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A MONTHLY PUBLICATION OF FEDERAL ROAD SAFETY COMMISSION

tyres YOUR LIFE COULD DEPEND ON THEM

www.frscinsight.com DECEMBER 2012


www.saferoadinnigeria.org

From The Editor-In-Chief

H

ave you ever wondered why sharks never get sick? .Sharks are known to be immune to almost every known disease. In creating sharks, God made their body frame not with the traditionally known bones, but rather with cartilage the tough, yet flexible fibrious tissues responsible for shaping human noses and ears. This way sharks skeletons weight are reduced thus making them vulnerable to being crushed under their own weight. This makes sharks to keep busy swimming all day as it rarely breaths excepts swimming in a flowing water. An average shark has a life span of 20 - 30 years and are mainly bi sexual. It is believed that some species of sharks, including the great white shark, change sex when they reach a certain size with the males becoming females to ensure survival of their species. Commercial Drivers, especially those in developing climes, in similar manners think of their vehicles as sharks that rarely sleep yet are immune from diseases. This notion is more pronounced during the yuletide period as this is when commercial vehicles are deployed on the road with the sole aim of maximising profits, with little regards to safety of the passengers, the mechanical functionality of the vehicle and very importantly the medical well being of the driver. All these and several other reasons like ensuring only professionally qualified and medically fit persons are authorised to own a commercial drivers license informed the launch of the commercial drivers licensee in Nigeria on 17 December 2012. That same day the road transport safety standardisation (RTSSS) portal was launched. You can read about these events in this edition. In this edition you would also read about curbing traffic offences through stiffer laws especially during the yuletide period. While wishing our esteemed readers merry Christmas and happy new year, remember you can read all previous editions on www.frscinsight.com

editorial OC Oladele (CC) Head, Planning Advisory Unit Editor – In - Chief


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IN THIS EDITION ■ Checks and Maintenance of Tyres - pg 4 ■ RTSSS Portal Will Enhance Safety - pg 8 ■ Quotes on Communication - pg 12 ■ The Nigerian Road User - pg 13 ■ New Commercial Drivers’ Licence - pg 16 ■ Indiscipline In Organizations - pg 14

Copyright & Disclaimer . The information contained in this Newsletter has been compiled by Federal Road Safety Corps [FRSC]. It provides general information only. Some photographs and graphics contained therein are only for dramatization (i.e. may not represent any member, client, partner, facilities, employee etc. of Federal Road Safety Corps). No responsibility is accepted for the correctness and completeness of the given information. . Copyright © Federal Road Safety Commission. All rights reserved. Contact Details Federal Road Safety Corps National Headquaters Olusegun Obasanjo Way, Zone 7, Wuse District. PMB 125, Abuja, Nigeria 0700- CALL - FRSC 0700 - 2255 - 3772 0807- 769 - 0362 (Text Messages Only) Email: info@frsc.gov.ng Website: www.frsc.gov.ng

EDITORIAL BOARD Osita Chidoka, OFR Corps Marshal/Chief Executive Publisher

OC Oladele (CC) Editor–In-Chief

KD Alegieuno (ARC) Editor

Members VO Ogunnupebi (ACC) AR Obagbemiro (CRC) CB Nwokolo (DRC) DO Enakireru (ARC) 0I IKOKU (ARC)

You & Your Tyres IMAGINE being strapped inside a welded steel-and-glass cage with acid and flammable liquids in containers near you. Now suspend this potentially deadly construction just inches off the ground and accelerate it to about 100 feet per second [30 m/sec]. As a final touch, put your machine among similar ones and have them dart around one another while other machines race past you from the opposite direction! That is essentially what you do every time you get into a vehicle and drive down the highway. What helps you to maintain control and feel secure while driving? To a large degree, it is your tires Tires serve a variety of important purposes. They not only bear the weight of your vehicle but also cushion it from bumps, potholes, and other irregularities in the road. More important, your tires supply vitally needed traction in order for you to accelerate... See page 4

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tyres YOUR LIFE COULD DEPEND ON THEM By DO ENAKIRERU (ARC) Planning Advisory Unit FRSC Headquarters, Abuja

