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CHARTER CITIES Strom Christian Sanchez Josue

/PRECEDENT STUDIES/ (L) SCALE

IBA EMSCHER PART Germany (1989-1999) Johnson Zachary Mendiolea Joselia Su Mike (Hsing Chung)

THEORIES: ARCHINOMICS, ECONOMIC GARDENING, TRANSITION THEORY Aiyappa Anjali Autore Jeff Masha Pekurovsky


Charter Cities Theory of Paul Romer

A Charter city in a sense is a new generation of city within a special reform zone. It carries out the concept of special economic zone by increasing its size and the idea of its reforms. The theory of this city is that it must be able to accommodate a city with millions of workers and residents. The concept of the Charter city is that it must extend to all the rulers needed to support exchange in a modern market economy and structure interactions in a well run city. The concept allows for cross-national government partnerships that facilitate the transfer of working systems of rules to greenfield locations. By adhering strictly to two key principles — that the new rules apply only to people who choose to live under them and that they apply equally to all residents — rules can be copied from elsewhere and still achieve a high degree of local legitimacy. For example: they are many places where the rules are so bad that they held people back. They limit the usage of land, make it difficult to start a business and sometimes are full of corruption. Because of this, the people living in these areas have a difficult time improving their lifes because the system doesn’t let them and they have to migrate to places where the law is better for them. When workers migrate to places with a better ruling system they tend to earn salaries many times higher that what they could have earn in the place they left behind. Charter cities offer this option, by copying to rules that work, new cities can quickly give millions of people the opportunity to move where businesses have better opportunities and where rules are not strict or falsely established. Charter cities offer a third option. They use rules that work, new charter cities can quickly give millions of people the chance to move to places that start with better rules. Charter City Structural Guideline: 1. A vacant piece of land, big enough for a city development. 2. A charter that specifies in advance the broad rules that will apply there. 3. A commitment to choice, backed by voluntary entry and free exit for all residents. 4. A commitment to the equal application of all rules to all residents.

The commitment of choice for Charter cities means, that no person, employer, investor or country can be coerced into participating. A Charter city works only if a country wants to create a new city by contributing land to build one. Only people willing to live there by their rules, have the freedom to do so. The Charter used to implement the regulations, and guidelines should be enforced and established by the city itself. It should be a foundation of the legal system that will let the city grow and prosper through these guidelines. The Charter should be backed up by Credibility partner country. This is important in the early years of the city’s development, when private investors will finance the required urban infrastructure. Charter Cities work by the union of three distinct roles for participating nations:

Hong Kong - an example of a Special Administrative Region, similar to a Charter City

1. HOST: responsible of providing the land for development. 2. SOURCE: a country that supplies the people who move to the new city, becoming the new citizens. 3. GUARANTOR: a country that ensures that the charter will be respected and enforced for decades into the future. A Charter city in the beginning will need a land space of about 1000 square kilometers, more less the size of Hong Kong. In terms of Density, a good amount will be 100 people per hectare or 10,000 per square kilometer is half the density of central Paris.

The Capital of Mauritius, called Port Louis

A Charter city could be finance by private investors who collect fees for the services or infrastructure they provided. If the government starts with the ownership of the land of the city, it can finance its operations by renting the land. It is as effective as a tax of 100% of the value of the land. For example Hong Kong and Singapore have used this arrangment extensively for private developers who build and own structures withing the city.

Shenzhen City an immediate follower of Hong Kong especial administrative rules


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

CHARTER CITY DIAGRAM EXAMPLE Charter from Foreign Government

Voluntary Entry of Skilled People to the Region

Vacant Piece of Land enough for city development

Canadian Charter for Laws and Jurisdictions for the Guantanamo Bay Area Redevelopment Region The Canadian Article Establishes that by law, this given peace of land from the Cuban Government will be ruled according to Canadian Standards given people working there totality freedom to perform the specific jobs they will like to accomplish.

Canada

San Francisco Los Angeles

Chicago

United States New Orleans

New York Washington Atlanta

Miami

Cuba

Cuba

Guantanamo Bay Potential Charter City

United States

1. In this Example Canada will Act as the GUARANTOR that ensures that the Charter will be respected and enforced for decades in the future.

2. The Unites States will act as SOURCE country that will supply the people who move to the new city, becoming new citizens.

The Charter will speficy in advance the broad rules that will apply to this area. If the government of this sector starts with the ownership of the land of the city, it can finance its operations by renting the land for private inverstors coming in to do business.

By doing this, the City Charter will become the gateway between Cuba and the rest of the World, because it will bring people from other countries and people from Cuba itself to do business there. And by following the set rules and jurisdictions set by the Canadian government people living in this city will have for freedom of establishing a business compared to the rest of Cuba, setting this city as a paradise for Cubans wanting to improve their lifestyle and earning status without the necesity of leaving the country to go and work far away.

For Example the city of Hong Kong and Singapore have used this arrangment extensively for private developers who have built structures in the city and later charge for them.

Cuba 3. Cuba will act as the HOST responsible of providing the land for development A Charter City in the benning will need a land space of 1000 square kilometers, more less the size of Hong Kong. The idea of providing this piece of land, is that the area where it is located its far away from a mega region but still close enough to compete with it. The intention of the Charter City is to make a connection with the existing cities and used the already infrastructure to trade commerce throughout the area, creating the Charter City as an economic engine for the region.

