June catalogue - Asian Art Society

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Tuesday June 15th 2021 Online CaTalO gue i X

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WHo WE aRE

The Asian Art Society features an online catalogue every month listing quality works of Asian art that have been thoroughly vetted by our select members, who are the in-house experts.

By bringing together a group of trusted dealers specializing in Asian art, our platform offers a unique collection of works of art that collectors will not find anywhere else online. To ensure the highest standards, gallery membership is by invitation only and determined by a selection committee of influential gallerists

/asianartSociety

Cover image: Dainich Nyorai Presented by Gregg Baker on p. 66

Tabl E of Co NTENT s

i n Te RV ie W Elena Nies

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C aTalO gue INDIA 12 IRAN 34 SOUTH-ASIA 36 CAMBODIA 48 THAILANDIA 56 JAPAN 66 CHINA 96 HIMALAYA S 106

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ELENA NIES

Nies Fine Art, founded by Elena Nies, is based in London and offers an exceptional selection of Asian, African and European sculpture. Elena grew up in an art dealing family, who trade in Asian sculpture, and has gained in-depth knowledge throughout her life. Prior to Nies Fine art, Elena volunteered at the Museum Mayer van den Bergh in Antwerp, worked with several UK-based sculpture dealers and with Sotheby's, London. Elena has completed studies in History of Art at the university of Ghent and at the Courtauld Institute of Art, London. Whilst Nies Fine Art is a new player in the business of Asian art, Elena sources outstanding authentic sculptures with excellent provenance and quality. Research and writing is part of Nies Fine Art's offering. Elena's most recent publication - written for Marcel Nies Oriental Art - is Art & Devotion: The Splendour and Worship of Asian Sculpture.

Contact: +44 78 57 78 81 21 info@niesfineart.com www.niesfineart.com IG: /niesfineart

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N IES F INE A RT LAUNCHED IN D ECEMBER DESPITE THE CHALLENGES OF LOC k DOWN. WAS IT AN OPPORTUNITY TO EMBRACE AN ALTERNATI v E AND NEW MODEL FOR YOUR ART BUSINESS?

The idea of starting my own art business has always been on my mind. Sculpture is my passion, and even when the world stopped, I did not want to. I decided it was the ideal time to start my sculpture business. I had the time to think out my concept and business and started at a controlled pace. I think that my business model is still relatively traditional.I aim to open a permanent gallery space in the future and want to collect and present a well-curated selection of high-quality art. Currently, the business is online only, but that is mostly because of the current situation. I hope to organise a first ‘live' exhibition very soon!

S CULPTURE IS A FAMILY AFFAIR AND A TRADITION FOR YOU. B UT YOU DECIDED TO MAR k ET CLASSICAL SCULPTURES IN A MODERN WAY WITH A v ERY DARING OUTLOO k ON I NSTAGRAM AND yOUR WEBSI t E. A BIG cON t RASt! tELL US MORE ABOUT THIS STATEMENT

Coming from an art dealing family, I had the privilege of seeing the workings of an international art business firsthand, and have of course taken a lot from that, especially when it comes to the careful research of pieces. But in terms of the visuals and identity of the business, it was important to me to create something more personal that represented myself and my generation. By incorporating colour and interesting fonts, with the help of my graphic designer, SSNN and photographer Erine Wyckmans, we created something very appealing that compliments the sculptures in a modern way.

YOU ARE OFFERING ASIAN, EUROPEAN AND AFRICAN SCULPTURE. ARE THEY SOMEHOW RELATED?

They are all sculpture. I am interested in the intrinsic value and artistic excellence of sculpture in general. Nies Fine Art is a unification of the art fields that are important to me and that I have built expertise in. The eclectic approach suits my taste. Whilst I have taken

on three major fields within art, the key for me is to keep it focused and consider the sculptural quality and history in detail. Also, interesting dialogues arise by placing a European work next to an Asian or African sculpture, which is forever fascinating.

I NSTAGRAM IS A v ERY ART-FRIENDLY SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORM. B UT DOES IT HELP YOU TO STRENGTHEN TRUST, NETWOR k AND GROW A CLIENT BASE WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO DO IT IN PERSON?

Instagram supports my business and certainly grows interest. However, when it comes to building trust and lasting relationships, meeting people face to face is much more important. My relationships with collectors are based on a shared experience and interest that is difficult to get across through social media platforms.

W HO IS YOUR MAIN AUDIENCE, PRIMARILY LOCAL OR INTERNATIONAL COLLECTORS?

My audience is varied. I offer pieces that start from £1000, and up, which appeals to a varied group of collectors of different ages. Because I deal in three different cultural fields, the people I work with are international, as tastes vary in different regions. Of course, given my heritage, I have a good base in Belgium and the Netherlands.

WhAt’S A typ I c AL WORK WEEK LIKE?

My work weeks are always different. As I am a oneperson business, I have to take on all functions, administrator, shipper, dealer, designer, painter of plinths, writer, researcher, … At this point in time, I would not want to do it any other way, as I believe it to be important to fully understand all aspects of my business. Something that will change (hopefully soon) is that I will move around a lot, see a lot of people and travel to see interesting pieces.

W HAT ADv ICE WOULD YOU OFFER SOMEONE CONSIDERING THIS CAREER?

Don't overthink it and follow your intuition. Surround yourself with knowledgeable people, academics, art dealers, collectors, and other experts. I learn a lot from people who very kindly offered support and was

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pleasantly surprised to see how many people have been positive and encouraging of my new art dealing initiative!

WHAT IS A COMMON MISCONCEPTION PEOPLE HAvE ABOUT WHAT YOU DO?

I generally do not have the feeling that people have a misconception about my profession. It is a very specialised trade, even though I have an eclectic approach. The objects stand central in my work, and I believe that people with a genuine interest understand that and share that experience. Perhaps one misconception is that some might underestimate the time and effort that goes into my research, which is very extensive.

W HO INSPIRES YOU IN THE ART WORLD?

People I have worked with in the past inspire me, whether they are art dealers, museum curators, or professors. Every person I met on my ‘art path' has been inspirational in various ways. Perhaps more so than people, objects inspire me in my work, especially when I come across a brilliant piece.

W HAT ARE YOUR GOALS/DREAMS FOR THE FUTURE?

As I grew up in an art dealing family, I was taught about all the art fields included in Nies Fine Art and have been inspired from a young age. I came into contact with different cultures and art practices which partly formed my view of the world that we live in today. I look forward to a long ‘art future' and hope to continue the art tradition of my family and, one day, hopefully inspire and teach a family of my own.

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Frieze Masters 2019
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JUNE a RT W o RK s

Pieces are published and changed each month. The objects are presented with a full description and corresponding dealer's contact information. Unlike auction sites or other platforms, we empower collectors to interact directly with the member dealers for enquiries and purchases by clicking on the e-mail adress.