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MAGINE being strapped inside a welded steel-and-glass cage with acid and flammable liquids in containers near you. Now suspend this potentially deadly construction just inches off the ground and accelerate it to about 100 feet per second [30 m/sec]. As a final touch, put your machine among similar ones and have them dart around one another while other machines race past you from the opposite direction! That is essentially what you do every time you get into a vehicle and drive down the highway. What helps you to maintain control and feel secure while driving? To a large degree, it is your tyres. WHAT TYRES DO Tyres serve a variety of important purposes. They not only bear the weight of your vehicle but also cushion it from bumps, potholes, and other irregularities in the road. More important, your tires supply vitally needed traction in order for you to accelerate, steer, brake, and provide directional stability under varying road conditions. Yet, only a small portion of the tyre—about the size of a postcard—is in contact with the ground at any one time. In view of their importance, what can you do to keep your tyres functioning safely and efficiently? And when the time comes, how do you select the correct tyres for your vehicle? Before answering these questions, let us take a brief look at the history of the tyre. EARLY PIONEERS OF RUBBER Although wheels have been in use for thousands of years, the idea of attaching rubber to the outer rim of vehicle wheels is a relatively recent development. Natural rubber was first

attached to wooden or steel wheels in the early 1800’s. But it wore out quickly, so the future of rubber-coated wheels seemed bleak—that is, until Charles Goodyear, a determined inventor from Connecticut, U.S.A., came along. In 1839, Goodyear discovered a process known as vulcanization, whereby rubber is infused with sulfur, under heat and pressure. This process made the rubber much easier to mold and vastly improved its resistance to wear. Solid rubber tyres became more popular, but they gave a rough ride. In 1845, Scottish engineer Robert W. Thomson received a patent for the first pneumatic, or air-filled, tyre. However, it wasn’t until another Scotsman, John Boyd Dunlop, set out to improve the ride of his son’s bicycle that the pneumatic tyre became a commercial success. Dunlop patented his new tyre in 1888 and started his own company. Nevertheless, the pneumatic tyre still had to overcome significant obstacles. One day in 1891, a French cyclist got a flat tyre. He attempted to repair it but failed because the tire was permanently bonded to the bicycle wheel. He sought the help of a fellow Frenchman, Édouard Michelin, who was known for his work with vulcanized rubber. Michelin spent nine hours repairing the tire. That experience motivated him to develop a pneumatic tyre that could be removed from its wheel for easy repair. Michelin’s tyres were so successful that the following year 10,000 happy cyclists were using them. In short order, pneumatic tyres were installed on horse-drawn carriages in Paris, much to the delight of their French passengers. In 1895, to demonstrate that pneumatic tyres could be used on motorized vehicles, Édouard and his brother, André, put them on a race car, but it finished last. Still, people were so amazed


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by these unusual tyres that they tried to cut the tyres open to see just what the Michelin brothers had hidden inside them! In the 1930’s and ’40’s, durable new materials, such as rayon, nylon, and polyester, replaced the more fragile materials of cotton and natural rubber. Following World War II, groundwork was laid for a tire that maintained an airtight seal directly against the wheel, therefore no longer requiring an inner tube to contain the air. Later, further improvements were made. Today, over 200 raw materials go into making a tyre. And with the help of modern technology, some tires boast a life span of 80,000 miles [130,000 km] or more, while others can endure speeds of hundreds of miles per hour on a race car. All the while, tyres have become more affordable for the everyday consumer. SELECTING TYRES If you own a motor vehicle, you may be faced with the daunting task of selecting new tyres. How do you determine when it is time to replace your tyres? By inspecting your tyres regularly for obvious signs of wear or damage. Tyre manufacturers provide built-in wear indicators, frequently called wear bars, to indicate when your tyres have reached the end of their useful life. Wear bars appear as solid bands of rubber across the tread sur-face. It is also good to check for tread separation, protruding wires, bulges in the sidewall, and other irregularities. If you find any of these things, you should not drive the vehicle until the tyre is repaired or replaced. If you purchased the tyres new, the tire retailer may replace the damaged tyre at a reduced cost if it is covered by a warranty.

Tyres are best replaced in matched pairs, mounted on the same axle. If you are installing only one new tyre, mate it with the tyre having the most tread in order to balance traction when braking. Sorting through all the different types, sizes, and models of tyres can be confusing. However, by answering a few key questions, you will find the job to be much easier. First, review the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. Your vehicle has specific requirements that need to be considered, such as tyre and wheel size, ground clearance, and load capacity. Important, too, is your vehicle’s design. Modern vehicles with antilock brakes, traction control, and all-wheel-drive systems are designed to be used with tyres having specific operating characteristics. Tyre specifications are usually found in your vehicle owner’s manual. Another factor is road conditions. Will your vehicle be driven mostly on dirt or paved roads, in rainy or dry weather? It could well be that you drive under varying conditions. In that case, you may need all-terrain or all-season tyres. You should also consider the life expectancy and traction rating of the tyre. Generally, the softer the tread compound, the more traction the tyre will have, but it will wear out sooner. Conversely, if the tread compound is relatively hard, the tyre will have less traction but will likely last longer. Ratings are usually found in sales literature where tyres are sold. Be aware that tyre ratings vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Once you have narrowed down your search, price may determine your final selection. Well-known manufacturers usually offer better quality assurance and warranty coverage.


