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THEODOR FRÖHLICH Galerie Patrik Fröhlich from Zürich, Switzerland is specialized in African and Oceanic art since 1994. The focus of the gallery lies on important works of art, predominantly from old provenances. These historical objects originate from a time when they had to unconditionally fulfill their ritual functions and are accordingly of strong presence and perfect in form. Obere Zäune, 24 - 8001 Zurich - Suisse Mobile : + 41 44 242 89 00 Email : patrikfroehlich@swissonline.ch Web : http://www.tribalart.ch


INTERVIEW


WHEN WAS YOUR FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH TRIBAL ART? WAS IT IN A MUSEUM OR IN A GALLERY? WHAT TRIBAL ART OBJECT ATTRACTED YOU FIRST? I grew up surrounded by African and Oceanic art. When one day my father returned home with a beautiful malangan head from New Ireland, he had acquired from a Swiss private collection, it was the first time I was instantly drawn to a work of art. Sensing that connection, my father let me have it for quite a long time. HOW DID YOU BEGIN SELLING TRIBAL ART? ARE YOU A SELFTAUGHT DEALER OR DID YOU HAVE A MENTOR? WHICH DEALERS INSPIRED YOU EARLY ON? Galerie Patrik Fröhlich was founded by my father over 30 years ago, shortly before I was born. This gave me not only the opportunity to grow up in the close environment of the gallery, but also going to visit exhibitions and collectors early on. Nowadays we work all closely together, which allows me to learn the ways of the business and to profit from my father’s vast experience. At the same time I have the possibility of introducing my own ideas to the gallery. My father on the other hand first started dealing with contemporary art in the 1980s, changing the focus to the Art of Africa and Oceania in the early 1990s. Able to profit from Switzerland’s rich past concerning African on Oceanic art, he was otherwise a self-taught dealer. DO YOU THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE INITIATED TO START COLLECTING? As collecting is something highly individual and every collector has his own very personal approach it is impossible to generalize. However, most people have a certain encounter that starts their interest in African and Oceanic art. Such encounters can be in galleries, in exhibitions, in museums or in books and it is important as a gallery to create content that can become a point of initiation for a new generation of collectors. THERE HAVE BEEN A NUMBER OF CASES OF FORGERIES IN THE TRIBAL ART MARKET. HOW DO DEALERS GIVE THEIR CLIENTS CONFIDENCE REGARDING WORKS THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO TRACE? As a dealer one does not only need to protect oneself from dubious pieces, but even more importantly the clients. This needs a systematic method that allows to identify fakes and study each object carefully.


The first thing that is of great importance for us is to be the owner of every object shown in the gallery. This allows us to do an in-depth research on every object. Further, by keeping every single work for a certain time before letting it go, we can assure its impeccable quality. The actual research of an object is based on several parts. First, there is the eye. If something does not look good, it is in most cases not good. Thus, it is necessary to study the objects itself and all its details such as the patina or iconological details carefully and with time. Further, every object needs to be compared to other objects and thereby incorporated into its corpus. It is for this reason that we have a vast library that allows us to compare every object to known pieces from the literature. Last but not least, a great deal of African and Oceanic works of art have a history, very few objects of quality appear out of nowhere. Sometimes this history is forgotten, but then it is part of our research to re-discover it, something we are very successful in. A piece that does not withstand this research will not be sold. ARE WE SEEING A NEW GENERATION OF COLLECTORS EMERGING IN THE TRIBAL ART MARKET? The Art of African and Oceania is very relevant today, with an active market. Further, there are many well done exhibitions in museums all over the world and a constant production of new books with a tendency on more monothematic ones. It is hence no surprise that a new generation of collectors is indeed emerging in the Tribal Art market. DO YOU COLLECT ANYTHING YOURSELF OR DO YOU JUST ENJOY TURNING DEALS? We are definitely collectors, just not in the traditional sense. Every newly acquired object is part of that collection for some time. This allows us to enjoy the objects and getting to know it entirely before letting it go. This constant flow of objects that arrive with us builds – together with works that take time to sell – the core of our collection, which is steadily of the more or less same size but also constantly changing. In that sense the collection is very dynamic. WHAT ARE THE AESTHETIC ASPECTS THAT GUIDE YOUR CHOICES? First of all, the quality is the most important trait of an object. So rather than looking at specific regions or types, it is the unique artistic solution, which constitutes the quality of the work of art that we are looking for. However, as we also have an affinity for the art of the 20th century, we are very fond of those African and Oceanic works of art that were made long before the avantgarde of the 20th century found their inspiration in the formal solutions and concealed poesy of these objects, thus works of art that can stand next to important works of 20th century art equally. Thereby they complement each other and allow a new view on art in general. CAN YOU DISCUSS A FEW OF THE MAJOR HIGH PROFILE PIECES YOU’VE SOLD?