BETA VERSION

Canada


Examples of Charter Cities Medieval to Modern World

The Idea or Theories of Charter Cities have existed in the world for a long period of time, since Medieval Ages to Colonial Eras to the Modern World. All with the intention of improving the economic region of the area by applying a set of rules and guidelines that facilated commerce throughout the region, boosting the potential for business. The Earliest form of a Charter City was the town of Lubeck. This city was the merchant’s mecca on the lawless Baltic coast. It was a town established halfway in the 12th Century by the Germanic prince Henry the Lion. During this time, the city was sacked by Slavic Marauders. What Henry the Lion did was create a Charter a set of “most honorable civic rights,” meaning a city with light regulation and fair laws would attract investment easily. The feudal hierarchy was set aside for an autonomous council of local burgesses that would govern Lubeck. The Charter for Lubeck worked, and from that on the city became the leading entrepot for the budding Baltic Sea trade route, which extended from London and Bruges all the way to Russia.

Medieval City of Lubeck established by Henry the Lion Location of Lubeck within European Union

Hong Kong is another example of a Charter City concept. During most part of the 20th Century the economy of Hong Kong left mainland China in the dust, proving the difference that better rules can make a world of difference. By accident of history Hong Kong had its own charter, which were set laws imposed by British Colonial overseers in which the Charter became the go getters. Hong Kong’s Charter allowed to place low taxes, minimal regulation, and legal protections for property rights and contracts. During the years of 1913 and 1980, the inflation of the city ajusted a jump more than an eightfold, making an average Hong Kong resident 10 times as rich as the average Chinese of the Main Land. During this time the Hong Kong residents were 4/5 as rich as the average Briton.

Small Village of Hong Kong in the 1800s

Hong Kong became a colonial experiment that humiliated China by means of a treaty signed aboard a British warship. British rule became a central factor for the success of the city in persuading capitalist to make businesses in this region. Under the principle of “one country, two systems”, Hong Kong posses the freedom that the rest of China wishes to endure. Similar to a Charter city it has independent judiciary functions under the common law framework. The basic law of Hong Kong stipulates that it should have a “high degree of autonomy” in all matters except foreign relations and military defence, governs its political system. Hong Kong in the Modern Era

Before the Economic Reform in main land China a the average citizen of Hong Kong was 10 times richer than the average mainland Chinese. At the same time the Hong Kong Resident is 4/5 as rich as a normal Briton Citizen


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

A similar city that copy the system of Hong Kong was Schenzhen, located in the north part of neighboring Hong Kong. Schenzhen became a major city in the South of Southern China’s Guandgdong Province. It became China’s first and one of the most successful Special Economic Zone. Today it holds a sub-provincial status, with powers slightly less than a province. Similar to the concept of Charter cities where investment and the development of Infrastructure came from foreign investors, that is exactly what happened to it. Its modern skyscrapes and the vibrant economy were possible by rapid foreign investment since the creation of a rule or policy “reform and opening” establishment of the SEZ in the late 1970s. This is one of the key factors related to Charter cities, where a good rule or policy can change dramastically the shape or the future of a city. A recent example of a place with change policies is Mauritius. In the article “The Atlantic” with the title The Politically Incorrect Guide to Ending Poverty, Mauritius is mentioned as an option to improved the living conditios of the people of Madagascar. The idea of Madagascar was to use the relationships and the closeness that it has with Mauritius to improve its economy and the development of their country where 90 percent of the people still live with less thatn $2 a day. Madagascar’s government in the begining was anxious to attract foreign investment, but they understood that credibility deficit held them back.

Mauritius Capital Port Louis with a Population 147,000

Hong Kong Area Special Administrative Region within Guangdong Province

Madagascar Island with Mauritius Connection

BETA VERSION

To boost the investment in export industries, they thought of inviting the small island country of Mauritius to administer an export the processing zone on Malagasy territory. As a concept of Charter city it meant given them permission to administer and control a part of Madagascar in order to improve the economic development of its exportations.


Charter Cities Rules and Networks in the Hudson Valley

Rules Among the many concerns in Poughkeepsie and Dutchess county are visual blights, traffic congestion, crime, and diminishing job opportunities. Coupled with an aging population and growing sprawl, the county urgently needs change. Reviving industry and local economies is vital, but may require an non- traditional approach. When existing rules are difficult to change, and new rules can take many years to implement, Paul Romer’s Charter City strategy can be useful to look at. While inviting a foreign government to administer an American region is an unlikely event, the charter city can be constructed under different parameters. The purpose, after all, is not just to modify or enforce what is already in place.

Rule Development Process US Legislation has no time limitations Federal

State

The purpose is to change the rule dynamics, and thus speed up the regional rate of improvement in region. Paul Romer notes that rules are not good or bad in themselves. Rather “good rules are rules which fulfill objectives.” When the right rules are in place, they can foster innovation and creativitiy. In the creation of a special development region, rules, and the rule making process, must be adaptible and responsive to demographic changes, but must be acutely attuned to a rapidly changing business climate and technological environment. Networks Paul Romer’s ideas begin with a blank area of land and plugs into a wide multinational network. In the Hudson Valley, we have to consider the existing local and regional networks, as we aim to graft our special region into existing network. Poughkeepsie is situated halfway between New York City and Albany, the economic and political capitals of New York State. The existing network of industry, institutions, arts, and recreational opportunities should provide an excellent framework for an experimental development.

Subcounty / Institution County

OR Meta-Rule Simplified process, restricted by time and organization.