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MAINTAINING YOUR TYRES Proper tyre maintenance involves three things: maintaining the correct air pressure, rotating the tyres regularly, and keeping them properly balanced and aligned. Maintaining the correct tyre pressure is very important. If a tyre has too much air, the tread will wear prematurely in the center. On the other hand, if tyre pressure is too low, a tyre will wear excessively on the edges and fuel efficiency will be reduced. Tires may lose a pound [0.5 kg] or more of pressure every month because of air bleeding through the rubber. So don’t assume that you can tell whether your tyres are properly inflated by looking at their shape. According to the Rubber Manufacturers Association, “a tyre can lose up to half of its air pressure and not appear to be flat!” Therefore, use a pressure gauge to monitor tyre pressure, and do so at least once a month. Many vehicle owners keep a gauge in the glove compartment for convenient use. Always check your tyres when you change the engine oil and only when the tyres are cold—in other words, after they have been sitting for at least three hours or when they have been driven on for less than a mile [1.5 km]. Tyre pressure specifications are usually noted in the owner’s manual, on a label near the driver’s doorpost, or in the glove compartment. If you want to avoid a rough ride, do not inflate tyres to the maximum pressure, which is molded on the sidewall. Tyres will last longer and wear more evenly if you rotate them on a regular basis. Unless your vehicle manufacturer recommends otherwise, it is good to rotate tyres every 6,000 to 8,000 miles [10,000 to 13,000 km]. Once again, check your owner’s manual for the suggested rotation pattern. Finally, get your tyre alignment checked annually or whenever you notice any unusual vibration or irregularity in your car’s steering. While the suspension system on your vehicle is designed to align the tyres under varying loads, normal wear and tear makes it necessary to check and realign the tyres periodically. An automotive service technician who is certified in suspension and wheel alignment should be able to keep your vehicle in accurate alignment, maximizing tyre life and ride quality. “INTELLIGENT” TYRES With the aid of computers, some cars warn the driver when tyre pressure is below safe limits. Some tyres can operate safely for short periods without air pressure, and others seal themselves after a puncture. Indeed, engineers are designing tyres for an ever-widening range of operating conditions. As advances in materials, tread design, suspension, steering, and braking systems are applied to modern vehicles, tyres make driving not only easier but safer. TYRE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST Visual checks: - Are there bulges in the sidewall? - Are wires showing in the tread surface? - Is the tread depth within safe limits, or are the tyres’ wear bars showing?

Also consider: - Is the tyre pressure set at the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended pressure? - Is it time to rotate the tyres? (Use the vehicle manufacturer’s suggested mileage interval and rotation pattern.) - Should different tyres be installed because of a change in seasons? PARTS OF A TYRE - Tread provides traction and cornering grip - Belts stabilize and strengthen the tread - Sidewall protects the side of the tyre from road damage - Body ply gives the tyre strength and flexibility - Inner liner keeps the air inside the tyre - Bead assures an airtight fit with the wheel HOW TO CHECK FOR TYRE EXPIRY DATE Old tyres or as some people call it “tokunbo tyres” are cheap and available. However, they are very dangerous and can lead to a fatal road traffic crash. It can easily get burst while in use. It is therefore imperative to check for the expiry date of a tyre. In order to check for it, it is important to know first that vehicle tyres have a 4 - year validity period from their Date of Manufacture (DOM). How does one find out whether his tyre has expired? Check for a stamp like this: (*2109*). There is an asterisk at the beginning and at the end of this serial number. The first two numbers ‘’21’’ tells which week of the year the tyre was manufactured. Please note that a year has 52 weeks. The last two numbers represent the year of make. Therefore, *2109* shows that the tyre was manufactured on the 21st week of the year 2009. Therefore, *3698* would show that the tyre was made in the 36th week of 1998. Check all your tyres for safety purposes. Do not use expired tyres. They are likely to burst when running in hot weather as the rubber component would have become hardened and cracked. Research on tyre safety indicates that maintaining proper tyre pressure, observing tyre and vehicle load limits, and inspecting tyres for cuts, slashes, and other irregularities are vital things required to avoid tyre failure; tread separation, blowout and flat tyres. Check all your tyres for safety purposes