In the almost 30 years the gallery is specialized on African and Oceanic art, we had the pleasure of owning and selling some very important works of art, both from Oceania and Africa. Among them were several important Kota reliquary figures, an important Dogon sculpture by the Ogol master and the probably most essential sculpture from the Morobe region in Papua New Guinea. WHAT KINDS OF OBJECTS ARE MOST SUITED TO THE SWISS MARKET ? Switzerland has no historic ties to either Africa or Oceania unlike Belgium, France or the Netherlands. However, from the very beginning on there was always a strong interest in African and Oceanic art, which often originated from an interest for modern art. Early and important collectors like Han Coray or Josef Müller were crucial in educating the market, later Emil Storrer and Elsy Leuzinger integrated Switzerland into the international art market. Nowadays, many collectors and institutions like the Rietberg Museum und the Barbier Mueller museum continue the long tradition of collection the Art of Africa and Oceania in Switzerland. This historic situation is responsible for the current market, where there is not a focused interest in some specific regions, but rather a general interest – often still coming originally from the interest in modern art. WHAT ART FAIRS DO YOU CURRENTLY PARTICIPATE IN AND WHICH SEEM TO BE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL? Since its very beginning we participated in every edition of the Parcours des Mondes, the prestigious international fair, which focuses on the art of Africa, Oceania and the Americas. It is our most important event every year. Otherwise, we are active in the gallery in Zürich and do several thematic exhibitions a year. Further, we also like to do some shorter events at different locations, like this month in Basel, Switzerland. There we will from November 8th to 11th exhibit in the historic rooms of Erasmus of Rotterdam at Bäumleingasse 18, just vis-a-vis where Ernst Beyeler had his famous gallery. We will present a selection of African and Oceanic works of art together with 20th century art from Galerie Knoell, which is based permanently in that location. DOES YOUR FAMILY SHARE YOUR PASSION OR IS IT YOUR PRIVATE UNIVERSE? DID YOU TRANSMIT YOUR ENTHUSIASM AND YOUR PASSION TO SOME FRIENDS? It certainly is a passion that I inherited from my father and my mother, which I am know able to share myself with my personal environment. YOU’VE BEEN ON THE MARKET FOR A TIME NOW. DO YOU SEE AN EVOLUTION IN THE TRIBAL ART MARKET? We saw our audience for both African and Oceanic art becoming more international and diverse in a process that started about 10 years ago. Further, we feel that the market is strongly driven by the pursuit of quality. Both of course a very desirable evolution.