In order to guarantee the quality of pieces available in the catalogues, objects are systematically validated by all our select members, who are the in-house experts.. Collectors are therefore encouraged to decide and buy with complete confidence. In addition to this, the Asian Art Society proposes a seven-day full money back return policy should the buyer not feel totally satisfied with a purchase.

Items are presented by categories, please check the table of contents. Feel free to ask the price if the artwork is listed with a price on request.

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01T HE b oa R

Rajasthan, Udaipur circa 1720

Opaque pigments on paper

Image: 8 ¾ x 7 in. (22.2 x 17.8 cm.)

Folio: 10 x 8 ½ in. (25.5 x 21.6 cm.)

Provenance: christie's London, 12 June 2018, lot 28 . christie's Amsterdam, 12 October 1993, lot 34.

Exhibition: “Indian Miniature Paintings” c.1590–c.1850, Amsterdam, 1 October–30 November 1987, no.23.

Publication: J. Bautze, Indian Miniature Paintings c.1590–c.1850, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam, 1987, no.23, p.61.

Price: 14.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kapoor Galleries M.: + 1 (212) 794-2300

E.: info@kapoorgalleries.com

W: www.kapoorgalleries.com

Inscribed in Sanskrit: Loss of property, mental anguish, Death of sons, terrible fear, Death, sorrow, suffering: A boar indicates all this.

The present image depicts a lone boar, standing at the river's edge. Its finely rendered hair and almost human eyes belie a robust figure with dangerously pointed tusks. The rust colored sky creates an ominous air-a sense of danger. According to the Sakunavali, the boar, categorized as ‘neshta,' is an ill omen. the rendering of the landscape, with the river's zigzagging indentation of the foreground, and the differentiated colored background in rust and blue, are conventions of the Sangram Singh period. Compare the treatment of the water's edge to a folio from the Sat Sai, produced in the same workshop (see A. topsfield, Court Painting at Udaipur Art under the Patronage of the Maharanas of Mewar, Zurich, 2002, p. 144, fig. 116).

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02Vis HNU

Sculpture

Eastern India Gupta period (320 - 550 AD)

Terra-cotta height: 37,5 cm

Provenance: French Private Collection Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Hollywood Galleries M.: +852 9311 2577

E.: hollywoodgalleries@gmail.com W: www.hollywood-galleries.com

vishnu, the Preserver of the Dharma and the Protector of the universe, is a highlyworshipped Hindu God in India. his stylistic hair and distinctive facial features reflect the earlyIndian Gupta style. He has four arms, two of which are missing and the remaining two hold a mace and chakra disc.

Oxford Authentication thermoluminescence analysis test no.: C114D89

Reference

Masterpieces from Bangladeshi Museums, byvincent Lefèvre, Editions De La Reunion Des Musées Nationaux, 2008. no. 19 visnu

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03l o R d K U b ER a

Rajasthan, Udaipur

Circa 1720

Opaque pigments on paper

Image: 8 ¾ x 7 in. (22.2 x 17.8 cm.)

Folio: 10 x 8 ½ in. (25.5 x 21.6 cm.)

Provenance: Private European collection Price: 12.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kapoor Galleries

M.: + 1 (212) 794-2300

E.: info@kapoorgalleries.com

W: www.kapoorgalleries.com

The present painting depicts the god of wealth, Lord kubera, adorned with jewels and holding a golden gada he sits upon a magical flying chariot with the head of a hamsa bird, the Pushpaka Vimana According to the Ramayana, the kubera was once the king of Lanka, the legendary demon fortress located in the towering peaks of the Trikuta Mountains. His brother Ravana, however, overthrew the great king and took the Pushpaka Vimana for his own. The mythical chariot was eventually returned to kubera by the hero Rama.

The Sanskrit inscription on the recto on the present folio reads:

Health and pleasure, A place of gathering for worship, the benefit of a son's birth and a life of comfort: The Lord of Wealth, kubera, indicates all this.

(translation by Dr. Harsha Dehejia)

Another folio from this set, which resides in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, resembles this one closely. The LACMA folio depicts Chandra, the moon god, who rides a flying chariot carried by a stag (pal, Pratapaditya, The Classical Tradition in Rajput Painting, New York, 1978, cat. 30). Both these folios are likely graded uttamam, which is the most auspicious type of omen; however, because the inscriptions have been rubbed out we cannot be sure. See alternative imaginings of the Pushpaka Vimana in five folios from a Mewari Ramayana series published in J.P. Losty, The Ramayana: Love and Valor in India’s Great Epic, London, 2008, plates 118-122. Therein the chariot is carried by four hamsa birds rather than the bird and chariot being one and the same.

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04Śiva Bhairava Bhikṣā ana-mūrti

Northern India, Uttar Pradesh 9th – 10th century Sandstone

Height: 67 cm or 26 ½ in Provenance: Private collection, USA. Rossi and Rossi Ltd London, 1995. Price: 72.000 euros

carved in the fine-grained pink sandstone frequently found in Uttar Pradesh Province, the stela is an exceptional depiction of the god Śiva sculpted in half-round against a bare background. This stela has a rare iconography. It depicts Śiva in his Bhairava Bhikṣā ana-mūrti manifestation well known in texts such as the Kūrma purā a, the Li ga purā a, the Brahmānda purā a and the Śiva tattvacintāma i of Lakka a Dandeśa: the tale of “the Dancing Beggar Śiva Game” (tā ava – Bhikṣā ana līlā).

The sculpture illustrates the two manifestations of Śiva. One is Bhikṣā ana, naked with a harmonious, slender body, a peaceful, radiant face, braided hair in a bun (ja ā), and a seductive look that would attract any woman met in his travels, as described in the texts. The other manifestation is the “terrible” Bhairava, covered in ornaments with eight arms and his handsholding his characteristic attributes. His torso is festooned with Brahman threads (yajñopavīta).

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Christophe Hioco

M.: +33 (0) 1 53 30 09 65 E.: info@galeriehioco.com W: www.galeriehioco.com

Śiva is standing, his right leg straight and his left slightly bent, as if walking, both feet trampling Apasmārapuruṣa, the demon of ignorance incarnate, depicted on all fours and holding a dagger in his right hand. The attributes held in his eight hands comply with the traditional iconography of Bhairava. The lower right hand, broken, seizes the trident (triśūla) shown in the upper part of the stela, while the second lower right hand seizes an arrow from a quiver held by Nandikeśvara, Shiva's servant depicted with a bull's head on a human body. the first upper right hand, open and raised to chest level, holds beads (akṣamālā), while the second upper right hand seizes a small drum ( amaru).

