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California Infill Manual: Best Practices for Higher Density

Report TroyClient Reinhalter

DCRP 2010

DRCP 2010

Troy Reinhalter Client Report


CLIENT REPORT: SUSTAINABLE, LIVABLE TODs Client: Californian for-profit/non-profit developers, progressive designers/architects Author: Troy Reinhalter, MCP 2010, CED UC Berkeley Committee: Elizabeth MacDonald, Chair Karen Chapple Acknowledgements:

Erin Machell for content colloboration and moral support on CCI focus group project.

Introduction

Karen Chapple and Elizabeth MacDonald for major editing and invaluable substantive suggestions.

Client Report

Harrison Fraker and Peter Bosselman for leading creative studios with a focus on sustainability.

Cover Photo Credit:

Left Photo, Terri Balandra, Fiesta Lanes Action Group, Diridon, San Jose. Right Photo, Author, Bryce Canyon, UT.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction + Themes + Methodology

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Chapter 1:Transit-Oriented Development Best Practices ,,,,,,,12 A. Principles ,,,,,,,,13 ,,,,,,,,21 B. Benefits ,,,,,,,,24 C. Major Issues: Density + Infill ,,,,,,,,27 D. Why Design Matters ,,,,,,,,31 ,,,,,,,,32 ,,,,,,,,41 ,,,,,,,,45 ,,,,,,,,47

Chapter 3: Green/Passive Design Best Practices A. Principles B. Benefits/Incentives C. Building in the Marine Climate D. Lessons for Multifamily Projects i.Form/Massing ii.Orientation iii.Circulation E. Passive Strategies i.Passive Solar ii.Daylighting iii.Natural Ventilation

,,,,,,,,53 ,,,,,,,,54 ,,,,,,,,64 ,,,,,,,,68 ,,,,,,,,73 ,,,,,,,,76 ,,,,,,,,78 ,,,,,,,,80 ,,,,,,,,81 ,,,,,,,,82 ,,,,,,,,85 ,,,,,,,,90

Chapter 4: New Building Typologies A. Lowrise B. Midrise C. Highrise

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Troy Reinhalter

Transit-Oriented

Community-Friendly Green Design

Nexus of three principal themes. Source: Author

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Introduction

Chapter 2: Community Sensitivity Best Practices A. Principles B. Major Issues: Community Relations C. Imagery/Context D. Reframing


Take-Aways 01 Principal • Passive design and solar orientation can be used to create small scale, livable districts

that sell quickly but also reduce their environmental footprint and vehicle miles traveled. • Cutting energy use means a reduction in energy bills for residents, and therefore greater income mixing and affordability, allowing for stable and diverse communities. • Using lessons drawn from community engagement and cutting-edge environmental practice creates attractive housing that is highly marketable and blends into existing communities. • Environmentally conscious design is good both for market-rate customers (due to increased prestige, uniqueness, green consciousness) and affordable tenants (cheaper running costs, longer-lasting materials).

Summary of Contents

Introduction

This Client Report aims to advance the cause of compact, mixed-use development in the state of California by telling the story of three interconnected themes: Transit, Community, and Sustainability. The recommendations are formulated as to start resolving the tensions between Affordability, Community Identity, Developer Financial Imperatives, and Environmental Imperatives.

Report Outline • • • • •

Describing and illustrating the best practices for the three themes Clarifying the crucial links between themes Gathering ‘rules of thumb’ for sustainable building techniques Exploring synergies that exist when multiple strategies are combined Applying green building and community-friendly principles to multifamily infill construction situations • Introducing new typologies that respond to the findings

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Three Themes 1. Transit: Planners and developers recognize the need to densify around transit, however in order to attract residents used to lower-density settings, the public realm needs to be a highly desirable place. Our arterials are the prime territory for redevelopment, an opportunity for ribbons of infill that reinforce the transit corridors. As California transitions into a post-auto dependency era, we need to plan projects that (based on economics and demographics) will house the next generation of Californians. Following guidelines for good TOD design is imperative to gaining broad acceptance of the TOD paradigm and luring families back from the suburbs.

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3. Sustainability: Buildings represent more than 40% of total greenhouse emissions in California. AB32 sets a long-term goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels by 2050. While reducing VMT is a major focus of long-term land use planning, buildings are worthy of our attention as well. Putting forward new infill typologies for a low carbon future will give developers a template to draw from when designing for sustainable communities. The discussion will explore best practices in passive design, scenarios for sustainable growth and will encompass planning and design projects at building, neighborhood, and citywide scales. Troy Reinhalter

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Introduction

2. Community: Perhaps the greatest of all barriers to infill is the unwillingness of local residents to support some of the inherent components of TOD, particularly higher-density construction and mixed-income housing. Planners and developers must “sell� infill projects as beneficial to the community and the region, and follow up on their promises by creating good plans and developments. We need to convey that the public realm and surrounding neighborhood gets better with density, not worse. Upgrading streets, parks, and amenities is a solid tactic to winning over neighbors.


Introduction

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Document Roadmap

Each chapter is organized in a similar fashion, beginning with an enumeration of the crucial principles that should guide development according to the three overall themes. These principles are intended to guide and advise developers and planners as they envision and sketch out new projects. Next, the numerous social and environmental benefits of adhering to the principles are explained, and in some cases, the financial incentives available to developers are detailed. Next, specific issues pertaining to the chapter theme are explored, drawing on relevant literature and real life examples, for example why design matters to TOD planning or how to massage presentation imagery for best community impact. Each chapter will diverge at this point, going in depth into a particular subject of interest. The first chapter will explore how to draw communities into TOD processes, whereas the second chapter will present manners of reframing the debate to change minds. The most useful design suggestions will be found in the third chapter. Using lessons drawn from professional practice and research, low energy design will be applied to compact development building types. Typically green and passive building has been employed at the single residence or building scale. To expand these techniques to higher densities, design solutions are needed, and these solutions will be illustrated and explained. The last chapter will present some potential building typologies that could be employed in compact infill settings, in order to assuage community concerns and dramatically reduce the building carbon footprint. Typologies at varying densities and construction types will be analyzed.

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California is a state that has been growing consistently and rapidly for its entire history, in fact, California is projected to grow by almost 20 million residents by 2050. This constant growth affects nearly everything around us, from our schools to our water supply to our roads. The big question is this: how can California continue to grow while preserving our environment and at the same time maintain the quality of life to which we’ve been accustomed? Fortunately, California is in an unparalleled position to act on the propositions and principles of this Client Report due to a confluence of push and pull factors. SB 375 + AB 32 - A new state law, SB 375, which ties together regional planning, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, transportation funding, and affordable housing, means that cities and counties will need to think more strategically about how to site affordable housing, overcoming obstacles of high land prices and NIMBY-ism in transit-rich areas. California is also particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change; loss of snow pack, sea level rise, more high temperature days, longer and more severe fire seasons, more drought years, and severe weather events are among the major consequences. Incentives + Regulation – The state of California offers many financial inducements for developers, such as loans from local governments for renewable on-site generation, or rebates for solar thermal technology. Furthermore, in 2011, builders will be required to offer solar PV as a standard feature in new home developments of 50 or more. Other regulations, such as those encouraging third party financing mechanisms or mandating clean energy generation portfolios, also promote adoption of renewable power. CEQA + NIMBYs – CEQA is well-known as an obstacle to infill development, due to its mis-use by residents reluctant to see new projects in their community. Therefore, building and portraying smartgrowth scenarios is an important part of the sustainable communities planning process under SB 375. Especially needed are visualization processes that can engage communities and stakeholders and help them build agreement on how to more forward with urban design and land use initiatives that contribute in both small and large ways to sustainability goals. Favorable Climate – Most of California is blessed with a climate that is ideal for naturally heated and ventilated buildings, with only 2000-3000 heating degree days and 250-1000 cooling degree

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Introduction

Urgency + Importance


Introduction

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days. Additionally, in this region, especially towards the southern end, there are many days of clear skies and direct sunlight. The beauty of designing energy-saving homes in California is that the loads are relatively benign and thus easy to mitigate. High Electricity Prices – While viewed as a burden by many residents, the presence of relatively high prices for electrical generation (compared to national averages) means that renewable technologies are closer in cost to conventional fossil fuels and thus easier to finance, as the price differential is less. In fact, solar photovoltaic technology is rumored to be on the verge of grid parity. Transit Priority Planning – Planning efforts underway in the state are strongly supportive of the TOD concept. The Association of Bay Area Governments alone has authorized some $1 billion for a regional bicycle network and 2.2 billion for Transportation for Livable Communities Program. There are currently at least 75 TOD planning processes recently completed or underway in the region. Any future transit expansion must be accompanied by a movement on the part of localities to facilitate high density mixed-use development in the station environs. Additionally, SB 375 streamlines the environmental review process for specific transit-oriented developments.

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SB 375 CEQA + NIMBYS

+ Carbon Redux

High Electricity Prices

Incentives + Regulations

Transit Priority Planning

Favorable Climate

Array of environmental/political/social factors unique to California. Source: Author

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Methodology

The content in this Client Report is derived from a multitude of sources, including coursework research, graduate studios, real-world practice, academic literature, focus groups, and other online resources.

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The primary methodology employed for the community sensitivity section involved focus groups, convened for a separate project for the Center for Community Innovation. Supervised by Professor Karen Chapple and in collaboration with colleague Erin Machell, the project aimed to discover how best to communicate with existing residents using persuasive materials and images. Focus groups were an open forum where participants could freely discuss their reactions to and thoughts about the tools. Focus groups were held in four communities around the Bay Area: Pittsburg, Diridon (in San Jose), Lake Merritt (Oakland’s Chinatown) and San Leandro. Focus group sites were selected according to two major criteria. First, focus groups had to be held in communities that were in some stage of a TOD planning process, so that participants would be familiar with TOD concepts and have some pre-conceptions about TOD and related planning. Second, we sought to create a diversity of sites throughout the Bay Area, in different settings and different stages of their planning processes. Literature and sources consulted for this chapter came from the California Department of Housing and Community Development, Affordable Design Advisor, Troy Reinhalter

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Introduction

The chapter on transit-oriented development is derived largely from smart growth best practices and high density design guidelines. Noted organizations such as ULI, TransForm, Smart Growth America, and the Great Communities Collaborative form the backbone of the source material. Guidance is also drawn from renowned authors such as Hank Dittmar, Dana Beltzer, Peter Calthorpe, Robert Cervero, and others. Studio work in existing (San Francisco Embarcadero & San Jose/Blossom Hill) and potential Bay Area transit nodes (San Rafael & San Ramon) also contributes to the material. Coursework covering current urban design standards is also reflected in the document, particularly drawn from Vancouver, BC and Portland, OR. A real-world effort to visualize a potential TOD at Lake Merritt BART station also influenced the principles in this section, as stakeholders involved in the charrette made comments and suggestions regarding images and building form.


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and the National Multi-Housing Council, among others. Interviews with leading practitioners from the Great Communities Collaborative also added tremendously to the depth of the substance. The discussion of low carbon design is based upon several sustainable studios, primarily one that was conducted for Hitachi Corporation at their Blossom Hill Campus. Representatives from Hitachi asked student designers to conceive of a district-scale development that would produce reduced auto use and building energy use. Graduate coursework with Harrison Fraker comparing existing zero carbon developments was instrumental in shaping the tenor of the chapter. Personal design exploration informed some of the more innovative typologies and design solutions for multifamily buildings, though the inspiration for the layout and comparison was borrowed from John Ellis and his classic work on residential density. Passive design information also comes from an in-depth investigation of current best practices from organizations and sources such as Whole Building Design, AIA Low Energy Design, and Planning Magazine. Seminal works such as those by Beatley, Fraker, Farr, Edwards/Turrent, and Olgyay were also consulted. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION FOR ECO-BUILDING CONCEPT:

Introduction

“Eco-city” (Register 1979), “Eco-village” (Gilman 1991), “Eco-block” (Fraker 2009)

Connecting dense developments to nature: integrating green into the city • Eco-developments should generate food, energy, services, access to light+air, and all the other elements of holistic environments while recycling waste, water, materials; a microcosm of a healthy ecosystem • Food production (within community garden, living wall, green roof, internal greenhouse/galleria) and distribution (local farmers markets, incorporate grown food into retail) • 'Eco architecture' - well-ordered 3-dimensional complexity, connected at multiple levels and bisected by passageways at street level, keyhole/view plazas (plazas with a corner or side open to view nature) • Nature regeneration strategies such as creek restoration/daylighting, bio-retention, tree preservation

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Why is designing TODs right critical to urban planning? TODs may house as many as half of the region’s new households between now and 2030, according to estimates from the Association of Bay Area Governments. Since 2000, Bay Area voters have approved $12 billion for public transit, and there are currently at least 75 TOD planning processes recently completed or underway in the region. The Bay Area and other Californian metropoli are at the vanguard of the TOD movement nationally. Furthermore, analysis by Greenbelt Alliance has confirmed that the 2 million expected new inhabitants by 2035 can be accommodated within the current urban footprint along infill corridors, supported by transit.

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Why is strong, community sensitive urban design important to urban livability? Good design facilitates the continued infill of existing city centers and their environs. Context-appropriate design and scale makes higher densities possible and acceptable to communities. Higher densities are transit supportive and bring daily destinations to within close proximity to more urban denizens. There is a widely held dislike for highrise towers and a strong association between height and density. Overcoming this sentiment necessitates thoughtful layout and articulation. Careful planning can make dense living clusters visually acceptable and provide for shared amenities that benefit the whole community. Design that is sensitive to the streetscape through the use of proper scale, active ground floors, interesting building form, and civic amenities encourages walking/biking and robust use of downtown public spaces. Promoting these alternative modes of transportation is critical to fostering street life and urban community.

Why is green building essential to a low carbon future? SB 375 mandates that cities and counties plan their housing in concert with their transportation, and create a blueprint towards major greenhouse reductions. Buildings consume a large percentage of energy and are responsible for roughly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. By relying on naturally powered heating, cooling, and power, municipalities can slash emissions. Moreover, properly designed new construction can reduce building energy use by 50% or more compared to buildings designed without energy efficiency in mind. This is important because buildings typically last 30-50 years, and it is much less expensive and time-consuming to design for energy efficiency than to retrofit a building later. Designing buildings with low utility and maintenance costs help foster economic stability and a broader mix of residents.

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Introduction

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Introduction

How can TOD be designed to respond to Community needs? • Visioning charrettes, involvement in regional planning • Guarantees: community benefits agreements & community needs assessment - Densification in return for real community amenities (police, library, park, etc) – neighborhood compact • Carefully designed bulk, attention to shadows, contextual architecture and massing • Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections, include retail (regulations to favor local businesses) • Provide variety of public and programmed spaces • Civic uses: community classrooms, services/daycares • Encourage low-income economic engines – flex spaces, live/work typologies • Community economic benefits: walkers/bikers shop more often and spend more money at local-serving neighborhood shops than do drivers

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Appeasing the current neighbors with new amenities and an improved public realm may be expensive but it is likely less expensive than the cost of lengthy delays and legal wrangling (drawn out CEQA mitigations).

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Introduction

How do we tie Sustainability to Community acceptance? • Lower utility bills mean more affordable housing, more stable tenants with more discretionary income to spend on local goods → less risk of gentrification • Reduced carbon emissions means compliance with new laws such as SB375 and AB32, use fighting climate change/preserving environment/ improving public health as an persuasive imperative for change • Decreased infrastructure use with implementation of advanced district energy+water+waste strategies → less of a burden on existing community (sewer, power, water, trash, traffic) • Reduced demand on municipal services (in California, where droughts are frequent and municipal water utilities are pushed to capacity, this benefit is significant) • Connecting social justice issues to design and jobs (more training and socially equitable opportunities for minorities in green collar jobs) • Explore synergies with green business; installing PV panels and other green infrastructure supports local job and wealth creation, fueling local sustainable economies → positive for community’s overall welfare • Create people-focused neighborhoods in which residents interact with their neighbors. Safety increases with more “eyes on the streets” • Green/cool roofs provide relief from the urban heat-island effect, making the area cooler and more pleasant • Site management, landscaping, porous pavement, and on-site stormwater infiltration significantly reduces the impacts of stormwater runoff Green design process can educate clients and general public about the environmental impacts of buildings and how they can be mitigated. Troy Reinhalter

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Introduction

How can a Green development reduce traffic, the need for paved road infrastructure and support the Transit focus? • Address VMT by providing more fuel-efficient vehicles; car shares/zip cars • Subsidized electric hookup for PHEVs (drawn from solar generation) • Design the physical layout to provide safe, rapid access to public transit, pedestrian corridors, and bicycle paths • Mixed-use planning makes daily errands walkable (grocery/atm/pharmacy) • Incorporate home offices into houses to permit “telecommuting, ” build office space that can function as satellite offices to eliminate commutes • Enhance the public realm around the development • Provide bicycle storage and changing facilities • Families moving into new compact development may sell off one or both cars – fewer cars means reduced traffic congestion, which improves the quality of life, boosts productivity, and reduces air pollution

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‘Affordable’ units, those aimed at low and moderate income residents, are typically users who are more likely to take transit; saving on private vehicle transportation costs also represents a larger proportional saving than it would for higher income earners. DCRP 2010

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Transit-Oriented Development A. TOD Principles I. Create Pedestrian-Oriented Buildings II. Promote Multi-Modal Transportation III. Provide for Mixed Uses IV. Enhance Sense of Place and Identity V. Mitigate the Effects of Parking B. Benefits of TOD C. Major Issues: Density & Infill D. Why Design Matters I. Transitions II. Amenities III. Streetscaping IV. Open Space Material in this chapter is drawn from: - Student studio projects designing TODs in San Rafael, Blossom Hill, and San Francisco - Graduate course taught by Elizabeth MacDonald on current urban design practices - Survey of academic literature regarding TOD

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Why is designing TODs right so critical to urban planning? Taking the Bay Area as an example: TODs may house as many as half of the region’s new households between now and 2030, according to estimates from ABAG. Analysis by Greenbelt Alliance has confirmed that the 2 million expected new inhabitants by 2035 can be accommodated within the current urban footprint. Since 2000, Bay Area voters have approved $12 billion for public transit, and there are currently at least 75 TOD planning processes recently completed or underway in the region. Before any new expansion of transit can be approved, local governments must put TOD-appropriate regulations in place. Many Californian cities are at the vanguard of the TOD movement nationally.