DO YOU THINK A COLLECTOR FEELS MORE REASSURED WHEN HE BUYS AT AUCTIONS THAN FROM A DEALER? What I hear from our clients is quite the opposite. We have – just like many other galleries as well – our own personal approach and a certain type of objects we favor. This allows us to work very closely and over a long time with collectors with whom we share those aesthetic visions. DO YOU THINK THAT AUCTION HOUSES ARE A THREAT FOR DEALERS, WHO WILL FIND MORE AND MORE DIFFICULT TO MAKE A LIVING? No not at all, both dealers and auction houses have quite different roles that complement each other very well. DO YOU THINK THAT THIS MARKET IS GOING TO BE MORE AND MORE STRUCTURED THANKS TO ALL THE NEW DOCUMENTATION COMING OUT AND ITS WIDER DIFFUSION? I think that especially the new monographs that came out recently like the Vision d’Afrique series by 5 Continents or the Luluwa book of Costa Petridis are a great way to give a focus on a certain area and thereby are a meaningful contribution to define the corpus. This will definitely benefit the market. WHAT ARE FOR YOU THE TWO OR THREE GREATEST EXHIBITIONS AND WHICH BOOKS DO YOU CHECK MOST OFTEN? One of the most important publications for me is William Rubin’s “Primitivism” in 20th century art of 1984, which assembled a fantastic selection of both African and Oceanic art and was an important step for the equality of European and African art. Another important exhibition was Elsy Leuzingers Die Kunst von Schwarz Afrika of 1970, which did a lot for the perception of the art of Africa in Switzerland as it showed objects of highest quality in the Kunsthaus in Zürich and thus inspired a whole generation of Swiss collectors. Another very careful publication that I enjoy much is Rene Rasmussen Art Nègre of 1951, which not only has an important introduction, but also shows 32 chefs-d’oeuvre of African art. DO YOU THINK THAT SOMETIMES THERE ARE OBJECTS THAT ARE SPECIAL TO YOU AND THAT THERE IS A SORT OF MAGIC IN THE WAY THEY COME YOUR WAY? For me it is a necessity to have a close relationship with the objects we acquire. This connection to an object is what makes my profession so gratifying. WHAT IS YOUR DREAM OBJECT, THE PIECE THAT SHOULD NOT BE MISSING IN YOUR IMAGINARY MUSEUM? There are truly many fantastic African and Oceanic works of art, which is exactly why this field is so interesting. So rather than limit myself on one important object for my imaginary museum, I am anticipating the objects I will discover.


1. Kota Reliquary from the Bernard and Bertrand Bottet collection, sold to a private Swiss collection 2. Baule Simian figure from the Kofler-Erni collection 3. Fang Figure from the collection of RenĂŠ Rasmussen 4. Mumuye Mask from the RenĂŠ Salanon collection, sold to a private collection 5. Baule Pulley from the collection of Adolphe Stoclet


SALE

TAS is a group of international dealers widely acknowledge for their expertise, which since June 2011 sells tribal art through a website. TAS Membership is by invitation only and reserved exclusively to experts in their field and who participate in major tribal art events and fairs. Pieces are published and changed at the beginning of every month. The objects are presented from different angles with a full description and corresponding dealer’s contact information. In order to guarantee the quality of pieces available on the site, objects are systematically validated by a pool of experts from the best specialized companies in the field. Collectors are therefore encouraged to decide and buy with complete confidence. In addition to this, Tribal Art Society proposes a seven day full money back return scheme should the buyer not feel totally satisfied with his purchase. This website is regularly updated with press articles, interviews and news of each of its members in order to keep amateurs well-informed and further contribute to their understanding and appreciation of tribal art More on: www.tribalartsociety.com


DOGON ANCESTOR FIGURE

01 Ancestor figure Dogon Mali , south cliff of Bandiagara plateau, Bombou-Toro region. Wood and dripping patina Mid 19th Century Height: 28,8 cm Provenance: Lippel Gallery, MontrĂŠal, Canada. 1972 Price: 8.500 euros

Object presented by: Laurent Dodier M.: + 33 6 08 22 68 15 E.: laurentdodier@wanadoo.fr

Female ancestor represented standing on a circular pedestal, legs bent, arms glued along the body; the forearms project on each side of the belly forming with the hands, a right angle. The nose is shaped like an arrow. Receptacle of the soul of the deceased with whom communication with the beyond is possible, this ancestor was placed on the family altars.


DOGON FIGURE

02 Fgure Dogon Mali Wood and crusty patina Height: 50 cm Test C14 from QUED laboratory Provenance: Old German collection Old French collection Publication: Bruckmann’s Handbuch der afrikanischen Kunst, 1975, p.134 N°133 Price on request

Object presented by: Pablo Touchaleaume M.: +33 (0)6 89 90 75 70 E.: pablo.touchaleaume@hotmail.fr


DOGON SCULPTURE

03 Sculpture Dogon Mali Wood Height: 24,5 cm Provenance: G.F. Scanzi collection (1936-2017), Italy Price: 2.200 euros

Object presented by: David Serra T.: +34 (0) 667525597 E.: galeria@davidserra.es


BAMABAR STAFF FINIAL

04 Staff finial Bambara Mali Wood Height: 24 cm Price: SOLD

Object presented by: Pablo Touchaleaume M.: +33 (0)6 89 90 75 70 E.: pablo.touchaleaume@hotmail.fr