Independent government organization or institutions (ex. Sitra )

Charter / Special Development Region


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Industry & Technology

Albany - State Political Captial

Advanced Technology Energy Production Heavy Industry

Education & Institutions

Culinary Institute Vassar College USMA West Point

DIA: Beacon Storm King Arts Center

HV National Heritage State Parks Private Parks

New York City - State Economic Capital

BETA VERSION

Recreation & Heritage

Arts & Culture

OPUS 40


International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park State of North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr area of Germany for more than 150 years been an industrial area controlled and sustained by the iron, steel and mining industries. Their function and unsustainable use and of energy and disposal of damaging by-products had scarred the landscape by the 1970’s-80’s at which time recession and restructuring of the coal and steel industries had led many into bankruptcy causing high levels of unemployment, low morale and numerous “Brownfield” sites in need of restoration. The Ruhr area during this time period was one of Europe’s largest high population-density areas and the largest in Germany, with an area of 4,500 square kilometers and 5.3 million inhabitants. The region desperately needed attention which was received via government intervention in the form of a building exhibition assembled in attempts to revive a damaged economy and local ecology. IBA - International Building Exhibition This form of exhibition has been used throughout history to display and encourage innovative building technologies and design. Most notable - the world fairs of the 19th century (London, Paris and Chicago deserve mention) showcasing revolutionary design and building technologies. The Weissenhof Estate- a housing estate built for exhibition in Stuttgart Germany in 1927 - an international showcase of residential architecture in the Modernist tradition featuring contributed works from Mies Van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius among other notable figures. The International Building Exhibition Berlin (IBA Berlin) - an urban renewal project in Berlin, Germany initiated in 1979 and completed in 1987 The IBA Berlin followed two distinct strategies: “careful urban renewal” and “critical reconstruction.”

(top) _The Weissenhof Estate competition of 1927 in Germany. (bottom) _Crystal Palace from London’s World Fair of 1851. (right) _The Eiffel Tower from Paris’ World Fair of 1889

IBA Emscher Park comes from this, a long line in the tradition of international exhibitions, but is markedly different in its regional scope and the context of rehabilitating efforts. The area targeted by IBA Emscher is 800 sq km encompassing 17 cities with a population of more than two million inhabitants. The theme of IBA Emscher is “Integrated Regional Development” (IRD) - an effort in promoting a new culture of planning, the sponsorship of identity-based projects and the reclamation of former industrial landscapes. The authors of IBA took on the task of economic reconstruction not by the direct force of a traditional master plan which they believed would be largely ineffective, but by single developments termed “integrated projects” structured according to three programmatic themes: “The Landscape Park” connecting former nodes of industrial activity, in turn providing a central core for new infrastructure and economic development for the region as a whole. “Ecological Regeneration” renewal of green landscapes, and more importantly -waterways and lastly “Working in the Park” creation of high quality industrial parks; conversion of old industrial structures into spaces accommodating new industry culture and art. IBA Emscher as most other IBA’s entail, held international focus groups and workshops to discuss and propose social and economic restructuring and design competitions to inspire innovation in design and planning. In light of grim circumstances facing the region - the government had gone public with its revitalization efforts, asking its citizens and professionals in the areas of urban design, architecture, engineering and ecological regenerations to shed light on viable and forward thinking regenerative solutions in a design competition setting. The specific projects included returning many brownfields to greenfields and creating parks and recreational greenspace, surrounding 10,000 new and rehabilitated housing units of which 75 percent were prescribed social housing. Projects completed numbered 100+ including the development of a series of 22 business and technology parks. The projects have achieved lasting improvements in the living and working environment of the involved towns by upgrading the ecological and aesthetic quality of their nearby countryside. Furthermore, by reusing and preserving the impressive relics of the industrial era, the Ruhr region has been able to keep its unique identity and has branded itself as an ancient monument of industrial society infused with thoughtful and progressive design.


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

IBA Emscher - Management and Facilitation “Only when the state is involved is there are chance of attaining long-term development that is functional and well-designed. This does not exclude public-private partnerships. “

Project funding for the exhibition comes from a total of 56 state aid programs combined with economic development funds from national government. These include the established programs for urban renewal, business and housing aid, as well as funds for training schemes, the Emscher-Lippe ecology program and the action plan for coal fields. It is hoped that this combination of funding mechanisms and the interlinking of investment schemes will boost the structural policy impact. Additional funds come from private agencies. During the past years a total of EURO 2,5 billion have been invested in the region, of which about two thirds were from public funds and one third from private investment. Using state aid, the region was encouraged to generate community self-help and to improve co-operation, co-ordination and partnership between local authorities and other organizations.

BETA VERSION

The International Building Exhibition operates as a wholly owned, limited liability subsidiary of the State North-Rhine Westphalia. IBA is an exhibition but also a supporting organization for individual re-development projects. A total of 30 people were employed by the IBA Emscher Park with Professor Karl Ganser as chairman of the board. IBA’s Planning Company serves as coordinator which includes a Steering Committee and a Board of Trustees. The Committee reviews projects for admission to the exhibition and the Trustees develop public-private partnerships to promote IBA and garner support for its initiatives. The Planning Company also plays a major role in the promotion, brainstorming, planning and presentation of the exhibitions efforts. IBA does conduct extensive public outreach and marketing, although the degree of meaningful public participation varies greatly between the different projects. IBA works with local government officials and community groups as a means to allow the people who live in the region the opportunity to express their own ideas and keep abreast of the urban regeneration process.


International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park Applicable Considerations

As cities culture and technology mutate, city planners must come to terms with and manage a profound structural transformation: from an industrial society to a globalized service- and knowledge-based society amid conditions that include a drastic demographic shift and dramatic climate changes. New city structures and urban landscapes require planning processes that are tailored to meet these challenges. The newly revived metropolis of Emscher Park might be considered to posses longevity and innate adaptability in comparison to other more traditional cities and the sprawl that exists on their outskirts, because it consists of networks. City centers which aren’t overcrowded and provide for space, light, air and a connection to nature, having still a robust industrial makeup, connected to other nodes easily accessible via public transportation in which similar job opportunities and qualities of life exist. A sort of “Regional City” . This means that the ‘Ruhr metropolis’ has a chance of not exploding due to a massive urban “pile-up”. The modern concept is a decentralised one. The Emscher region highlights fundamental questions concerned with the relationship between the city and the countryside. The approach questions the historical dominance of the city over the countryside and suggests that such domination may come to an end as the conventional distinctions between city and country are increasingly blurred by the greening and re-villaging of the city. The strategy and general ethic of current local German planning is to provide livable, attractive communities that are friendly to pedestrians, bicyclists, and the environment. The strategy utilizes mixing offices, recreation, commercial shopping, and housing designed around specialized cultural centers, museums, exhibition halls, indoor and outdoor theaters, restaurants, cafes, and clubs. Safe, attractive, and walkable neighborhoods, social sustainability cultural and historic resources and accessible by public transit offer a desirable model for many American communities.

