like to thank my classmates for their invaluable support as friends during the project and especially my model Bapuji Barik and Labakorcy War, photographer Lakshmi Gupta and helper Mitali Kapoor. I take this opportunity to express my affection towards my parents for their consistent faith and support towards me and my work.

Abhilasha Tripathi



This Design Project focusses on Systems Design which is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development.This project was sponsored by an NGO which beleives in simple and healthy living, Vashishtha Yoga Foundation led by yoga guru Dheeraj Vashishtha. The policy of the foundation is comfort, peace and joy. The core aim of the project is to meet the requirements of the organisation through best serving design development. Through the process involved it is expected to imbibe a sense of understanding the market trend, anatomy of human, the different stretch & stress points of human body during movement of various parts, socio-cultural needs of the organisation to meet sustainable(material and sillhouette) design solutions.



An organisation led by yoga guru Dheeraj Vashishtha which beleives in providing a stress free helathy lifestyle to people. The organisation performs various programmes like stress management for corporate professionals, yoga for school children, yoga for youth, power yoga, group and personal yoga. Therefore it covers all the sectors of societyand aims at changing their lives full of tension, workload and dissatisfaction into a world where tranquility resides. Vashistha Yoga offers an engaging, uplifting approach to an alignment-based Vinyasa practice. Vinyasa is flow from one posture to another synchronized by the breath. Vashistha Yoga aim to apply the ancient yogic art with a contemporary scientific approach. Yogic Science visualizes all human beings as a union of five bodies collectively called ‘Pancha-Kosha’ (the five body sheaths). Yogic masters believe that the human body becomes prone to diseases when there is an imbalance among these five sheaths. By adopting the yogic way of life we focus on achieving the balance of Pancha-Kosha resulting in a healthy body and a spiritual mind. Vashistha Yoga visualizes creation of a well-balanced society with physical health, mental balance and spiritually enriched members through large scale propagation of yogic way of life. So, the foundation beleives in enriching human soul by comfort, peace and joy.

Plate references, Same page: www.vashishthayoga/facebook. com; Next page: https://www. yoga/googleimages 12


Reshaping mind, body and soul Trnasform body and mind To add Power Discipline Comfortable Living

Expansion of conciousness Path to omniscience Unification strength Peace Control


MARKET STUDY AJILE Category T-shirts(crew, v-neck), joggers, slim fit, straight fit,bottoms, hoodie

Price(Rs) 599-999 999-1299



Blue, Green. Pink, Black, Grey, White, Purple, Red

S, M, L, XL, XXL

Fabric and Technology Cotton, Spandex, Polyester ( knits)

Details Contrasting waistband lining, Interlining fleece, Neon piping, Elastic at bottom, Drawstring, Raglan sleeve, Twill tape detail, panelling, Bias bound finishing

Plate references same page: https:www.ajilevarsity/ sportswear/men-women 14

CONVERSE Category T-shirts(crew), joggers, straight fit,bottoms, hoodie

Price(Rs) 299-799 699-1299



Blue, Grey, Black, Some bright colors

S, M, L, XL

Fabric and Technology Cotton, Polyester ( knits)

Details Rib at hem, Drawstring

Plate references same page: https:www.converse/ sportswear/men-women 15

NIKE Category T-shirts, bottoms, body hugging, straight fit, joggers, capris




Fabric and Technology


Blue, Black, DRI FIT Scoop neck, 1300-2000 S, M, L, XL White, Red, Yeltech., NIKE Raglan sleeve, 1100-2500 low, Red, Orange, FREE, NIKE Stretch & Hem, 1295-2595 Vibrant prints & AVANT MOVE, Burnout stripes, graphics used Polyester, Nylon, Wide waistband, Modal, Cotton, Gusset lining drifit Spandex, fabric, Drawcords, Rayon, NIKE Gathered hem, SCULPT Thumbholes, TIGHT Fabric sculpted acco. to body contour, Shirred hem, Wovwn lattice construction, Seamless(Fabric knitted at sides)

Plate references same page: women 16

REEBOK Category


T-shirts, joggers, straight fit,bottoms, capris, bras

1000-2000 1000-2500 1200-3000



Blue, Grey, Black, White, Green, Vibrant prints & graphics used

S, M, L, XL

Fabric and Technology


Modal dralan Burnout stripes, single jersey, Racerback Rayon, Nylon, sillhoutte Cotton, Spandex, PLAY DRY TECH.

Plate references same page: https:www.reebok. comsportswear/men-women 17

DECATHALON Category T-shirts, joggers, straight fit,bottoms, capris



1500-2500 2000-5000

Blue, Grey, Black, White, Orange

Sizes S, M, L, XL

Fabric and Technology


Polyester, Elastane, Cotton, EQUEREA

Ergonomic cuts, Ventilation zones(inner thigh & t-shirts)

Plate references same page: activewear/3091## 18

ADIDAS Category T-shirts, joggers, straight fit,bottoms, capris

Price(Rs) 1000-2500 1500-4000



Fabric and Technology


Polyester, Blue, Grey, Sculpted opening S, M, L, XL Elastane, Cotton, Black, White, at hem, Arm CLIMALITE, Maroon, Pink, opening, Leg FORMOTION, 3D opening, Ideal Brown ENGINEERED seam placement, CONSTRUCTION Ventilation zones

Plate references same page: https:www.adidas. comsportswear/men-women 19

URBAN YOGA Category T-shirts, bottoms, body hugging, straight fit, joggers, capris

Price(Rs) 499-1000 1100-2000



Fabric and Technology


Blue, Black, Cotton, Bamboo, Breathable natural S, M, L, XL, White, Grey, Spandex, Polyester, fabric, Reinforced XXL tear resisitant, Maroon, Pink, DRYFRESH Sweat absorbent, Brown, Orange, PERFORMANCE Indian motifs & Green WEAR(Osmosis) symbols of yoga, Flat seams, Grip that prevents from slipping