As for the left hands, the first lower holds the skull cup (kāpala) under which is depicted the head of a dog, its body fractured, come to lap up the drops of blood falling from the severed head of Brahma. the second lower left hand holds the baton (da a) or Kha va ga. the first upper left hand seizes a serpent while the second holds a bow.

The pink sandstone of our stela and its sculptural style, with its supple, slender shapes and harmonious volumes, can be attributed to the sculpture of the 10th century in the Uttar pradesh region of northern India. the figure's general silhouette, its facial traits and the treatment of the bun is somewhat reminiscent of the assistants in the two reliefs of the Los Angeles County Museum (Inv. M 79-9. 10 a-b. Pal, 1988, pp. 116-117, No. 45 a-b).

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05a PaiR of REd ENaMEl aNd diaMoNd bRaCElETs

Jaipur Early 20th century Diameter: Exterior 7,5cm interior 6,5cm Weight: 56 grams each. Price: 12.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Sue Ollemans

M.: + 44 (0) 7775 566 356 E.: sue@ollemans.com W: www.ollemans.com

A pair of red enamel kada inset with single flat cut foiled diamonds in a scrolling vine pattern with alternating leaves set with a foiled emerald. The interior decorated with lovely enameling in red white and green from Jaipur. The bracelets open with a single screw and hinge.

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06a RUbY aNd EMERald NECKlaCE

Deccan 19th Century Length: 19cm each amulet 2 x 3cm central pendant 2.5 x 3.5cm Weight: 89.88 grams Price: 12.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Sue Ollemans M.: + 44 (0) 7775 566 356 E.: sue@ollemans.com W: www.ollemans.com

A charming necklace made up with six oblong amulets inset with rubies and emeralds and mounted on seed pearls with a central pierced pendant with emerald drop.

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India, Bihar Pala period

10th century

Bronze Height: 13.5cm Provenance: Peter Sloane, London. Related Literature: M. Lerner and S. kossak, The Lotus Transcendent, Indian and Southeast Art from the Samuel Eilenberg Collection, (New York: the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991), pp. 126-127, fig.95. Price: 15.000 GBP

The present delicate vase was used in Hindu rituals and once contained holy water. This early example is finely cast and depicts the snake goddess Manasa, who is associated with the cult of serpent worship. In north-eastern India, where this object originates from, Manasa is revered for the prevention and cure of snakebites as well as for fertility and prosperity. During the monsoon, when snakes emerged from the floods, women sang for the welfare and health of their families, using small vases like the present in their ritual.

Manasa sits in the posture of royal ease, lalitasana, with her left foot resting on the head of a snake, which is wrapped around the body of the ewer and below figures. A seven headed cobra hoods Manasa and she holds another snake in her raised left hand. In her right hand she holds a fruit, which symbolises fertility. Her husband Jaratkaru is seated to her right-hand side and is depicted as a bearded emaciated ascetic. Her son Astika is depicted to her left-hand side.

The present vase is a rare ritual utensil from the early Pala period, dated to the 10th century. The object is cast in the lost wax method and is expertly decorated with fine figures and details. A similar example is in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (Accession Number: 1987.142.340), another example is in the Newark Museum of Art, New Jersey.

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Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Nies Fine Art
44 78 57 78 81 21
M.: +
E.: info@niesfineart.com W: www.niesfineart.com
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08a figURE of HaYagRiVa aNd CoNsoRT

vijayanagara, karnartaka South India

16th Century Bronze Height: 6cm Price: 2.860 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Sue Ollemans

M.: + 44 (0) 7775 566 356 E.: sue@ollemans.com W: www.ollemans.com

Lord Hayagriva is an avatar of Lord vishnu. He is worshipped as the god of knowledge and wisdom with a human body and horse's head. Hayagriya is seen pulling the sun up to the heavens every day, bringing light to darkness. hayagriva's consort is Marichi (Vageswari) an incarnation of the goddess Lakshmi, the goddess of the rising sun and more accurately the sun's light which is the life force of all things, and which is seen as the female aspect of Hayagriva. Marichi represents the essence of power of creation of the cosmos.

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09a NAVARATNA RiNg

South India

19th Century Size: US6 Price: 2.500 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Sue Ollemans

M.: + 44 (0) 7775 566 356 E.: sue@ollemans.com W: www.ollemans.com

Navartana (Nine Holy Stones) represents the planets revolving in harmony around the sun. It is believed that if the navaratna is worn it will bring the body into harmony in alliance with the universe. Set in a prescribed arrangement that will protect the wearer from negative energies bringing good health, wealth, mental strength and wisdom.

Ruby – Sun Pearl – Moon Blue Sapphire – Saturn Yellow sapphire- Jupiter Hessonite – Ascending node Emerald – Mercury Coral – Mars cat's eye – Descending node Diamond – venus

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10b a HU bali

karnatak 15th century Brass

Height: 13 ¾ in. (34.9 cm.)

Provenance: With kapoor Galleries since the 1990s. Price: 60.000 USD

the present figure depicts Bahubali, an important subject in Jain art. According to legend, Bahubali was born the second son to Rishabhanatha and queen Sunanda. In a battle of succession, their first son Bharata demanded homage from his 99 other brothers, all of who renounced their worldly claims, apart from Bahubali. When the two brothers entered into battle, just as Bahubali was about to strike his winning blow, he realized the futility of his worldly existence and ceased fighting.

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kapoor Galleries

M.: + 1 (212) 794-2300

E.: info@kapoorgalleries.com W: www.kapoorgalleries.com

Renouncing violence and pride, Bahubali became a monk, plucking out his hair and abandoning all worldly attachments including his clothes. In a performance of penance, Bahubali meditated in ‘body-abandonment' posture in the forest, allowing birds to roost on his head and vines to creep up his body. After a year of fasting and meditation, Bahubali became the first human of this world-age to attain liberation. This brass sculpture is from karnataka, where a 65foot high statue of the figure built in 983 A.D. stands at Shravanabelagola. the present fifteenth-century bronze displays the same iconography, with equally pleasing proportions and a soft meditative countenance.

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s a N g H i R isla N d CEREM o N ial M aT

Ceremonial mat

Sanghir Island, North-East of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

Circa. 1900 Abaca fiber and red natural pigments 117 x 25,5 cm Price: 1.700 euros

The mat,in perfect conditions, presents geometric motives with a strong influence of the bronze age Dongson culture.