Industrial Nodes in the State of North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany


BETA VERSION

Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design


International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park Industrial Monuments

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Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Zollverian World Heritage Site OMA Rem Kohlhaas (masterplan) The Zollverian coal mine and coking plant was completed in 1932 and shut down in 1986. Though there had initially been an intent to demolish the complex, it was declared a historic monument due to its symbolism of the rise and fall of the coal industry. Landesentwicklungsgesellschaft Nordrhein-Westfalen (LEG) took over the site in order to preserve the existing buildings. The site was incorporated into the IBA Emscher Park project in 1989. LEG joined forces with the city of Essen and IBA to form Bauhutte Zollverein, which came up with a concept and stepped in as the redevelopment agency. More recently, in 2008, Stiftlung Zollverein was formed to protect the buildings, commerical use of the facility, and tourism development. Zollverian combines industrial nature and industrial culture. For example, artist Ulrich Rückriem created a sculpture park in the industrial forest. Six entrances from other districts lead up to the path system which divides the landscape. Former rail tracks are used as both foot and bike paths.

In 2001, the site was included on UNESCO’s World Heritage list, and a year later Rem Koolhaas and OMA were commissioned to devise an urban development master plan. The plan calls for new informative programming to take place around the periphery of the site to preserve its historical integrity. The coal sky bridges were to be opened to the public, and visitors were to tour one of the former mines. OMA went on to design the regional Ruhr Museum within the coal washing plant. The Zollverein School of Management & Design by SANAA opened in 2006. The cubic structure has about the same volume that one of the mines did. The seemingly randomly placed windows actually respond to the program and create a different lighting experience in each room. Zollverian attracts as man as half a million visitors per year.

BETA VERSION

in 1996, Foster+Partners unveiled the Essen Design Center in the old powerhouse. The exterior was returned to its original form by removing additions and restoring the facade. Some of the boilers were retained to illustrate 1930’s technology, but the rest were taken out to accomodate galleries contained within “boxes within a box.”


International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park Industrial Monuments

Gasometer Oberhausen Prof. Jürg Steiner, Architekt BDA Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Architektur und Design The gasometer, completed in 1929, was originally a gas storage container for the neighboring Gutehoffnungshutte industrial site. At a height of 385 feet, it has also unintentionally served an orientation point for the city of Oberhausen. When the plant closed in 1988, locals negatively viewed the gasometer as reminder of the region’s decline. In 1992, the city decided to turn it into an exhibition hall as part of the IBA Emscher Park project. The interior was divided into several levels, accessed via a glass elevator. A 616-step staircase to the roof was added to the exterior; it is among the world’s longest industrial staircases. The gasometer has hosted several successful exhibitions, beginning with “Fire and Flames – The History of the Ruhr Area”, which inaugurated the tower in 1994. It was one of Germany’s most successful post-WWII historical exhibits. Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s “The Wall”, comprised of 13,000 colorful oil barrels, was shown at the IBA Finale in 1999. Today, “Licht Himmel” by artist Christina Kubisch is on permanent display. The space is also used for concerts, theatre, and trade fairs. This complements the shopping and leisure program that occupies the former site of the Gutehoffnungshutte, which is now known as the “Neue Mitte Oberhausen”.


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord LATZ + Partner (landscape); Peter A. Poelzig, Pahl + Weber-Pahl, Bahr und Spitzenboom, Baucoop Arthur Mandler, Düster & von Büttner, Günter Lipkowsky (architecture) It was the city of Duisburg that suggested the abandoned Thyssen blast furnace plant be selected for the IBA Emscher Park project in 1989. Built in 1903 and used to manufacture iron for 82 years, it was not demolished after closing due to public protest. The complex was purchased with the state of North Rhine-Westphalia’s property fund. Teams of landscape architects were invited to the site to brainstorm. Many of the buildings were kept, including the blast furnace plant as well as ladder tracks and infrastructure. The site is now a mixture of designed and wild areas. Sports facilities and playgrounds liven up the old industrial structures. The gasometer was filled with water for the purpose of diving. The blast furnace is utilized as an open-air theatre/opera/film stage, as are the former gas turbine and machine halls. British engineer Jonathan Park has been creating art out of the complex every night since 1996 with his lighting installation. Different colors and specific types of LED lamp highlight components of the buildings. The lighting can also be customized to suit events.

BETA VERSION

Since IBA concluded in 1999, an administration building has been converted into a youth hostel, and the site’s rail station has been recomissioned to serve as a transition point for tourists arriving by train. The park is open for twenty-four hours daily, and attracts 700,000 visitors per year.