VISIT TO NGO During the visit to the organisation, I met people who practised yoga with the organisation and observed their yoga postures. This made me understand the problem areas in their garments and how the movement and contour of body should compliment the garment during yoga so that there is no restriction during the process. The inferences drawn from the interview wereUSER 1(ILA) • While stretching/spreading legs the bottom wear should not be too tight at crotch and thighs. • Crew or V neck is preferable but shouldn’t be too deep (4” - 5”max). • Body should not show while doing upside down asanas or any posture in which the clothes are lifted. • T-shirt length must be long covering the hips. • Full length/Calf length bottoms are preferable. • Normal fit/Straigth fit bottoms are prefered not skinny fitted. • T-shirt should be loose. USER 2 • The user is a Nike fan. • If the bottomwear is too tight then it allows less stretch. • If the garment is very loose, it causes alignment problem. • Neck should not be too low or not sticking to the nape. USER 3(GENINE) • T-shirt goes up during upside down positions. • They need to tuck their tees. • Sleeves till elbow preferable to avoid slipping. • Bottoms just below knee level is prefered. • Color should not too bright USER 4 (CHINTAN) • Half sleeves are preferable. • Low crotch is a problem while stretching. • Bottoms till knee to avoid slipping. • Color preference is White and Black or soothing colours. 21


USER 5 • Half pants/Full pants (Cotton) are preferred. • Crew neck tees are preferable but not too loose or not too tight • T-shirt slipping down is not a problem in men. USER 6 • Polyester is comfortable but the fabric feel is not nice. • Cotton Tees have a nice feel on the body. • Bottoms could be half/full but fabric feel and quality are major preferences. USER 7 (DHEERAJ) • Bottoms tight at hips and crotch restrict bending. • Bottoms need to be adjusted while changing positions. • The fabric folds and goes up in half pants. • Sweating results in sticking of cloth to women’s body . • Fabric should be healthy towards skin. • It should support nature. • But if it fulfills the needs then it could be used even if not natural. • At armhole if it is too loose then it shows the underarm and few portion of bust too in case of women. • The people at the NGO do yoga at constant temperature without AC or fan. • The garment for guru should symbolize his position. • Logo and name of the organisation could be included.


OBSERVATION AT NGO Through the observation process I keenly pondered on each aspect whether it be fabric or sillhoette when yoga was performed by the participants at the organisation and defined the various stess/stretch points where there is an opportuity for design intervention. I clicked photos of people performing the activity to extract the opportunity areas in material, sillhouette/cuts, details and colour to provide them with a better experience while doing yoga. Relaxed Posture Relaxed Posture

Stress at underarm tand waist. Fabric is stretched from back, sideseam and front.

Neck muscles are stretched. At back, wrist, palm and knee atress is developed. Fabric is stretched from back. At knee and palm due to contact with ground some tension is developed. 23


Fabric folds when the person bends and due to which the bottomwear slides up making the skin show. T-shirt being loose at waist level the bare skin is shown.

Stretch at underarm, back, wrist and elbow muscles. As the leg is stretched backward so stress is developed at calf, thighs along with the connected hip muscles. Fabric is stretched at waist and crotch.

Sress at back, abdomen and hip muscles. T-shirt goes up at waist and at abdomen it becomes loose and forms a tunnel showing the bare skin inside.

Fabric streches at hips and crotch area. T-shirt goes up from the waist showing the bare skin. 24


Fabric goes up due to twisting and bending at the same time. The fabric at thighs moves up and the garment shifts upside revealing the skin.

Twisting at waist and ankle. Stretch at hips and thighs. Fabric twists at waist and back. At hips and thighs it moves up. Wrist, Biceps and Elbows are stretched Calf and Thigh muscles also develop tension The knee develops tension and strains the fabric after long time. Back and shoulder back muscles are stretched which causes the T-shirt to go slide up. Stress at crotch and hip portions causes stretch in the fabric. T-shirt Fabric goes up from both front and back 25


Back, underarm, abdomen, calf, ankle are stressed At underarm the fabric goes up. At the back it stretches and the bottom is stretched at hips. The seam at sleeves is stretched.

At abdomen the muscles and fabric is stretched which may cause tearing of the fabric. At the back the fabric folds while it stretches at the front.

Fabric goes up when arms are stretched. This causes the underarm, waist and stomach to become visible.

Fabric folds at thighs and slips at waist due to bending which is uncomfortable for females. Back and thigh muscles are strained and if the T-shirt is small it will slip down and bare skin will be visible



Due to spreading of hands at 180 degree angle the underarm and some portion of bust is shown through the large armhole. Fabric has to be tucked so that it doesnot slip while doing upside down postures. Fabric folds at crotch protion causing the person to fell very uncomfortable.

Stress at the abdomen and arms. As arms are stretched the fabric moves up from all the sides and inner skin is shown. At underarms also due to large armhole the skin is shown.


Stress at the back and abdomen causes the fabric to stretch a lot. Stress at elbow muscles too. As the person has to stretch the shoulder so the sleeves are folded to not to restrict the motion.


Stress developed at waist and arms. Fabric goes up and at underarms also it goes up. If the neck is deep it could show the body. The fabric front part is stretched very much. The T-shirt has to be tucked in for this posture.

Twisting develops stress at waist, hips, ankle, chest, shoulders. The fabric is also stretched at waist and chest very much.