BAMANA STICK

05 Stick Bamana Mali Wood Height: 141 cm. Provenance: Old French collection Price: 4.000 euros

Object presented by: Olivier Larroque M.: + 33 6 800 800 93 E.: o.larroque1@gmail.com


LOBI FIGURE

06 Figure Lobi Burkina Faso Wood Height: 17,7 cm Provenance: Ex. Georges Lyotard, Marseille Price: 3.200 euros

Object presented by: Olivier Larroque M.: + 33 6 800 800 93 E.: o.larroque1@gmail.com


LOBI FIGURE

07 Betise figure Lobi Burkina Faso Wood Heigth: 20 cm Provenance: G.F. Scanzi collection (1936-2017), Italy J.P. Delcourt Collection, France. Published in: Scanzi, Giovanni F. L’art traditionnel Lobi. Bergamo: Ed. Milanos, 1993, p. 83, nº40 Price: 1.100 euros Object presented by: David Serra T.: +34 (0) 667525597 E.: galeria@davidserra.es


KULANGO “ANYEDO”

08 Anyedo Kulango Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana Copper alloy Height: 6 cm Around 19th Century Provenance: Private collection, Spain Price : 700 euros

Object presented by: David Serra T.: +34 (0) 667525597 E.: galeria@davidserra.es


LOMA MASK

09 Miniature Mask Loma Liberia Early 20th century Height: 7.6 cm Provenance: Collected in the 1970’s by an American Peace Corp. volunteer stationed in Liberia Private California collection Price on request

Object presented by: Bruce Frank M.: +1 (0) 917 733 9589 E.: bfrank212@aol.com

This mask is a quite rare example of Loma passport masks. A very similar piece can be found in the Metropolitan Museum collection, its back being stuffed with a magical mixture. The back of this mask being carved out, it may have held a magical charge too. Both this mask and the Met’s present carved lines on both sides of the face, supposedly scarifications. Its bold composition and expressive shape, combined with its gem like quality, makes it a beautiful work of art.


BAULE PULLEY

10 Pulley Baule Ivory Coast Wood Height: 18 cm Provenance: G.F. Scanzi collection (1936-2017), Italy Price: 1.700 euros

Object presented by: David Serra T.: +34 (0) 667525597 E.: galeria@davidserra.es


BAMILEKE PIPE STOVE

11 Ceremonial pipe stove Bamileke Cameroon Terracotta Height: 13 cm Price: 2.500 euros

Object presented by: Pablo Touchaleaume M.: +33 (0)6 89 90 75 70 E.: pablo.touchaleaume@hotmail.fr


KISSI HEAD

12 pomda head Kissi Guinea Steatite stone Height: 11 cm Price: 3.500 euros

Object presented by: Pablo Touchaleaume M.: +33 (0)6 89 90 75 70 E.: pablo.touchaleaume@hotmail.fr


NGBANDI FIGURE

14 Figure Ngbandi Congo Wood H. 80 cm Price on request

Object presented by: Didier Claes M.: +32 4 77 66 02 06 E.: afriquepremier@yahoo.fr


PENDE IVORY

13 Ivory Pende Congo Height: 5,5 cm. Price: 6.500 euros

Object presented by: Didier Claes M.: +32 4 77 66 02 06 E.: afriquepremier@yahoo.fr


PENDE IVORY

15 Ivory Pende Congo Height: 4,5 cm. Price: 4.000 euros

Object presented by: Didier Claes M.: +32 4 77 66 02 06 E.: afriquepremier@yahoo.fr


LEGA MASK

16 Mask Lega D.R. of Congo Wood and kaolin Height: 18 cm Provenance : Hélène Leloup gallery Published in: “La Sculpture des Lega” for the exhibition at Hélène et Philippe Leloup gallery in 1994, n°60 Price: 16.000 euros

Object presented by: Pablo Touchaleaume M.: +33 (0)6 89 90 75 70 E.: pablo.touchaleaume@hotmail.fr


PRE- BEMBE AMULET

17 Janus amulet ase’a Pre-Bembe (Basikasingo) Carved wood and raffia Early 20th century Height: 7 cm Provenance: Ex collection Bernd Muhlack, Kiel, Germany Ex collection David Serra, Barcelona Price: 4.500 euros