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CHAPTER 1: TOD BEST PRACTICES


13 DESIGN PRINCIPLES Transit-Oriented Development

CREATE PEDESTRIAN-ORIENTED BUILDINGS • Create an intimate streetwall when desiging midrise or podium style development: I) street enclosure and proper ratio dictates 3 to 6 stories maximum at ground street level II) above townhouse/office/retail base, taller elements are set set back above a strong cornice line III) to disguise height and create added privacy, plantings/foliage are added along cornice IV) small setbacks as building moves upwards ensures equitable access to light and air • Density should cascade downward and outward from a transit node; density and height should emphasize the central node, active corners, important corridors, and other notable civic elements. A minimum FAR of 1.5 and a maximum of 6 is strongly encouraged to sustain an active, lively pedestrian environment

High-density pedestrian-friendly scale. Source: Author

• Activate the ground floor to create activity and ‘eyes on the street’ – for residential ground floor, it is critical to establish a transitional semi-private zone between street and unit, use 4-8' grade separation for privacy, employ plantings or terraces to create sound/view buffer I) individual residential entrances II) neighborhood-serving retail III) community services/classrooms

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Visual representation of appropriate density/heights around transit station. Source: Author

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• Promote non-motorized transportation by prioritizing ped/bicycle connections, access, and experience: I) Make the connections to current network or existing spaces with lots of foot traffic II) Respond to pedestrian 'desire lines' and accommodate them III) Reconnect with natural systems, create a peripheral jogging experience IV) “Access by proximity” - compact, mixed-use development means shorter travel distances to services and more inclination to walk or bike

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• If appropriate facilities exist or can be provided, design for “bicycle oriented development”: I) Vehicular traffic is frustrated/calmed/restricted, low parking ratios/car share II) Housing/open spaces are physically/visually connected and oriented towards bike network III) Bike Facilities: valet-checking for bikes or locked storage, bike repair shop IV) Time-of-day adjustment of lanes: parking + travel lanes during midday, bike + travel lanes during peak • Design slow, safe, interesting internal streets: I) Street-calming using woonerf treatment, bollards, raised pavers, chicanes, curb extensions/bulbouts, speed cushions/bumps II) Encourage pedestrians by improving the walking experience for community members III) Narrow streets – lanes 9-11 feet wide, short curve radius, median islands IV) Fine-grained grid defined by short blocks 200-400 ft long, split by alleys if needed V) Provide bicycle priority signal and/or pedestrian-activated beacons/signalization

Treatments for creating shared surfaces. Source: Streetsblog (2009), Author

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Transit-Oriented Development

PROMOTE MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORTATION


Transit-Oriented Development

15 PROVIDE FOR MIXED USES “Desire lines” at different scales. Source: Adaptive Path blog (2009)

• Mix land uses and time-of-day activities: I) Groceries and fresh food should be available within ¼ mile (known as "the ability to walk to get a quart of milk"); a grocery store that includes social spaces, related local businesses, and fewer parking spaces is an excellent anchor tenant II) Important to include at least one public land use: hotel, civic (clinics/hospital, daycares, library), educational (community college/classrooms), or entertainment (bar/club/etc) – these activities add users to the streetscape during all times of the day and invite the community to be part of a new development • Foster mixed demographics (income groups, ages) by providing multiple unit types: I) Mixing unit/building typologies horizontally: throughout the development II) Mixing typology vertically: within a midrise/ highrise building - setbacks at higher floors allow for private open space, which favors families, allowing for a wider diversity of residents at different points in their lifecycle III) A mix of rental and owner units also provides for greater resident diversity • Incorporate multiple designers/architects to generate a wider variety of styles and forms (often chosen through competition)

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Two sample blocks with mixed unit types (TH, loft, flat). Source: Author

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ENHANCE SENSE OF PLACE AND IDENTITY

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• Create prestige and attraction for residents and visitors: I) "unique urban spectacle" – spontaneous activity/ meeting on the street, programmed events II) “branding” – distinguish development from other existing nodes and destinations III) “long-term management” – provide for continued upkeep and maintenance going forward • Construct strong verticals to define the pedestrian zone, serve as an effective visual and safety buffer from traffic, and create a rich full canopy. Trees at 15-30 foot intervals, colorful pylons, uplighting, and signage all represent “cheap investment for rich place-making” • Contribute street amenities to the neighborhood, such as generous sidewalks (12-16 feet wide), WiFi access, seating areas/street furniture, newsstands, bike racks, public bathrooms, benches, litter containers, and information kiosks – these are relatively cheap investments but send a signal that appearances are important and users are welcomed • Divide large blocks into smaller units of development: I) smaller parcels are associated with frequent entrances, architectural diversity and variety in the otherwise coarser grain of the urban fabric II) most importantly, smaller parcels can offer a richer and more diverse pedestrian experience Street facilities enrich the public realm. Source: Wooster Collective (2006), TheHook (2008), SilverTiger blog (2008), Urbanophile (2007), Portland Metro (2009).

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Transit-Oriented Development

Vertical elements; pylons/lamps/signs. Source: Author


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• Create/preserve a unique and memorable sense of place: I) Identity by Design: Public art and amenities led to greater walk-by traffic; unique/ diverse places draw residents & visitors

NI TY

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III) Identity by Climate: Reduce the urban heat island by implementing cool/green roofs or water features, design buildings to serve as a buffer for controlling wind, temperature & humidity

TY

II) Identity by Community: Physical design should take into account the spatial practices by various community groups and their history

ID

Transit-Oriented Development

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O ITY BY C

M

Clockwise from top: Millennium Park globe art installation, Tai Chi plaza at Lake Merritt BART station, open-air Westfield mall in downtown Sacramento. Source: OaklandNorth.Net (2009), BigMallRat (2008).

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HIDE

MITIGATE EFFECTS OF PARKING

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• Use one of the following strategies: wrap/tuck/hide I) Wrap a parking podium with townhouses or retail/office, plant trees or have garage facade mimic other buildings II) Tuck parking a half grade below street level, requires only one curb cut and can be ventilated naturally III) Hide underground parking with low-profile one-lane garage entrance ramp off to the side of the parcel

TUCK

WRAP

Examples of preferred parking strategies. Source: Author

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Transit-Oriented Development

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Retail delivery/loading arrangement

• Explore alternatives to traditional parking strategies: I) parking lifts or independent access lifts (puzzle lifts) II) maximize on street parking III) unbundled parking policy or physically decoupled spaces (while still reasonably close to units) IV) include car share or transit passes with unit rental V) enhance entry experience from parking garages • Grab edges/perimeters with street oriented facades and minimal setbacks but preserve the interiors as semiprivate/private refuges permeated by alleys I) Alley typology combined with moderately low density allows for parking to be tucked under or behind units without constructing podiums or garages. II) Alley-loaded rowhouses create a slow, safe pedestrian realm and reduce curb cuts, permit more street trees and creates a rear play space Techniques for laying out mid-block alleys while respecting need for maximum solar access. Source: Author

Existing installations of ‘puzzle lifts’. All vehicles can be accessed independently. Source: Klaus Multipark (2010)

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Mews-style arrangement

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• Show potential heights of nearby structures in the future and do an economic analysis of what parcels are likely to upzone. Make it clear that context, building heights, and local conditions will change as time progresses • Build for change – provide ability and physical space for growth/economic production I) ground floor with 15' high ceilings allows flexible use of space (for example live/work) II) reconfigurable office floor plans and adaptable multi-use spaces III) garages that can be converted into studio/in-law unit IV) zoning code allows Production, Distribution, Repair (PDR) use such as small shops V) units that can be combined if families grow larger

Current Building Heights (pink blocks)

• Adaptively reuse existing structures (can be part of district-wide redevelopment strategy) I) "like" land uses are preferred II) equal or fewer floors added on top of existing structure III) set back the ‘piggybacked’ floors from existing cornice line IV) utilize brick veneers or similar methods to maintain facade continuity

Proposed Development (purple parcels) Adjacent Properties likely to densify and grow higher (yellow parcels)

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20 Transit-Oriented Development

ACCOMODATE CHANGE OVER TIME

Analysis of potential development in specific neighborhood. Example drawn from Embarcadero, SF. Source: Author


Transit-Oriented Development

21 BENEFITS OF TOD PLANNING Communicating the benefits of transit-oriented development is critical to making them a reality. “Selling” TOD effectively can mean the difference between dealing with confrontational neighborhood activists and engaged, supportive participants. Promotional efforts regarding TOD have largely focused on the benefits of halting sprawl into agricultural lands, fighting global climate change, reducing regional congestion, etc. Arguments in favor of TOD generally fall into one of two categories – either touting how compact development responds to new market trends and meets broad regional needs, or quoting economic studies to prove that TOD is a net financial gain for communities. Where developers and planners have failed to connect the dots is how TOD fits into existing communities, and how regional benefits filter down to the local level. Transit-oriented development can be framed as a response to ongoing trends such as an aging population or a solution to pervasive regional problem like roadway congestion. Demographic patterns show the need for a wider variety of housing choices that are not auto-dependent; transit villages can serve that growing need. Changing family sizes and the increasingly elderly population are a selling point for the necessity of TOD. Reminding naysayers that TOD is part of the answer to congestion can also be a helpful construct. By framing TOD as a development alternative to a low density, sprawling growth pattern, proponents can show that residents in a TOD contribute less to congestion and traffic problems because they a) own fewer cars, b) take transit more often, and c) are able to walk to many amenities. Building off of past local successes is strongly advised. Leveraging successful TOD models, those with attractive design, attention to pedestrian details, and close proximity to high quality transit, will prove that density is attractive when done right. Tours might be one way to give NIMBYs a first-hand look at the possibilities for their neighborhood. Advocates of TOD should emphasize the open space that can be saved by focusing development on existing communities. Transit-oriented development can also be framed as a fairness and justice issue; since low-income households already earmark a large share of their income towards transportation, they deserve the opportunity to live in walkable, transit-adjacent neighborhoods. Families that are obligated to spend on car ownership and associated costs have difficulty accumulating home ownership equity and are therefore at a fiscal disadvantage. TOD supporters should point out the costs involved in constructing brand new suburban infrastructure and to argue for that money to be used in improving older, more centrally located neighborhoods. On the subject of finances and infrastructure, planning professionals stress the importance of educating residents about the potential fiscal rewards of locating TOD nearby. They recommend touting the direct economic perks of transit-oriented development – for instance, studies have shown that residential and commercial properties in proximity to transit appreciate in value more rapidly. Similarly, walking distance to BART and office rent are linearly

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Bringing in outside experts to explain the added value from transit proximity and increasing community awareness about the perks of denser development are other recommended tactics. It will help to assuage community concerns about the burden of added residents if developers are clear about what infrastructure responsibilities they are assuming and how they will pay for the necessary upgrades. Communities want to see that a developer is interested in the community's wellbeing over the long-term, that the new project is one step forward in the continued evolution of the neighborhood. The principal shortcoming in the persuasive materials related to the benefits of TOD is a paradox that applies to the character of dense infill development itself. The fact is that the benefits of development in the form of jobs, real estate tax revenue, or housing production are diffuse and general, but the impacts of added residents are specific and local. Rarely do experts discuss specific benefits for existing communities. Bridging this divide is at heart of many NIMBY disputes. By designing and building dense transit villages according to certain best practices, we can deliver upon the aforementioned benefits and create more successful models to emulate. Community activists are not always convinced that transit oriented development will live up to the lofty propaganda, especially when it comes to traffic and congestion. By implementing strategies like unbundling (separate purchase of living space from parking space) and adhering to maximum parking requirements, developers can illustrate their commitment to reducing congestion. In terms of design, new projects should implement traffic calming and have a fine grain (narrow streets and a walkable framework) to discourage driving. Clustering a mix of uses near transit also supports this goal of decreased air pollution, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and improved air quality. Enhancing and enlarging the existing non-vehicular transportation network will promote walking and biking and meet these same objectives. TODs should be built for the whole neighborhood to enjoy, with safe, pleasant, and walkable

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related. Proving empirically that TODs create an increase in abutting land value goes a long way to dispel myths regarding the pernicious impact of density on home property worth. Using economic substantiation can persuade communities that TODs will provide funding for the needed infrastructure improvements. Studies in Portland, Oregon and Atlanta, Georgia have shown that successful developments generate growing property and sales taxes, money that can be used to replenish the coffers of local government. According to a study done by Emerging Trends in Real Estate, properties in better-planned, growth-constrained markets hold value better in down markets and appreciate more in upcycles because they respond to pent-up demand for housing near transit and downtown jobs. Along those lines, planners should target existing property owners near transit to provide data on these positive trends and to educate them on the redevelopment potential of their property, thereby creating a healthy base of local support to combat NIMBYs.


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public spaces. Residents must be able to make routine daily trips by foot (groceries, ATM, movie theater, etc). Incorporating sufficient retail within walking distance or an easy transit trip will determine whether new residents leave the car at home or crawl along the freeway with everyone else. New dense developments must also strike a careful balance between density and privacy in order to compete with suburbia and appeal to a broad audience. TOD projects must offer various suburban amenities (spaciousness, peacefulness, safety) that people have found so attractive while at the same time offer the amenities that come from density, such as more stimulating commercial opportunities within walking distance and a cohesive sense of community. Thoughtful urban design can create a real community identity for station areas and make them attractive, safe, and convenient places to live, work, and shop. Finally, negotiating a master plan with community members that illustrates how the physical character and amenities/services of the neighborhood will evolve over time (larger than the scale of one single project) shows the commitment of the developer to the community's welfare.

The “Five D’s�: planning levers to reduce driving. Source: Ewing (2005)

Photo of Arlington, VA. Noted success of TOD high-density corridor strategy. Source: ULI (2003)

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Dealing with Density and Infill

Dense infill projects face opposition from a public that is either unfamiliar with high-quality compact development or simply resistant to change; neighborhood residents may feel the very character of their community is being challenged by a non-standard/innovative housing proposal. Density is a frightening concept to many homeowners. Bad memories associated with public housing projects or dating back to urban renewal and personal experiences living in subpar apartments mean that proposals to densify are often fighting an uphill battle. For many adults, the only experience of living in 'high-density' housing has been college dorms or similar 'collegetown' apartments, built cheaply and lacking high-quality elements and attention to design. The rest of their life has been spent in single family detached homes and thus multifamily types are unfamiliar and of questionable value. Denser housing models, even those as simple as duplexes and flats over retail, may be located not far from typical suburban environments but outside daily commute or errand paths. Recently, NIMBYs have focused on what they see as a negative consequence of TOD infill: the infrastructure capacity of roads, parks, schools, and libraries, and the lack of funding to build the additional infrastructure required with a denser urban environment.ii In other words, increased density is undesirable because of the potential fiscal impacts on the community and the overcrowding of public infrastructure. The overall calculus clearly favors infill: the Urban Land Institute (ULI) found that infrastructure costs per housing unit drop dramatically as density increases. The combined cost of utilities, schools, and streets falls from $90,000 for one dwelling sited on four acres to just over $10,000 per unit for developments of 30 units per acre. Despite this big picture evidence, neighbors worry about more parked cars on their street and other local aspects of the infrastructure issue. Developers should focus on demonstrating how their project is going to contribute to the common good of the community, in terms of specific benefits. Enhancing the built amenities of a community is a way to prove the good intentions of the developer. White recommends that the developer view this concern not in terms of “buying off� local residents, but rather illustrating that their project, well planned and executed, will have positive social repercussion on the community as a whole. Another NIMBY argument along the same lines is that the increased density of a multi-family home development will increase the load on services and utilities. Since non-profit developers of affordable housing do not pay real estate property tax, opponents claim that various community services (especially schools) will be serving more citizens with less money. They worry that the quality of their children’s education will be degraded. Yet NIMBYs ignore that nonprofits are still required to pay taxes on the land and as well as whole laundry list of impact fees. Density discussions need to move past measurements such as units per acre or people per acre, but instead be tied to livability, the quantity and quality of human interaction and social contacts. Developers need to make clear that

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24

MAJOR ISSUES: DENSITY AND COMMUNITY


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increased density will satisfy many other concerns; the need for privacy, light and greenery, access, open space and parking. Mid-rise and even moderate high-rise development can stimulate good social conditions if these other needs are addressed. It is important to consider perceived density when massing and designing a project. Density can be willfully manipulated to appear lower than in actuality, using setbacks, mid-block alley-loading, point towers, facade tricks and articulation, smaller unit footprints, etc. Research has demonstrated that Bay Area residents have a higher tolerance for multifamily densities if such living arrangements are combined with transportation, neighborhood open space and neighborhood retail. A sample of 160 individuals from 8 Bay Area communities, when interviewed, clearly understood and accepted densities higher than 24 units per acre because they are more easily associated with services than densities below that threshold. To make higher densities work, the public will need to see how good design and compact building will create better communities; bringing in new amenities, choices, and diversity while maintaining the current high quality neighborhood valued by its residents. Developers should stress that they are creating a place for the whole community – upgrading the station area into a place with sense of identity.