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Pascassio Manfredi M.: + 33 (0) 642195423 E.: pascassiomanfredi@orange.fr W.: www.pascassio-manfredi.com

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12a gold PoRTablE sHRiNE iN THE foRM of a liNgaM

South East Asia 16th century 3x2cm Price: 6.800 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Sue Ollemans

M.: + 44 (0) 7775 566 356 E.: sue@ollemans.com W: www.ollemans.com

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M EN g H i Ta MK a N

gigi

Tooth ritual tool

Lampung, South Sumatra, Indonesia

Circa 19th century

Height: 22 cm (8 3/4 in) Width: 80 cm (31 1/2 in)

Provenance: Henry Brownrigg, London, purchased from Samuel Eilenberg Price: 1.250 GBP

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by:

Joost van den Bergh M.: +44 (0)20 7839 8200 E.: joost@joostvandenbergh.com W: www.joostvandenbergh.com

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14Pida N T EMP l E Ha N gi N g

khmer People, Cambodia Silk; weft ikat Early to mid 20th century 162 x 86 cm (64 x 34 inches) Price: 18.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Thomas Murray M.: + 1 415.378.0716 E.: thomas@tmurrayarts.com W: www.tmurrayarts.com

pidan were created to serve as pious gifts and displayed in Buddhist temples. They tend to tell vignettes from the Jataka tales, stories of the Buddha's previous incarnations before he became Siddhartha Gautama. these narrative silk textiles offer wise insights and were made using a highly sophisticated dyeing technique, ikat and are exceptionally rare.

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15ga NE s H a

khmer, Cambodia Bronze 10th-11th century 10 x 6.35 cm (4 x 2.5 inches) Price: 4.500 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Thomas Murray M.: + 1 415.378.0716 E.: thomas@tmurrayarts.com W: www.tmurrayarts.com

Ganesha is a Hindu deity revered by Buddhists and Jains as well.

It is beloved as the 'Remover of Obstacles' and the 'Lord of Lettering and Knowledge'. this sculpture is from a private New York Collection.

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bU dd H a HE ad

Thailand Sukhothai kingdom 14th – Early 15th century Bronze height: 35 cm or 13 ⅞ in Provenance: Private collection, Italy, since 1980s. Price: 68.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Christophe Hioco M.: +33 (0) 1 53 30 09 65 E.: info@galeriehioco.com W: www.galeriehioco.com

In the center of Thailand, the powerful Sukhothai kingdom reached its political apogee during the reign of Ram khamhaeng (c. 1279 – 1299) and his successors. Sculptors of that period created an original set of aesthetics that became one of the most original styles in Thai art, and one which remained a recurring aesthetic reference until the end of the 19th century. The most beautiful works, however, were created a bit after the period of his political acme and date back only to the 14th or even early 15th century.

This beautiful and impressive head has all the characteristics of this “classical” period of Thai art: perfectly oval face, long aquiline nose, arched eyebrows, heavy eyelids, curly hair. But as is unfortunately often the case, the flame at the top of the skull, symbol of the spiritual force of the Enlightened One, is missing. When compared to all the Thai statues in the Alexander B. Griswold Collection – today at the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore, a collection that is a huge body of work in the field – it can be noted that the especially high forehead of this statue might be a chronological clue, as it is characteristic of the early 15th century.

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Thailand

Dvaravati kingdom 8th-9th century

Bronze Height: 18,5 cm

Provenance: Galerie Zacke, katalognummer: Sk85-023, 1985 Private collection, Austria, 1985 -2018 Publication: Zacke, Wolfmar. Skulpturen des Buddhismus und Hinduismus. 1985, no.23. Price: 8.500 GBP

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Nies Fine Art

M.: + 44 78 57 78 81 21 E.: info@niesfineart.com W: www.niesfineart.com

Related literature: Boisselier, J. The Heritage of Thai Sculpture. New York/Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1975. Smith, R.B. and W. Watson eds. Early South East Asia: Essays in Archaeology, History, and Historical Geography (School of Oriental & African Studies). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

This sculpture portrays the historical Buddha Sakyamuni depicted standing with both arms bent at the elbow and hands in gestures of argumentation, vitarka mudra. A long-sleeved cape like garment with a typical U-shaped hem is draped over both shoulders and falls down to Buddha's ankles - this type of garment is generally referred to as antaravasaka. A sheer looking undergarment is visible at the hemline and indicated by two small rippling folds next to Buddha's ankles. this iconography corresponds to the unique Buddha image that was created by the Mon Dvaravati people and first arose circa 6th century in presentday Thailand. The Dvaravati kingdom's visual language, and that of the standing Buddha in particular, had a strong and long-lasting impact on the further evolution of Buddhist art in the region.1

Apart from the iconography and garment, the fine casting of the sculpture is also characteristic of Dvaravati bronzes. The delicate hands, small tight curls covering the ushnisha surmounted by a lotus bud decoration, and broad face with pendulous earlobes and delicately incised facial features, demonstrate the technical skill of Dvaravati bronze casting workshops. Also noteworthy, is the form of the body showing from beneath the garment. The sculpture has an authentic dark grey patina with malachite marks and traces of gold in between the hair curls and in the narrow sleeves, confirming that the sculpture was once gilded.

A very similar, although more corroded example, can be found in the National Museum in U-Thong.2 The U-Thong Museum sculpture is depicted with an aureole, which is reminiscent of the Srivijaya school. There is a small loop attached to the reverse of the present sculpture, indicating an aureole was once attached to its back - alike the U-Thong example. the present bronze, although small in size, is a fine example with well-balanced proportions and a serene expression. This sculpture makes a graceful impression due to the modest yet precisely placed decorationsincluding the incised necklines and horizontal engraved line indicating his waistline.

1 J. Boisselier, The Heritage of Thai Sculpture, (New York/ Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1975), p.73

2 Boisselier, p.75, fig.41

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For a similar sample see: Jean Paul Barbier-MuellerRêves de Collection - édition Somogy 2003, pagg.52-53, exhibited at Mona Bismarck Foundation, Paris 2003

b a N C H ia N g b R a CE l ET

Six points bracelet Thailand, West of Chao Phraya River. Bronze Age, First Millennium B.C., Shell ( Tridacna gigas) with calcareous concretions

13 x 15 cm Price: 12.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Pascassio Manfredi M.: + 33 (0) 642195423 E.: pascassiomanfredi@orange.fr W.: www.pascassio-manfredi.com

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d ai N i CH i N Yo R ai (Mahāvairocana)

Sculpture Japan

Heian period 10th/11th century Wood H. 67.5cm x W. 49.5cm x D. 34cm Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Gregg Baker Asian Art M.: +32 468 00 56 85 E.: info@japanesescreens.com W: www.japanesescreens.com

A wood figure of Dainichi Nyorai (Mahāvairocana) wearing flowing robes and seated in kekka-fusa (lotus position), his hands in chiken-in mudra (Mudra of the knowledge Fist), the hair is arranged in a tall standing top knot above the crown

Dainichi (Great Sun) is the central and supreme deity of the pantheon of Esoteric Buddhism. In origin he has been linked to an ancient sun cult and to the Zoroastrian god of light, Ashura Mazda. In Brahmanical literature the appellation Vairocana (primordial or supreme Buddha) appears, for example, as the name of a legendary king and of the king of the Ashura. In Buddhism he assumes a central role in Esoteric Buddhism; he eventually took the place of Shaka (the Historical Buddha) as expositor of the Buddhist teachings, becoming the central figure in the Esoteric Buddhist pantheon as represented by the Taizokai Mandara (Womb World Mandala) and Kongokai Mandara (Diamond World Mandala).