Back, thigh, abdomen muscles are stretched due to twisting which increases stress developed in the fabric too. Elbow muscles also develop tension The body is shown due to fabric folds and to avoid that the person has to tuck in the T-shirt. The fabric folds at hip and thigh joints and knee grip is an issue



The stress is developed at waist and underarm portion. There is balance issue which is done through elbow. The fabric at the waist slips down while upside down positions. Due to which the person has to tuck in the T-shirt.

Extreme stretching develops stress at hips, waist, thighs and calf portions. Stress is also developed at arms Fabric restricts the motion at crotch, hips. At shoulders also fabric is strained.

Therefore, after observation of different asanas in the NGO, the inferences are drawn based on their body movements. But furthur there is a need to map the stress and strain caused in the body muscles and bones for more clear understanding.



Stress and strain mapping of different body parts in various postures is done know where the stress/ stretch regions develop while doing yoga.Here the highlighted muscular parts are those where stress/ stretch is developed while doing different asanas. At hip level fabric is stretched. At knee the fabric strtches and goes up. Fabric could slip from the waist level. Fabric at shoulders is stretched.

While lifting of arm the fabric stretches at the underarms& sides. Fabric folds at biceps too. 30


Fabric stretches and moves up from front and thighs. Fabric stretches at hips also. Bust/Chest level the fabric stretches. At shoulder joint and elbow the fabric stretches.

Fabric stretches and moves up from front and thighs. Fabric stretches at hips also. Bust/Chest level the fabric stretches. At shoulder joint and elbow the fabric stretches.

Hips and back is stretched and fabric at back moves upward. Fabric at thigh goes up. Fabric at arms also moves up. At shoulders fabric is stretched a lot.

Plate references same spread: muscles+in+yoga%7styped 31


At hips for bending a lot of stretchability is needed. At thighs the fabric goes up. At back fabric slips down. Fabric of sleeves also moves up.

Fabric stretches at underarms. It goes up and stretches at front. At hips and crotch the fabric is stretched. At knee level the fabric is stretched a lot.

Fabric at underarm and biceps is stretched. Waist level fabric goes up from front and is stretched while at back it gets folded. Fabric at hips and lower abdomen is stretched. Fabric at bust is stretched.



Fabric at back of waist is slipped and is stretched a lot At hip level the fabric tends to go up.

At thighs and calf the fabric is stretched and goes up. Fabric at shoulder back is stretched.

At underarm portion the fabric is stretched diagonally. Body twists and the fabric at waist and hips is twisted. Fabric at chest is also stretched. Fabric at underarm portion develops tension. 33

Plate references same spread: muscles+in+yoga%7styped


Fabric at thighs, calf and hips is stretched and goes up. Fabric at waist slips down.

Fabric at shoulders and underarm along with side seam is stretched and goes up.



Fabric at Crotch needs strechability. Fabric at legs slips. Fabric at waist goes up and is stretched.

Fabric at sleeves portion slips down Crotch fabric is stretched. Fabric at side seam is moved up. Fabric at bottoms also moves up.

Plate references same spread: muscles+in+yoga%7styped 35


Figures show how the bone and body should be aligned during different yoga postures For the perfect alignment of body stretchability and ease at various portions like underarm, chest/bust. hips, crotch and thighs is needed.



Through the whole analysis process the opportunity areas came out to be as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Fitting of garments Strechability Grip Alignment No slipping of garment Fabric feel Retention power of fabric Breathability Healthy towards skin Not clinging to the body Moisture absorbing Strength

Plate references same spread: bonealignmentofbody. 37


The organisation beleivs in providing Comfort, Peace and Joy. So the colour concept will come out of that only by associating different colours representing the organisation’s beleif. As we know human body has seven chakras which are associated with seven different colours and have a significant effect on people doing yoga or meditation.

Plate references same spread: yoga+chakras+rgnhgm%785; colourrepresentation+colourwheel/ 38


After studying the significance of all the seven chakras I focussed on the psychology of colour. It means what does a particular coloue speak about the situation and behaviour of humans. Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors can also work as placebos by having the color of pills be certain colors to influence how a person feels after taking them



After studying the colour psychology an idea of the feelings expressed by different colours is understood. As the organisation beleives in three basic concepts Comfort, Peace and Joy. So now I will analyse the deep meaning of these words in terms of colours. What colours do these words represent. COMFORT EASE




















After analysing the whole color theory, finally I came out with a colour concept which represents the organisation as well as the feeling of yoga. The colours are a mix of dark and light shades/tints which form a good complementing combination ans give a soothing feel to the eyes.




I extracted dark colors like black, grey and blue because yoga is an everyday excercise and as these colors won’t get dirty and after everywash the wearer will again find it fresh and new. Light and medium colors will compliment the dark ones in the garments and give it a vibrance and happy look. The colour combinations reflect the organisation’s beleif system and the essence of yoga.

Plate references previous spread: colourrepresentation+colourwheel/; https://; https://www. 42

TEXTILE & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH In this section all the existing fabrics and technology associated with yogawear is mentioned and then the final fabrics are decided. Skeletal System of Euplectella Cage structure Square grid lattice of vertical & diagonal struts Could be used in construction process

Gecko’s Foot The structure provides flexibility & ease for bending and twisting

Transpires like trees Pore like openings like stomata which opens & closes to release water vapour Cools itself A transpiratory jacket Leaving spaces between fibre for breathability Prevents external moisture from entering 43

Lotus Leaf Water resistant/ repellent.