Community Involvement Not only do experts recommend framing development in terms of the broader community, they encourage engaging community members in a collaborative design process from the start. Developers should invite community members to participate early on and to take their opinions seriously. Additionally, developers should assess community sentiment regarding the proposed project before any formal public process begins, in order to tailor educational/outreach strategies and leaving room for negotiation to modify the project. Moving forward on development is easier once the community has already begun to coalesce around a shared vision of growth. After the need for greater density is conveyed, communities are more likely to approve specific building typologies that meet the city’s density goals. Developing this menu of pre-approved typologies will help communities imagine exactly what a denser station area will look like. Experts recommend that developers avoid focusing on the density allowed per acre, but instead make a clear “visual statement” by emphasizing the type of building appropriate for each neighborhood context, since these typologies resonate more with communities. To deal with the perceived fiscal impacts of new density, developers should focus on demonstrating how their project is going to contribute to the common good of the community, in terms of specific benefits. Enhancing the built amenities of a community is a way to prove the good intentions of the developer. Developers should not aim to “buy off” local residents, but rather illustrate that the project, well planned and executed, will have positive social repercussions on the community as a whole.

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Conducting a “place audit” is a good way to remind the community that a new project could provide funding and momentum to upgrade the built infrastructure. A place audit usually begins with a walk in the community to identify good and bad conditions, for example noting missing sidewalks, potential bike lane upgrades, pedestrian crossing enhancements, new traffic signals. The community is now focused on how the new development will help, rather than if. Using imagery can also be a powerful technique to change attitudes about development. A perception exists among builders and developers, for example, that people prefer low-density developments. However, a study done at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill concluded that, when given visual surveys rather than conventional opinion surveys, the public prefers development that would be classified as “high density”. Thus, presenting 'Before' and 'After' pictures of successful developments might cause some to realize that density is exactly what their community needs. Other visual preference surveys confirm that there is nearly a universally negative reaction to the appearance of a commercial strip mall and conversely, a universally positive reaction to 'traditional' town-like communities of the past.

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26 Transit-Oriented Development

Methods to involve the community are varied: a collective growth vision process, design charrettes, a community place audit, and photographic surveys can all serve useful purposes. Holding a collective visioning process on a regional or county scale can effectively communicate the need for more compact growth. Thinking and grappling with growth in the regional context can help communicate the need for more compact growth. Presenting the public with several future scenarios allows them to grasp the rationale for building TOD projects. The process gives them the opportunity to understand the trade-offs between greenfield development and infill. Beginning at the large scale and working down to the local, developers can begin to appreciate what community values are and envisage what residents value in their neighborhood, what they’d like to change and what they’d like to preserve. A charrette can be one way to get communities on board with the design of the project, but only if key officials or activists participate. A charrette is a “carefully managed, collaborative design process aimed at providing a proposal that reflects the input and approval of all participants.” However, charettes are no silver bullet for managing opposition; there are many instances in which it would be unwise to hold a charrette. If key officials or activists do not participate, the outcome will not be seen as reflective of the range of opinions. It is usually more likely that opponents of projects will take the time to work on a charrette, so it may be difficult to steer the charrette in a positive direction. On the whole, charrettes are not the best technique to build support for a plan already in mind, but instead should be considered be part of an overall public outreach strategy.


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27 WHY DESIGN MATTERS Good design can facilitate TOD acceptance by the community. Some might say that it is irrelevant what housing looks like – who lives there is far more important to their eventual impact on the community. Yet we ignore design at our peril: psychological studies have proven that when we look at a neighborhood or a building, we tend to judge its residents based on our preconceptions of what a good neighborhood should look like. Ugly, run-down, boring structures invoke fears of undesirable residents. Studies have found that a group of people will form positive or negative attitudes toward the people living in viewed homes and neighborhoods based solely upon the appearance of the homes and neighborhoods. The same study found that the middle-class was more likely to make judgments about the morals or characters of the people living in viewed homes and neighborhoods based purely upon the appearance of the homes and neighborhoods. In this study, they reacted most strongly to the appearance of an unkempt neighborhood or poorly maintained houses, referring to the residents as lazy, irresponsible or shiftless. Overall, design will never trump irrational fears, but it can facilitate acceptance by the community. How do we achieve good design? Experts have weighed in on this point as well. There are specific design guidelines that should be followed in order to maximize the success of any development, particularly for interfacing with existing form, community amenities, streetscaping, and open space. Transition to Existing Form The transition between and relationship to current buildings and homes is one of the most critical design features of any TOD. A project that does not respect the character, height, or style of a community is bound to draw the fiercest opposition. “Fitting into� a neighborhood can be accomplished by adhering to several key rules. The tallest and most dense structures should be built closest to the station, and height should cascade down as you move away in all directions. Complimenting existing development patterns can also be done by picking out common architectural features and copying them or including them in new buildings. New projects should be sensitive to existing colors, materials, articulation, etc. If possible, the initial proposal should demonstrate that developers are aware of the housing stock in the specific neighborhood and took pains to match community identity. It is recommended to build higher density to resemble less dense dwellings already prevalent in the neighborhood, which will deflect attention from the supposed incompatibility of the people who will move there. Added height can impact shade, sunlight, and views for current residents. The impacts of any large towers should be studied ahead of time, since while views are not protected by any legal standing, current residents will fight tooth and claw to preserve what they believe is theirs. Increased building bulk usually triggers complaints over shading of sidewalks, streets, and yards.

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Amenities Dense infill projects face opposition from a public that is unfamiliar with high-quality compact development. Not only that, but researchers explain there is an instinctive resistance to change; neighborhoods feel the very character of their community is being challenged by a non-standard/innovative housing proposal. We might conceptualize NIMBYs as acting purely out of self defense against perceived encroachment by outsiders. Developers need to stress that they are creating a place for the whole community – turning the station area into a desirable destination. More precisely, developers should enumerate what a new project will be adding to the wider community in tangible amenities (open space, revenues, customers, pedestrian streets) and intangible benefits (diversity, safety by changing the quality of the station, revitalization of “main street”, adding to identity). Simply put, “Density plus amenity equals community; density without amenity equals crowding.” If we are trying to move people out of their cars and onto sidewalks, bike lanes, and transit, then we are moving them from the private realm to the public realm. This places a unique burden on the public realm, and developers/planners need to do more to make the public realm a desirable place to go. It’s essential that public space is high quality, otherwise there is less motivation or inclination to walk down the street or through open space. Plans and designs must convey that the public realm gets better with density, not worse with density. Streetscaping Designing and maintaining a lively, interesting, and functional street front, as well as easy pedestrian connections between transit and local residences and businesses, is imperative in TOD design. Early iterations of government sponsored affordable housing utterly failed to integrate the apartment units into the street context. Many turned their back on the public realm or walled off the buildings in a defensive manner. Today, we realize the errors of this style of development. Though upgrades to sidewalks, plantings, and street furniture may be expensive investments for a developer, the payoff in generating healthy pedestrian traffic and creating a safe and attractive living environment is immeasurable. To protect the integrity of the ground floor, setbacks should be limited and parking entrances and structures should be camouflaged or wrapped as best as possible. The streetscape should be comfortable for the shopper and the stroller by paying careful attention to the relation between street width and building height. New buildings must incorporate windows and doors at street level that complement the existing street experience. Networks of easy pedestrian access should connect popular destinations with transit and residences.

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Open Space Any design should also have open space as a top priority. Compactly developed places need adequate public space to breathe and to avoid creating a claustrophobic feel. To offset the private backyards lost when moving from suburbia into new TODs, projects should ensure ready access to public open space. Developers should be encouraged to maintain walk-through access if possible, in order to make a project site an integrated part of the neighborhood, rather than a fenced off private realm. Building underground or podium parking will also free up greater open space. Numerous authors urge developers to explain the link between preserving greenfields and compact growth. The importance of planting street trees and high-quality landscaping can not be overstate. While it can require considerable expenditure, the addition of greenery will provide many benefits, long into the future of a neighborhood. These include increased marketability and financial return, as landscaping can add as much as fifteen percent to the resale value of a home. Rental properties with trees have been shown to have a higher occupancy rate than rental properties without. Adding in trees and greenery can help make the station area safer and more pleasant. Plants are the “fastest, most cost-effective agents for changing negative perceptions of an area”. Neighborhoods with trees and plants report a lower incidence of crime and domestic violence. Trees can even bring a community together; “Residents who participated in a treeplanting program in their low-income neighborhood in Oakland, California, reported feeling a stronger sense of community, enhanced communication with neighbors and more control over their environment”. While design is not a panacea for all the concerns of NIMBYs, it can go a long way towards making a project acceptable to a community.

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Attractive townhouses with street trees and a pleasant sidewalk easily blend into an existing community. Source: SmartGrowth America (2005).

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How to organize density around transit & retail corridors. Creating infill ribbons means more walkable amenities and the opportunity to insert new bike lanes, street cars, and open space. Source: Freedman, Tung, and Associates (2008)

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31 CHAPTER 2:

Community Sensitivity

COMMUNITY SENSITIVITY Community Sensitivity Best Practices A. Design Principles I. Respect Specifics of Local Context II. Guarantee Public Amenities III. Ensure Value over Long Run IV. Stimulate Citizen Involvement V. Include a Variety of Green Space B. Building for Communities C. Major Issues of Contention I. Community Building II. Larger Planning Context III. Responsiveness D. Improving Imagery E. Reframing the Debate

Material in this chapter is drawn from: - Focus group interrogations in San Leandro, Pittsburg, Oakland Chinatown, and San Jose - Survey of academic literature dealing with NIMBYs and community opposition - Conversations with leading practitioners

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Why is strong, community sensitive urban design important to urban livability? Good design facilitates the continued infill of existing city centers and their environs. Contextappropriate design and scale makes higher densities possible and acceptable to communities. Higher densities are transit supportive and bring daily destinations to within close proximity to more urban denizens. There is a widely held dislike for highrise towers and a strong association between height and density. Overcoming this sentiment necessitates thoughtful layout and articulation. Careful planning can make dense living clusters visually acceptable and provide for shared amenities that benefit the whole community. Design that is sensitive to the streetscape through the use of proper scale, active ground floors, interesting building form, and civic amenities encourages walking/biking and robust use of downtown public spaces. Promoting these alternative modes of transportation is critical to fostering street life and urban community.

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DESIGN PRINCIPLES

• Relate to the style/color/quality of pre-existing, adjacent buildings: I) Adapt small neighborhood home shapes from ‘across the street’ II) Have the rear of a project devolve into townhouse forms III) Show value of mixing that new forms will bring while respecting history IV) Borrow historic architectural details – cornices, windows, arches, rooftops V) Match the exterior and height of adjoining buildings, or alternatively, vary heights and use a mixture of facade materials VI) Pick up the character of the area (for instance, curved roofs in an industrial area) VII) Break up large blocks into smaller units to match existing parcelization Clockwise from top: adopting neighborhood forms, varying facade materials, “four-plex” typology, “fake mansion” typology. Source: Design Advisor (2009).

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RESPECT SPECIFICS OF LOCAL CONTEXT


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• A complete street network, walkable amenities, out-of-sight parking, contextual architecture and public spaces are necessary for successful TOD. Developments must be well designed in order to realize the advertised advantages of compact/transitfriendly/mixed-use projects. To alleviate the concerns regarding parking/traffic and open space, greater total number of residents accommodated by higher density; high density is not by itself a recipe for success. • Use local stories, local people/workers, local images I) Know the history of the site and surroundings; past conflicts inform current debates II) Showing local projects lets the community know you have done your homework and are invested in its success III) Use reframing and counter-arguments to defuse commonly held misperceptions concerning the infrastructure impacts on schools, police/crime, and long-term growth/change IV) Show height studies (example at left) to illustrate important view corridors will be preserved • Forget using “plannerspeak,” i.e. DUA/density figures – talk about increasing housing choice within the community, creating workforce housing, providing new investment in the public realm

Height study for Embaracadero corridor, demonstrating views of Coit Tower will remain unobstructed. Source: Author

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• Select the appropriate typology for the urban transect: I) Highrise typologies should assume the form of point towers on townhouse/retail podium: slender upper bulks for shadowing & views, setback from base to preserve pedestrian scale II) Rowhouse buildings can produce adequate densities of 25 -45 DUA, and they are a clearly identifiable typology that is easily associated with urban living in American cities (frequent entrances, finegrain texture), they send a clear visual signal that pedestrians are invited and safe

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• Negotiate a solid community benefits agreement to appease neighbors who fear a negative outcome. Benefits do not need to be costly but should create new community spaces; small scale interventions like pocket parks are a good example. Any addition to the civic character of the neighborhood is positive. • Make residents understand that new investment is necessary to maintain a high quality public realm. Selling infill as creating desirable and attractive places is a good way to win over opposition. There are many ways for neighbors to feel involved in securing needed amenities: Place Audit/Neighborhood Inventory – citizens walk the streets and list what they perceive is lacking in their neighborhood. Rating the quality of public spaces, sidewalks, benches, etc. Community Input Package/Community Image Survey - questionnaire for citizens to mark their preferences on a variety of issues, including visual preferences and community needs. Walkability/Bikeability Checklist - quantitative analysis of how walkable or bikeable a community is.

Worksheets for interactive community processes. Sources: Project for Public Spaces (2006), Richmond (CA) Community Checklist (2000), Landscape and Urban Planning (2007), Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (2010).

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Community Sensitivity

GUARANTEE PUBLIC AMENITIES


Townhouse entrance with high-quality character: trellis, bushes, articulation, paving stones. Source: ULI (2003)

• Developers should leverage four kinds of amenities to assuage neighbors: natural, planned, recreation, and image I) Natural: one of the biggest mistakes developers make is failing to take advantage of existing vegetation/trees, wetlands, slopes, streams/ponds II) Planned: view corridors, accessible shops, creative unit layouts, open space and pedestrian networks, green walls/ roofs, re-use of existing structures III) Recreation: gyms, pools, and courts are more expensive, while community gardens, jogging track, playgrounds, picnic shelters, and outdoor seating are cheaper but highly desired IV) “Image” amenities create a special community identity, setting the project apart from competition and adding value to the neighborhood: landscaped entrance, graphic symbols used consistently, accent lighting, distinctive site furniture or art, decorative fences on property edge

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• Match amenities to the target demographic market and provide year-round amenities (evergreen shrubs provide color in winter, indoor spaces, shaded or covered outdoor spaces. Design manmade amenities to be visible, and if possible, usable, by the general public. A plaza or community center is a good example of this. Alternatively, reclaim low-volume pass-through vehicle space and donate it to the community as flexible public space.

Pleasant street: full canopy, street lights, porches, upper height setback, grade change, landscaping. Source: NMHC (2001)

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ENSURE VALUE OVER THE LONG RUN • Show neighbors older projects that still look great as proof that your company or management partners can keep up their end of the bargain. Maintenance programs are important to maintain property value and community image over the long term. The so-called ‘brand value,’ or positive reputation of developer can go a long way towards establishing trust in a new neighborhood

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• Show residents what the community could look like in the future: I) Engage the community to visualize alternatives to existing conditions by presenting several density scenarios II) Explain how development will benefit a wide range of existing community (elderly, young couples, families, teachers, police/firemen) III) Help neighbors understand that surrounding buildings will change, consolidate, upzone, and densify – use this to show how communities will evolve over time and should not be afraid to build with an eye to the future • Incorporate retail and explore novel strategies to prevent empty or monotonous storefronts: I) anti-formula retail ordinance – prohibits national franchises, outlets with >12 locations II) rough-hewn retail – building cheap/non-podium retail space on the periphery to attract lower priced stores III) shallow liner retail – 20' deep window shopping galleries, very small leasable square footage, aimed at browsing, 'flexible' since it is easy to rotate tenants (i.e. flower shops)

Conscientious phasing will make suire transit arrives as the project is completed. Source: Author

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Charrettes help residents understand bold moves. Source: Mashpee Commons (2008)

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• Explain how projects fit into the longterm planning context; and when new infrastructure and promised transit will actually materialize. To kee before the entire project is completed, establish the authority of the big idea first (scale, building type, streetscape, representative space/block) Address the community as a whole; housing, transit, public realm are not separate pieces


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STIMULATE CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT • Turn out the silent YIMBYs in the community by leveraging social justice/equity. Having more community members included in the process leads to greater engagement and validation within the neighborhood. Target underserved communities by aggressively soliciting their participation in public meetings. I) Have translators available or conduct meetings in native languages II) Have ancillary rooms available to hold overflow and allow parents to bring children III) Tap known leaders within ethnic communities to become 'champions' of the project IV) Partnerships with faith-based organizations can open doors

Community Sensitivity

• Have a frank discussion of trade-offs – more residents will justify higher transit frequencies, more residents create a richer tax base and stronger political voice for investment in schools, parks, infrastructure, etc • Hold a charrette to have citizens participate in mock regional planning exercises. Forecasting scenarios from sprawl to most dense can change attitudes and the overall political dynamic. By showing more attractive future alternatives, opponents may change their thinking, and results are often quite different than if simply debating whether or not there will be “that multi-family housing project on that corner.”

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Process of regional planning. Source: Author

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Streetscape Survey; residents rank various treatments for different local settings.

‘Box’ Game: participants move buildings around to simulate new development location and density.

Before/After: Modeling the site prior and after a proposed project helps residents visualize the improvements.