Dainichi differs iconographically from other Buddhas in that he is represented in the form of a Bosatsu, seated, wearing silk robes and accessories such as armlets and bracelets, and having long locks of hair. He also wears a Gochi Houkan (five-wisdom bejewelled crown) on his head, symbolising his identity with the Gobutsu (Five Buddha) and Gochi Nyorai (the five wisdoms) attributed to them.

Dainichi may be identified by his distinctive hand-gestures: in the Taizokai Mandara he forms the hokkai jouin (Concentration seal of the Dharma-realm), with both hands lying on his lap, right on top of left, palms upward and thumbs touching, while in the Kongokai Mandara he forms the chiken-in (seal of the knowledge fist), with the clenched right hand posed over the extended index finger of the otherwise clenched left hand.

Radio Carbon Dating Ref: RCD-9213

For more details, please visit: http://japanesescreens. com/catalogue/religious-objects/7677/

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20Wa K a-o NNa

noh mask by Tachibana

Japan

taishō period Wood & lacquer Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Galerie Mingei

M.: + 33 (0)6 09 76 60 68

E.: mingei.arts.gallery@gmail.com W: www.mingei.gallery

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21Ta N o MUR a Chokunyū (1814-1907)

A two-panel screen with a rock, bamboo and calligraphy

Japan Meiji period 19th century (dated 1895) Ink and silver leaf on paper H. 159cm x W. 162cm Price : 5.500 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Gregg Baker Asian Art M.: +32 468 00 56 85 E.: info@japanesescreens.com W: www.japanesescreens.com

Inscribed: I painted at the time when the pure breeze is felt under the willow tree and the bright moon. The bamboo is upright and impartial like a righteous man. 10th Month of the beautiful moon in the Imperial Calendar year of 2555. Painted at the Studio of the Five Immortals.

Signed: Chokunyū sanjin hitsu hachijūni (Inscribed and painted by chokunyū, at the age of 82)

Seals: Right: Bōsai Left, upper: ta-chi no in Left, lower: Kozetsu shi

tanomura chokunyū (1814-1907) Gō (art name): chokunyū, Incha Shujin, Ryūō (Kasaō), Sanshō, Seiwan, Seiwan Gyorō, Shōko, Shōko Sanjin. Born in Bungo province chokunyū was a nanga (Chinese style) painter, calligrapher and poet who lived and worked in kyoto. He was the pupil and adopted son of Tanomura Chikuden (1777-1835) and as part of his artistic training he copied late Chinese painting. he was a key person in establishing the Kyōto Munincipal School of Fine Arts and crafts and was its first director before leaving to co-found the Nihon Nanga Kyōkai (Japan Nanga Society) in 1896 with Tomioka tessai (1837-1924). chokunyū was a leading exponent of the nanga tradition in the Meiji era with many pupils and served a juror for many exhibitions.

Works by the artist can be found in the collections of: Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; British Museum, London; Idemitsu Art Gallery,Tokyo; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Yamatane Museum of Art, Tokyo.

Take (bamboo) in Taoism and to a lesser extent in Buddhism symbolises the notion of emptiness, this is due to the tube-like structure of the bamboo. Just as the tao (the ineffable ‘way' of taoism) arises from nothing and returns to emptiness, the bamboo is empty at its core. In East Asian philosophy such emptiness is perceived in a positive rather than a negative light. It is also a symbol of purification.

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22Ha Na K ago b Y s a N sai

Japan, Niigata

Circa. 1950 Bamboo & lacquer

38 (h) x 30 x 27 cm Price: 4.800 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by:

Galerie Mingei

M.: + 33 (0)6 09 76 60 68

E.: mingei.arts.gallery@gmail.com W: www.mingei.gallery

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Jizō Bozatsu

Japan

Muromachi (1336 – 1573) to Edo period Wood

74 (h) x 20 x 26 cm

Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Galerie Mingei

M.: + 33 (0)6 09 76 60 68

E.: mingei.arts.gallery@gmail.com W: www.mingei.gallery

here, the bodhisattva Jizō (Sanskrit: Kshitigarbha) takes the guise of an itinerant monk. He holds in his left hand a wish-fulfilling jewel and in his right hand a monk's staff with six rings that jingle to announce his arrival. From hell to paradise, Jizō's compassionate presence illuminates the righteous way, and he saves from harm those who call out to him. Jizō was especially popular as a rescuer of souls in hell; his powers of salvation derive from ksitigarbha, the ancient Indian earth goddess. His face radiates tenderness and compassion, fitting to his role of relieving pain and suffering.Jizō is also worshipped as a protector of children and travelers. Usually portrayed as a young monk, he carries the alarum staff to frighten insects away from his steps and the cintamani jewel to illuminate the darkness.

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Ha Na K ago

Suzuki Gengensai (1891-1950) Japan Smoked bamboo 52 x 17 x 12 cm

Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Galerie Mingei

M.: + 33 (0)6 09 76 60 68

E.: mingei.arts.gallery@gmail.com W: www.mingei.gallery

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A kawabaori (leather fireman's coat) decorated with hares leaping among waves and with the Ishikawa mon (family crest) on the reverse

25Kawabaori

Fireman's coat Japan Edo period 19th century leather

L. 108cm x W. 132cm Price: 5.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Gregg Baker Asian Art M.: +32 468 00 56 85

E.: info@japanesescreens.com W: www.japanesescreens.com

These coats were made of deerskin or the imported hide of Indian water buffalo and were worn by firemen of the samurai class during the Edo period. Organised into brigades each group had its own insignia, name, and hierarchy. After successfully fighting the blaze fireman would don their best coats for a celebratory parade through the town or village.

The design on these robes was created using a particular smoking process which seems to have been introduced to Japan from India in the Momoyama Period (1568-1603). This technique added colour to the leather and also rendered it waterproof. Before the smoking process rice paste was applied with a stencil to the surface creating a pattern reserved in white on the brown smoked leather

the hare and the moon are often linked in East Asian folklore. Japanese legends describe the shadows on the surface of the moon as hares pounding mochi (sticky rice cakes) while an ancient Chinese Taoist tale tells of a hare that resides in the moon and pounds magic herbs in order to make the elixir of eternal life. In Japan the full moon and the hare have become associated with autumn, a time when the moon is deemed to shine brightest. The hare is also associated with the sea and high tides, another natural phenomena caused by the lunar cycle.