International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park Project Phases

Phase 1 (1969 - 1979) By the end of the 1960s began the slow retreat of the mining industry. The individual mine closures have left not only structural gaps. With the loss of local employers also increased the number of unemployed. The mining areas have been left fallow mostly remained in the possession of RAG Aktiengesellschaft. The sale of this land was very hesitant. Are no longer needed or marketable land was sold mostly to the various municipalities. They settled in a timely follow-on business parks, which the pressing problem of unemployment could not resolve naturally. In this phase, we did not think of an economic, sustainable use, yet it took into account environmental considerations in the preparation work and new use. Phase 2 (1980 - 1986/87) In 1979 established the Land Fund should watch as Instrument for Structural Policies of the coordinated development of the Ruhr give a new impetus. The purchase of land itself was and is handled by a subsidiary of NRW, the State Development Corporation of North RhineWestphalia (LEG). In the following years, LEG laid for the state of NRW a significant “floor stock” at. During the preparation of the surfaces “was followed a linear approach: rehabilitation, development plan, marketing or search for investors” (Schmidt 2002, p. 93). This procedure was lengthy and involves considerable financial outlay. The suspected contaminated surfaces soon turned out, both financially and ecologically as unmanageable. The complex problem led to previous funds reach the limits of their capabilities. New methods and approaches therefore had to be found. Phase 3 (since 1986/87) Until the late 1970s, urban growth meant the city into the countryside. The various basic functions (living, working, recreation, utilities) were separated spatially: residential, commercial, educational center, shopping center, etc. As a further space consumption is unsustainable, additional land requirements are possible only in the interior can be integrated (in the populated area). Alternatively, can be rehabilitated vacant land (brownfield sites) in return for space consumption. then shifted the emphasis on promoting the development and rehabilitation of soil inventories. Experience quickly showed that the clean-up, a lengthy and expensive business. To speed up the process, paid to the LEG in 1987 with greatly expanded powers, so that planning, development and marketing are located entirely in one hand. Institutionally, stand two tendencies in the eye: The outsourcing of business support from the administration, the establishment of regional development agencies and the “privatization” of economic development, ie the conversion to private sector organizations. a temporary peak in the planning of and management practices has been achieved at the end of the 1980s. As part of the International Building Exhibition (IBA) Emscherpark in the ten years between 1989 and 1999 on 100 projects partly realized, partly under way have been, transformed the area into recreational areas, residential areas, industrial parks and monuments. In addition to an emphasis on the close linkage of the Ruhr region withits montane past and the aesthetics of buildings and equipment from that

time, the ecological aspect and sustainable development of the area was more heavily weighted. The IBA was such a middle course strives to enhance the preservation and integration of the history of the self-confidence of the region and its residents while bringing innovative planning methods with an image change and the problems of structural change strengthened to address.

Phase 4 - Sustainable land and urban development? The district and its population threatened marginalization. On the other hand, precisely, these brownfields a “chance of a century of urban renewal.” This applies to the district as well - in the sum of these areas - for the whole city. In most cases these areas are surrounded by densely built, not very valuable rare urban district. The (re-) utilization (conversion or land recycling) of such areas is an essential component of the so-called “inner development”. They met initially been a key demand of sustainability , by resources, ie in this area is gently instead of urban sprawl in the suburban area-consuming space on the redevelopment and enhancement of intra-or peri-urban areas. But that alone is not enough: more content elements of the concept of sustainability must be considered . For the concerns of sustainable brownfield recycling appear approaches and definitions of sustainability but insufficient (Butzin / Franz / Kogelheide 2003): The three classical dimensions of ecology, economics and the social need to order in the Brundtland Report dominant temporal (long term) dimension be supplemented.But more than this is for urban concerns the spatial - here the regional - vital dimension: the trade-offs between the three interest-spheres are often not at a single location or in a single project to solve but require negotiable compensation areas: where economic concerns (eg, jobs, industrial areas, technology centers, etc.) top priority, are there ecological requirements are difficult to enforce otherwise than on a minimal denominator. This could be useful to negotiate compensatory ecological functions at other locations (urban) region and guarantee. But how can such a multi-site and longer-term compromise in time become applicable? This can only be a long term and regionally binding control function to be responsible. It makes the core of the institutional dimension. Moreover, such an institution also has the task of a neutral mediation, such as the shareholding structure and the communication process more professional. Without a doubt, the program of IBA Emscherpark key aspects of sustainability, introduced and implemented. Recall the projects Emscher renaturation (see “Nature and the City”), (“Building Women”) of municipal modernization, taking account of the rain water seepage on participatory approaches in housing construction and the use of alternative energy sources (Academy Mont Cenis in Herne , Science Rheinelbe in Gelsenkirchen (see topic “Housing and Construction”). The view of the reality of land conversion in the Ruhr area of sustainability aspects, a series of more or less successful projects. They do, however, usually only single aspects of the sustainability concept.

The Emscher Landscape Park

Mechtenberg Bochum, Essen, Gelsenkirchen

Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord Duisburg

Gehölzgarten Ripshorst Oberhausen


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

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Amusement Park Park Museum Revierpark Theaher Zoo Multiplex cinema /3d Adventure Aquarium Amusement Park Stadium Museum Park Winter Theahersports hall Revierpark Adventure Multiplex cinema /3d Zoo Amusement Leisure Lake Park Adventure Aquarium Park Other leisure activities Stadium Revierpark Winter sports hall Zoo Adventure Adventure Aquarium Leisure Lake Stadium Other leisure activities Winter sports hall Adventure Leisure Lake

gram Other leisure activities

IBA Emscher Park Original Industrial area

B

C

D

E

F

Map of the wastewater treatment

The integration of clearly useless space, the overcoming of barriers to facilitate the redefinition and appreciation of landscapes in the Ruhr • A: Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Duisburg area are aims. The linking of previously isolated landscapes, the quali• B: Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mühlheim fication of individual areas and projects are aims.Rich in open areas • C: Gladbeck, Bottrop, Essen, Gelsenkirchen • D: Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Herten, Recklinghausen, and Bochum waste ground, yet dissected by motorways, highways, railway • E: Rechklinghausen, Bochum, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel lines, watercourses, power lines and wastewater drains. Many sites • F: Waltrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund contaminated by pollution inherited from former industries and • A: Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Duisburg • G: Lünen, Bergkamen, Kamen, Kreis Unna,were Dortmund • B: Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mühlheim dumps. The concept of the Emscher Landscape Park began with this • C: Gladbeck, Bottrop, Essen, Gelsenkirchen reality, at the same time tying in the idea of a contiguous regional • D: Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Herten, Recklinghausen, Bochum landscape park, formulated by Robert Schmidt as director of the • E: Rechklinghausen, Bochum, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel • A: Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Duisburg • F: Waltrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund Ruhrkohlebezirk [Ruhr coal district] in 1912. • B: Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mühlheim