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RTSSS Portal Will Enhance Safety In Transport Sector - Hon Gusau

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he House Committee Chairman on Information and Communication Technology, Hon. Ibrahim Gusau has described the launch of a portal on the Road Transport Safety Standardization Scheme (RTSSS) on 17 December, 2012 by the Federal Road Safety Corps, as catalyst to enhance safety in the transport sector. Speaking during the formal presentation of the portal of the RTSSS, an initiative by the FRSC to ensure compliance with minimum safety standards among fleet operators in Nigeria, Hon. Gusau said “ the FRSC has taken giant strides in transforming the transport sector my making things easier for fleet operators and commuters with real time on-line access to data on motor parks, fuel and Police stations, FRSC offices, status of fleet operators, tow truck and ambulance services, which is at par with global best practices”. He urged all stakeholders in the transport sector to buy into the initiative which will no doubt, ensure sanity on the nation’s highways.

Osita Chidoka, OFR, Corps Marshal and Chief Executive of Federal Road Safety Corps,(l), Hon. Ibrahim Gusau, the Federal House of Representatives Committee Chairman on Information and Communication Technology(m) and Hon TJ Yusuf, Vice Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on Information and Communication Technology, during the launch of the RTSSS portal

In an earlier presentation, the FRSC Corps Marshal and Chief Executive, Osita Chidoka recalled that the RTSSS was conceived to regulate and ensure safe and standardized fleet transport operations, check the excesses of transport operators and further entrench a culture of safety consciousness in organizations and companies with fleet of vehicles. According to him, the RTSSS portal is meant to serve as a gate way for security agencies, fleet operators and the Nigerian motoring public on the scheme and relevant information on transport operators, travel guide, safety rating of transport operators and road crash reports.

Osita Chidoka, OFR, Corps Marshal and Chief Executive of Federal Road Safety Corps, delivering his speech at the launch of the portal

Speaking further, Chidoka said that through the scheme, the Corps has identified 1,392 motor parks across the country through which about 250,189 passengers travel daily. He also said that so far; out of 2,895 transport operators registered, 1,033 have been inspected while 722 have been certified by the Corps for complying with safety standards. The Corps Marshal also said that 6,000 safety managers have been trained, 1,000 fleet drivers and 692 convoy drivers also trained, which has contributed towards the witnessed reduction in road crashes involving Governors’ convoy in Nigeria.

From right to left: COMACE, Hon. Mulikat Adeola Akande, House Leader Federal House of Representatives, Hon. Elizabeth Obaga and Hon. Ibrahim Gusau, the Federal House of Representatives Committee Chairman on Information and Communication Technology


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Yuletide Celebration: CURBING TRAFFIC OFFENCES THROUGH STIFFER LAWS

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atrick Ajayi lives in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja and owns 2007 Model Honda Accord Vehicle. Part of his itinerary for the week is to take his car for routine repairs (maintenance) before embarking on a trip to his hometown located at the southwestern axis of Nigeria. Due to other engagements, he left the mechanic's workshop at 7.45pm and headed home to prepare for his trip. Unfortunately, Patrick woke up late for the journey and had to hit the Kubwa-Gwagwalada dual carriageway at about 11.30am. Noticing a heavy traffic, he decided to drive against the traffic by taking the opposite lane where there are apparently few vehicles. Within minutes, tragedy struck. In attempt to overtake another vehicle, a commercial bus driver rammed into Patrick's car leaving him and other occupants of his car with life-threatening injuries while some passengers in the bus suffered varying degrees of serious injuries. Such scenario is a usual occurrence on Nigeria roads especially during this time of the year because of the driving habits of most drivers. This poses additional challenge to the resolve of law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Road Safety Commission to ensure sanity on our highways. It becomes more disturbing to note that this attitudinal syndrome has gradually taken over the psyche of the average Nigerian driver who pays less attention to safety consciousness and without recourse to traffic Rules and Regulations. For hundreds of families, every festive season such as the Christmas celebration, is a time of tragedy and heartbreak, a time of funerals, death and emergency dashes to hospitals. According to the FRSC statistics, a total of 4,372 deaths and 17,464 injuries were recorded in 4,675 reported cases of road traffic accidents last year and with of 17 December, 2012 fatal crash along Ughelli-Warri road where 7 people (including a child) were killed due to speed violation and head-on-collision between a bus and a Hilux van, this sad trend has assumed a worrisome dimension. Most drivers have the penchant to violate traffic laws because they drive after drinking, they jump red lights and do not obey road markings and signs, they speed on wet roads and drive around at night even with inadequate lights. And when accident occurs, the blame is often placed on bad road surface. They never blame themselves and if fined, they perceive it as bad luck rather than as a serious warning to amend their driving habits. Another disturbing trend is the issue of poorly