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s CRoll Pai NT i N g “PlUM b R a NCH”

Sakai hōitsu (1761-1829)

Japan

Edo period 19th century

H.106cm (192c m), W.33cm (35 cm) Price: 6.500 euros

collector's W box with signature by Sōsai

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Galerie Mingei

M.: + 33 (0)6 09 76 60 68

E.: mingei.arts.gallery@gmail.com

W: www.mingei.gallery

Sakai hōitsu (1761-1829) is one of the most important Japanese painters in the Edo period, admitted as the founder of the Edo-Rinpa school. He is known as the admirer of Ogata Kōrin. he studied the paintings of Ogata Kōrin and was very much influenced by Kōrin's works. he incorporated the poetic atmosphere's style of painting into the elegant style of Kōrin.

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l a R g E o N i M as K NET s UKE

Probably made for a sumo wrestler or for theatre purposes

Japan

Signed kanemori 19th century Eyes in metal and ebony Height : 6,5 cm W : 6,5 cm Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kitsune Gallery

M.: + 32 476 87 85 69 E.: arie.vos@kitsune.be W: www.kitsunegaroo.com

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28A R AR e F RA gme NT of a Kosode

Japan

Embroidery and tie-dyeing on damask-weave silk

Silk and gold

Edo period (1615-1868)

First half of the 17th century Height: 22 cm. (8.7 inches) Width: 33 cm. (13 inches) Provenance: Purchased at auction in kyoto, Japan in 2007 Literature: Other fragments from the same kosode were mounted on a folding screen, see Stinchecum, Amanda, et. al., kosode: 16th – 19th Century Textiles from the Nomura Collection, Japan House Gallery, New York 1984, pp. 102-103

Price: 3.000 usd Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Alan kennedy

M.: + 1 646 753-4938

E: kennedyalan@hotmail.com

W: www.alankennedyasianart.com

The ancestor of the more recent T-shaped garment known as the kimono is called kosode. Worn by fashionable women of the rising merchant class, courtesans and even by the more conservative women of the samurai class, the garment underwent changes in its decoration over time. This fragment comes from a kosode that dates to one of the earlier stylistic periods, situated at the beginning of the Edo period.

The motifs of the fragment are organized in diagonal rows, and include geometric, floral and bird designs. Embroidery is the primary textile technique, and it is executed on a patterned silk in a damask weave, known as rinzu in Japanese. The white spots were made by means of a tie-dye technique called kanoko shibori

These spots represent sections of bamboo and maple leaves that are more recognizable in the assembled fragments mounted on a two-panel folding screen referenced above.

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saKURa floWER

Netsuke Japan signed Masanao, however to be attributed to the So-school Taisho-period 4,2 cm Price: SOLD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kitsune Gallery

M.: + 32 476 87 85 69 E.: arie.vos@kitsune.be W: www.kitsunegaroo.com

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30Ka R aT s U Ya K i o-To KKUR i

Large sake bottle

Saga prefecture, kysushu, Japan. Height : 24,3 cm

Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kitsune Gallery

M.: + 32 476 87 85 69

E.: arie.vos@kitsune.be W: www.kitsunegaroo.com

Few examples from this type of karatsu ware survived. The use of iron rich brown glaze and white slip, thinly applied by means of a carrot (or any other soft utensil), creates a striated design (especially visible around the neck / shoulder area); a rather uncommon technique, apparently related to the kawagogama and Miagari-o kiln in the 17th and 18th century. A finely crackled running glaze of green-brown tones embellishes the bottle in a subtle way. We believe this item to be from the 18th century. A very elegant lacquer restoration at the neck confirms the appreciation given to this tokkuri

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31sH odai Ya K i o-To KKUR i

Large sake bottle Japan Late 18th century Height : 25,5 cm Price on request

SOLD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kitsune Gallery

M.: + 32 476 87 85 69

E.: arie.vos@kitsune.be W: www.kitsunegaroo.com

Shodai ware was made by potters in the service of the Hosokawa clan from kumamoto prefecture in kyushu and is said to have started in 1632 near mount Shotai by Tadatoshi HOSOkAWA (head of the Hosokawa clan at that time). Later on, in the 19th century the production moved to Senoue kiln. This sake bottle dates back to the late 18th century and is shaped as a bamboo node with a short, circular neck and everted rim. Typical for high quality Shodai ware is the use of blue-white rice straw ash glaze ladled over a caramel brown, iron-oxide body glaze. A real museum quality piece.

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32fRE s Co f R ag MENT

China

Late Yuan- Early Ming Dynasty

14th - 15th century

Length: 97.8 cm Width: 78.1 cm, framed

Provenance: Private Italian collection Price: 36.000 USD

A large polychrome fresco fragment, of rectangular form painted with female immortals, one presenting a large vase of peonies to another, and a third to one side looking on, all wearing long flowing robes beneath capes with hair in high chignons adorned with elaborate bejewelled headdresses, and among clouds.

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by:

Rasti Chinese Art M.: + 852 2415 1888

E.: gallery@rastichineseart.com W: www.rastichineseart.com

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33zoo M o RPH i C flas K

China

Song Dynasty (960–1279)

Bronze Height: 15 cm Price: 30.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Rasti Chinese Art

M.: + 852 2415 1888

E.: gallery@rastichineseart.com W: www.rastichineseart.com

An archaistic bronze zoomorphic flask, the gourd-shaped vessel of rounded tapering form with leaning neck, the rim with an upturned doublehorned beast head with large protruding eyes and ears, the back of the rim with an incised taotie-head flanked by stylised geometric animal designs, all above three continuous bands of interlocking stylised dragons separated by triangular bands of lappets containing key-frets and three raised narrow borders of rope-twists to the body and footrim, slight traces of gilt

The present vase imitates Zhou dynasty (8th–7th century BcE) bronze flasks, see Rawson (ed.), Treasures from Shanghai: Ancient Chinese Bronzes and Jades, p. 107, no. 41. The form was derived from flasks used by nomadic peoples north of the chinese states. there is another bronze flask-form bronze in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, which suggest a date of 10th–9th century BCE. This form increased in popularity in China, particularly from the 6th century onwards. The incised interlocking dragons design onthe present example is taken from Han dynasty inlaid metalwork and lacquers. For a similar Warring States period bronze vessel and cover in the shape of a bird see Tokyo National Museum, kobe City Museum, Nagoya City Museum, kyushu National Museum, NHk, NHk Promotions Inc., The Mainichi Newspapers (eds.), China: Grandeur of the Dynasties, p. 85. no. 44; another example dated Han dynasty or earlier in Trubner, American Exhibitions of Chinese Art, pp. 32-33, no. 36; for a Qianlong period white jade vase and cover of similar form see Palm Springs Desert Museum, Magic, Art and Order: Jade in Chinese Culture, p. 125, no. 129; and a further white jade example dated Southern Song or Yuan dynasty in Forsyth and McElney, Jades from China, p. 385, no. 316.