G

• G: Lünen, Bergkamen, Kamen, Kreis Unna, Dortmund • C: Gladbeck, Bottrop, Essen, Gelsenkirchen

The development of new parks on old sites, the transformation of former industrial railway lines into cycleways and hiking trails and the of the many individual projects into a contiguous regional • G: Lünen, Bergkamen, Kamen, Kreis Unna,integration Dortmund park along the Emscher. Based on the Emscher Landscape Park feasibility study (1990), the implementation of the landscape park took place on three distinct Development Area "New Emschertal" Emscher landscape park in the "New Emschertal" levels: • D: Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Herten, Recklinghausen, Bochum • E: Rechklinghausen, Bochum, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel • F: Waltrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund

Amusement Park

River Park Zoo

Leisure Lake

IBA Emscher Park pro-

Recreation areas Degradation Flat

Charged Surfaces Water Bottles

Soil conservation in Ruhrgebiet

Emscher park auBerhalb the "New Emschertals" Rivers / canal

An overall master plan for the Emscher Landscape Park as a whole, seven framework plans for seven regional green corridors and many Development Area "New Emschertal" local individual projects. Until 1992, the Emscher Landscape Park Emscher landscape park in the "New Emschertal" master plan was compiled and determined as the overall conception Emscher park auBerhalb the "New Emschertals" Rivers / canal for the landscape park by the Kommunalverband Ruhr, today the Regionalverband Ruhr [Ruhr Regional Association] (RVR). Development Area "New Emschertal" Emscher landscape park in the "New Emschertal" Emscher park auBerhalb the "New Emschertals" Rivers / canal

Network of industrial culture

Large extent natural sandy places (> 10 ha) Unique ecological soil (> 10 ha) Soil conservation preservation Ruhrgebiet-Flat

BETA VERSION

Multiplex cinema /3d

G

G

Museum Theaher

At the beginning of the IBA 1989, the Ruhr area presented itself as an overdeveloped urban landscape, a functional area for industry and not as a growing urban cityscape. Rich in open areas and waste ground, yet dissected by motorways, highways, railway lines, watercourses, power lines and wastewater drains. Many sites were contaminated by pollution inherited from former industries and dumps. The concept of the Emscher Landscape Park began with this reality, at the same time tying in the idea of a contiguous regional landscape park, formulated by Robert Schmidt as director of the Ruhrkohlebezirk [Ruhr coal district] in 1912.


A

B

C

D

E

F

G

International Building Exhibition - Emscher Park Systems Integration

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

• A: Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Duisburg • B: Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mühlheim • C: Gladbeck, Bottrop, Essen, Gelsenkirchen

• D: Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Herten, Recklingha

The process of integration into an interconnected system, needs to continue. Moreover, the persistence of existing regional disparities, the east-west green corridors need to be balanced. Especially in the planning of infrastructure routes are preferred running in the northsouth open space belt. In 1989 presented by the KVR developed feasibility study represents the start of the project on the basis of built in spring 1990, further planning of the landscape park. It was characterized by three concurrent items:

• E: Rechklinghausen, Bochum, Herne, Castro • F: Waltrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund

• G: Lünen, Bergkamen, Kamen, Kreis Unna, D

AB

CD

EF

G

1 Development of the regional master plan 2 Planning framework for the six regional green belts 3 Local planning and organizer of competitions. Strategic guideline of this approach was to establish itself on the socalled decentralized stepping stones, a reticulated system, both developed ecological potential (eg water courses, parks, dumps, landfills) and industrial heritage objects, protects and where possible together connects. At the same time, the recreational quality improved. Local and regionark Projects al projects were coordinated and general quality objectives defined. Themes, requirements and ideas were developed for the landscape park. The framework plans for the seven regional green corridors (A to G) were prepared in parallel. They were created for a clear time period. For each green corridor, key local projects were described which, essentially, can be categorised as one of five types:

• • • • • • •

A: Oberhausen, Mühlheim, Duisburg B: Oberhausen, Bottrop, Mühlheim C: Gladbeck, Bottrop, Essen, Gelsenkirchen D: Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Herten, Recklinghausen, Bochum E: Rechklinghausen, Bochum, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel F: Waltrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund G: Lünen, Bergkamen, Kamen, Kreis Unna, Dortmund

IBA Emscher Park Project Development Area “New Emschertal” Emscher landscape park in the “New Emschertal” Emscher park auBerhalb the “New Emschertals” Rivers / canal

1‘ Industrially shaped landscape parks’ embody large-scale parks on industrial waste ground 2‘ Municipal parks shaped by the post-industrial cultural landscape’ are smaller parks which were realised in association with new residential districts and industrial parks 3‘ Parks shaped by the pre-industrial cultural landscape’ are the remains of predominantly agriculturally shaped cultural landscapes, the agricultural or forestry utilisation of which will continue in a different form as a park 4‘ Wild industrial woodland’ means natural woodland develope on industrial wasteland 5‘ Slag heaps and landfills’ were prepared for free space use and parts were transformed into landmarks from an artistic point of view. The national ecological network Natura 2000 Worlds The regional ecological network Biotopes of the Municipal