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com


DOE MEDICINAL CALABASH

18 Medicinal calabash Doe Tanzania Wood, calabash, vegetable fibers Height: 17 cm Provenance: Old UK collection Price: 1.500 euros

Object presented by: Olivier Larroque M.: + 33 6 800 800 93 E.: o.larroque1@gmail.com


SAKALAVA FUNERAL POST

19 Funeral post Sakalava Madagascar, south east region Height: 94 cm Early 20th Century Provenance: Ex. J.M.Talleux collection, Ex. Grand Fort Philippe collection Price: 7.500 euros

Object presented by: Laurent Dodier M.: + 33 6 08 22 68 15 E.: laurentdodier@wanadoo.fr

Top of funerary post representing a man standing, legs slightly bent, one hand on the belly, and the other holding his sex. This man had Lapeyronie’s disease. Heavily eroded wood with clear patina. The tombs, grouped in cemeteries, are installed as far as possible from the village, on a dune. The cemetery is a sacred place. Once the body is buried, only the head of the family and master of the rites, can perform a prayer to the deceased become ancestor. As soon as it is buried, the dead man is categorically rejected from the world of the living to one of the ancestors and is given another name.


SUMATRA KNIFE

20 Lopah Petawaran knife Sumatra Indonesia silver sheath and rhinoceros horn sleeve 19th Century Height: 5,2 cm Price on request

Object presented by: Patrick et Ondine Mestdagh M.: +32(0)475 46 73 15 E.: info@patrickmestdagh.com


KORWAR NECKREST

21 Neck rest Korwar Geelvink Bay, West Papua 19th-early 20th century Height and Length: 17.8 cm Provenance: Pieter Ouborg collection, (18931956). Price on request

Object presented by: Bruce Frank M.: +1 (0) 917 733 9589 E.: bfrank212@aol.com

Neck rests from the Geelvink Bay are prized possessions, and this one must have been of high value to its owner. It is composed of two apotropaic korwar figures, carrying on their back delicately ajourcarved scrolls. The korwar (meaning « soul » or « spirit ») are ancestor figures commonly depicted as sitting or kneeling figures holding a shield. The patinated and finely aged surface suggests it has been used for a long time. It once belonged to Pieter Ouborg, a dutch artist influenced by cubism, surrealism and part of the Cobra movement.


SEPIK FLUTE STOPPER

22 Flute stopper Middle Sepik Papua New Guinea Carved wood, pigments and shells Early 20th century Length: 32 cm Provenance: Ex collection Jacques Lebrat, Paris Published in: Rites and forms of Papua New Guinea, Paris, Éditions L’Enfance de l’Art, 2009, p. 54-55 Price: 3.800 euros

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com


SEPIK AMULET

23 Amulet Lower Sepik or North Coast regions, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia Wood with traces of original pigment. Carved with stone tools. Pre-colonial period. Height: 14,1 cm. Provenance: Ex coll. :C. Delora, USA Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

A small amulet in the form of a male ancestor figure. The sharply angled and thin nostrils as well as the concave facial planes are reminiscent of the general North Coast style. The figure appears to have a protruding chest bone and wears some form of pubic cover.. Mounted on a signed wood display base by KichizĂ´ Inagaki (c. 1920/1940).


ASMAT FIGURE

24 Anthropomorphic figure Asmat Western New Guinea (Papua Indonesia) Carved wood Early 20th century Height: 47 cm Provenance: Ex collection Renaud Vanuxem, Paris Price: 6.500 euros

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com


TROBRIAND LIME SPATULA

25 Lime Spatula Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea 19th-early 20th century Height: 29.2 cm Provenance: Old UK collection Price on request

Object presented by: Bruce Frank M.: +1 (0) 917 733 9589 E.: bfrank212@aol.com

This Massim lime spatula is of a remarkable quality. The smooth, patinated surface and the traces of use on the bottom of the blade show it was used over a long period of time. Massim lime spatulas are used for betel consumption and can signify the importance and social rank of their owner. Anthropomorphic spatulas are closely linked to the Trobriand Island’s production, and are believed to host a protective tree spirit. Among this kind of production, this spatula stands out with its strong expression and delicate carving work.