Shark Skin Immitation of texture It has tiny scales called as dermal denticles Increases mobility Water is pushed backward Speed of the person increases

Duck Feather Breathability softness & fluffyness Thermal properties


Shed Me Inspired from snake’s skin To avoid water & energy loss in washing Clothes change colour & even style by shedding excessive layer Disposable Garment Made for winters Hand felted wool Could be disposed by planting it in spring Will act as a fertilizer

Snake Scales Scales of snake is mimiced Could be used where high strechability is needed

Leaf Scarf out of leaf structure Construction process could give quite a good amount of strechability 3D Knitting This takes the heat away from body & stores it in the 3D structures Could be used to take heat & moisture out Can avoid grip problems


Braided Can be used for high stretchability & Retention


Stomax Neoprene Fabric made from ultra thin, non porous polyester Weatherproof Highly breathable Silicon Dots Good grip to avoid slipping Ventile Densely woven breathable fabric Manufactured by using long staple fibre(cotton) with minimum space between fibres No pores for water to penetrate Reduced size of pores as the fibres swell when water gets inside them Behaves as waterproof No water repellent finish is needed

Polypropylene Can’t wick liquid moisture but has good oil absorbing capacity Moisture vapour could be forced through fabric by heat Provides insulation Good thermal characteristics Used for keeping wearer warm in cold weather & cool in warm weather



Nylon Lightweight, high strength, soft, durable When combined with polyutherane it has better wicking behaviour When used in wovens it traps heat due to low air permeability When used in knits it becomes breathable Cotton Good combination of softness & comfort Wet cotton garments cling to skin

Silk Hollow structure, it breathes well Soft, strong, natural wicking property Dries slowly & requires care in cleaning

Wool Results in itching due to fiber ends tickling High fiber density increases strength & abraison resisitance Ventilation properties Insulation even when it is wet



Lenzing Fibers Ideal for figure hugging products Excellent moisture management Perfect for thermal applications Lenzing modal is exceptionally soft & supple Improves the blend Combination of lenzing modal and Tencel improves the property of wool Derived from wood Viscose Rayon Not preferred next to skin Holds water Absorbs 2-3 times more moisture than cotton Wicking property is improved when combined with hydrophilic finishes

Lenzing FR Protection against heat stress Produced from wood Keeps body dry & cool Tencel High tenacity Makes fabric extremely absorbent Pleasant feeling to skin due to skin sensory properties Body temperature regulation properties Prevents skin irritation



Alginic Acid Algin/Alginate Anionic polysaccharide Found in cell walls of brown algae When it binds with water forms a viscous gum Solid, filamentous & granuler

Agiene Micro silver crystal technology Invisible layer of defense against bacteria Long lasting freshness

Chitosan Linear polysaccharide Made by treating shrimp & other crustacean shell with sodium hydroxide Fights off fungul infection & bacteria

Vaportex Moisture management treatment Stay drier longer Non dripping with sweat



X-Static Made with 99.9% silver Permanent antiodour Antimicrobial performance Natural temperature regulating properties Minimizes static Enhances comfort with high breathability rating Invista’s Coolmax Energized with special technology to wick moisture Quick drying which reduces dryer use Clothes last more

UGARF’s Technology Kills a wide spectrum of bactera, yeasts Antimicrobial properties

Invista’s Lycra Wide range of stretch Recovery power after stretch is impeccable



Carbon nanotubes Abraison, tensile stress & heat resistant Light & flexible High resistance to deformation

BOOLUX Derived from bamboo Lightweight, soft & breathable Aerogel Very light Transluscentt & transparent material Composed by 90-99% air Thermal insulation AURUM Blend of supplex & lycra Soft feel & breathability

Hydrogels Hydrophilic polymer Retains large amounts of water & maintans 3D Structures Do not dissolve in water Keep their shape without breaking up 50


LUON Sweat wicking, 4 way stretch fabric Breathable Does not shrink PIMA Cotton Lightweight, silky touch When blended with spandex which helps in shape retention Also called as ELS i.e. extra long stable Cotton type grown in peru Hygra20 Made from water absorbing polymer & nylon Absorbs 35 times its own weight of water Antistatc properties Quick water releasing properties Lumiac21 Collection of polyester filaments having different fineness Irregular cross-section Dryarn22 Recyclable propylene microfibre Lightweight, comfortable & soft High thermoregulatory property Dries quickly Bacteria cannot settle Avoiding unpleasant odour problem 51


Killat N23 Nylon hollow filament 33% of each filament High absorbency Warmth retention is good Yarn-bicomponent with soluble polyester copolymer as core& nylon as outer Dissolving of polyester copolymer when treated with alkali gives large hollow portion

Triactor24 Perspiration absorbing, quick drying Doesnot absorb moisture but changing to Y shaped cross-section moisture is absorbed by capillary action

Roica & Leofeel26 Soft nylon-66 yarn Polyester type spandex Both mixed to give soft touch & stretch



Dri-release Wicking performance yarn Blend of 85-90% hydrophobic low moisture absorbing staple fiber & 10-15% hydrophilic wicking staple fiber Dries 4 times faster than cotton Freshguard finish which prevents bad odour

Entrant Entrant Dermizax EV, a lightweight, smooth, water/moisture permeable, durable having 20000mm of water pressure resistance & 30000g/m2/24 hrs moisture permeability Entrant HB, coated % laminated for well balanced moisture permeability for high water proofness Entrant DT, smoother & refreshing dry touch with higher permeability

H2 OFF High density weave structure Millions of microcrimped fiber loops Durable H2O repellance, superior breathability Wind chill resistance 53


Field Sensor Multilayer structure Absorbs perspiration quickly & transports it very rapidly also Capillary action

Naiva30 Naiva yarn & nylon microfiber 14 is used to make this textile Good moisture permeability Light weight & soft in nature DICRYLAN SD When light hits its polymer backbone it is scatterred in all directions Results in deeper shade as very less light is reflectedback When the polymer structure has a particular orientation lesser chances of light shade Darker & deeper shade is obtained