KVR-Forest Forest area Free area

Municipal pool Waters Original industrial area


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

GREEN AREAS STUDY Regional open space system Ruhr (RFR) The preservation or creation of open space receives not least as an element of so-called soft location factors become increasingly important. The basic free-space policy instrument of RVR (until 1979: SVR ), which acts as a public affairs at all about local significant open spaces in the Ruhr area, since the middle the 1980s, the regional open space system Ruhr. It can be designated to open space development as a model (Black-Rodrian 1988). This regional open space system is characterized by four components: 1. Regional green space in urban core 2. Regional landscape areas outside the urban core 3. Regional river landscapes - nation-wide ecological network 4. Networking elements in the metropolitan area The central element of this open space system is the Emscher landscape park, which emphasizes a new east-west greenbelt the increasing importance of security clearance as part of structural change. The RVR has developed four thematic maps, used to describe the space functions: Master Plan of the Emscher landscape parks -five sub-regions for the east-west

1.Open areas of importance for habitat and species / habitat network Recreation 2. Synthetic air-function card Ruhr 3. Soil conservation in the Ruhr The first interim report to the Master Plan 2010 has Emscher park from 38 individual projects in five sub-regions, with the establishment of the east-west green corridor is the main focus. “The hardest piece of structural change is here, often even before” (Cuppers et al 2002b, p. viii).. For the five sub-regions - Delta - Average Emschertal, - Eastern Emschertal, - Eastern Channel Band and New Seseke - each with its own, but interconnected development concepts have been developed. This is a “completely new relationship with the Emscher” are created, “arise, integrated urban and landscaping

Master Plan of the Emscher landscape park connections to the outside and to inside

Deepening: Topic map for soil protection in the Ruhr With the topic map “soil conservation in the Ruhr area” is the ground - will enable a stronger focus and attention in planning processes - as a carrier of all Feiraumfunktionen. As a regional map, it contains measures in addition to the formulation of the claim area for soil protection, a kind of basis for prevention strategies. In addition, information about the qualities of the soil and damage are collected and shown in this map. Deepening: Topic map for open areas with important habitat and species / habitat network

BETA VERSION

green corridor


Transition, Systems and Complexity Theory Studies

The theory of transitional transformation approach to management is much inspired by mollecular research in biology. Scientists were observing how living cell structures re-organize themselves in response to internal viruses or environmental factors. In times such re-organization is radical and result in a significantly different structural formation than the origin. Understanding society as a biological organism assums subtle rapid changes that happen over years or radical changes that occur over a period of just a few months. For example, a political revolt is a radical measure of societal self re-organization. An example of much slower smoother transition is the adoptation of sustainable practices such as LEED system in the US. Changes in systemic re-organization are direct or indirect repsonse to persistent wicked problems. At the turn of the 21st century, this term is reffering to problems that affect all inhabitant of planet Earth such as: energy crisis with anthropogenic climate change as manifestation, water problem illustrated by floods and periods of drought; mobility problem symptomized by traffic congestion and air pollution, financial instability problems with debt crisis, gap in education between metropolitan and rural areas, food reserve. As long as wicked problems exist the system will be imballanced and in constant re-organization. Transition management approach suggests a multi-level concept for radical and structural (irreversible) changes in an adaptive and gradual level. Transition Theory is a management concept that assumes complexity and uncertainty and is also known as co-evolutionary: adjust, adapt and influence. Complexity Theory is the notion that human organizations, be it the stock market or the city, are comprised or small cells that form larger clusters that form the landscape (see diagram to the right). This approach seeks to explain how such complexity can be used to improve productivity and achieve complex goals. The theory is addressing rapid self organization, uncertainty and risk (associated with growth or self- reorganization) The assumption is that there is not necessarily full control and management of these problems, but rather the organization allows a systemic change that will resolve the

problems on the long run. Complexity theory in combination with Transition Theory offeres a methodology for deep tissue change in politics, finance and society.

macro level (landscape)

In the past decade Systemic Approach has gained large support from goverment agencies and business corporations in Europe and US. Some industries have began adopting this as common practice. In the construction industry the method inspired the development of Integrated Project Delivery. This process requires key decision-makers representing the client, design, engineering, construction, operations seating in one room from the early project phases. Architects, Engineers and Construction companies can form contractual alliances to provide a cohesive service to private and governmetnal clients. Such workflow allows for cross-disciplinary decisions and transparent project management. Many conflicts or problems can be resolved with increased communication on the drawing board level. The business incentive for such projects is that they can be done faster and with less errors during construction, shorty: time and money.

meso level (regime)

A fascet of Transition Theory has been succesfully applied on Urban Planning processes and governance 10-15 actors 1. consider complex problems at a high level of abstraction 2. to look beyond the limits of their own discipline and background 3. to enjoy certain level of authority within various networks 4. to establish and explain visions of sustainable development within their own networks 5. to be able to think together 6. to be open to innovation instead of already having specific solutions in mind

micro level (niche or protected space)

Transition theory diagram indicates three scales of change The niche scale is an allegory to incubator invironment for businesses, scientific development, social enterprenuership, new design products e.t.c. Once an idea grows and gathers momentum it transcends to the meso level, where ideas/products/services reach broader autidory. The macro level is that of legislation and governance , the common landscape accepted by society. The separation between levels is rather fluid than static, ideas move from one scale to another in a non-linear fashion.