maintained and rickety vehicles, which are common sight on our roads. What most of us fail to understand is that a badly maintained vehicle, which suddenly breaks down in the middle of the road, does not only constitute a temporary obstruction but is a potential traffic crash in the waiting. The main cause, almost the sole cause of any crash is a driver who failed to follow the rules of the road or best driving practices. Experience in other countries indicates strongly that with modest equipment and adequate funding, the Federal Road Safety Corps, which remains the lead agency in road traffic management, can achieve attitudinal transformation among road users in the country. Random sobriety checks on drivers such as breathalyzers in addition to the prosecution of every other driver who runs foul traffic laws will make a difference. The apprehension of those who drive above recommended alcohol limit has to be followed with a reasonable penalty to serve as a deterrent to other traffic offenders. As the FRSC concludes plans to introduce the point system with the new driver's license scheme, this initiative will expectedly add value to on-going push for sanity on our roads. The trend of sending erring drivers to psychiatric homes should be revisited because there is no difference between a mad man on the streets and a motorist who deliberately driver against the traffic or takes phone calls while driving. Added to these unpleasant trends is the issue of under-aged and learner drivers whose presence on our highways contributes immensely to road crashes. Other alternative measures towards curbing traffic laws violation should include the introduction of community service by offenders for deliberate breaches. As we celebrate this year's Christmas season with obvious traffic peculiarities usually occasioned by heavy vehicular and human traffic across the country, there is an urgent need to consider stiffer traffic laws as an antidote to acceptable traffic norms. We cannot keep counting our holiday death tolls in scores and annual death tolls in thousands. We have to start taking more effective action to enforce driving laws. A stitch in time; they say, saves nine. Ohaeri OJ, Media Officer Federal Road Safety Corps National Headquarters, Abuja.


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Quotes

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Telling the future by looking at the past assumes that conditions remain constant. This is like driving a car by looking in the rearview mirror -Unknown

Low self-esteem is like driving through life with your hand-break on. -Maxwell Maltz

Politics can be likened to driving at night over unfamiliar hills and mountains. Close attention must be paid to what the beam can reach and the next bend. -David Trimble

Most great men and women are not perfectly rounded in their personalities, but are instead people whose one driving enthusiasm is so great it makes their faults seem insignificant - Charles A. Cerami

Living with a conscience is like driving a car with the brakes on. - Budd Wilson Schulberg

The trouble with being number one in the world - in anything - is that it takes a certain mentality to attain that position, and that is something of a driving, perfectionist attitude, so that once you do achieve number one, you don't relax and enjoy. -Billie Jean King

Education is the process of driving a set of prejudices down your throats. - Martin H. Fischer


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A SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL ROAD SAFETY COMMISSION'S IDEAL

The Nigerian Road Users T

he Nigerian road is one of the most unsafe ranked 65 in the world. Considering the amount of loss both human and economic resources on our roads every year. In this paper we shall be dwelling on who Nigerian road users are what are their psychological and sociological makes ups that could predispose him to total neglect of road use ethics to the detriment of his life and others. One other aspect that Nigerians and the Government do not consider but that is very vital and germane in is Value of life or Value to life as the case maybe, which a typical Nigerian does not take to be important. It is only when these matters are resolved that solution could be found to the problem of carnage on our roads. Such answers would have varied but positive implications for the FRSC and other road traffic enforcers in a bid to make our roads safe for all users.