Silicone Rubber Good resistance to temperature Elastomer 54


Elastronics Depositing circuits onto strechable substrate such as silicones/polyutherates Bear high mechanical strain Stretchable along with retention properties Biomimicry of human skin In health care used for making electronic bandaids Used for breathing problems Could be used in yoga to check proper breathing

Cocona Made from coconuts Activated carbon particlesare infused into fibers to speed up moisture evaporation Wear & Tear resistant & stretchable Keeps dry & Stink proof Gets better with each wash Renewable resource with UV protection Increase in surface ares due to activated carbon which increases wicking property by 40% Activated carbon manages odour by adsorption Polartech 4-way stretch & breathable Keeps dry without weight Smooth outer layer which is wind & abraison resistant Machine washable Soft inner layer which pulls moisture away High retention property Original fleece made from polyetylene telephthalate 55


MODAL (Beech tree)

Energy(M) Water(l) Chemical(g) Dyestuff(g) CO2(kg)

2.0 22 225 18 0.22



Tenacity(g/denier) (dry) (wet) Breathability Retention power Antimicrobial Skin friendly Ecofriendly/not Fabric feel Temp. regulation Pilling resistance Abraison resistance

2.5-5.0 3.0 50% more than cotton 96% @ 2% Good Excellent Ecofriendly Good Good Good Excellent

Moisture regain(%) Colour fastness Anti static Density(g/cc) Compressability Washability

11% Good Excellent 1.48 Fairly good Any water temp.

Resistance to heat

Not extremely high temp.

LYOCELL (Beech wood pulp) 1.8 18 150 12 0.52




4.5 47 320 20 0.75

Very less consumption

14-16 16-18 4.8-5.0 4.2-4.6 Excellent


40% Of polyester including water, chemical, dyestuff, CO2 Better than cotton 1.5 1.0 Excellent 99& @ 3% Natural Excellent Ecofriendly Good Poor Good Excellent

Good Excellent Excellent Ecofriendly Excellent Better than cotton Good Increases if more in blend 13.03 4(level) Good 1.4 Fairly good Good

88% Excellent Excellent Ecofriendly Good Excellent Excellent Excellent 11.5% Excellent Excelent 1.56 Excellent Any water temp. Not extremely high temp. 56

3.5-4.0 4.0-4.5 Absorbency good 75% Poor Good Ecofriendly Good Poor Poor Good 8.5 Good Good 1.52 Poor Depends on water Good

13-18 Good Fairly good 1.32 Excellent Good Retains heat

23.8 2.33 1.37 Excellent

Decreases if more in blend

Properties/ Fabric Energy(M) Water(l)

POLYESTER (Micro) 125 more than cotton


more than cotton complicated than cotton more than cotton

Dyestuff(g) CO2(kg)

Poor 81% Poor Fairly good Not Depends on yarn Poor Excellent Excellent 0.4

250 MJ of per Kg nylon produced including electricity(5.5 MJ/ Kg)+energy stored in fossil fuels(79.5MJ/ Kg) 30-90 42-100 3.5-7.2 3.0-6.5 Excellent 82-89 Deficient Poor Not Depends on technology Fairly good Good Excellent 2.8-5.0

Excellent Defecient 1.34-1.38 Excellent Depends on water Poor

Excellent Poor 1.13-1.14 Excellent Favourable temp. need Poor



Tenacity(g/denier) (dry) (wet) Breathability Retention power Antimicrobial Skin friendly Ecofriendly/not Fabric feel


Temp. regulation Pilling resistance Abraison resistance Moisture regain(%) Colour fastness Anti static Density(g/cc) Compressability Washability Resistance to heat






Released while chemical reaction -

1843MJ/Kg -

175MJ/Kg -







1.61 Kg

1.61 Kg

Poor 99%@50% Poor Good Not Good

25-45 41-50 1.2-1.4 1.0-1.3 Good 48-95@4% Poor Good Not Good

20 30 4.5 2.8-4.0 Good 90% Spider silk Good Ecofriendly Excellent

35-45 41-50 2.0-3.0 1.8-2.7 92% Poor Firly good Not Good

Poor Good Excellent 1.3

Poor Poor Poor 6.3-6.5

Good Good Poor 6.3-6.5

Good Poor 1.2 Good No hot water

Excellent Excellent 1.32 Poor All kinds of water Poor

Good Fairly good 1.32 Good Not hot water Poor

Fairly good 20 30 Good Poor 1.25 Good Favourable temp. need Poor


400-700 0.7-1.0

Not to high temperature 57






About the Trust: Vashishtha Yoga foundation is an NGO which focuses on spreading comfort and joy in the lives of people through yoga. The form of yoga they prefer is Hatha yoga. Client Brief: The client Mr. Dheeraj Vashishtha is the founder of the NGO. He wants yogawear for the yoga practitioners and himself which could solve their problems due to construction or fabric used in different areas of the body and give them a comfortable environment during yoga. They also want a seperate yogawear for guru which should be multifunctional as he can wear in meetings as well as for little demonstrations. Need of Client: The garment should satisfactorily solve all the issues in fabric as well as construction along with the price should be in consideration. Research: Yoga is the unification of body and soul which gives a peacefull environment inside the body as well as a comfortable life. Today yoga focusses on the reshaping of mind, body and soul and in this fast running life people are releived through it. Field Research: Personal study of the yoga movements of the people of the trust and found out the stress points and the problems regarding fabric and construction through interviews and watching them doing yoga. Findings: Fabric - The fabrics they use are mostly cotton and polyester which are less strechable, cling to the body, less breathable, non antimicrobial, do not have sweat wicking property and their feel is also a great problem. Construction - Grip problem during asanas due to sweat, Less stretch in garment, Loose fitting of garment, neck, armhole, slippage, alignment factor of the body. Actual problems related to exixting yogawear(store visit): Seam irritation, loose fitted, tight fitted, alignment factor of the body, less stretch in clothes. Problem areas: Pelvic, Hips, Thighs, Underarm, Palm, Biceps, Calf, Neck, Waist, Shoulders, chest/bust. Material Research: Ideal materaial(worldScenario) - Cocona which is yarn made from coconut charcoal made by burning coconut shell. It could be blended with polyester spandex. Bamboo charcoal blended with polyester spandex. 60