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Examples of Visual Community Involvement Strategies. Source: Smart Growth Tools (2010)


39 INCLUDE A VARIETY OF GREEN SPACES

Community Sensitivity

• Public spaces should fulfill different niches along the urban transect and satisfy many user groups – where do children play, where do neighbors meet, where do dogs get walked, where do sports, exercise, and recreation happen → stoop, porch, patio, terraces are all different kinds of public spaces • Size/scale of open spaces must be optimized for climate: I) If overly large, there can be too much heat gain; if too small, there may be insufficient heat loss at night. II) Groups of shade trees create cooler areas on public lawns III) Surface characteristics are important - the ground should be soft and preferably green or any other medium tone - as little paved surface as possible, both for permeability and reduced heat absorption

Partitions create semi-private spaces. Source: Author

• New public open space within or adjacent to a development (or significant streetscape improvements) are a must for dense infill projects. Vague promises about stopping sprawl or preserving agricultural land do not resonate. Green spaces increase social capital/interaction within communities and act as an alternative to private open space, thereby promoting density. • Establish a clear hierarchy of public and private spaces by employing the courtyard typology with direct unit access. This generates a sense of community and shared ownership, especially if residents are involved in the space (plantable/interactive). Install opaque partitions/dividers to carve out private space from a shared courtyard and define the character of open spaces within the development. • To ensure upkeep of green infrastructure, organize 'Community Participation' programs to maintain gardens/plantings/shared areas (keeps costs down over the long run)

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A hierarchy of outdoor places enriches attached housing types. Source: Author

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Clockwise: Private open space takes the form of overhanging balconies; shared rock wall facility, treehouse+swing in green median adjacent to housing, public pedestrian arcade maintains upper level setback. Source: Fraker (2009)

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“Complete Parks�

Recreation: peripheral jogging path tennis courts basketball/volleyball courts boating/swimming picnic tables/BBQ Nature: shade trees wildlife green slopes water Play: children's playgrounds sandboxes swings public art/statues dog-walking

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41MAJOR ISSUES: COMMUNITY RELATIONS

Community Sensitivity

Lack of Attention to Community Building; “What’s in it for them?”

In 2009, the Center for Community Innovation conducted focus groups around the Bay Area to determine the effectiveness of toolkits meant to educate communities about TOD and density. Tools tested in the focus groups had one major shortcoming identified by several different group members: there was no story of how new development contributed specifically to the overall betterment of the existing community life and built environment. While the tools generally claimed that TOD can generate positive economic benefits or greater safety or open space amenities, no tool really attempted to envision how the neighborhood would evolve as a result of the new development. “You talk a lot about community here...but we never really got a real sense of the community we're trying to build. We don't You're trying to get all these apartments around something, and kids can play with other kids. You want to emphasize the nature of these developments as contributing to community” said a participant in response to a TOD 101 presentation in Diridon. NIMBYs are concerned that developers will build, maximize their profit through whatever means necessary, then move on to the next opportunity. Making the connection with the community and making it clear that the developer has a stake in the success of the project and the health of the larger neighborhood goes a long

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Aggie Village: 15 DUA Davis

Seabridge Villas: 40 DUA San Diego

Kettner Row: 55 DUA San Diego

Source: Examples of projects at varying densities that are known for having fostered a tight-knit sense of community. Source:Affordable Design Advisor (2009)

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To address some of these grievances, planners and developers should help residents recognize that new development may be a valuable opportunity to upgrade the public realm. Developers could engage the community members in a discussion over what amenities are missing, what they would like to see added; perhaps the community has desired a bike lane, a bus stop, or a skateboarding park. There were some suggestions of how that might play out: “Improve the sidewalks, plant some trees so the sidewalk is walkable, put in a bike lane, I mean I could come up with a million things that you could do instead of pocketing it, so we get the carrots instead of just the sticks.” Regardless of the approach taken, tools, renderings, and developers should tell the story of a better community.

Failure to Situate the Development in Larger Context “We haven't done a good enough job at completing all the pieces of the puzzle.”

On a broader note, we noticed some frustration related to the difficulty of matching up the timelines on separate tracks of development – transit expansion, commercial retail promotion, housing projects. As a planner, we are constantly dealing with the challenge of timing, but the consequences are most real to local communities. The broad long-term vision of planners and delicate budget and priority balancing act is lost on communities who wait for amenities that come late or not at all. If the eventual site of a new Whole Foods grocery stands empty for 3 years while a community waits, there is bound to be resentment and the next project will have an impossible time of convincing people it will happen differently. There is an obvious disconnect to ordinary citizens if we are selling the benefits of TOD based on frequent and connected transit but that critical component is nowhere to be seen. In many cases, new expanded rail or bus lines are on the drawing boards, in anticipation of new residents, but months or years away from realization. During a

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Community Sensitivity

way to placate these fears. Communities are not endeared to presentations that state platitudes such as ‘Reduced parking ratios can provide the opportunity for greater open space,’ even though these kinds of claims are generally accepted truth in planning environs. Alternatively, showing communities where a new park will be built (or a new day care or playground) really drives home the physical impact the project will have. Giving the community a tangible amenity to chew on will leave many opponents wondering what exactly is so bad about the development. We shouldn't confuse this with “buying off” the opposition but see this as an opportunity to give back to the neighborhood that is going to be changing as a result of the new residents moving in. Psychologically, compensating affected residents for the perceived burdens of accepting new infill housing will strike them as more equitable and fair. Indeed, several members raised the issue of compensation: “What about the existing communities? Does this project bring benefits to the community? ...if people will live there, how does it contribute to the other residents, what’s in it for them?”


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discussion in San Jose on transit, a resident detailed the problem: “They're building on contingent transportation, future transportation. We've had projects funded on BART, BART isn't even funded to come here yet.” We should realize that the success of progressive planners in popularizing the concept of TOD does not necessarily translate to success on the ground. It is no longer difficult for planners and developers to convey why transit-oriented development is good; the benefits of walkability, local-serving retail, mixed-income, and higher density are obvious to most in theory. However, ensuring those theoretical principles become a reality is where skepticism arises, especially given the financial difficulties of local governments. If cities and towns are struggling to provide basic services, how can communities expect that promises of new bus rapid transit or pedestrian bridges will come to fruition? This lack of timely transit provoked a proposition in Diridon: “We need TODs to have triggers that before they're built, certain conditions have to be met [suitable transit has to been in place] and if they are then that's great.” There was also a consensus that local government seemed preoccupied with securing residential development without putting in the other elements. For instance: “It can't be all about housing, it has to be about how everything works.” Others echoed that thought: “They're trying to get people to come down [to downtown], to live, be part of it [living in downtown high-rises], and they haven't bought into it...we haven't done a good enough job at completing all the pieces of the puzzle.” This was a major concern that was brought up time and again in several focus groups. We ignore it at our peril since it jeopardizes the usefulness of any community oriented materials. Planners have to be aware that their decisions affect what people consider to be their single most valuable asset (the home) and to be prepared for a vitriolic reaction. Simply being conscious of the impact that coordinating different planning processes has on neighborhoods is a good first step. Going forward, future tools should surely address how implementation and other major elements will unfold for a particular project over a 3-year or 5-year timeline. Otherwise this will continue to generate serious opposition to well-designed projects.

Planners not seen as Responsive to Communities “They're all in little cubicles, trying to draw what it looks like.”

In several focus groups, participants bemoaned the relationship they had endured with the local planning office. In particular, they lamented the lack of amenities that had accompanied nearby developments, and a lack of involvement in the final decision-making process. Feeling like they were shut out of the process built up a lingering up resentment that may have hardened some opponents against TOD projects despite the most effective tools. Some felt that planners weren't acting in the best interests of the community and instead were too beholden to developers: “Its strictly the housing department and the developer partner, the city helping them to finance the

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There was also a backlash when it came to the disconnect between developer promisess and on-the-ground reality. Residents complained that they did not get what they were expecting, having been shown examples of fantastic developments (for example, Santana Row) but the frustration arose when projects fell short of lofty rhetoric and sky-high expectations. A group member in San Leandro lamented:“We totally get what you're trying to say. And the hard thing is just that, we don't see it.” There was definitely a growing disappointment that what they’re being promised contrasts with what is actually being built in their community. There was also a palpable fear of being left out of the final stages of the negotiation. Several members had experience with projects that changed at the last minute, and therefore a lack of trust that the development will be as well-designed as it was initially. A participant enunciated this fear of being disenfranchised from changes in your community: “As much as we were involved on our project for three years before it was approved, and we still got screwed. Its not as if we weren't active, with the Fiesta Lanes Action Group, we went to all the meetings, and organized for three years.”

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Community Friendly Design Practices. Source: Author

Balconies and Articulation

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Mixture of parcelization

Community Sensitivity

project at the expense of the neighborhood.” Given that many planning departments have become either wholly or partially fee-based, its hard not to see why citizens believe there may be a kernel of truth to this accusation.

Ground Floor Entrances

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45 REFRAMING THE ISSUE; SUCCESSFUL COUNTER ARGUMENTS

Community Sensitivity

One of the most effective ways to combat community opposition to TOD is to reframe the issues and tell a different story about them entirely. Reframing helps to make the connection between community and new infill development. During several focus groups, participants themselves did so on several occasions. The insider status of these participants gave them more legitimacy than the facilitators could ever have. Notably, each of these examples reframes TOD in a way that was centered on the needs of real people, and on the community itself. These are explanations that make it clear that TODs, affordable housing and growth are not being created in a vacuum. While transit-oriented developments are supposed to reduce vehicle use, residents still fear that if more and more families move into a particular area, they are still going to have some cars, so the overall congestion will probably still worsen. However, in most developments, the new tenants are living in the community already, so on balance the community is subtracting cars. In other words, the community is benefiting from drawing its own residents into transit-focused development. A valuable issue to raise is that regardless of any new development, additional residents will be coming in to the community in question. Every city is projected to to grow by a certain percentage and many citizens don't always realize that. Knowing and explaining that the community will be growing by 10 or 15% already, and new residents will be coming in over the next ten years, so the question should be framed as, how are we going to address this, rather than we're going to force 3000 units into the city for the sake of profit. Reframing points to the idea of using discussion, and particularly discussion with known supporters who are still insiders in the communities, as a persuasive tactic itself. It also points to the idea of incorporating newly-framed and powerful stories about TOD that are appropriate and recognizable for the particular community into the tools directly. This is a difficult and highly subjective task, and one that would often have to rely on information from supportive local organizations or individuals. Regarding the impact of TOD on infrastructure, several focus group members expressed concern about the impact that an increased number of families might have on already-crowded schools and crime. These are two salient community issues that can benefit from reframing:

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In contentious public meetings or personal debates, these kinds of counterpoints can radically alter the tenor of the conversation. Specific rebuttals are more legitimate than vague, unsubstantiated claims about the benefits of infill/mixed use. Furthermore, making these new perspectives specifically applicable to specific communities is even more successful. Having these comments come from someone within the community is notable, adding credibility that no outside agent could ever aspire to. Even in focus groups that contained participants strongly opposed to the TOD planning processes, it was this reframing that seemed most likely to catch the attention of the most ardent NIMBYs. Different densities contribute differing numbers of school children. Source: American Housing Survey (1999)

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Community Sensitivity

Crime: I) Affordable housing managers will extensively screen all the potential applicants with a background check. Since there will be a backlog of applicants waiting to get in, if there's a problem with a resident, they will be evicted and replaced summarily. II) 'Eyes on the street' is another concept that the public is increasingly accepting as legitimate. Fostering pedestrian activity and a 24-hour community makes residents more secure. III) New developments often include better lighting and carefully designed landscaping that reduces opportunities for crime. Indeed, a ULI study of Greenwich, CT shows that higher density housing is less likely to be burglarized. Schools: I) Many students currently have sub-par housing in-district, so providing new units will not actually add to the student total. Upgrading the quality of existing students' homes is an improvement to the overall housing stock, without adding out of town residents as old/unsafe/unprofitable public housing and slums are torn down. II) Current students are doubling and tripling up in beds due to lack of affordable housing. These families should have an opportunity to move into new units with room for the whole family. III) Demographics are changing and less children are projected naturally in many areas, thus leaving a surplus of school capacity that can be filled with new development. IV) Stretching basic services over ever-growing geographic areas places a great burden on local governments; the need to build expensive new schools in outlying area drains money that could be invested in existing core schools. IV) Lastly, the denser unit types being constructed generally favor fewer children per unit than single family detached homes.


47 IMPROVING IMAGERY

Community Sensitivity

Choose images based on their appropriateness for local context and local density; choose with heightened intentionality, as every choice affects community perceptions Renderings/Photos: • Street renderings should show colorful details (benches, fountain, awnings, pavers) • Include lots of people and especially children (active users) • Emphasize articulation and stepbacks (using line weights and shading) • Show multiple perspectives • Axonometric drawings should be sketchy or wireframe, not detailed facades • Renderings should be taken at a low angle, closeup and aligned with the street edge • Construct a photo montage of existing facade elevations to give a sense of the terrain, frontage, permeability, and enclosure → contrast with proposed development Presentation: • Remember to show amenities + courtyards + gates + entrances • Always include floor plans and interior conditions if possible • Present a pattern book to demonstrate the style of architecture permitted • Repeat important boundaries and themes on each successive framework map • Tell a story with successful precedents and hand drawn renderings Plans/Sections • Maintain a consistent color palette amongst similar thematic elements • Brand the development with repeated symbols and/or colors • Fade out information outside of the site boundary, it shows context but don’t want to distract • Recommended coloration: streets in gray, sidewalks in sepia, plazas in pale red, buildings in white • Shadows can be used very effectively to delineate heights Images should show the building from several sides, and from the inside. Any interior amenities should be stressed, as well as pleasant design features such as balconies, terraces, awnings, trees, and cafes. Images should include people, as abandoned buildings seem intimidating and lonely. Lastly, residents need to see the floor plan and unit interiors so they can imagine the quality of the development and be comforted that their new neighbors will be responsible and active community members. A variation in floor plans or facade

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Developers and planners need to give viewers as much information as they can produce. In an extreme case, a vocal opponent recounted an experience of seeing one side of a development and being strongly against until he was presented with a different angle. Now that he understood the project better, he found his objections were no longer as important. Without greater detail and more perspectives, viewers were unable to make a sound judgment on the quality of the project. One suggestion in thinking of how to deal with vastly disparate communities is to consider the urban/suburban milieu of each place. We could think about communities as falling on a spectrum of density; from very outlying suburban (Pittsburgh) to somewhere in between (Diridon and San Leandro) to completely urban downtown (Lake Merritt/Chinatown). Different communities could be grouped together according to their shared context. Certain densities and housing typologies will be appropriate to each realm. Correspondingly, we should align presentation visuals/ information and the development itself to the category of density the location falls under. Naturally, the “sweet spot� of development intensity will move downward as you travel outward geographically on the transect. Furthermore, reactions to proposals may differ not only by the geographic condition but also by residents’ level of experience or past engagement in community processes. As a case study, Pittsburg

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Sample photographs that were popular with focus group members. Source: Great Communities Collaborative (2008)

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coloration gives some individuality to each unit and creates a strong sense of ownership and belonging to the community.


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is a suburban collection of subdivisions punctuated by strip malls and freeways, and housing projects with fairly high Dwelling Units per Acre (DUAs) from more urban settings did not strike them as relevant or appropriate for their community. Instead, they would have liked to have a conversation about how a new dense project could be designed to be integrated into the Pittsburg milieu – how could density be tailored to suit them? Rather than discuss a courtyard midrise typology, for example, they might have been prepared to imagine duplexes or townhousees or ‘big houses’ down the block from their detached home. The context and the level of urbanity is what will largely determine what existing residents feel is appropriate, and while some clever massing can be employed to lower the apparent density, there are absolute limits to what will be acceptable.

Community Sensitivity

Enhanced Imagery AŌer Comments Provide mulƟple angles and perspecƟves of the building's bulk

Show Ňoorplans to help convey the size of the rooms and the layout of the development

Let the audience visualize the interiors as well as the exterior

Emphasize design features such as

Illustrate the ameniƟes included and how the public space funcƟons –

Recommendations for new residential project presentations. Source: Author

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Ways to design density as to be less visually obtrusive. Source: Bosselman (2003)

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Axonometric

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Sketchy, Conceptual More Peripheral Context Articulation

Traditional Architecture Shadows, Materials, & People Zoom in for Details

Streetscape

Tree Diversity Active Users Lower Angle

Edge Experience

Sidewalk View Little Touches/Amenities Horizontal+Vertical Elements Diagram of how to improve renderings to gain community acceptance. Source: Author

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Perspective


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51Successful High Density Infill Projects

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Sample Eco-District Contextual Architecture

Civic + Educational Uses Workforce Housing

Community Sensitivity

Retail Corridors

Mixed Unit Types

Diverse open spaces Low Density at Periphery Troy Reinhalter

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Low Carbon Design

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CHAPTER 3: GREEN/PASSIVE DESIGN

Why is green building essential to a low carbon future? SB 375 mandates that cities and counties plan their housing in concert with their transportation, and create a blueprint towards major greenhouse reductions. Buildings consume a large percentage of energy and are responsible for roughly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. By relying on naturally powered heating, cooling, and power, municipalities can slash emissions. Moreover, properly designed new construction can reduce building energy use by 50% or more compared to buildings designed without energy efficiency in mind. This is important because buildings typically last 30-50 years, and it is much less expensive and time-consuming to design for energy efficiency than to retrofit a building later. Designing buildings with low utility and maintenance costs help foster economic stability and a broader mix of residents.

