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Corruption Beyond Bribery

lobbying, ethics and the law Sussex Centre for Corruption Research September 9th 2013

Robert Barrington Executive Director, Transparency International UK


Transparency International • Global anti-corruption NGO • Founded in 1993 • Chapters in 100 countries • Research and advocacy


Corruption Perceptions Index 2012 Published December 2012


Corruption Perceptions Index


What is the post-Bribery Act challenge? • Using research to set priorities • Using research to support advocacy


What do opinion surveys tell us? •Is this potentially corrupt? • 80% - a public official taking a job with a company that s/he was previously responsible for regulating •86% - peerage for a businessman who has been a large political party donor UK Corruption Survey, TI, 2010 • 67% - Political parties in the UK are corrupt or extremely corrupt

GCB, TI, 2013

• 69% - it is “too easy for former ministers to get jobs that allow them to make improper use of their time in government” YouGov, January 2012


Is there a problem with lobbying? To what extent is this country’s government run by a few big entities acting in their own best interests? GCB, TI, 2013


Is there a problem with lobbying? • What is the evidence? – – – – – –

Select Committee Chair’s independence being compromised (Yeo) conflicts of interest with a Prime Ministerial adviser (Coulson/Crosby) improper Ministerial access (Werrity/Fox) cabs for hire (Byers) Parliamentarians’ expenses (still in denial) honours for donors (constantly in denial)


Is there a problem with lobbying? • Is it corrupt? • What is the impact - who are the victims? • Is it a problem of supply or demand? • Could the current system be made to work? • Is there a role for TI?


Is lobbying the problem? • Revolving door • Parliamentary expenses • APPGs • Honours system • Political party funding


What do the scandals tell us? • There is big money involved – but sometimes very small money • The media play an important role • Senior and well-established figures are vulnerable • Nobody seems to be in charge


What is the nature of the problem? • Understanding the problem – Who is lobbied – How they are lobbied – What they are lobbied about

• How to influence without lobbying


What does a good lobbying law look like? • US register of lobbyists • UK • Everywhere else


Is legislation the solution? Learning from the Bribery Act – – – – – –

Adequate procedures Culture Personal integrity Tone from the top Transparency Enforcement


Ethics & integrity – a lost cause? •

UK politics suffers continuous scandals

Money lies at the heart of many – and there is a supply of money

There is also a demand – from Parliamentarians and public servants

Laws cannot mandate ethics and personal integrity

What can?



Corruption Beyond Bribery: lobbying, ethics and the law