Dry fit Technology used by Nike which is polyester spandex. Ideal materaial (Indian Scenario) - Lyocell which is made from beech tree wood pulp, regenarated cellulosic fibre, naturally manmade, biodegradable, supports all the problem areas in fabric, price same as cotton. Polyester cotton spandex which is again a synthetic but low priced and breathable fabric and easily available. Color: The trust focuses on comfort and joy and the colors highlighted by it are cool shades of blue, yellow, green Through clients I observed they were personally focussing on Grey, White and Black. Cuts: Straight fitted sillhouttes along with panels, shirring, drawstring, elastic, highwaist, usage of rib, flat and stretchable seams, box pleats.






Restriction of motion due to too fitted Large amount of stretch required


Going up of fabric, Restriction due to twisting, Body shown while bending


Stretching of fabric due to backward bending, Body shown in forward bending


Restriction due to low/tight crotch, During leg split there is a problem


Sleeves fall & underarm is shown, Motion restriction, Sweat

Pelvic Area

Irritation due to seams & fabric, More stretch is needed

Palm & Elbow

During hand stand/elbow stand after sweating slipping happens

Under Arm

Sleeves slip to show underarm & through it bust area too, Stress developed during movement of hand


PROBABLE SOLUTIONS (Silhouettes/Cuts/Seams/Technology) Raglan sleeves, Yoke panelling, Elastic(horizontal shirring), Box pleats, Printed tags Silicon dots, Gecko inspired adhesive, Tuck in layering, Drawstring, Gathering, Panelling at side seam, Panelling at front/back, Uppergarment covering hips/ optimum length, Adjustable Neck should be 4-5 inches deep, Round/V neck, Layer in neck, Gathering/ Elastic, Silicon dots, Panelling at bust, High waist bottoms, Tucks at Center front neckline Gusset for extra stretch, Seamless Construction, Panels, Stretchable seams Layering inside sleeves till a defined length, Ventilation zones, Panelling at shoulder-hand joints, Drawstring, Shirring at sleeve hem Seamless construction, Panelling at sideseam/Inseam, Ventilation fabric Length of sleeves till elbow, Length of bootoms below knee level, Seams used should be soft Lining which sticks to body, Panelling, Gathers/Shirring at sleeve hem, Mesh/ ventilated panels, Gusset for extra stretch, Slleveless




PROBABLE SOLUTIONS (Silhouettes/Cuts/Seams/Technology) Stress on fabric while stretching, Fabric Panelling at inner & outer thighs, Gather slippage, Palm/Elbow slip, Fabric goes at hem, Slight fitting at knee/Calf area of up & creases garment While motion in legs it also gets stretched, If fabric at calf restricts the Panelling at calf region at in or outside, At motion difficulty arises with proper calf not too tight fitting stretch Gecko foot structure construction. Flexibility & retention needed as fabric At joints different direction of fabric, expands & contracts Panelling at joints PROBLEMS

Therefore, the chart specified the preferences for colour, fit, silhouette, seams & technology of design development for men, women & guru. PREFERENCES MEN • Sleeveless/with sleeves • Bottoms till knee/below knee level • Neck not stuck to the nape • Crotch not too low/not too high • Flexibility neede due to fabric or construction at hip and crotch • Fabric feel and seam irritation should be focussed WOMEN • Neck not too high, not too low. 4-5 inches is favourable • Bottoms below knee till calf or lower than that • Straight fit garments • Not body hugging • Slipping of garment should be avoided • Flexibility at thighs • Sleeves long/maybe till elbow, narrow sleeves 63

GURU • Not too tight at crotch and hips as well as thighs • Not half pants • Skin friendly fabric • Nothing like traditional gurus wearing saffron/kurta • Layering/overgarment • Modern as well as traditional image reflected • Depict the characteristics of a teacher whom student tend to follow • Multifunctional to wear i.e. could attend meetings/seminars/discussions as well as demostrate if needed • Logo/name of foundation could be added COLOUR • Preferably black, grey, blue as discussed with the users • Cool colours- shades of green, yellow, blue • Red, pink, neon details as per the running trends i.e. brand study



Sweat wicking rice knit and 4-way stretch fabric on shoulder-arm panel and side waist panel Inner fabric panel inside the shell fabric attached from waist line to prevent slipping of top while doing upside down asanas. The fabric holds the body as it is baby knit.

4-way stretch fabric panel and rice knit panels at back and front below the waistband in the bottoms as well as sweat wicking fabric stretchable fabric at side panels

Rib at bottom hem to prevent showing of skin while doing upside down asanas


Rib at sleeve hem to prevent showing of skin while lifting the arms up




Sweat wicking rice knit and 4-way stretch fabric mesh/ eyelet on shoulder-arm panel and side waist panel and elbow panel

Rib at sleeve hem to prevent showing of skin while lifting the arms up

4-way stretch and sweat wicking rice knit fabric at crotch and mesh/ eyelets side panels

Rib at bottom hem to prevent showing of skin while doing upside down asanas





Sweat wicking rice knit and 4-way stretch fabric on shoulder-arm panel and eyelet fabric side waist panel and elbow panel

Rib at sleeve hem to prevent showing of skin while lifting the arms up

4-way stretch and sweat wicking rice knit fabric at crotch and side panels

Rib at bottom hem to prevent showing of skin while doing upside down asanas



Sweat wicking rice knit and 4-way stretch on shoulder-arm panel and kurta placket at front




Narrow sleeves to prevent visibility of underarm while lifting the hands up


4-way stretch fabric and rice knit sweat wicking fabric panels at waist line and shoulder and sleeve area.