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Green/Passive Design Best Practices A. Principles B. Benefits/Incentives C. Building in the Marine Climate D. Synergies E. Lessons for Multifamily Projects i.Form/Massing ii.Orientation iii.Circulation F. Passive Strategies i.Passive Solar ii.Daylighting iii.Natural Ventilation

Material in this chapter is drawn from: - Sustainable studios conducted for Hitachi Corporation in Blossom Hill, CA and in San Ramon, CA - Survey of practitioner literature regarding suggested green building strategies - Graduate coursework with Harrison Fraker comparing zero carbon developments

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LEVERAGE PASSIVE DESIGN TO REDUCE ENERGY USE

Conceptual representation of passive design strategies. Source: Edwards/Turrent (2009)

• Follow essential passive design urban design principles I) maximize southern facade exposure while avoiding overshadowing II) break up building form every 40-50 ft along North-South axis III) use daytime or communal uses (such as daycare, gym, lobby, office/workspace, retail) for spaces without access to sun and natural ventilation

• Supplement passive design with advanced materials and building controls: I) Natural Ventilation can be enhanced with demand control ventilation, heat recovery system, night purge ventilation, and a high efficiency HVAC system II) Passive Solar collection is improved with high performance insulation, sufficient thermal mass, adjustable shading devices, Energystar appliances III) Daylighting is best when combined with high glazing windows & LED lighting • Strive to balance passive solar, daylighting, sun shading, landscaping, and natural ventilation strategies to optimize use of the natural features of the site to maximize energy savings Rules of thumb: • Residential modules should be no deeper than 40 feet with at least two aspects • Keep a ratio of at least 1 to 1.15 for building height to courtyard/backyard width • Commercial office plans should not exceed 60’ depths with minimum 11’ ceiling

Simple depiction of passive solar concept. Source: Whole Building Design Guide (2008)

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• Make buildings work for you, i.e. stop fighting against the natural climate: I) reduce energy demand through conservation and efficiency II) leverage passive solutions whenever possible


55 USE THE SUN’S ENERGY

• Substitute conventional power sources by capturing the sun’s energy through photovoltaic panels (offsets gridsupplied electricity), solar thermal (replaces hot water heater), and daylighting (replaces electric lighting)

• Take heed of emerging practices and synergies in solar technology I) Roof-mounted thin film photovoltaic (PV) systems may be less efficient than standard silicon cells for converting solar energy to electricity, but are cheaper and lighter to install and are easy to use for net metering II) Angled panels mounted on facades can do double duty as a shading mechanism and contain evaporated tubes for providing domestic hot water III) By hooking up PV-generated electricity in front of external grid meters, the electricity can be sold to internal customers at market rates in lieu of selling at a wholesale price to an outside utility supplier

Low Carbon Design

• Solar and wind conditions should inform the grid and orientation: I) wide ROWs for east-west streets allow buildings to receive the south sun (larger width to building height ratio) II) streets running north-south should be narrower to enable mutual shading from morning and evening sun Rules of thumb • Assuming production of ~15 watts per sf, covering an area equivalent to 10%-20% of the building’s total floor area with photovoltaic cells will satisfy all or most of the user electricity demand (500-600 SF of roof or facade for the solar array to generate 5 – 8 kW) • To adequately heat with passive solar, provide for 12 sq ft of south facing glass for every 100 sq ft of floor space (Roughly between 30 and 40% of total south-facing wall area, depending on module dimension) • 25% of interior floor area should be thermal mass, ie concrete or tile, in order to retain daytime heat. Masonry floors, walls and ceilings to be used for heat storage should be a minimum of 4 inches thick.

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Overhanging panels doing double duty in Vauban, Germany. Source: Fraker (2009)

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RECYCLE AND RE-USE ALL WATER

Various strategies for conserving and recycling water. Source: Fraker (2008)

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• Reduce water demand within the development by installing water-efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances (such as lo-flow toilets, waterless urinals, or EnergyStar washers)

Reducing Demand

• Set an aggressive target for daily water use in the development (average person uses 80 gallons of water per day) • Use grading and topography to naturally drain stormwater: low points in the site are obvious locations for detention facilities. Detention surfaces can be parks, fields, or other grassy recreational surfaces.

Rules of thumb: • 150 square feet of living machine cells can handle 1000 gallons/day of wastewater • To calculate the total site area needed for a living machine, take the targeted number of gallons per day per resident, multiply by the number of units, multiply by 2.5 people/unit to get the total gallons of wastewater. • Living Machine cells measure roughly 6’ x 6’. Wastewater needs to be circulated through in rows of parallel cells but the total volume can be spread evenly throughout a site as needed.

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• Use recycled water for landscaping and cooling; evaporative cooling can create pleasant outdoor shopping environments. Spraying or misting filtered water generates micro-climates that enhance comfort with minimum energy consumption.


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• Let a ‘Living Machine’ do the dirty work of treating wastewater. Living Machine cells, composed of alternating open-air reed beds and covered aerobic reactors, can be built in public spaces, medians, courtyards, and parks to handle wastewater. Living Machines can also be inside greenhouses. After treatment, this graywater can be piped back to buildings for many non-potable uses.

Low Carbon Design

• Treating wastewater on site has multiple benefits: I) Reducing its need for city potable water supply II) Decreased expenditure on sewer lines III) Education; Living Machines are safe for the public

Site layout with distributed living machine systems. Wastewater for each block is handled in close proximity. Source: Author

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Wastewater is screened for solids and then enters a series of tidal-flow wetland cells, which alternately fill and drain to move water through the system. As each cell empties, and water is pumped to the next cell, incoming air helps bacteria oxidize ammonia, forming nitrate. As a cell begins to refill, other microbes break the nitrate into carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas. At the end of the one-day process, 60 percent of the water is recirculated; 40 percent is disinfected for re-use. Source: Worrell Water Tech (2009)

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Water Re-Use cycle; required municipal supply is greatly diminished by water made re-usable by Living Machine and UV filtration. Source: Author

Municipal water

Recycled Water

SHOWERS

Stormwater

TOILETS CISTERN

INFILTRATIVE SWALE

Graywater SETTLING TANK

IRRIGATION & EVAPORATIVE COOLING & REFRIGERANT

OSMOSIS + UV DISINFECTION

RETURNED TO AQUIFER

LIVING MACHINE CELLS

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SINKS/LAUNDRY

Rainwater


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Site layout that drains runoff naturally to detention ponds and groundwater recharge. Source: Author

• Use Natural Drainage Systems to slow and filter runoff, such as: I) Bio-retention swales, “rain gardens” and planters II) Curbless or curb-cut streets flowing to swale III) Provide for groundwater recharge through effective stormwater infiltration designs. • Increase the surface area that will collect water and make streets perform ecologically: I) Permeable parking lots and paths interspersed with planters II) Green roofs, green walls, and tree pits III) Gutters and cisterns for rainwater collection

Low Carbon Design

• Design stormwater detention vaults/cisterns for multiple uses: I) To feed filtration and reuse for toilet flushing or vehicle washing II) Store late spring storms for summer landscape irrigation. III) Where codes permit, re-use filtered water for laundry

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Xeriscaping Xeriscaping is a recommended strategy in areas like California where water supplies are strained. The goal of a xeriscape is to create a visually attractive landscape composed of plants selected for their water efficiency. A xeriscape can easily use less than one-half the water of a traditional landscape and moreover, once established, a xeriscape should require less maintenance than turf landscape. By grouping plants with similar water needs together in specific zones, a xeriscape landscape can use water more efficiently and create areas of interest and diversity. Visualization of multi-way boulevard with multiple swales and tree pits. Source: Author

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CONVERT WASTE TO ENERGY

Co-generation plant for CHP. Source: NRG Thermal (2009).

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• Extract energy from waste-streams I) Solid waste burning II) Sewage heat recovery III) Two-phase anaerobic digester

Low Carbon Design

• Convert garbage into electricity and fuel using an anaerobic digester: I) Supply the digester with household wastes: organic waste such as grease and food scraps, green waste such as grass clippings or downed branches, and the sludge ((blackwater minus effluent) from toilet flushes II) Digester facilities do not consume egregious amounts of space; most of the system is underground piping. A few large tanks are the only visible evidence of the process, and can be located out of sight or behind buildings/trees. III) Anaerobic digesters provide a variety of environmental and public health benefits including: greenhouse gas abatement, organic waste reduction, odor reduction, and pathogen destruction. • If the development density is sufficient (>40 DUA), construct a district energy system: I) District energy plants providing heating, cooling, and power will save ~1.5% of floor area in each building by consolidating the necessary infrastructure in central plants II) New district-scale projects can lay out the necessary pipework underground before building on top, allowing for a cheaper and more rational installation process. III) Underground trash/recycling systems can be attractive and cost-efficient. Rules of thumb: • To ‘feed’ the digester, enough biomass is required to create sufficient biogas; if we assume a family creates per day roughly: a) 1.5 lb of organic garbage, b) 1 lb of sludge, c) 1.5 lbs of green/garden waste = 4 lbs of garbage per household/day • An input of 4 lbs/family/day will provide sufficient biomass to produce an equivalent biogas to power the cooking needs of one family

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Depiction of combined heat+power (CHP) district energy system: central plant connected by underground pipe network. Source: Int’l District Energy Assoc.

Schematic of co-generation process. Source: Cogen Europe

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Piping for CHP. Source: Int’l District Energy Assoc.

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62 Organic Waste

Hydrolysis+Bacteria

Biogassification Reaction

Compost/Fertilizer Toilet Sludge

Water + d Organic Acid

Green Waste

Heat Wood Chips/ Biomass

Electricity 250+ Units

Efficient Turbine @ Cogeneration Plant

Natural Gas

Waste to Energy cycle; useless waste products are converted into cooking fuel, space heating, electricity, and fertilizer. Source: Author

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Biogas Methane

Excess Heat


63 ADOPT INNOVATIVE PRACTICES

Identify climactic zone Evaluation of natural factors

Low Carbon Design

• Install a combination of renewables (photovoltaics, wind turbine, waste to energy) to avoid the problem of having to oversize one single renewable system to match the peak demand. Each smaller system is also more cost-efficient. • Foster early-stage collaboration between developers, designers, and utilities. Deviate from business as usual by finding new opportunities to integrate and save. A developer as owner/operator of a building and energy system is ideal because it allows long-term savings accrue to the original investor and pay back the upfront investment. • Perform extensive climate analysis to find appropriate strategies: optimum solar angle, degree days, psychrometrics, rainfall and flooding data, soil/groundwater, dominant wind direction, elevation/grading. Set an energy standard for all homes (kWh/m2) and be aggressive in testing and verifying once construction is complete. • Utilize new building typologies that combine good urban form with natural heating and cooling solutions

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Psychrometric analysis Envelope energy modeling

Evaluation of Passive Design Potential

District Energy Feasibility Study

On-Site Renewables Feasibility Study

Zero Carbon system design Site-specific building strategies

Following the design process from start to zero carbon finish. Source: Author

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BENEFITS OF HOLISTIC BUILDING STRATEGIES

Strong, long-term profit potential A recent study published by CEOs for Cities found that homes within denser, mixed use, and more walkable neighborhoods have maintained significantly higher values compared with outlying locations — despite the recession. Therefore, while land acquisition cost may be higher for infill sites, asset value will increase over time. Green building can also garner higher rents since companies and tenants will pay more for green space. Lower operating costs (as a result of lower energy bills) boost the overall property value. This is because the lower operating costs increase the building’s net operating income. Lower lifecycle costs for construction Designing smaller, more compact houses and buildings can save a substantial amount of materials and the cost to dispose of construction waste. Well-designed and properly built green buildings should not experience moisture problems that can be common in the wet coastal regions. Life-cycle costs of better, more advanced building components will be less compared to standard materials. HVAC Savings Reduced heating and cooling loads may also reduce first cost of HVAC equipment, helping justify the upfront expense. Proper building orientation can help reduce the overall energy use, so various building systems can be reduced in size and cost to make way for further energy-saving materials, designs, and technologies. Reduced employee turnover Green, healthy, comfortable buildings are more pleasant to work in, and employers with such buildings are likely to experience less employee turnover. Enhanced comfort will attract top employees.

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Low Carbon Design

Infrastructure Savings In addition to denser urban form, using the low-energy and re-use strategies described (such as district energy, passive design, and water recycling) will reduce costs for expanding existing infrastructur e or in many cases, the development impact fees assessed to developers (which are directly tied to higher priced housing). For example, innovative stormwater infiltration systems can reduce or eliminate the need for storm sewers and detention ponds; narrower streets to slow traffic can reduce paved area; and clustering buildings on a site and installing a digester can reduce the costs for sewers and utility lines. Graywater recycling will reduce the strain on an already overstretched California water supply system.


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Productivity Naturally lit and ventilated spaces have numerous benefits beyond decreased energy costs. Improved worker productivity in offices is a direct result of green building. In an oft-cited survey of Lockheed-Martin Building 157, absenteeism dropped 15%. Workers look forward to inhabiting pleasant and natural spaces. Studies by Carnegie Mellon University have shown productivity increases in green buildings ranging from 0.4% to 18%. Productivity also improves due to improved health and faster illness recovery that results from better indoor air quality. A 2003 report on sustainable building for one particular facility cites productivity increases of 5 percent and absentee decreases of 40 percent after moving into a renovated facility.

Low Carbon Design

Better comfort A well-insulated, tight building envelope not only reduces energy consumption but also increases comfort – which is even more important to many homeowners/renters. Financial return Green homes and condominiums often sell more quickly than their conventional counterparts. Consumers have bought low-energy homes at up to twice the rate of neighboring non-“zero energy” communities, in the experience of BedZED development in England. Satisfied homeowners tend to recommend their builder to others twice as much as owners of traditional units. Green homes and condominiums often lease out or sell more quickly than conventional buildings, and often with higher rental prices. Developers Tom Hoyt of McStain Enterprises, Inc., of Boulder, Colorado, and Dennis Wilde of Gerding/Edlen Development Company of Portland, Oregon, report far more rapid sales of green buildings than expected. Market research into solar technologies show that financial benefits are important to consumers. Marketing and publicity Using sustainable building strategies will differentiate a developer in the market and position a business in a better competitive position for the future. Free publicity is also generated through articles in the popular press and blogosphere about green features. Increased retail sales A new study showed the increased sales benefit of the daylighting to be worth at least 19 times as much to the company as the energy savings provided by that daylighting. A more recent HMG study of another retailer’s 74 stores in California found a 1–6% increase in sales that was correlated with daylighting.

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FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR LOW-CARBON BUILDING Some of the efficiency and renewable energy measures mentioned here will save money up front. However, others will increase the first cost of a building, but save money over time. How far a developer can go with such measures, in length of payback and size of initial investment, depends on the resources and willingness of the client, but there are opportunities to make smart building pay off:

CSI Thermal/Solar Water Heating A new California statewide solar water heating rebate program, called CSI-Thermal, will begin shortly. Eligible customers are gas or electric water heating customers of SDG&E, PG&E and SoCalGas & SoCal Edison, applications will be accepted beginning May 1st, 2010. The CSI-Thermal program is expected to run from May 2010 through December 2017. Commercial or multifamily buildings who heat their water with natural gas may receive a maximum incentive of $500,000, while buildings who heat their water with electricity may receive a maximum incentive of $250,000. A 30 percent federal tax credit is also available on the installed cost of the system less the rebate. Tax Credit for Home Builders Home builders are eligible for a $2,000 federal tax credit for a new energy efficient home. The house must achieve 50 percent energy savings for heating and cooling over the 2004 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and supplements. At least 1/5 (10%) of the energy savings must come from building envelope improvements. Third-party financing for PV Panel Installation Solar payback is decreasing every year, but until grid parity arrives, a third party can be found to finance photovoltaic panels, and share in their savings. Instead of a developer having to purchase their own solar system and pay all upfront costs, the developer contracts to have the system installed and maintained by a third party. The equipment is actually owned by the intermediate and is sized to meet about 80% of the home’s total projected energy needs. The other 20% is purchased as conventional power.� A typical arrangement is as follows: a developer signs an agreement to purchase all the power generated by the solar system, locking in a fixed rate for the next 18 years.

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Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Reserve Program Sustainable energy project loans to eligible property owners from local government. Property owners can finance renewable on-site generation installations and energy efficiency improvements through a voluntary assessment on their property tax bills. PACE allows developers to avoid the upfront installation cost of renewable on-site generation systems and energy efficiency measures and eliminating concerns that they will sell the property before recovering the system investment from utility bill savings.


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According to industry insiders, a number of solar companies on the West Coast will hit a long-pursued industry target of $1 per watt by 2012. Thus, within a few short years, solar panels will be able to generate electricity cheaper than that available commercially from the grid. Moreover, a sunny region like California has a bigger solar payoff. Improving PV component efficiency and a wide array of creative financing options to purchase solar power as a service or lease the equipment are making it easier for developers to 'green' their project. Tax rebates and stimulus dollars are also leveling the playing field. Price parity with conventional generation is not far off.

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Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) QECBs can be used by local and state government agencies on a wide range of activities; nationwide the QECB program is funded at $2.4B; each state has received an allocation based on population. The stimulus bill authorized local communities to use some or all of their QECB allotment for funding municipal solar and energy efficiency projects, including capital expenditures that reduce energy consumption on publicly-owned buildings by at least 20%, and implementing green community programs. Upfront Subsidy In a novel concept that has gained support among leading practitioners, the government provides an initial financial subsidy to the developer, who is then able to build a resource and energy efficient development. After completion, users pay the developer a phantom “utility bill� instead of a real utility bill, thus offsetting the higher upfront construction cost. The developer, the actor with the most control over the design, is therefore incentivized to invest in higher performing energy technology. Essentially, those who get the long-term benefit (government & users) pay the developer back for his investment in sustainability.

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Midrise building that assumes a pyramid shape. Source: Beatley (2005)

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BUILDING IN THE MARINE CLIMATE This guide is written for builders and practitioners in the marine climate, which applies to the Californian coastal and urbanized areas. A marine climate is defined as a region where all of the following occur: a mean temperature of the coldest month between 27 degrees F and 65 degrees F; a mean temperature of the warmest month below 72 degrees F; at least four months with mean temperatures over 50 degrees F; and a dry season in the summer, the month with the heaviest precipitation in the cold season has at least three times as much precipitation as the month with the least precipitation

To put it simply, a marine climate has rainy/mild winters and warm/dry summers. Generally, the following would characterize such a climate: 20-30 inches of rain, 2000-3000 heating degree days, 250-1000 cooling degree days. In fact, most of the Pacific coast falls under these parameters. Known as 'Dry-summer subtropical' or more simply a 'mediterranean' climate, summers are mild due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain. Winter is not too severe and mean temperature ranges between 40 and 80 F throughout the year, a climate ideal for a naturally ventilated building. Additionally, in California there are many days of clear skies and direct sunlight. The beauty of designing energy-saving homes in California is that the loads are relatively benign, at least in comparison to extreme cold and hot climates faced by many other parts of the country. Solar radiation is plentiful while electricity rates (especially peak) are above average. Furthermore, the state offers several programs to make it financially attractive. A building in the temperate/marine zone should be “a carefully balanced building to act as a sun trap in the winter and a shaded shelter in the hot days.” In other words, optimum orientation for a given site would give maximum radiation in the underheated period while simultaneously reducing heat gain to a minimum in the overheated period. The top 3 electricity consuming end-uses in a typical California home are: lighting and miscellaneous electrical loads at 33%, followed by refrigeration/cooling at 23%, and major appliances at 12%. The top 3 natural gas consuming end-uses in these residences are: space heating at 45%, water heating at 38%, and cooking at 6%. Passive design and active solar methods can be used to significantly reduce electric loads (lighting and cooling) as well as natural gas loads (space and water heating). Keeping these considerations in mind, we will examine the major design strategies to achieve low energy use in the marine climate: passive solar, daylighting, natural ventilation. Optimum building form, orientation, and circulation will also be illustrated.

