Figure 2: Bribery around the world
HAVE YOU PAID A BRIBE?
MORE THAN 1 IN 4 PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD REPORT HAVING PAID A BRIBE
% OF RESPONDENTS WHO REPORT HAVING PAID BRIBES IN THE PAST YEAR TO ANY ONE OF EIGHT SERVICES BY COUNTRY/TERRITORY¹¹ Box 1: The cost of day-to-day bribery
JAMAICA, between citizensISRAEL, and service providers is often termed ‘petty bribery’. However, 50–74.9% this term <5%Bribery 30–39.9% PALESTINE, PHILIPPINES, suggests that this is a petty or small corruption issue. This is hardly the case. Day-to-day bribery that
AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, CAMBODIA, CAMEROON, BANGLADESH, BOLIVIA, RWANDA, VANUATU occurs at the interface between citizens and core serviceEGYPT, providers is not only a cost to GHANA, citizens INDIA, in CANADA, CROATIA, KENYA, LIBYA, INDONESIA, MOZAMBIQUE, SENEGAL, DENMARK, FINLAND, JORDAN, KAZAKHSTAN, terms of the money that is handed over for unjust reasons, but it also has discriminatory effects on TANZANIA, UGANDA, YEMEN, GEORGIA, KOREA NEPAL, where citizens resort theJAPAN, provision and management of the service. It creates MEXICO, an environment to unfair ARMENIA, CYPRUS, ZIMBABWE (SOUTH),means MALAYSIA, PAKISTAN, SOLOMON for access to services or speed of service and where people in charge of these services seek CZECH REPUBLIC, MALDIVES, NEWopportunities ZEALAND, to exploit ISLANDS, further their position to make more money.SOUTH SUDAN, KOSOVO, LATVIA, NORWAY, PORTUGAL, TAIWAN, UKRAINE, MACEDONIA (FYR), While an average reported bribery rate around the worldVIETNAM of 28 per cent is high enough to cause alarm, SPAIN, URUGUAY ROMANIA, SRI LANKA, the scale and extent of bribery as it affects people. this is just the tip of the iceberg to understanding LIBERIA, SIERRA LEONE SUDAN, THAILAND, TUNISIA
5–9.9% 40–49.9% Country-specific public opinion surveys which allow us to explore the dynamics of bribery in greater BULGARIA, ESTONIA, ITALY, AFGHANISTAN, ALGERIA, depth confirm that this type of bribery is by no means petty. The East Africa Bribery Index for example 20–29.9% SLOVENIA, SWITZERLAND, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF in Kenya and the finds that the average bribe paid for land services is more than US$100 (9,842 Ksh) 4
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, UNITED KINGDOM, UNITED THE CONGO, ETHIOPIA, average value of a bribe COLOMBIA, paid to the GREECE, judiciary IRAQ, in Uganda is more than US$200 (594,137 UGX). A survey STATES KYRGYZSTAN, MONGOLIA, in Mexico finds that the cost of bribery has a regressive effect on Mexican households hurting the LITHUANIA, MADAGASCAR, MOROCCO, NIGERIA, SOUTH poor the most, with an average-income household spending 14 per cent of that income on bribes and MOLDOVA, PAPUA NEW AFRICA GUINEA,spending PARAGUAY, those with the lowest incomes 33 PERU, per cent.5 In Greece, the costs households incurred due to ARGENTINA, CHILE, EL SERBIA, SLOVAKIA, TURKEY, corruption were estimated to amount to €420 million in 2012.6 SALVADOR, HUNGARY, VENEZUELA