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b RU s HP oT

China

Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)

Jade Height: 11.1 cm Base diameter: 12.1 cm

Provenance: Private East Asian collection Price: 36.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Rasti Chinese Art M.: + 852 2415 1888

E.: gallery@rastichineseart.com W: www.rastichineseart.com

A black and dark grey jade brushpot, the well hollowed vessel of waisted form with everted rim and flattened rim above a wider spreading foot, the base with three short feet, the uncarved softly polished mottled grey stone suffused with black patches

Compare the form of the present brushpot with similar vessels in other materials from this period such as ceramics, ivory and wood. For a mottled spinach-green brushpot from the Gerald Godfrey Collection see Christie's hong Kong, Chinese Jades From The Private Collection of Gerald Godfrey, 30 October 1995, lot 840.

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35VaJR a Pa N i

Sculpture

Southern Tibet or Mustang 16th century Wood Height: 38,8 cm Provenance: Benny Rustenburg Collection, Netherlands Early 1970s - 1983 German Private Collection 1980s - 2010s

Price on request

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Hollywood Galleries M.: +852 9311 2577

E.: hollywoodgalleries@gmail.com W: www.hollywood-galleries.com

vajrapani is an important wrathful meditation deity and one of the main protectors in vajrayana Buddhism . He is the “vajra Holder” and the “Lord of Secrets”. His iconographical features including the vajra in his right hand, the snake surrounding his belly, the corps e tramp ling under his feet and the tiger skin wrapping around his shoulders are all vividly expressed in the sculpture. Another intricate detail of this statue is the tiger head with bulging eyes and open mouth protruded from his right armpit. The sculpture is in good condition except for a missing finger on his left hand in the expelling mudra and some minor chips on the toes and fingers. the Vajrapani is finished in one solid piece of wood.

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36Tib ETa N TH a N g K a Tibet

Painting and gilding Ink, mineral pigments and gold on cotton with silk brocade borders

Circa 1800

Height: 63 cm. (24.8 inches) Width: 47 cm. (18.5 inches) Provenance: A private French collection Price: 16.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Alan kennedy M.: + 1 646 753-4938

E: kennedyalan@hotmail.com W: www.alankennedyasianart.com

Shakyamuni, the prince who became a buddha upon achieving enlightenment, is the central figure of this painting. his bare flesh is covered with god leaf, and he wears an elaborately patterned kashaya, in gold on a red background. In his left hand he holds a begging bowl, while the red palm and fingers of his right hand touches the base of the lotus petal support.

Above Shakyamuni is a jeweled canopy flanked by pairs of celestial beings on Chinese-style clouds. The sun and the moon appear as tiny disks near the upper corners of the painting. On either side of the central deity are two of his principle disciples, Shariputra and Maudgalyayana. dressed as monks, each holding a begging bowl and a staff.

In front of Shakyamuni precious offerings have been placed on an altar, and at the sides of the altar are lions that appear to be holding the platform underneath the lotus petal support. Along the bottom of the painting are four figures, the central two dressed as monks and holding a begging bowl and a sutra (Buddhist texts). the outermost figures are richly dressed, and wear crowns. Cushions patterned in gold are at their backs. .

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37MaṅJ uśrī in his Dhar M a D hātu Vāgīs Vara aspe C t

Nepal, Kāthmāndu valley

Early Malla era (1482-1768 / 69) 17th century Sandstone Height: 32 cm or 12 5/8 in Provenance: Private collection, Belgium, since the 1980s. Price: 10.000 euros

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Christophe Hioco

M.: +33 (0) 1 53 30 09 65

E.: info@galeriehioco.com W: www.galeriehioco.com

This beautiful stele illustrates perfectly the complexity of local esoteric Buddhism. Depicted here is the Bodhisattva Ma juśrī in his Dharmadhātu Vāgīsvara aspect - three faces and eight arms. carved in this soft sandstone, the attributes are dynamically arranged. the first right hand raised in front of the chest holds the thunder-diamond (vajra) and the left, holding the bell (gha ā), rests on the thigh in the manner of the supreme Buddha vajrasattva. the next two pairs of hands hold the lasso (pāśa) and perhaps an elephant hook (a kuśa), then an arrow (bā a) and a bow (cāpa). As usual, Ma juśrī brandishes the sword (kha ga) and the book (pustaka) of praj āpāramitā sūtra.

In addition to the rarity of its iconography, it is the delicate modeling of the torso and the solemnity of the attitude that is remarkable. The richness of details is also striking, both in the representation of jewelry as in that of decorative elements. The treatment of the large open flowers of the necklace and the modeling of the petals on the divine seat lotus are characteristic of the time, just as the multiplication of carved rims, here lotus petals and row of pearls. These two motifs are repeated on the rim of the halo. As for the folds of the scarf on the right arm, they suggest a discrete chinese influence, usual at the time.

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38siTaTaPaTra THaNgKa

Tibet 18th century

Gouache on cloth

Height: 31 ¼ inches, 79.5 cm

Width: 20 ¼ inches, 51.5 cm Provenance: Private collection France Price: 20.000 GBP

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: Joost van den Bergh

M.: +44 (0)20 7839 8200 E.: joost@joostvandenbergh.com W: www.joostvandenbergh.com

painting in gouache on cloth. the central figure depicting Sitatapatra is white, has three eyes, red lips and elongated ears, which are adorned with large round earrings. Her headgear consists of a garland of white flowers. On either side, and behind her head is a band showing five colours, representing her different expressions. this scene is repeated numerable times on top of her head becoming smaller and more abstracted, representing Sitatapatra thousand faces. Sitatapatra wears a green scarf over her bare shoulders flowing down in cloudlike curls on her sides, spanning the width of the painting. A second red scarf is draped over her left shoulder and is fastened around her waist. She is adorned with various necklaces, arm, and wrist ornaments. her left hand holds a thin stick carrying a parasol. Her right hand holds a Buddhist symbolic object representing the Dharma Wheel. All around her a fan-like aureole representing her thousand outstretched hands. Richly painted flames in red, orange and gold surround her. her gracefully flared dress is rich in colour; red, orange and blue, her feet are bare. Under the hem of her dress a red painted rectangular pattern represents her thousand feet. A scene of numerous figures, animals and flames is depicted below her feet. The lower part of the painting depicts three Buddhist figures (wrathful protectors). At the top centre is the Buddha Shakyamuni. The scene is painted on a green background with Buddhist symbols, mountains, clouds and further representations of Buddha represented. Sitatapatra (Goddess of The White Parasol) is white in colour, reflecting her emergence from the purifying brilliance of the Buddha. She has a thousand faces, hands and legs, an iconic form known in India as vishvarupa (universal form). She is an invincible protector against every form of supernatural danger such as demons, black magic and astrologically ordained mishaps. The goddess is peaceful in aspect but also fiercely protective, as is indicated by the flames surrounding her. her feet crush the agents of misery that she subdues,cruel rulers,misshapen demons, flying rocks, wild animals, crashing waves, etc. Comparable thangka paintings of Sitatapatra are in The Musee Guimet Paris, The Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, and the Zimmerman Family Collection.