Horizontal shirring at waist sides which will give the garment support at waistline to prevent it from slipping

4-way stretch fabric to give extra flexibility to garment

Narrow bottoms to prevent from slipping while doing upside down asanas




DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM I- Male Mesh fabric for sweat eveporation

Rice knit and 4-way stretch fabrics at sleeve panels and waist panels.

Rice knit and 4-way stretch fabrics side panels of the bottoms

Narrow bottoms to prevent from slipping while doing upside down asanas





Rice knit and 4-way stretch fabrics at waist panels and Eyelet fabric at sleeve panels

Rice knit and 4-way stretch fabrics side panels of the bottoms

Narrow bottoms to prevent from slipping while doing upside down asanas 76


Eyelet fabric at shoulder panels and zipper at the front



Narrow sleeves to prevent visibility of underarm while lifting the hands up


Rice knit and 4-way stretch outer and inner sleeve panels and side waist panels Tuck at the neckline to make it stay at its position so that it doesn’t come down while bending

Rice knit and 4-way stretch side seam panels and inseam panels.

Rib at bottom hem to prevent showing of skin while doing upside down asanas




DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM III- Male Mesh fabric at the back Rice knit panels at inner sleeve and waist area and eyelets fabric at outer sleeve portion

Rice knit panels at the crotch and inseam and 4-way stretch panel at knee level

Narrow bottoms to prevent from slipping while doing upside down asanas




DESIGN DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM III- Guru Mesh fabric at the back

Rice knit panels at inner sleeve and waist area

Rice knit panels at the crotch and inseam

Narrow bottoms to prevent from slipping while doing upside down asanas 83


Rice knit fabric at inner sleeve and waist panels





SPECIFICATION SHEET for final selected design




Style number: AT-13229192 Style name: AT-MNDFSS14 Client: Vashishtha Yoga foundation Size: Medium (M) Fabrication: Fourway stretch recyled polyester single jersey, Rice knit, Cotton mesh fabric Stitch and construction: 5 thread overlock, Flat seam Brand Name: YogaInstyle Category: Men’s Group name: Activewear Season- SS ‘14 Date created: dd/mm/yy Date modified: dd/mm/yy

Description: Half sleeve single jersey top Measurments


Body length from HPS Across shoulder Across front Across back Sleeve length Sleeve opening Sleeve panel length T-shirt side panel length T-shirt side panel width Back mesh panel length Back mesh panel width T-shirt hem opening Front neck drop Back neck drop Neck rib height

30 1/4 17 20 21 3/4 5 13 3 3/4 7 1/2 6 3/4 13 3/4 4 1/2 38 4 1/4 2 1/4 1/2

Flat sketches 0.5”

4 1/4” 30 1/4”




13 3/4”





Brand Name: YogaInstyle Style number: AT-13229192 Category: Men’s Style name: AT-MNDFSS14 Group name: Activewear Client: Vashishtha Yoga foundation Season- SS ‘14 Size: Medium (M) Date created: dd/mm/yy Fabrication: Fourway stretch recyled polyester single jersey, Rice knit, Date modified: dd/mm/yy Stitch and construction: 5 thread overlock, Flat seam Description: Single jersey trouser Measurments


Length of the trouser Waist level Hip level Panel length Waistband height Bottom hem height Bottom hem opening Knee panel height

42 32 36 3/4 19 1 1/2 4 1/2 9 1/4 4

Flat sketches 32”

1 1/2”


4 1/4” 42” 4”

4 1/2”



Shirring at V-neck so that the fabric holds tightly at the bust to prohibit slipping while bending

Inverted V tuck at the neckline to save the fabric from slipping while bending forward

Horizontal shirring at the waist to prevent the garment from slipping as it holds the garment from that point while doing upside down postures 89

Front view: Rice knit fabric panels at side seam and sleeve panels and inseam panels and 4-way stretch fabric panels at knee level

Back view: In bottoms rice knit fabric panels at inseams and 4- way stretch fabric at knee level and in top mesh fabric at back

Side view: Rice knit fabric panels at side seam and sleeve panels

T-shirt back view: Meshpanel used for evaporation of sweat.


CONCLUSION As a beginer in the industry, fashion to me was a vague term. I wondered is it the clothes we wear at home or while going out or while sleeping and all of this confused me. After my first glimpse of understanding fashion through my first design project which was ready-to-wear I started knowing the definition. At that time also I wasn’t aware of the other aspect of it. Through this project I came to know that Fashion is not just aesthetics or mass production it is far more than that. The technical aspect was visible now and I could actually understand it more in a way of problem solving. System is a box which has a number of faces and each face stands at a particular angle to make it a perfect box. So, It doesn’t talk about the box but also its components. Likewise in a firm everybody in the hierarchy constitute a system and they are the building block of that particular organisation. In a system evrybody is responsible for all the situations whether it be positive, negative or neutral. In this design project I worked for an NGO which practises and promotes yoga. They have a philosophy of comfort, peace and joy. The module gave me an opportunity to work in a direction of analysing the organisational to the anatomical system.I learnt that for solving a real life problem analysing the things in and around both are equally significant. This gives an overall idea of the situation cosidering socio-cultural, economic, political, technological and ergonomical aspects. Studying these in detail makes a room for justifiable and technical design interventions to solve the problems faced by the people doing and teaching yoga.