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• • • •


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To reduce cooling loads • Shading eaves and louvers (operable), multi-layered skin, ceiling fans • Natural cross ventilation • High efficiency AC equipment • Ground source heat pump for cooling, or other water-based thermal mass

REDUCING ELECTRIC/COOLING LOADS

To reduce heating loads • Weatherization and insulation are critical (includes cavity walls, roof, attic, basement, joints) • Make the envelope as air-tight as possible to reduce air changes • Direct solar gain by following passive solar and thermal mass rules of thumb • Heat-recovery systems to reduce energy loss during outside air exchange

REDUCING NATURAL GAS/HEATING LOADS

Major climatic zones in the continental US. Source: Building America (2008)

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Source: Author

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Materials & Methods in the Marine Climate

Wood Framing Best practice for frame wall construction involves advanced framing techniques. In advanced framing, rafters sit directly on studs, which saves over 25% of usual construction waste. Studs are placed 24� apart on center which allows 10% more insulation. Jack studs are eliminated. External walls with 2x6 framing are typical in the marine climate, as increasing the framing members from 2x4 to 2x6 adds another 2� of insulation to the wall cavity. This allows you to add 42% more insulation. These walls should include exterior sheathing, preferably insulating sheathing with joints taped to provide a water and air barrier. Sealed gypsum board should be used to control air leakage through the walls, especially in penetrations to garages and porches, and where the walls meet the ceiling. Blown-in cellulose insulation can be packed in tightly, allowing for better thermal containment. Holes are bored in the sheathing and insulation is added from the exterior, ensuring a super-tight interior facade. Thermal bridges are mitigated by sealing and insulating gaps and windows. Proper insulation techniques will take up to 150% of the time required for traditional construction. However, paybacks for airtightness/high quality insulation are short. Building professionals engaged in these practices estimate under two years (or less) for financial payback. Moisture Management In the marine climate interior and exterior moisture loads tends to be high, often in the form of fog or rain. Overhangs direct water away from the house. Building assemblies need to be protected from getting wet from both the interior and exterior and should be allowed to dry to either the exterior or the interior. Using what is known as a vented siding assembly, drainage is incorporated behind the siding, roughly in the "middle" of the assembly. Research in multifamily buildings in Seattle suggests that if interior relative humidity is maintained below 60 percent, then a latex primer and paint may perform better than the use of a polyethylene sheet. The same study concluded that two layers of 60-minute paper performed better than one layer of No.15 building felt. Two layers may be especially important behind stucco.

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Insulation Slabs should be insulated at the perimeter with borate-treated foam board or rigid glass fiber insulation. Slab perimeters may also be insulated on the interior side. Reflective insulation systems are effective in the marine climate at reducing peak cooling loads, especially if cooling equipment is located in the attic.


71 SYNERGIES AND ECONOMIES OF SCALE

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Integration & Synergy (when combining higher density typologies with low energy design) • All solar strategies (passive heat, daylighting, PV) benefit from southern facade orientation, and from obeying circulation and massing rules of thumb (shallow modules, single loading). • Natural ventilation works best with the same massing/loading as solar and provides healthy indoor air quality due to constant circulation. Including heat recovery also reduces the energy needed for reaching comfort. • An interesting synergy is that evacuated solar thermal tubes can provide the dual function of producing domestic hot water while simultaneously operating as solar overhangs (for shading). • In a similar bit of design synergy, constructed wetlands (living machine cells) can be inside a covered glass greenhouse with PV panels and/or solar thermal on top • Roofs can be designed for rainwater collection; green roofs provide both cooling and carbon sequestration.

Multifamily Podium Savings A critical advantage of multifamily construction is the reduced surface area volume that comes from attached units (shared walls, floors, and ceilings). Energy losses per square foot of living space are decreased substantially, especially through ceilings and floors, due to stacked unit typologies. The bottom floors of a podium arrangement can have theaters, gyms, medical offices, other such uses that are meant for a few hours at a time and can be artificially lit. In some cases, the bottom floors wrapping or capping the parking podium can use energy-efficient HVAC systems, and freestanding units above are naturally lit and ventilated. Economies of Scale Larger number of units make recycling systems like graywater, stormwater, living machine, and digester more cost-efficient. At present, the advanced two-phase anaerobic digester needs over 2,000 units for the best efficiency. Other district energy systems such as a ground-source heat pump, sewage heat recovery, or a co-generation plant need closer to 500 units for optimal waste input and cost-effectiveness. However, simple and more proven systems like infiltrative swales, graywater reuse and the ‘living machine’ can be scaled to the block and building scale. Savings in lower water and sewage bills and longevity of the system can offset additional costs of on-site stormwater treatment. Designs that promote stormwater infiltration are usually less expensive than paying for an expansion of storm sewers. Developments with dozens or hundreds of units will be able to take advantage of economies of scale for higher cost technologies. For new construction in particular, there is a unique opportunity to incorporate integrated design strategies among multiple building systems for maximum overall building efficiency and operating cost reductions. High construction quality (good insulation and interior sealing) and high-efficiency appliances/HVAC/ fixtures serve an important purpose by reducing demand (potentially by more than 50%), allowing renewable sources to make up the rest of the supply by themselves.

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Thresholds for adequately supporting transit service. Source: Pushkarev/ Zupan (1977), Ewing (1996)

Combined Heat Power/District Heating Higher densities and compact form mean that it is possible to provide heat and/or power from a central plant and distribute it via pipework to adjacent buildings. Mixed-use development (constant base load and variety of load patterns) favor the implementation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP). Dense urban situations present advantages for CHP since pipework is both shorter and can be routed through basements, corridors, or courtyards. CHP reclaims the waste heat that comes from normal power generation processes and uses it for heating units. Using the fuel for two processes really drives efficiency (up to 85% vs under 50% for fossil fuel power). Burning biomass or other low-carbon fuel is even better, and will generate both electricity and heat, distributed evenly to all dwellings. A good rule of thumb is to size the CHP for total hot-water demand (at least 4,000 hours a year). However, it is advised to either choose extensive solar thermal and passive heating, or CHP. Photovoltaic Panels The advantage of a multifamily structure is that each unit does not need to independently generate the exact amount of electricity needed to match up with its demand from PV panels; the overall generation of the site is added together and then dispersed as needed to each unit. Thus, units with reduced southern exposure (due to the constraints of site geometry/construction codes) are not penalized. Nor is overshadowing a concern to certain unlucky units – again, the collective generation is what counts, instead of each individual separate homeowner/ building competing for solar access. Beginning 2011, builders will be required to offer solar PV as a standard feature in new home developments of 50 or more.

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Higher density also allows certain thresholds to be met for transit service and urbanity. Approximately 50 to 75 Dwellings Units per Acre is sufficient to justify high-frequency light rail, streetcar, rapid bus, or heavy rail transit. These same densities also create a palpable neighborhood. ULI recommends that the critical mass of mixed use needed to establish and reinforce a sense of community is a minimum of 200,000 sf of retail/civic and 2,000 dwelling units within a ten minute walk.


73 LESSONS IN GREEN BUILDING FOR MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS Typically green/passive building has been employed at the single residence or building scale. To expand these techniques to higher densities, some design solutions are needed:

1) How to wrap parking podiums 2) How to layout blocks and structures for solar orientation 3) How to address corners 4) Recommendations for Massing, Orientation, and Circulation

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DISGUISING PARKING PODIUMS The need for two aspects for each unit (for sufficient ventilation) makes wrapping parking podiums on the ground floor somewhat challenging. The proposed design solutions address this issue: I) Entryway: on the southern side of a podium, a unit could have a 15-20' deep entrance at ground level, not intended for primary living or sleeping but instead to articulate and activate the ground floor and providing circulation to access the upstairs spaces. II) Workplace: a live/work unit type can solve the difficult podium level space on all sides. Attached to a residential unit above, the ground floor provides economic generating capacity, enlivens the street, and has easy access to parking. III) Half-grade podium: submerging the parking partially below street grade allows for a high-ceiling office or retail space above (potentially with a mezzanine). Units would be stacked on top. IV) Thin office/retail liner: when block size is restricted by existing street grid, the podium can be wrapped with a 20' to 40' liner space, for startup businesses or low-rent retail (i.e. florist, dollar store). This space is excellently daylit.

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Source: Author

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Sample block layouts which maintain a solid street perimeter (for the purposes of urbanity and street sociability) while ensuring maximum solar penetration and cross ventilation. Source: Author

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BLOCK LAYOUT FOR SOLAR


Corners can be problematic when stacking units and different land uses. Defining spaces at corners to maintain a perimeter street facade while maintaining light access and privacy requires ingenuity: I) Putting an angled stair core at the corner, accesses unit on each side, allows for rear divided balcony II) Keeping the street facade while cutting out the tight internal corner to preserve light & air III) Slicing away an external corner, could be a retail entrance IV) Vertical L-shaped structure which presents tall front on one side and one-story front on the other V) L-shaped flat that stretches around the corner VI) Landscaped plaza which divides two separate structures VII) Garden with 25% transparent one-story wall – accessed in the rear by townhouses or stacked flats VIII) Atrium/lobby with transparent glass roof to allow radiation to filter through IX) Staggered stacked flat arrangement on top of corner activated podium

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ADDRESSING CORNERS

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Massing should be designed with two objectives in mind: minimizing heat losses & optimizing solar gains, while promoting cross ventilation. Conventional wisdom holds that the maximum depth for sunlight and fresh air penetration is 35-40 ft, thus constraining the module size. Some strategies can circumvent these absolutes but in general units will be relatively shallow. The general rule of thumb for module dimension is: 25 to 40 ft deep, and 18 to 35 ft wide, one to three floors tall. Shape • Individual buildings should be box-like without being boxy; a compact, simple shape is desirable • A simple geometry saves money, energy, and materials (cut-off waste can be reduced by designing buildings on a 2’ or 4’ module) • Reduce the overall building footprint and use the space more efficiently to increase energy efficiency. • Design for a better surface area to volume ratio - stacked units and attached rowhouses reduce surfaces exposed to heat loss/gain. The perimeter to area ratio is an important factor in controlling solar radiation • Buildings should be elongated along the east–west axis so that more of the building area is closer to the perimeter; as a rule, stay within a 1:1.5 ratio for either axis Roofs • Design pitched roofs (20 to 30 degrees) to hide the boring internal shape – 25 degrees is optimal for solar photovoltaic generation. A noticeably pitched roof also aids ventilation, by creating maximum pressure difference and airflow. • As shown below, a roof that is pitched on southern side but flat along back side allows solar radiation to reach the first floors of buildings to the rear/north. • One strategy to lessen the streetwall height is to design a 1½ story look (loft + cathedral ceiling), then bump up to the full two story height farther back along the unit’s profile. This can help to better blend in to low density single family neighborhoods at the rear of developments.

Roof pitch can influence whether your neighbor to the north will receive sufficient radiation. Source: Ritchie/Thomas (2010)

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UNIT/BUILDING FORM


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Three-dimensional model of overshadowing ‘rule of thumb’: in winter, a 1 to 1.2 ratio of height to building separation is satisfactory for maintaining solar access on ground floors. Source: Author

Heights • For daylighting and passive solar purposes, it is recommended to have ceilings at 11’ or even 12’ high. • Overshadowing rule of thumb: stick to a ratio of 1.15 to 1.3 of building height to courtyard/backyard width. • Heights within the block should rise towards the north end of the block, with tallest buildings at the northern edge • As buildings become taller and densities increase, the sun access to buildings decreases and the maximum buildable volume of the site approximates a pyramid. Airtight envelope • Energy demand reduction efforts are focused on the envelope: we see better results by effectively regulating heat and cold within a multi-layered skin to prevent unwanted temperature from entering in the first place, not once it has reached the interior. • Upgrading the thermal performance of the building envelope is essential; inadequate insulation and air leakage are leading causes of energy waste in most homes and buildings.

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ORIENTATION

• Optimum facade orientation is south. Depending on latitude, ideal orientation may be 5-15 degrees east of true south.1 However, up to 25 degrees away from optimal orientation will still provide roughly 95% of solar radiation. Building orientation and shape are thus designed to optimize solar gain. • Townhouses, single loaded apartments, and other attached dwelling types mean comfort is easily attained, as horizontally attached units will not need to address the problems of east and west window orientations: glare and unwanted heat gain. • Locate deciduous trees for south-side shading in the cooling season; in the heating season, the dropped leaves will permit desired solar gain. Shade trees block summer sunlight before it strikes windows, walls, and roofs, dissipating absorbed heat to the air where it can be carried away by the breeze, but the shade should not block PV panels or hot water tube systems. Selecting the variety of tree for height and width should be done carefully to shade windows without shading photovoltaics. Shade to the southwest and west is especially important for blocking peak solar gain in the summer in late afternoon. It is very desirable to integrate plant and vegetation, wherever possible, into the plan form. Gardens, roof gardens and planters on windows and shades can reduce excessive heat gain. A study in Florida has shown that a subdivision with mature trees had cooler outside air with less wind velocity than a nearby development without trees. • Design for wind direction—admitting favorable breezes and shielding from storms and cold weather winds. Even if podium level must adhere to existing street grid, upper level massing may rotate for better solar/wind orientation. Turning long façades toward the direction of prevailing breezes and/or parallel to slopes to take advantage of cool updrafts to enhance natural ventilation is advisable. Similarly, arrange building heights in a manner that does not block prevailing cool air breezes, or conversely direct tall building configurations to soften the force of a strong wind. • Locate rooms that need less light and warmth on north side of building: bathrooms, laundry, pantry, storage. Plan active living or working areas on the south and less frequently used spaces, such as storage and bathrooms, on the north. Keep south-facing windows to within 20° of either side of true south. Terraces can face anywhere from the East to West extremes.

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It is understood that north faces receive minimum direct radiation and south faces receive the maximum. The designer must consider and prioritize all factors and site conditions affecting building orientation. Designing for cooling load and heating load will provide the best energy performance, however, building orientation may have to respect street access, activity zones, and local urban design guidelines. Unique local and site-specific conditions such as scenery will also dictate decisions. Larger parcels such as retrofit and infill lots can be platted out so as to create rectangular blocks elongated along the E-W axis. It should be noted that lot orientation provides access to the sun, but window selection and shading are the controls that manage solar gain.


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• Optimal Block Layout Block size should be approximately 250 - 350 by 120 – 180. Most fundamentally, they will likely be longer along the east-west axis. Blocks can be easily be doubled or tripled to create symmetrical layouts. Pre-existing blocks can be split with E-W alleys. These east to west alleyways maximize solar gains and reduce overshadowing , and to provide pedestrian routes that are shadowed and cooler during sunny months (which are in the majority).

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• Creative Responses to maximize south-facing sun with Pre-existing Street Grid (see below): I) Individual unit: each unit is bent towards proper orientation, diagonally turned, with small triangular terraces II) Whole building: all buildings (rows of stacked flats) are arranged on podium to face towards south, structural support beams can still be lined up, III) Upper levels of a highrise building can be rotated to face appropriate direction

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Orienation for wind or solar. Source: Author

Grid on proposed Treasure Island project is rotated for best solar access. Source: SOM (2010)

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CIRCULATION • Double-loaded corridors are not conducive to passive design, with rare exceptions, since none of the passive strategies operate without two aspects, thus it is absolutely imperative to have two aspects to every unit, three if possible. Design can be front-back or front-side (corner units). Circulation for stacked flats would serve two units per floor.

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• Skip stop is a very useful technique in passive design, as it reduces the circulation space wasted (since typically only two units are serviced at each landing). Saved space could be a common area or atrium.

• Circulation cores will typically be on the north side, but can be opened up axially through the structure to provide improved ventilation for shared lobbies and spaces. To satisfy the egress code requirements, a stair core can be placed at either end of a 40' deep building. • Parking entry/exit will generally also be from the northern end of the block. One emerging technique is to stack parking in a pyramid-style arrangement, creating a mountain that ascends towards the north. Stacking units on top of this 'mountain' then allows for continued light and air access to maximum number of units, as well as short distances to parking stalls. • To reduce both direct and infiltration losses, entryways should be recessed or protected against the direct force of prevailing winds. Additional loss reduction can be accomplished by providing an enclosed interior "air lock" space between an entrance door and the main building. This double entry, or vestibule, creates a tempered zone between the outside elements and the interior living space thereby reducing the amount of warm air lost (and summer heat gained).

Circulation and other auxiliary/storage spaces should be laid out at the north end of units. Source: AIA Passive Design (2007)

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• Semi-private corridors (on the north side) providing access along an entire floor are also common, though come with reduced privacy since other residents pass by the windows of other units on route to their own. These walkways are covered but open to the elements on the sides.


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PASSIVE STRATEGIES Three of the more simplistic and cost-efficient passive strategies are passive solar, daylighting, and active solar. They rely on 1) southern orientation and 2) preventing overshadowing. Active solar strategies may cost more upfront but payback length is constantly decreasing and relatively assured. Incentives are available to defray initial costs. Passive solar can be tricky to get right but often saves money due to reduced costs for mechanical equipment. Developments should select deciduous trees to provide comforting shade in summer; they will shed their foliage in winters allowing the sun's heat to warm southern facades. To avoid shading electric generating PV panels, trees should be selected with a mature growth below the level of the majority of PV panels.

