a combination of aims and methods from all types, depending on the needs and character of the child. A traditional ABA approach recommends 20-40 hours per week of therapy, as well as therapist workshops and meetings with consultants. This can be time consuming and expensive, however, even a smaller number of hours per week can often result in improved skills and behaviours. A consultant should hold a BCBA qualification awarded by the US-based Behavior Analyst Certification Board. The UK Society for Behaviour Analysis is the UK regulatory industry body uk-sba.org. Several local authorities in the UK will now fund ABA. There are also some special schools that offer ABA as part of the curriculum. Most of them take pupils placed by local authorities, and some have a limited number of fee-paying places. l More information, including the evidence base for ABA, can be found in Treating Autism ABA info-sheet in resources section of the website
DIR®/Floortime™ DIR/Floortime was created by Dr Stanley Greenspan and Dr Serena Weider. Parents and caregivers are coached to provide the intervention from a DIR practitioner. The DIR practitioner meets with the family once a month, or more frequently if preferred. DIR stands for Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship-Based: Developmental: Parents are coached in understanding their child’s level of selfregulation and emotional functioning, and how to support them to develop the next capacity. These nine developmental capacities are important for healthy emotional, social and intellectual growth: To be calm and interested in their surroundings; To engage emotionally with others; To initiate and respond in two-way purposeful communication; To communicate in a complex way; To think imaginatively; To think logically and develop ‘theory of mind’; To see the many reasons for things; To be able to think in shades of grey; To be able to self-reflect.
Individual Differences: In autism, sensory, motor, psychological and biomedical differences are the norm. These profoundly affect each individual’s experience within their bodies and in their world. The parent and the DIR practitioner work together with the broader network of professionals to remove challenges, foster development and support the child/adult with autism in reaching their potential. Relationship-Based: The emotionally charged, 4