MY EXPERIENCE As Albert Einstein said, “Learning is experience, everything else is just information” The day I was introduced to system design It was a little less understandable topic for me. I used to discuss it with my batchmates and different faculties. This helped me to have a basic understanding of the subject. This was my baby step towards a totally different combat in the specific field. The first and foremost boon I would like to acknowledge is my class i.e. Apparel Design 2013 batch which cosists of all sorts of minds. Talking to them has always enriched me with knowledge and ideas. Throughout the journey I got inputs from them, we argued and concluded the technical aspects of the research and design process. My faculty and mentor Krishna Amin-Patel was always supportive and determined to draw something really good from me. She never lost hope even during silliest of mistakes. She didn’t just tell me the loopholes but also directed me through the path to achieve solutions. All in all what I experienced made me to look at different aspects of a problem and the greatest learning was to not to ignore smallest to the largest details. It made me to look in a way where I can focus on the most ignorant part of our industry which is the worker class. I realized the neccessity of comfort in people’s lives. The project made me emotionally and professionally strong and more sensitive and sensible towards real live problems. Therefore lastly I would like to end on a quotation by Laozi, a great philosopher and poet from China who said, “If you take, you must first give, this is the beginning of intelligence.”


PLATE REFERENCES Cover page, Yoga at the beach in a column by Heidi McGall in Yoganonymous, 2015-08-15) Frontispiece, solar system planets earth psychedelic scheme chakra esoteric by Wall 321, wallpaper/3d-abstract/solar-system-planets-earth-psychedelic-scheme-chakra-esoteric/mjqR (Accessed 2015-08-15) Half title, Buddha statue wallpaper by desktop wallpapers 4 me, (Accessed 2015-08-17) Content page, Aum wallpaper, (Accessed 2015-08-17) Page 12,, (Accessed 2014-10-20) Page 13, both top and bottom images,, Sangeet Natak Akademi revs up for yoga day (Accessed 2014-10-20) Page 14,,(Accessed 2014-09-01) Page 15, clothing, 2014-09-01) Page 16, clothing and shoes, 2014-08-31) Page17-18, clothing and shoes, 2014-08-31) Page 18-19, (Accessed 2014-08-31) Page 19, clothing and shoes, (Accessed 2014-08-31) Page 20, clothing, (Accessed 2014-08-31) Page 23-29, Vashishtha Yoga Foundation, Clicked by me (Accessed 2014-09-02) Page30-36, Muscle and bone analysis, by yoga:time, copyright by Leslie Kaminoff ’s Yoga Anatomy (Accessed 2014-09-03) Page 38,, Found on and pinned on pinterest,(Accessed 2014-09-20) Page 39,,color psychology emotions news (Accessed 2014-09-05) Page 40-41, kQ-1Bd0Zog_1QGZoPpg-vD6cPgielJNc0hzrqPd8s4DPdP7UujToaMFZ0qABJ2tHFOtT2Bdz6DYia(Accessed 2014-09-05) Page 43,Biomimicry,2014, 2014-10-20) Page 44, Biomimicry,2014,, (Accessed 2014-10-20) Page 45, Activewear, 2014, 2014-09-19) Page 46, By, (Accessed 2014-10-20) Page 47, Carbon naotube, 2014, 2014-09-17) Page 47-48,50,51,52,53,55 Bartsch_Lenzing_Group_Leading_Fiber_Innovation, fulltext/.pdf(Accessed 2014-10-20) Page 48-49, Activewear, 2014, 2014-09-19) Page 50-55, Illustration by Bryan Christie Design, 2014-09-17) Page 58-59, Illustrations by me on Adobe photoshop CS6, (Accessed 2014-09-19) Page 58-59, Croquis by (Accessed 2014-09-19) Page 66-77, Illustrations by me on Adobe Photoshop CS6 and Adobe Illustrator CS6 Page 90,91,92,94, Pictures by Lakshmi Gupta 2013 Apparel Design batch. 96

TEXT REFERENCES Karl Kroemer, Henrike Kroemer, Katrin Kroemer-Elbert, Ergonomics-How to design for ease & efficiency, edition unknown, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ07632, 1994. Nike, 2014, clothing and shoes, 2014-10-20) Reebok, 2014, clothing and shoes, 2014-10-20) Converse, 2014, clothing, 2014-10-20) Adidas, 2014, clothing and shoes, 2014-10-20) Urban yoga, 2014, clothing, 2014-10-20) Lulu lemon, 2014, clothing, 2014-10-20) Jockey, 2014, 2014-10-20) Yogasmoga,2014, 2014-10-20) ActivewearUSA, 2014, 2014-10-20) Everythingyoga, 2014, 2014-10-14) By, (Accessed 2014-10-20) Bartsch_Lenzing_Group_Leading_Fiber_Innovation, 2014-1020) Stellaproject files,2014, 2014-09-05) Biomimicry,2014, 2014-10-20) Carbon naotube, 2014, 2014-09-17) Don Sherman | Illustration by Bryan Christie Design, 2014-09-17) Activewear, 2014, 2014-09-17) Activewear, 2014, 2014-09-19), 2014, (Accessed 2015-05-17) Gavriel Salvendy, Handbook of human factors and ergonomics, fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2012 R.S. Bridger, Introduction to ergonomics, third edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, London & New York,2003 Dan McLeod, The rules of work- A practical engineering guide to ergonomics, second edition, CRC Press, 2012 Fiber 2 Fashion magazine, issue 2014 september-2015 june Promostyl, editions, issue January 2014-August 2015 Jan Dul , Bernard WeerdmeesterErgonomics for beginners, A quick reference guide , third edition, CRC Press, USA, 2008 Kodak’s ergonomics for people at work by The Eastman Kodak Company, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2004


System design document  
System design document