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These issues form the basis of this paper which if taken seriously the commission may be heading towards success in combating road accidents. THE NIGERIAN ROAD USER Who constitute the road user in Nigeria today? These are pedestrians, hawkers, beggars, cyclist (bicycle, motorcycle and tricycle), vehicle drivers, private, commercial, and trailer and lorry drivers. Commercial bus, tractors, cranes and other articulated vehicles, road construction equipment. PSYCHOLOGICAL MAKE-UP OF THE NIGERIAN ROAD USER A typical Nigerian is an average road user, in the sense that everyone born either enters on his own or is carried into the road. The Microsoft Encarta word English dictionary (1999) defines psycho-social as that which relate to both the psychological and the social aspect of something, or relating to a thing that has both the psychological and social aspect. Psychology defined as the systematic study of human behavior psychology deals with mental experience of individuals while sociology deals with systematic study of social behavior and human groups/grouping. The difference between the two lies in the unit of reference, i.e either the individual or the group for the psychologist and sociologist respectively. For a psychologist, the focus is on the way individual behavior is organized to form his personality, while the sociology focuses on the group i.e society and culture of which the individual constitute a part. Experts, however agree that human psychology is a product of social condition. This meeting point /ground between the two discipline called social psychology shared by both discipline. BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL INGREDIENT REQUIRED FOR CHANGE The greatest ingredient required for change in behaviour is the appropriate motivation. MOTIVATION: This is anything, which propels action, and leads people to persist in their goal directed behavior. It's the drive that makes people to prefer disciplined behaviour e.g driving to discipline one, to pursue nationalistic and patriotic acts, to join special road marshal squads etc. Basic motives are guarded by basic needs such as security, food, shelter, and sexual gratification. There are hierarchies of human needs and this motive behaviour in the following ways. Social need opportunity to participate, be involved, help others and to develop close friendships. Esteem needs - people have need for raised esteem as well as prestige. Autonomy involves giving people authority/ opportunity to be independent in thought and action achieved through involving programme, planning and execution. Self-actualization opportunity for personal growth and development for feeling of self-fulfillment, feeling of worthwhile accomplished etc. IMPLICATION TO FRSC Motives according to experts are ordered to hierarchy ranging

from the basic (biological) needs e.g. security to the most advanced or complex ones e.g. needs for self actualization. It is also said that people are preoccupied with lower level needs are not likely to accomplish higher-level ones and vice versa (Lindgren, 1973). This has implication for the type of persuasion or communication that FRSC should design for Nigerians. Persuasive message or road safety education programmes should be designed with specific population in mind. For rural population, the message should exploit the most elementary motives and needs such as food, shelter, and security. On the other hand, for urban, professional and middle class people, emphasis should be placed on the need for self-regard, selfesteem, feeling of fulfillment and worthwhile accomplishment. Communication experts know the importance of matching one's persuasive communication to the audience level. Suggestibility - Critical situations such as we have been experiencing in the country e.g. economic uncertainties, unemployment, in-security, etc can force people to become vulnerable to suggestions according Cantrill (1976) in two ways: When a person lacks adequate mental context. When his mental context is rigidly fixed. Use of slogan and symbols - these are shortcut rationalizations which fire imagination. They spread fast because they express dissatisfaction from which the people have been suffering and at the same time suggest a new direction and purpose. The social context of a slogan is what sells it. e.g why hurry to make your children orphans fatherless. Make your message/ campaign programmes simple for easy understanding by all. This gives meaning to people and shows how their immediate needs and desires are met. Make full use of our social setting homes, school, workshop, church, mosque, highways, market places, shopping malls community, etc. CONCLUSION The Nigerian road users are noted for gross indiscipline and disregard to read ethics. A probe into why this is so reveals not only the effects of colonial historical antecedents on his culture and value, but also an eroded personality propelled by the wrong motives. Besides, he has been brutalized by very personal experiences of economic hardships, lack of social amenities, unemployment, insecurity, hyperinflation years of misrule, etc, these have joined hands to alter his norms and values. The FRSC in her campaign for safe roads must consider these issues in designing any persuasive programme geared towards changing the attitude of the average Nigerian road user. This may be one of the best ways to get the desired results. Not only that, enforcement that is now more subtle should be more biting and RTC reduction/ Safety oriented. The issue of Safety on the road being every body's business should be given more important focus than being a routine or mere source of income. Nigerian road safety personnel should be more religiously dedicated to safety on the road. The organisation needs to direct her mega resources to focus vividly on reducing RTC and death primarily.