MAORI SNARE

26 mutu kaka snare Maori New Zealand, Polynesia Kauri pine wood 19th Century Height: 34 cm Provenance: Ex collection Dr. Norbert Murie Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

A very fine and rare snare, or mutu kaka, used for catching wild kaka, or parrots. Old break and repair to the head of the tiki. A fine patina of age and use. Ex collection Dr. Norbert Murie, Rennes, a noted collector of Pacific literature and artefacts as well as related paintings and drawings. Sold as lot N° 519 of the Murie Collection auction, Etude Alain SCHMITZ & Frédéric LAURENT, Saint German-en-Laye, 13 & 14 june 2009.


ADMIRALTY APRON

27 Ceremonial Apron Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, PNG, Melanesia Conus shells, feathers, seeds and fiber. 19th/20th Century Height: 65 cm. Provenance: Ex. Dr. Albert Hahl Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

A man’s ceremonial apron. Three small dog teeth are incorporated within the shell beaded panels. Collected in the field by Dr. Albert Hahl, Governor of German New Guinea between 1896 and 1914. See the Hahl photograph album by Phebe & Richard Parkinson for two other aprons in the Hahl collection.


POLYNESIAN CLUB

28 Club Niue Island Polynesia Wood Price on request

Object presented by: Patrick et Ondine Mestdagh M.: +32(0)475 46 73 15 E.: info@patrickmestdagh.com


MARQUESAS WAR CLUB

29 A massive and exceptionally large war-club in the form of a long, wide bladed paddle called parahua in the Marquesas language. Marquesas Islands, Polynesia. Ironwood known as toa (Casuarina equisetifolia), with its original patina of age and usage. 18th Century. Lenght: 253 cm. Provenance: Collected in the field by Naval Officer Henri Jouan, Second in Command on the Artémise, 18511856. Private Collection by descent through the family, and acquired from the family of Madame Maisse, Cherbourg. An old paper label, partly deteriorated, states in script “Iles Marquises (Océanie)”. Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com


TONGA DANCE PADDLE

30 Dance Paddle or paki used in a specific dance known as me‘e tu’u paki. Tonga Islands, Polynesia Wood. 19th Century or earlier Height: 85,5 cm Provenance: Ex coll. Jean-Yves Coué, Nantes N° JYC 178. Price on request This example is unusual in that it is pierced along the edges for tassels and embellishments. One corner is restored.

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com


PUNUK GOGGLES

31 Goggles Punuk Alaska Marine ivory Provenance : Lord Mc Alpine, UK, circa 1988 Price on request

Object presented by: Patrick et Ondine Mestdagh M.: +32(0)475 46 73 15 E.: info@patrickmestdagh.com


INUIT GOGGLES

32 iggaak goggles Inuit (Eskimo) Norton Sound, Bering Sea, Alaska Carved wood (spruce), pigments 19th century Length: 14 cm Provenance: Ex collection Craig Finch, London, UK Ex private collection Amherst, MA, USA Price on request

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com

These goggles, called ilgaak or iggaak in the dialects of Alaska, were carved so as to echo as closely as possible the shape of the face, and minimize luminosity to a maximum – hence the narrowness of the openings for the eyes. The width of these openings had a direct influence on the wearer’s visual field. According to the Inuit, the more the visual field was reduced, the more visual acuity was accentuated. Goggles with slits of different sizes were chosen to match climatic conditions (in particular according to the incidence and intensity of the sun’s rays as they varied with the seasons over the course of the year). Carved goggles like these have outfitted hunters/fishermen since the most ancient times, as goggles of the same type in marine ivory or bone have been found on archeological sites (Old Bering Sea cultures). The superb stylization and the eminently graphic character of the shape of these snow goggles are noteworthy.


THULE FEMALE FIGURE

33 Female figure Thule culture Point Hope, Western Alaska Wood Circa 1600/1800 AD Height: 7,9 cm Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

A minute, light wood figure of a pregnant woman. The face shows conventionalized Eskimo features notably a round face with flattened nose and squinted eyes. The artist ingeniously used a knot in the wood to represent the distended belly-button on the swollen abdomen. Effigies of pregnant women do not seem to be common and it seems likely that a figure of this type would rather be a shamanic doll, given for use as a fertility amulet to a woman in the hope of child bearing, than a simple doll.