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PHOTOVOLTAIC/SOLAR THERMAL

Shading is likely to have the largest impact on overall PV system performance. Even a small percentage of shading on a PV array surface can have a much greater effect on overall array output than obtaining its optimal tilt or azimuth. Indeed, at a standard roof pitch of 22.5 degrees at least 95% of available solar energy can be absorbed in all of the conterminous U.S. The rule of thumb is to install PV arrays and solar thermal collectors in direct sun with no shade during the peak solar window (approximately 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM), particularly adjusted for winter months. Solar orientation is forgiving within +/- 20 degrees from true south. Utilities may prefer that PV arrays be situated toward the west to gather more late afternoon sun to match their peak demand.

“Solar Window�. Source: AIA Passive Building (2009)

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Summer versus winter solar angles. Source: California Solar Home (2005)

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Illustration of an overhang which prevents summer heat from entering but allows the lower angled winter sun to penetrate. Source: AZSolar (2010)

PASSIVE SOLAR

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Thermal mass: Approximately 25% of floor area should be thermal mass, i.e. concrete or tile. For a direct gain system, more thermal mass is preferred, up to a maximum of 50%. Masonry and concrete floors, walls and ceilings to be used for heat storage should be a minimum of 4 inches thick. Translucent/diffusing glazing or a number of small windows which admit sunlight in patches will more effectively distribute sunlight over as much of the storage mass surface as possible. This gives better control of overheating.

Calculation of the ideal angle of the overhang for the mid-Californian latitude. Source: AZSolar (2010)

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Ultimately, the successful use of passive solar design depends upon both the correct understanding of the sun's movements, and the best use of materials and their siting in order to capitalize on solar energy.


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Low Carbon Design

Direct gain is the most basic form of passive solar heating. Sunlight admitted through south-facing glazing (in the Northern hemisphere) enters the space to be heated, and is stored in a thermal mass incorporated into the floor or interior walls. Total direct gain glass should not exceed about 15-30% of the house's floor area. Beyond that, problems with glare or fading of fabrics are likely to occur, and it becomes more difficult to provide enough thermal mass for year-round comfort. A direct gain design requires about one-half of the total interior surface area to be constructed of thermal storage materials. These can include floor, ceiling and wall elements, and the materials can range from masonry (concrete, adobe, brick, etc.) to water (which has the advantage of enhancing daylighting). An indirect gain passive solar heating system (thermal storage wall) is a south-facing glazed wall, usually built of heavy masonry, but sometimes using containers of water or phase change materials. Sunlight is absorbed into the wall and it heats up slowly during the day. Then as it cools gradually during the night, it releases its stored heat over a relatively long period of time indirectly into the space. If built from solid materials, the storage wall should have vents that can be closed at night to keep heat inside. Rooftop gardens will also prevent overheating. Another option is a thermal pond, which provides heating and cooling. Small water troughs encased in plastic beds underlined with a dark color will trap heat during the day, and if covered at night, will radiate stored heat to rooms underneath. A thermal pond has the advantage of heating rooms towards the north or rear. A system that combines a water storage wall with a greenhouse space has several advantages. The greenhouse is heated by direct gain while the living space is heated by indirect gain, allowing for more precise comfort control. Another advantage is that a tempered greenhouse condition can be maintained through days of no sun, with heating from both sides of the thermal storage wall. Isolated gain, or sunspace, passive heating collects the sunlight in an area that can be closed off from the rest of the building. The doors or windows between the sunspace and the building are opened during the day to circulate collected heat, and then closed at night, allowing the temperature in the sunspace to drop. A solarium or greenhouse space with glazing along the southern facade will trap heat to keep the deeper rooms cooler during the day and then re-radiate it at night. Small circulating fans may also be used to move heat into adjacent rooms. A shared courtyard or atrium can be covered by operable glazing at the roof level to allow the space to be converted into a heat trap in winter. In summer, cooler air will enter the courtyard and sink to the bottom, creating natural cooling.

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Drawings of different passive solar designs; direct gain, indirect gain, isolated gain. Source: Author

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DAYLIGHTING

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Daylighting is the practice of using the sun's rays to provide adequate interior lighting. Using daylight in lieu of artificial lighting can save energy two ways: from reduced electrical energy used by artificial lighting and from reduced heat gain from light fixtures; as such, a well-designed daylighting system will achieve large electrical load and cooling load savings. The most common passive shading strategy uses a combination of sunshade and light shelf, incorporating elements of both direct and indirect gain. Daylighting does not allow the sun to directly enter a space, instead light is bounced or reflected into the interior. Top lighting and side lighting are the two primary daylighting design strategies and will be discussed below. Daylighting is not limited to residential units. Common areas can be daylit to create attractive social spaces where people can gather and interact. Moreover, improved lighting through daylighting or high-efficiency fixtures is the largest and most cost-effective energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. OPENINGS As stated previously, orient exposures to receive south and north light and shield against east-west sun glare. The two principal methods of daylighting are top and side lighting: designers need to find the right mix for the function served by a particular room. Top lighting involves letting light in through glazed openings in the roof, such as clerestories, skylights, atria, and monitors. Top lighting openings are often provided with shades, blinds, and other forms of lightblocking devices for times when daylight is too bright for the functions to be performed in the space. Skylights on the north roof are also useful for venting in summer, but will also require shading. Top lighting will be used most readily by a townhouse typology. While top lighting is often conceived of being limited to the top floor of a building, there are some strategies to broaden its application to stacked unit typologies: I) Slightly higher ceilings (11') with a top clerestory window II) Narrow, lofted units with double-height facades III) Light pipes/light well which brings light down to lower stories IV) Stacking one or two flats on top of narrow 3-story townhouses allows for flats to be top lit while townhouses have a tall sunspace/clerestory/solar greenhouse.

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Side lighting involves admitting light through windows and courtyards. Light shelves are devices that direct reflected daylight farther into a space than would occur just from the light entering the window. The light shelf sits above the view windows and throws daylight off a highly reflective ceiling so that occupants in the space away from windows can benefit from daylight. Side lighting can be applied to multiple floors of a building with the correct exposure and orientation. Using horizontal daylight opportunities provides daylighting into the interior of buildings with deeper floor plates.

Methods of drawing daylight into interiors: a) townhouses with solarium; b) light well;, c) clerestory windows. Source: Author

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Low Carbon Design

WINDOWS High-performance windows add a great deal to energy efficiency. The use of high-efficiency windows and proper design of window openings will result in reduced solar load and air/water infiltration, and thus reduce energy loads and energy generation requirements. For the temperate climate, spectrally-selective glazings are an excellent choice, as this climate requires only moderate insulation but benefits strongly from improved window glazing. Spectrally selective windows use a low-emissivity coating to minimize ultraviolet transmission, maximize the visible light admitted, and reduce solar heat gain in the summer and heat loss in the winter. This type of glazing typically lowers solar gain and heat loss by 25-45% with only a 10-15% reduction in visible light transmission – while tinted glass or reflective coatings can be used for additional solar control. Depending on cost, there are new glass technologies worth investigating to find the optimal optical and thermal characteristics. These include gas fill between glass layers, double skin facades, films, and switchable optics that have dynamic optical properties subject to changes in light and temperature.

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Windows should be selected to manage the quantity of solar heat gain allowed into the house. Since heating degree days dominate the demand load, it is advised to select windows with a high solar heat gain coefficient; in summer shades can compensate for the increased gain.

Low Carbon Design

SHADING Shading is necessary to control against direct sunlight and glare entry into the space, both exterior and interior methods are available. Active shading devices are best for responding to changing solar needs. Exterior shading can consist of physical facade element such as overhangs or louvers. Operable louvers are an integral part of making the physical structure more flexibly respond to changing climate conditions (daily and seasonal changes). Window glazing (tints or low-emissivity coatings) and aperture location are also important to control light before it enters the envelope. A wall hanging trellis can also produce pleasant shade in summer. An interesting synergy is that evacuated solar thermal tubes can provide the dual function of domestic hot water while simultaneously operating as overhangs. The appropriate angle and depth of an eave or overhang will depend on the latitude of the development. In the Bay Area, the approximate thermal shade angle is 40 to 45 degrees. During summer, this angle will shade the window from 10am to 5pm, yet in winter, this window will not be shaded. Solar thermal shading works best for sunshades above vision windows (windows between 3 and 7 feet high).2 Glare shade angle for this region is roughly 25 degrees. At this angle, direct sunlight is shaded from 9am to 5pm in the Spring, Summer, and Fall. In the Winter, direct sunlight is shaded from 10am to 2pm. Glare shading is usually used to control glare on daylight windows above 8 feet. Interior controls are usually shades, screens, blinds, or curtains, in combination with a light shelf. Light shelves accentuate the daylight effect by bouncing light deeper into the interior space. They must be set above the view line so reflected light does not disturb those near the window. In concert with reflective interior surfaces and a sloped ceiling, daylighting can penetrate up to 30 feet deep into a unit. Solar screens or cloths resemble standard window screens and can block up to 85% of the sun’s heat from entering the home. Such shading control can lower the space temperature in spaces adjacent to windows by as much as 20 degrees Fahrenheit on a hot day.3 Sunrooms on the southern exposure allow for a finer control of temperature (with appropriate shade devices).

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Illustration of light shelves. Source: AZ Solar (2008)

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Different aspects of a unit will call for separate shading tactics: I) North: No shading required. Indirect sunlight makes this facade ideal for daylighting. II) East/West: Active shading devices, blinds, or shade cloths works best for glare control. To avoid excessive afternoon heat gain, reduce the size and amount of West facing windows. III) South: Passive shading strategies are ideal due to high sun angles most of the day. CONTROL Daylighting often requires some user or mechanical intervention to ensure consistent interior light levels. Design should allow for user control, such as dimmer lights for perimeter zones, or adjustable exterior blinds. Alternatively, a building could be fitted with a 'smart' monitoring system, which will maintain the same level of light regardless of where the sun is. An automated system that interacts with luminance sensors will optimize both energy use and end-user. Comfort. Electric lights will dim and brighten only as needed, saving a great deal of energy. Also, a building could incorporate separately zoned HVAC controls for areas that might overheat from solar gain.

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Low Carbon Design

How to control glare while maximizing daylighting. Source: AZ Solar (2009)


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Light well allows daylight to reach into bottom floors. Source: AZ Solar (2008)

Low Carbon Design

Model showing best practices for admitting daylight and harvesting solar energy. Source: Author

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Natural ventilation relies upon the gentle, natural movement of air through a space to cool human inhabitants. It is an energy efficient way to increase human comfort because air movement increases heat transfer from the skin when cooler outside air replaces warm and humid indoor air. Natural cross ventilation gives five times the ventilation that would be achieved in a single aspect room. Natural air movement is influenced by pressure differences as it moves around and through a building, as well as temperature variations, such as a courtyard interior versus building exterior. Thus, it is helpful to have cooling breezes enter a building low and exit high as it releases the heat from the interior. A typical design incorporates windows close to the floor and some type of vent or outlet in the ceiling. Design for natural ventilation requires data on air flow patterns and wind speed/direction, as well as careful attention paid to terrain and landscaping, room layout and building geometry. Use of natural ventilation is most appropriate for temperate/marine climates. To be wholly effective, natural ventilation does rely upon the active participation of occupants to control windows and fans at the proper time of day. Therefore, education of residents is recommended.

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Units should be long and narrow with rooms not more than two spaces deep. If possible, allow for through living/ dining rooms to generate better cross ventilation There are numerous strategies for increasing outdoor air speed to generate more cooling effect: I) Wind chimneys, atria, courtyards, and operable blinds to induce natural air flow II) Sloped roofs are advantageous for shedding harsh winds, but also for creating pressure differentials which enhance air movement. III) Wing walls, overhangs, and strategically placed openings Low cooling loads in the marine climate zone mean that imperceptible air speeds will provide enough natural ventilation to create comfortable indoor environments. Speeds rated at pleasant on EcoTect are sufficient in temperate/marine zones; speeds between 0.3-0.6 m/s will create a perceived temperature difference up to 6 degrees F. Displacement Ventilation In a displacement ventilation system, supply air is introduced to the space at or near the floor level, at a low velocity, at a temperature slightly below the desired room temperature. The cooler supply air "displaces" the warmer room air, creating a zone of fresh cool air at the occupied level. Heat produced in the space moves air, including contaminants, to ceiling level where it is exhausted. This is much cleaner than conventional venting systems. Displacement ventilation systems are typically more energy efficient and quieter than conventional overhead systems. They also provide better ventilation effectiveness, and thus improve indoor air quality.

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Low Carbon Design

NATURAL VENTILATION & COOLING


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1) CROSS VENTILATION

Low Carbon Design

4) EXTERIOR STACK

2) PROTECTED COURT/ATRIUM

5) WINDCOWL

Natural Ventilation: 1) Standard cross ventilation with openings at both ends of <40 foot depth 2) Wide atrium or U-shaped courtyard cutting lengthwise between two slabs 3) Interior chimney effect: air is drawn in at floor or ceiling (often through underfloor plenum), circulated through interior, evacuated upwards through chimney on courtyard side; also known as stack effect or 'termite' model 4) Exterior chimney/stack effect: if noise is an issue on street side, air would be drawn in from the cool, shaded interior court, and drawn up and out through internal stacks staggered along exterior For ventilating deep floor plates: 5) Wind cowl or other rooftop ventilation device â&#x20AC;&#x201C; used to draw outside air down into and out of interior spaces deeper than 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, is frequently combined with heat recovery system to preserve interior comfort 6) Multiple internal penetrations, spaced throughout a structure 7) Mixed strategies [Double loading could conceivably be achieved by combining cross ventilation with stack effect - in the configutation shown opposite: an interior stack for cooling the front unit with windows spaced at opposite corners, while back units have cross ventilation]

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3) INTERIOR STACK

6) INTERNAL PENETRATIONS

7) MIXED STRATEGIES

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Location and size of windows is important. Most importantly, the outlets should be larger than the inlet windows, to draw air inwards. Secondly, any interior walls or partitions need to be far enough away from inlet windows to allow the air to circulate deep into the unit. Lastly, openings should be offset so as to deflect incoming breezes and disturb stale air settled within the unit. Operable casement, awning, and hopper windows reduce effective aperture area by much less than typical sliding and single/double-hung windows, and are preferable.

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As mentioned in the orientation section, it is advised if possible to orient building aspect towards prevailing breezes to maximize air flow; principal facades should be oriented to within thirty degrees of the direction of prevailing breezes for maximum benefit. Additionally, the use of landscaping features and earth berms to channel and direct natural breezes is advised. Night-purge ventilation is another tactic to keep buildings comfortable. Opening windows at night will release heat to the cool night air (and admit night air to cool the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interior) and closing the windows on hot days will keep the building cool naturally. A building automation system could be installed which controls and monitors the environment in the building, opening and closing windows/vents/sunscreens in response to internal and external temperature conditions. Methods are available to move air through a unit even with walls and closed doors: I) noise-attenuated air ducts between rooms II) transom walls, which stop just short of the ceiling, allow air to come in and go over the top, III) one effective approach is to provide a central return and make sure that there are sizable transfer grilles or ducts to allow air to pass from individual rooms to the central return IV) interior louvered doors or operable transom panels Heat exchange systems are also energy savers. To use energy recovery ventilation, air-to-air heat exchangers will need to be installed in the ductwork. These systems lower heating costs in winter by preheating outside air while lowering cooling costs in summer by pre-cooling incoming air.

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Low Carbon Design

Ideally, openings (windows), are placed on two external walls with the door on one internal wall. If air is incident on any of the external windows, then the fenestration configuration not only ensures a good distribution of air but also has a larger outlet area than inlet area. If only one external (or free) wall exists in a given room it is preferable to provide at least two windows on it rather than one. This would improve the ventilation when the air is incident angularly on the windows.


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To ventilate ground floor retail or workspaces, mixed-mode ventilation may be needed for certain times of day or seasons. So-called â&#x20AC;&#x153;mixed-mode coolingâ&#x20AC;? is a strategy that uses air conditioning and natural ventilation in various combinations. Ideally a building would use natural ventilation whenever suitable for occupant comfort and supplement with mechanical cooling only when needed. Natural ventilation may also be supplemented by use of electric fans, which use electricity, but far less than total mechanical cooling.

Low Carbon Design

To cool down in summer, use water features: I) Evaporative cooling takes advantage of the fact that areas around water bodies are cooler II) At night, water bodies release relatively large amounts of heat to the surroundings III) Recycled water sprayed or misted in public open spaces will create comfortable microclimates IV) Water bodies would be less appropriate in winters/rainy season, and could be drained off V) Use a cooling pond within courtyard for cooling (collected from rain) Trees/Vegetation have several positive effects for human comfort: I) Shade / Intercept radiation (less heat gain) II) Reduce direct glare III) Re-direct the airflow of breezes

Ivies, creepers, and planter boxes on balconies for cooling. Source: Fraker (2009)

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Vegetation and trees provide comfort. Source: AIA (2005)

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Innovative Facade and Roof Design

Trombe Wall . Source: Wiki (2010)

Solar Shingles - building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs), Glass with solar panels laminated between layers, overlap and provide weather protection like regular shingles. BIPVs appear as conventional roofing shingles, except for their slightly shiny appearance and electricity generating abilities. Average lifetime of solar shingles (depending on location and company) is approximately 20 – 25 years.