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Driver's Licence NEW COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENCE WILL BOLSTER NATIONAL SECURITY -TRANSPORT MINISTER

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he Minister of Transportation, Senator Idris Umar on 17 December, 2012 has said that the new commercial driver's license will add value to collective search for national security especially with improved security features such as biometrics, intelligent camera and a central print farm that prevents counterfeiting and parallel production. Speaking through his Special Assistant, Mallam Bala Diko at the formal launch of a new commercial driver's license, the Transport Minister described the initiative as additional stride towards making Nigerian roads free of road crashes. He added that driver's license serves as a security document, which confirms the competence of drivers within global circles hence the need to certify and ensure the competence of commercial drivers who convey passengers from one point to another. Also speaking, the House Leader, Hon. Mulikat Akande described the new commercial driver as significant because “it symbolizes the commitment of the FRSC as lead agency in road safety management and administration in Nigeria to ensure sanity on our roads through a credible licensing system”. She added that the need to enthrone global best practices in our licensing system informed the earlier intervention by the two chambers of the National Assembly in the new vehicle licensing regime as initiated by the FRSC. Hon. Akande expressed her delight that the Corps has delivered on its mandate through seamless procurement of the new driver's license and introduction of more stringent measures for the procurement of the commercial classes of driver's license in order to ensure credibility and responsible conduct of drivers who operate with such classes of license. In her words “ we must insist that holders of commercial driver's license should be those that we know and have their proper records in the national data base; they should be those that belong to the various driving unions and who can be identified and traced as the case may be, so that the anonymity of those that cause deaths and injuries on the roads can be removed”. In an earlier presentation, the FRSC Corps Marshal and Chief Executive, Osita Chidoka said that tankers and trailers contribute to 40% of road crash fatalities in

Hon Minister of Transportation Senator Idris Umar who launched the upgraded commercial driver's license, is shown speaking through his Special Assistant, Mallam Bala Diko , who represented him at the event

Danjuma Garba, mni, the Deputy Corps Marshal, Motor Vehicle Administration, delivering the vote of thanks at the event


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the country. He also said that 5,537 deaths were recorded in 6,012 crashes involving tankers between 2007 and 2010. Accor-ding to him, buses also caused 5,583 deaths in 5,828 road crashes while small vehicles accounted for 1,154 deaths in 2,094 road crashes within the same period (2007-2010) thus justifying the need for initiatives such as the commercial driver's license which brings to bear, the medical status of drivers and other relevant data aimed at injecting order and sanity in the transport sector. Continuing, the Corps Marshal said that under the new scheme, only commercial drivers will be issued the class E license which will put drivers through mandatory routine medical checks at government hospitals for blood sugar level, hypertension, epilepsy and related health issues to enhance the safety of commercial drivers and commuters in Nigeria. Also speaking, the President of National Union of Road Transport Workers, Alhaji Najeem Yasin commended the FRSC for the new commercial driver's license and appealed to for the provision of adequate motor parks across the country to reduce driver fatigue and by extension, a decline in road crashes and fatalities. He also solicited the endorsement of government to ensure the inclusion of the NURTW in the implementation of the Driving Schools Standardization Scheme (DSSP) by way of making provisions that applicants for commercial driver's licenses (especially fresh applicants) should pass through the NURTW after sponsorship by accredited driving schools as well as implementation of continuous drivers' training programme for commercial drivers. CORPS PUBLIC EDUCATION OFFICE, RSHQ, ABUJA

Hon. Mrs Mulikat Adeola Akande, Leader of the Federal House of Representatives presenting the commercial driver's license to Alhaji Najeem Yasin, National President of National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) during the launch of the upgraded commercial drivers license

Osita Chidoka, OFR, Corps Marshal and Chief Executive of Federal Road Safety Corps, delivering his speech the launch

COMACE exchanging pleasantries with the National President of NURTW


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Indiscipline INDISCIPLINE: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT IN A CORPORATE ORGANISATION BY YD USMAN (ARC) RS4.35 NASSARAWA EGGON UNIT COMMAND

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ndiscipline is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the attitudes/morals of individuals in the society that you will have either been part of it, aided it or may have witnessed it either knowingly or otherwise. The phenomenal increase in the incidence, intensity and complexity is a thing of concern as such affirmative action{s} from leaders, subordinates,parents and all stakeholders interested in building a great society is the necessary panacea for a positive change and character reformation. In an ideal workplace/society, employees or individuals follows prescribed policies and maintains a high standard of professional behavior. Although many staff may strive towards achieving the goals, there are incidences of some staff lacking the required discipline for the success of the work environment. Meaning: Indiscipline is defined as lack of control in the behaviour of a group of people. It is the absence or lack of order and control. It implies unruly, wild, undomesticated and uncontrolled behaviour. TYPES OF INDISCIPLINE Direct indiscipline: Indiscipline can be direct and noticeable. They are sometimes confrontational, aggressive and characterized by disparaging remarks about leaders, blatant defying orders of management, using profane language, behaving unprofessionally with customers' etc. Indirect indiscipline: This is less noticeable but still problematic. It is very tricky and difficult to pinpoint e.g. working sluggishly to avoid taking a new assignment, encouraging coworker misconduct with laughter etc. Indirect indiscipline when ignored can develop into a bigger problem. Approved indiscipline: These are unwanted activities or behaviors that are not commented upon by supervisors thereby sending mixed messages about expectations. Unwitting indiscipline: Workplace indiscipline can be unwitting when the staff don't know or haven't been informed of expectation or professional conduct e.g. social networking during work hours.