YUP’IK AMULET

34 Amulet Yup’ik Alaska, USA Walrus tusk and glass beads 18/19th Century Height: 7,3 cm Provenance: Collected by Jefferson F. Moser Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

A shaman’s amulet or iinruq (iinrut), representing a half figure with extensive tattoos on both the front and rear of the torso. Yup’ik (Eskimo), possibly Cape Vancouver, Alaska, USA. Walrus tusk (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). and glass bead. 7,3 cm. 18th/19th century. Collected by USN Admiral Jefferson F. Moser (1848-1934) while commander of the Albatross between October 12, 1897 and April 26, 1898 during a study on the causes of Alaskan salmon depletion for the U.S. Fish Commission along the west coast from California to Alaska.


THULE TOOGLE

35 Toogle Thule culture Alaska, USA Walrus tusk Height: 3,7 cm. 1800-1900 AD Price on request

Object presented by: Anthony J.P. Meyer M.: + 33 (0) 6 80 10 80 E.: ajpmeyer@gmail.com

Eskimo toggle or slider used to block lanyards on kayaks or sleds carved in the form of a stylized mix of human and walrus. Thule Culture, Nunivak Island, Western Alaska. Walrus tusk (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Exhibited & published : SURRÉALISME & ARTS PRIMITIFS Une révolution du regard. Fondation Pierre Arnaud, Lens (Switzerland), 19/06/2014 – 5/10/2014


KACHINA DOLL

36 Sio Hemis Katsina New corn kachina doll Hopi Arizona, USA Carved wood (cottonwood) and natural pigments Circa 1920 Height: 49.5 cm Provenance: Ex collection Teal McKibben (1928–2006), Santa Fe, NM, USA

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com

Kachina dolls (or « katsinam ») represent spirits or gods from the pantheon of the Pueblo peoples in the American Southwest. Given to children, kachina dolls constituted a pedagogical tool allowing them to familiarize themselves with the spiritual world and perpetuating knowledge of the founding myths on which their society was based. The Sio Hemis kachina represents ripening corn. It is a prayer for moisture and when it comes, it brings in the first corn of the season. It is one of the most beautiful of the kachinas and is decorated with many symbols of the desire for rain. As far as provenance is concerned, Teal McKibben (1928-2006) was a well-respected American artist. In 1959, she was chosen by Art in America Magazine as one of this country’s most talented young painters. ( “New Talent In The U.S.A.”, Number 1, 1959). In the late 1970s, she opened an art gallery on Canyon Road, Santa Fe which featured American Indian Art, her true passion.


CHEYENNE MOCASSINS

37 Beaded moccasins Cheyenne Plains, USA Hide and beads Circa 1870, Indian Wars Era Provenance: Ex collection D. Siegel, Tucson, Arizona Published in: “De la Tête aux Pieds”, p. 211

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com


CURTIS PHOTOGRAVURE

38 Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952) Chef Garfield - Jicarilla Large original photogravure 1904 The North American Indian Vol. I, Portfolio plate 21 Dimensions : Plate: 46 cm x 34 cm Frame: 75 x 45 cm Price on request

Object presented by: Julien Flak M.: +33 6 84 52 81 36 E.: contact@galerieflak.com

Edward Sheriff Curtis caption: “Some years ago the Jicarillas were all officially given Spanish or English names. Many of them expressed a preference. This old man, who was head-chief of the tribe at the time, selected the designation Garfield.” Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868 – 1952) is one of America’s most celebrated photographers. He devoted 30 years of his life photographing and documenting over eighty Native American peoples west of the Mississippi, from the Mexican border to northern Alaska. Upon its completion in 1930, his work, entitled The North American Indian, consisted of 20 volumes, each containing 75 hand-pressed photogravures and 300 pages of text. Each volume was accompanied by a corresponding portfolio containing at least 36 photogravures.


TOTONAC HEAD

39 Head Totonac civilization Veracruz, Mexico Pre-classic period, 400 – 700 AD Length: 17 cm Provenance: Old French colection Exhibited in Rennes : « Collecteurs d’âmes » musée de Beaux-Arts, 6 dec. 2006 / 4 mars 2007 Price: 6.500 euros

Object presented by: Laurent Dodier M.: + 33 6 08 22 68 15 E.: laurentdodier@wanadoo.fr

Fragment of a large sculpture representing a human head. Two circular earings adorn the ears. The eyes are hollow and the mouth in an olmec style.


November catalogue  
November catalogue  
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