1. Shaw, M., in: Menzies, J., Goddess Divine Energy, Sydney 2006, p. 200

2. Menzies, J., Goddess Divine Energy, Sydney 2006, p. 192-203, no. 124, 125, 126

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39VaJR a Pa N i, HaYag R i Va, ga RU da Co M bi NE d

Tibet, c. 19th century

Ground mineral pigments on cloth Image: 29 ¼ x 20 in. (75 x 51 cm.)

Provenance: From a Private Italian Collection. Publication: Himalayan Art Resources (himalayanart.org), item no. 8047. Price: 30.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kapoor Galleries M.: + 1 (212) 794-2300

E.: info@kapoorgalleries.com W: www.kapoorgalleries.com

this fine thangka depicts Guhyapati Vajrapani, in his rare form of showing three wrathful deities: vajrapani, Hayagriva and Garuda combined in one. the three deities are the emanation of Buddha's enlightened mind, speech, and body, respectively. Thus, they together embody the perfect power of all Buddhas, and protect beings from harmful spirits that create disease, disharmony and obstacles. This special practice of the vajrapani-Hayagriva-Garuda deity has a long history of lineage, passed down from Je tsongkhapa's teacher, Lhodrag Drubchen Lekyiorje (1326-1401), who had obtained enlightenment through the practice vajrapani. the upper register of this painting shows five figures with Amitabha Buddha on the far right, and four teachers on the left, all wearing the typical yellow cap of the Gelugpa lineage.

Dwelling in the middle of a mass fire, the vajrapani-Hayagriva-Garuda deity has a body blue-black in color, with one face and two hands. the right hand holds a vajra and the left is raised to the heart in a wrathful gesture. His hair twists upwards, amongst which a horse head neighs sharply three times over-powering the Three Realms. The neighing of the horse on the right overpowers the male lineages, the one on the left over-powers the female lineages, and the one in the middle bestows attainments on the practitioner. Below the horse is the king of Birds, Garuda, with a body white in color, beating the sword-wings, adorned within a jewel crown. His hair is adorned with a white spotted snake representing the kings race. He wears a lower garment of tiger skin, adorned with all the jewel ornaments. vajrapani-Hayagriva-Garuda deity is particularly practiced in the Kriya tantra classification and grants protection from nagas. Executed strictly according to monastery scripture, he is accompanied by Buddha Nagaraja seated on the right, and Simhanada Avalokiteshvara seated on the left, who belongs to the Kriya classification, and is to remove sickness and disease, especially illness ca sed by nagas. Few other identified examples are held at the Fine Arts Zanabazar Museum, Tashi Lhunpo Compilation, Beijing, and Rainy Jin & Johnny Bai collection (See Himalayan Art Resource, Buddhist Deity: Vajrapani, Three Combined Wrathful Ones).

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40a silVER fig URE of VaJR a Pa N

i

Tibet 13th-14th century Height: 4 ¼ in. (10.8 cm.)

Provenance: Private European collection. Publication: Himalayan Art Resources (himalayanart.org), item no. 7773. Price: 80.000 USD

Ob J e CT P R e S en T ed by: kapoor Galleries M.: + 1 (212) 794-2300 E.: info@kapoorgalleries.com W: www.kapoorgalleries.com

vajrapani or Chakna Dorje, originally a peaceful bodhisattva in the Mahayana tradition, has a wrathful manifestation within the vajrayana Buddhist tradition. The present form of vajrapani is understood as the keeper of all the tantras, the ‘Lord of Secrets' or ‘Ghuyapati' (Skt.). the bodhisattva chooses to take this form for the sake of liberating others with the power of this appearance. his buddha effigy symbolizes his status as a fully enlight- ened protector of the dharma. the pot-bellied Vajrapani, or ‘bearer of the thunderbolt', stands in a powerful lunge on a lotus base, his right hand brandishing a dorje, the left in the threatening mudra, wearing a tiger skin and draped with a serpent in a shawl-like fashion. Serpents also hang from his earrings, around his neck, and adorn his wrists and ankles. the present figure is highly unusual in terms of material and quality. The silver composition tells us that this was a significant commission. Despite the fact that the metal is softer than copper and greatly susceptible to abrasion through centuries of handling, sharp details remain: the head and hands of the tiger skin and much of the chasing work defining its fur, the buddha effigy and the flamelike hair with curled tufts at each end, as well as the many stippled serpent ornaments with lifted heads. the flat lotus petals surrounding this slightly stepped base with beaded rims is a distinct feature of bronze sculpture from the Pala kingdom of Northeastern India, which is carried forward in early Tibetan sculpture as well as in later Pala-revivalstyle sculptures emerging from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries in Tibet and China. The present sculpture is an exampleof the early Tibetan type. The inward-facing serpents that secure the gathered tufts of hair on either side of Vajrapani's buddha effigy ostensibly originated in kashmir and proliferated through Pala prototypes. This early Tibetan convention seems to have become nonstandard by the fifteenth century, but is present here and is wonderfully articulated. The face of vajrapani, with wide bulging eyes and a broad nose (which likely had an aquiline form now worn from handling) closely resembles that of a twelfth-century black stele of a four-armed Mahakala at the Metropolitan Museum of (acc. 2015.500.4.17) as well as that of a thirteenth-century bronze figure of Black Jambhala in the Rubin Museum of Art (acc. C2002.41.1;

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see Himalayan Art Resources item no. 65174).

Despite the apparent influence of early Northern Indian Vajrayana imagery, Vajrapani's wellexpressed musculature, especially apparent in his legs, is a feature that may be owed to a kathmandu valley artist's hand or their active influence in central tibet at the likely time of this commission. Strong similarities in physique between the present figure and a giltbronze figure of Vajrapani at the Rubin Museum attributed to the thirteenth- or fourteenthcentury khasa Malla kingdom support this possibility (acc. C2005.34.30; see Himlayan Art Resources item no. 65571). The Yuan emperor Kublai Khan's appreciation and patronage of Newar

artistry within China and its environs at the end of the thirteenth century certainly led to a greater fusion of styles under the Tibetan umbrella. The present sculpture, thus, reflects an ode to the pala style and possibly, to Newar techniques.

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