CAUSES OF INDISCIPLINE Communication barriers Ineffective leadership: Varying disciplinary measures: Defective supervision: Inadequate attention to personal (staff) problems: Victimization and excessive pressures Lack of well defined code of conduct: Divide and rule policy: Delayed settlement of staff grievances: Wrongful approach/steps in correction of mistakes and faults: EFFECTS OF INDISCIPLINE Short term effects: Rudeness in a workplace can cost the organization time, effort and talents. Medium term effects: Troublemakers or undisciplined staff takes over and performance of duties or obedience to constituted authority takes place only if the loudest or most disruptive elements {in the workplace}decide to allow it. Long term effects: Standards deteriorate to a disappointing level, there will be consistent absenteeism and low/zero compliance to directives and those who are upright will begin to emulate the undisciplined staff believing that the only way to get management's attention is to behave impolitely. There may be no time or attention to encouraging hard work and creativity. THE WAY OUT/SOLUTIONS Effective communication: The major ingredient{s}that foster unity among group of people is good communication. Therefore, upward, downward, diagonal and horizontal channels of communication and information flow should be maintained and monitored to avoid any hitch within the flow cycle. Good leadership: Individuals with good leadership traits, sound knowledge, proven track record and experience of the


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job/position should be appointed, selected or elected to manage the affairs of organizations. Disciplinary measures: Consistent disciplinary measures must be available to provide equal justice to all. At different times and for everyone, the same standard of disciplinary measures should be taken without fear or favour. Staff personal problems: understanding of staff personal problems, individual difficulties and counseling of staff is necessary. This will help in building a formidable trust that a staff is relevant in the system.”no relationship can last long if it is one sided” Fairness and equity: All staff should be treated fairly and equally in accordance with the provisions of the guiding principle. Relationship within/among staff should be without rancor and victimizations. Rewarding system: Positive affirmative actions to good behaviors are good ways of encouraging good conduct {this implies that good attitudes are encouraged through reward and indiscipline discouraged with appropriate punishment}. Settlement of staff grievances: Management should show genuine concern for staff grievances/complains. The grievances {either personal or official}should be properly investigated, critically analyzed and settled within a reasonable time {adopting the best or available options}. Integration of staff: Leaders should adopt all strategies that will unite their subordinates and ensure that they are well integrated {irrespective of differences} to live truly as brothers keepers in one big family. Standard Code of conduct: There must be a simplified and implementable code of conduct in the organization so that compliance will be easy and in true spirit. Staff training and development: Staff training and developments are means of molding staff characteristics and geared towards improvement on skill and performance. CONCLUSION It is very important to identify the different dimension the

cases of indiscipline assume in a workplace, society and family etc. This will help in eliminating misconducts {using the appropriate approach}before they develop into bad habits that may disrupt productivity, constitute a hitch to achieving the objectives of the organization and/or make the work place ungovernable. Therefore, leaders must employ all modalities of earning the confidence and unalloyed loyalty of their subordinates, provide the necessary guide to shape the conduct of their staff {in order to avoid breeding indiscipline} and call them to order when they exhibit signs of misconducts. When all these are achieved, deviation from ethical/ acceptable standards will be eliminated and a harmonious working environment for high productivity will be guaranteed. ”a stitch in time saves nine” References 1. Adesina Segun {1990} educational Management: Enugu, fourth dimension publishing company. 2. Downy WD and Erickson SP {1987}Agribusiness Management {2nd edition}New jersey, Montclair publishers. 3. National Open University of Nigeria {1996}:Human resource management in education:Abuja,Gerewa Investment Ltd 4. Robbin S {1991}Organizational behavior:London,Macmillan press 5. www.bluttit.com 6. www.whatishumanresource.com 7. www.freemba.com 8. www.jstw.org/discover 9. www.712educators.about.com 10. Www.indiaparenting.com/manner-indiscipline 11. www.google.com/indiscipline



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