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• Combines aesthetics, daylighting, and electricity generation

• Combines daylighting, passive solar (day & night), and thermal mass Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) have become a widely used alternative construction material for residential buildings. The acronym SIPs refers to panels made from a thick layer of foam (polystyrene or polyurethane) sandwiched between two layers of Oriented Strand Board (OSB), plywood or fiber-cement. SIPs are also available with a core of agriculture fibers (such as wheat straw) that provides similar thermal and structural performance. The end product is an engineered panel that provides structural framing, insulation, and exterior sheathing in a solid, one-piece component. • Combines insulation, airtightness, and construction efficiency Solar shingles blend in with regular shingles. Source: BuildIt Solar (2009)

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New Typologies

Trombe Wall – advanced form of thermal mass, between 10 and 18 inches, thick masonry wall designed to absorb heat from the sun during the day and radiate it into the interior during the night. This results in loss of views and daylighting potential, but this could potentially be solved by using another common storage wall: containers of water (5 gallons per sf of wall), serving as a translucent thermal mass material. Double glazing (glass or any of the plastics) is adequate for cutting down heat loss at night (traps fleeing geothermal heat in a layer of inert gas between the two glass panels).

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CHAPTER 4: NEW BUILDING TYPES

New Typologies

Taking into account the principles from the previous three chapters, this chapter aims to provide flexible templates to infill developers and designers. Typologies were designed for three construction types: lowrise, midrise, & highrise. Dimensions are shown on the renderings. These typologies should be considered adaptable to many urban contexts, since the basic module of each type can be combined or multiplied to fit various sites. Coloration in the visuals is intended to show when adjoining units are separate. Typologies are presented in order of ascending density.

Fact Sheet

Plan View

Section Cut

Axonometric

Module Render

Material in this chapter is drawn from: - Creative independent design exploration and investigation - Community charrette visualization process conducted for Lake Merritt BART redesign - Expansion of John Ellisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Residential Density publications

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LOWRISE TYPOLOGIES Lot Acreage

Density

Loading

16

0.91

18 DUA

Tuck-Under

Double Alley

16

0.69

23 DUA

On-street

Street

20

0.89

23 DUA

Tuck-Under

Front

28

0.69

40 DUA

Tuck-Under

Side

40

1.01

40 DUA

1-level Podium

Rear

32

0.75

42 DUA

2-level Podium

Rear

64

1.17

52 DUA

Street/Alley

Alley

64

1.10

58 DUA

1-level Podium

Alley

No Open space

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Type

Some Units

Private

All Units

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Public

New Typologies

Units

Open Space

Parking

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97 ALLEY TOWNHOUSES Density

18 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

16 THs

Open Space

Module Dimensions

94’ x 50’

Construction Type

Type V Woodframe

30’

New Typologies

Height

(2 units)

Tuck-Under, Alley-Loaded Private and some Public

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FOUR PLEX HOMES On-Street

Density

23 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

16 THs

Open Space

Public and Private

Module Dimensions

70’ x 75’

Construction Type

Type V Woodframe

24’

New Typologies

Height

(4 units)

98

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99 STAGGERED TOWNHOUSES Tuck-Under, Front Loaded

Density

23 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

20 THs

Open Space

Public and Private

Module Dimensions

72’ x 42’

Construction Type

Type V Woodframe

32’

New Typologies

Height

(2 units)

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FAMILY TOWNHOUSE CLUSTER Density

40 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

28 THs

Open Space

Module Dimensions

(6 units)

Type

00

Public and Private Type V Woodframe

32’

New Typologies

Height

145’ x 40’ Construction

Tuck-Under, Side Loaded

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01 BRACKET APARTMENTS 1-level Podium

Density

40 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

16 THs, 24 Flats

Open Space

Public and Some Private

Module Dimensions

80’ x 40’

Construction Type

Type V Woodframe

22’

New Typologies

Height

(5 units)

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ATTACHED ROWHOUSES 2-level Podium

Density

42 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

32 THs

Open Space

Public and Private

Module Dimensions

120’ x 40’

Construction Type

Type V Woodframe

33’

New Typologies

Height

(8 units)

02

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03 BACK TO BACK TOWNHOUSES Density

52 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

64 THs

Open Space

Module Dimensions

20’ x 120’

Construction Type

Some Public and Few Private Type V Woodframe

36’

New Typologies

Height

(4 units)

On-Street, Alley Loaded

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STACKED TOWNHOUSES Density

58 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

64 THs

Open Space

Some Private and some Public

Module Dimensions

20’ x 116’

Construction Type

Type III Woodframe

45’

New Typologies

Height

(4 units)

1-Level Podium

04

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05

MIDRISE TYPOLOGIES Units

44 22

New Typologies

66

Client Report

64 40

Lot Acreage

Density

Type

Wrap %

45 DUA

1-level Podium

75-100%

56 DUA

2-level Podium

60%

58 DUA

1-level Podium

50%

0.97

66 DUA

2-level Podium

75%

0.53

75 DUA

1-level Podium

100%

0.97 235’ x 180’

0.39 140’ x 120’

1.14

180’ x 275’

235’ x 180’

230’ x 100’

No Open space

DRCP 2010

Parking

Open Space Private

Public

(Half grade)

Some Units

All Units

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COURT COMPLEXES

1 4

45 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

44 Flats

Open Space

Public and some Private

Module Dimensions

80’ x 90’

Construction Type

Type III Woodframe

Height

(10 units)

1-Level Podium

65’

New Typologies

2

Density

06

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07

PYRAMID STACK Density

56 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

20 Flats, 2 THs

Open Space

Module 120’ x 140’ Dimensions (22 units)

Public only

1

2

Type III Woodframe

65’

New Typologies

Height

Construction Type

2-Level Podium

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STAIRCASE UNITS

1

2

Density

58 DUA

Parking

1-Level Podium

Units/Type

20 Flats, 4 THs

Open Space

Public and Most Private

Module 120’ x 60’ Dimensions (24 units)

Type III Woodframe

65’

New Typologies

Height

Construction Type

08

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05 INTERLOCKING UNITS Density

56 DUA

Parking

Units/Type

20 Flats, 2 THs

Open Space

Module 120’ x 140’ Dimensions (22 units)

1

2

4

Public only Type III Woodframe

65’

New Typologies

Height

Construction Type

2-Level Podium

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ATRIUM LOFTS

1

2

4

Density

58 DUA

Parking

1-Level Podium

Units/Type

20 Flats, 4 THs

Open Space

Public and Most Private

Module 120’ x 60’ Dimensions (24 units)

Type III Woodframe

65’

New Typologies

Height

Construction Type

06

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09

HIGHRISE TYPOLOGIES

CLOVERLEAF TOWER

New Typologies

Slender point towers are best for avoiding overshadowing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; two to four units per floor are the standard floor plate for point towers. Providing enough renewable electrical generation becomes more difficult as the construction type moves from midrise to highrise since there is less roof space; facade panels can provide some but not usually enough capacity to completely offset the demand. To provide cross ventilation and solar gain, two units per floor is the only arrangement possible unless one of the selected tower building typologies is used: 1) Cloverleaf Multi-Use Tower (3 units/floor) 2) Skip-stop Curved Wide Tower, (4 to 6 units/floor) 3) Hammerhead Tower (4 units/floor)

This typology combines 3 residential units and one office floor plan per floor. Putting an office use in the back allows the units in front to receive solar radiation and natural ventilation. At 165â&#x20AC;&#x2122; tall, this tower can fit 42 units.

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10 HAMMERHEAD TOWER

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New Typologies

This typology has 4 units per floor, and because of the T-shaped layout, all units will receive solar radiation and can be naturally ventilated by cross breezes. At 165â&#x20AC;&#x2122; tall, this tower contains 64 units.

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11

SKIP-STOP TOWER

New Typologies

This typology has 6 units per floor, two modules of 3 units connected by an open shared circulation area. Units are double height lofts. As illustrated below, an central corridor would allow access to the second and third units in each module. The first unit is wrapped around this hallway. Units can still be naturally ventilated and passively heated. The tower is angled for best solar gain. At 165â&#x20AC;&#x2122; tall, this configuration has 48 units total.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY & RESOURCES American Institute of Architects, “50to50 Wiki,” http://wiki.aia.org/Wiki%20Pages/Building%20Orientation.aspx Amos Rappaport, “Perception of Density, Environment and Behavior, IURD, 7, no.2, June 1975. Arizona Solar Center, “Passive Solar Architecture” http://www.azsolarcenter.com/design/passive-2.html Belzer, Dana. Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-18337.pdf, 2007. Bosselman, Peter. “Representation of Places”, University of California Press; 1 edition, April 20, 1998. Bosselman, Peter. “Rebuilding the Urban Structure of the Inner City”, University of California Press, 2005. The Boulevard Book: History, Evolution, Design of Multiway Boulevards, Allan B. Jacobs, Elizabeth Macdonald, and Yodan Rofe, The MIT Press, 2002. British Columbia. Housing Ministry, “Toward More Inclusive Neighbourhoods: Gaining and Keeping Community Acceptance,” Victoria: The Ministry, 1996.

Building America, “Best Practices Series, Volume 5 - Marine Climate, “http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/38449.pdf BuildingScience.Com, “Climate Primers,” http://www.buildingscience.com/documents/primers. BuildingGreen.Com, “Establishing Priorities,”Environmental Building News, September 1, 1995, http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article.cfm/1995/9/1/Establishing-Priorities-with-Green-Building/ BuiltIt Solar, “Bay Area Solar Calculations, “http://www.builditsolar.com/References/SunChartRS.htm#Overhangs BuildIt Solar, “The Renewable Energy site for Do-It-Yourselfers,” www.builditsolar.com/SolarWall.htm.

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Bibliography

Brickman, Johanna. “Renewable Neighborhoods,” Urban Land, pp 79-82, Jan/Feb 2010.


CLEAR (Comfortable Low Energy ARchitecture), “Climate Responsive Process of Design,” http://new-learn.info/ learn/packages/clear/interactive/matrix/brief_introduction.html Clifton K., Livi Smith A. and D. Rodriguez, “The development and testing of an audit for the pedestrian environment”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 80, pp 95-110, 2007. Center for Sustainable Energy, California, “State Legislation,” http://energycenter.org/index.php/public-affairs/federal-legislation/1283-qualified-energy-conservation-bonds-qecbs. Cherry and Nagle, Essential Elements of Sustainable Design, http://www.planning.org/planning/2010/mar/essentialelements.htm Don Chen, Reid Ewing, and Rolf Pendall, “Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact: The Character & Consequences of Metropolitan Expansion,” 2002. Earl Bossard et al, “Envisioning Neighborhoods with Transit-Oriented Development Potential,” San Jose, CA: Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies, San Jose State University, 2002. Ecocity Views , Richard Register, http://ecocityviews.blogspot.com/

Bibliography

Environmental Building News.“Making the Case for Green Building,” http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article. cfm/2005/4/1/Making-the-Case-for-Green-Building/, April 1, 2005. Edwards & Turrent, “Sustainable Housing Principles & Practice”, Taylor & Francis; 1st edition, September 2000. Ellis, John “Explaining Residential Density”, Places, 16(2), 2005. Ellis, John. “Repairing the Urban Fabric”, presentation to UC Berkeley Studio, 2009. Environmental Protection Agency, “Getting to Smart Growth: 100 Policies for Implementation,” 2002. Farr, Douglas. “Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature”, Wiley; 1 edition, November , 2007. Firestone, Rebecca. “Designing For Solar: What Every Architect Should Know”, http://greencomplianceplus. markenglisharchitects.com/discussions/grid/designing-solar-every-architect-should-know/

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Fraker, Harrison. “Eco-Block: New Sustainability for China”, UC Regents, 2008. From Eco-Cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design, 2nd Edition. Nancy & John Todd. North Atlantic Books. 1994. Green Compliance Plus, “Occupant Thermal Comfort in Energy Trade-Offs,” http://greencomplianceplus.markenglisharchitects.com/technical/windows-glass/occupant-thermal-comfort-energy-trade-offs/ General Building Information: Building Science, http://www.bcbuildinginfo.com/display_topic.php?division_ id=1&topic_title_id=30&topic_id=586, 2009. Hank Dittmar and Gloria Ohland, “The New Transit Town – Best Practices in TOD,” Island Press, 2003. Hank Dittmar and Shelley Poticha, “Moving from Rhetoric to Reality: Making TOD Real,” Island Press, 2002. Higher Density Development: Myth and Fact, Urban Land Institute, American Institute of Architects, Sierra Club and National Multi Housing Council, 2005. Hinshaw and Vanneman, The Supermarket as a Neighborhood Building Block, http://www.planning.org/planning/2010/mar/supermarket.htm

Jacobs, Allan, “Great Streets”, The MIT Press,August 4, 1995. Jarvis, Frederick. “Site Planning and Community Design for Great Neighborhoods”, Home Builder Press, February 1993. Karen Chapple, Troy Reinhalter, and Erin Machell. “Building Support for Transit-Oriented Development: Do Community-Engagement Toolkits Work?” University of California Transportation Center, UC Berkeley, http://escholarship.org/uc/ item/48q1v30c, 2009. Klaus Multiparking Systems, http://www.multiparking.com/, Accessed in 2010. Levitch, Maurice. “Builder/Architect,” http://www.builderarchitectbayarea.com/builder_architect_edition/ba_columns/maurice_levitch/

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Bibliography

Janet L. Bean, “The NIMBY Syndrome and Low-Cost Manufactured Housing Developments: Can Landscape Architecture Help Overcome Community Opposition?” Ph.D. diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2004.


Luo, Philip. “ Integrate Daylighting into the Design of Sustainable Buildings,” http://www.philipluo.com/architecture/ daylighting/index.shtm, 2009. MacDonald, Elizabeth. “Street-facing Dwelling Units and Livability”, Journal of Urban Design, Volume 10, Issue 1, pages 13 - 38, February 2005. Maureen Hickey, “TOD in Charlotte, NC: Case Study of Planning Strategies”, 2002. Matthew Kiefer, “The Social Functions of NIMBYism,” in Planetizen [database online]. Available from http://www. planetizen.com/node/34505. 2007. Model Solar House Design Guide, Rahus Institute 3, www.solarschoolhouse.org, 2004. Michael McCauley, “Does Design Make a Difference?” The NIMBY Report: Does Design Make a Difference, National Low Income Housing Coalition, 2001. Offspring Natural Energy Solutions, “Rainwater Harvesting,” http://www.swiftps.com/water_saving.htm.

Bibliography

Olgyay, Victor. “Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism”, Princeton University Press, June 1963. Paul Zykofsky, “Why Build Near Transit?” Transit California,1999. Powell Center for Construction & Environment, Passive Building Design, http://www.cce.ufl.edu/current/green_building/passive.html, Accessed April 2010. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, “Walkability Checklist: How Walkable is your Community?” 2008. Project for Public Spaces, “A Tool for Initiating the Place-Making Process, “http://www.pioneercourthousesquare. org/Place_audit_pioneerctsq.pdf, 2003. Register, Richard. “Ecocities-rebuilding cities in balance with nature.” New society publishers, Canada. 2006 Ritchie & Thomas, “Sustainable Urban Design” 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francis; 2 edition, February 5, 2009.

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DCRP 2010

Troy Reinhalter


Robert Cervero, Transit Oriented Development in America: Strategies, Issues, Policy Directions, 2005. Robert Cervero and Peter Bosselmann. “An Evaluation of the Market Potential for Transit-Oriented Development Using Visual Simulation Techniques,” Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California at Berkeley, Monograph No. 47, 1994. Sarah Hendricks and Julie Goodwill, “Building Transit-Oriented Development in Established Communities,” Center for Urban Tranportation Research, 2002. Sarah White, Housing Density Toolbox: A Comparison of Land Use Strategies in Selected California Cities, 2005. Sarah White and Ashton White, “Meeting Housing Needs and the NIMBY syndrome,” Rural and Small Town Research Town Program, 1992. San Diego Regional Energy Efficiency Office, “Residential Energy Efficiency Measures,” http://energycenter.org/uploads/Residential%20Efficiency%20Measures.pdf Sierra Club, “The New Solar Roof,” http://www.sierraclubgreenhome.com/go-green/roofing-products/the-new-solarroof/#more-5381, Accessed March 2010.

Sierra Club, “Indoor Heating by a Concrete Wall,” http://www.sierraclubgreenhome.com/featured/indoor-heatingby-a-concrete-wall/#more-5313, Accessed Feb 2010. Small House, Built Right, Betsy Pettit, Fine Homebuilding issue 172, pg 56-61, June 2005. Smart Growth American, “New Tools for Community Design and Decision Making, “http://www.smartgrowthtools.org/ TCDDM/, Accessed 2010. Sustainable by Design, “Design Tools,” http://susdesign.com/tools.php Timothy Beatley. “Green Urbanism. Learning from European Cities.” Island Press, Washington, D.C., Covelo, California, 2000.

Troy Reinhalter

DRCP 2010

Client Report

Bibliography

Sierra Club, “Solar Center,” www.sierraclubgreenhome.com/solar-center/.


Toxipedia, “Resource-Efficient Natural Landscaping,” http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Natural+Landscaping Tung, Greg. “New Street Typologies/New Street Types - Getting more out of the same R.O.W.: Overlap Space Street Types.” CNU 17, 2006. Toolbase Services, “Structural Insulated Panels, “http://www.toolbase.org/Technology-Inventory/Whole-House-Systems/structural-insulated-panels. US Dept of Energy, “Residential Buildings in the Marine Climate Zone,”http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/residential/marine.html Wheeler, Stephen and Beatley, Timothy. “The Sustainable Urban Development Reader.” New York: Routledge., 2004. Whole Building Design Guide, National Inst. of Building Sciences, http://www.wbdg.org/design/sustainable.php, 2010. William Moorish & Katie Swenson. “Growing Urban Habitats, Seeking a New Housing Development Model.” San Francisco, William Stout, 2009.

Bibliography

Worrell Water Technologies, “Living Machine Brochure”, www.livingmachines.com/resources/, 2009.

Client Report

DCRP 2010

Troy Reinhalter

California Infill Manual: Best Practices for Higher Density  

Professional report completed to satisfy degree requirements for Masters in City Planning. Extensive research/illustration on the subject o...

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