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Analogous Social Mechanisms

New Governance Characteristics

Complexity Characteristics

Management Principles of TM

Emergenece

Creating spaces for Transition Arena and niches (arenas, new Transition Pathways coalitions)

Variation

Keeping Options Open

Transition Experiments

Selection

Learning-by-doing and doing-bylearning

Transition Agenad/ Goals

social system

Deepening, Broadening and scaling up

niches (micro)

Emergenece

Niches and nicheregimes

Adaptive Governance

Variation

Diferentiation

Keeping Options Open

Selection

Power, Institutions, Learning-by-doing and Market doing-by-learning

Systemic Instruments for TM

Innovation from nuclei

Innovation Networks

Focus on Forerunners

Co-evolution

Structure and Agency

Integral: Multi-Domain and Multilevel

Innovation from nuclei Focus on Forerunners

Reflexivity

Reflexive Governance

Co-evolution

Networks

Multi-actor Governance

Multi-Domain and Complex Systems Multilevel approach Analysis

Feedback

Long Term evnvisioning

Reflexive Governance

Monitoring and Evaluation

Self-Organization

Multi-actor Governance

Transtiion Coalition and Networks

Attractors

Multi-temproal Ap- Sustainabiliy Visions/ proach Images

Feedback Self-Organization Attractors

Utopian Perspec tives

Linking complexity characteristics to new gevernance concepts and analogous social machanisms

Systemic instruments used for transition management

According to Transition Theory govermental institutions can learn from Social Mechanisms to become more responsive and effiecient. .By allowing governance to be more transparent, flexible, resilient, responsive, adoptive to change- greater efficiency and satisfaction can be reached. The organization recognizes it’s complex structure and non-linear growth. Desicion and policy making are transparent processes that all players understand. Strategies for internal growth and future development have long-term and short term dead-lines.

Such management approach can be adopted by an organization of any size: world-wide business corporation, goverment agency, non-profit organization. The added value of such management systems is that the sense of involvment that participants experience. On the bigger level, organizations are encouraged to form strategic alliances with similar or different organizations to achieve goals, provide service or reach new markets and stimulate change.

patchwork of regims (meso)

Complex Systems Model showing a spatial overlay of (S), (M), (L) components

problem structuring, establishment of the transition arena and envisioning

evaluating, monitoring and learning

developing coalitions and transition agendas

mobilizing actors and executing projects and experiments

Transition Management Cycle

BETA VERSION

Complexity Characteristics


Rotterdam 2042 Doepel Strijkers Architects (DSA) in collaboration with Dutch Research Institute for Transitions (DRIFT

In 2042 Rotterdam is a busting metropolis in which sustainable streams flow likw blue-green threads through the port and the city. It is a true Port City (instead of a city with a port) The port and the city are connected by streams: both physical and virtual. Physical streams such as energy materials, goods, water and people. Virtual streams of expertiese, information and money are continually flowing and fostering exchange. Rotterdam Master Plan is phased from 2010 through 2042, with significant milestones worked into the management plan. Key concept in achievng transition into sustainable city system is to plan change in all city levels: urban planning, buildings design, agricualture, waste management, financy, governance, economy and trade. This is systemic thinking at best, suggesting processes on various levels of city management- from social activism and volunteering opportunities to municipal restracturing and transportation regulations. The overall vision is based on a range of scientific research, insights and ideas, presented by leading authorities in the field of sustainability and innovation as well as local expertise and experience. The project was dveloped by Dutch Research Institute for Transitions (DRIFT) in collaboration with DSA architects.

plazas), floating districts and construction along the banks of the river Maas and its harbours. The increased density of the inner city has transformed the centre into a vibrant heart of the city where it is a pleasure to live. The number of inhabitants has doubled while at the same time the effects on the environment have halved. The inner city has become an area with high spatial quality where residents, businesses and tourists can stay, encounter each other and enjoy themselves8. Joint initiatives set up by individuals have led to the development of urban farming, pleasant public parks and facilities for the generation of sustainable energy in public areas.

Rotterdam 2042, Aerial view at port that was readapted for agriculture

The residual stream emitted by the one, form input streams for the other: idustrial residual heat warms city builiding, biomass from the Westland greenhouse area and flax and hemp from the Hoekse Waard are used on a large scale as raw materials for industrial production in the port and for insulating buildings in the city. Streams of raw materials and goods traverse the Rotterdam and The Hague metropolitan region and provide economical, ecological and social added value. Regional sustainable food chains generate employment, restore the relationship between people and their food and contribute to the improvement of the general health. Water is retained in the city and filtered, and also used to transport the streams of raw materials and waste products back to the port. Over the past decennia natural ecology has penetrated the city of Rotterdam. Roofs have been made green, many buildings have chameleon facades that generate energy and purify the air and urban farming is now an integral part of the townscape. Green is intertwined with blue: blue roofs (roofs with solar panels), blue plains (water

Rotterdam 2042, Aerial view from a plane


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Residents of Rotterdam Port, Industry and Large Business Shopkeepers, associateions and institutions Housing corporations, investors and developers Motorists, transporters, (public) companies and logistic services

Urban Diagram- Continuous exchange or resources

Schools, collages, universities and expertise centers

Future development, Rotterdam 2042

City Metabolism diagrams of liner vs complex systems

Categories of planned action and changes for Rotterdam 2042. Excert from Rotterdam Climate Initiative Appendix 2

Sustainable City diagrams of current and future scenarios

Diagrams of liner vs. circular economy systems for sustainable approach towards Rotterdam 2042

BETA VERSION

City Administration


Economic Gardening Program Introduction

In 1987, the City of Littleton, Colorado pioneered an entrepreneurial alternative to the traditional economic development practice of recruiting industries. This demonstration program, developed in conjunction with the Center for the New West and under the supervision of Chris Gibbons, was called “economic gardening.” The Risk of Economic Hunting If an outlying area was successful at attracting new industry, it seemed to be a certain type of business activity: the branch plant of industries that competed primarily on low price and thus needed low cost factors of production. Rural towns with cheap land, free buildings, tax abatements, and especially low wage labor would “win” these relocating businesses. Our experience indicated that these types of expansions stayed around as long as costs stayed low. If the standard of living started to rise, the company pulled up stakes and headed for locations where the costs were even lower, often Third World countries.

Community Community with with shrinking economy shrinking economy

External, External, slow-growth slow-growth (stable) corporation (stable) corporation

Economic Hunting

Innovation What we did notice in fast growing companies was a high correlation between growth and innovation. New products and processes seemed to be their lifeblood. At about the same time, we discovered works by economists Paul Romer, Paul Krugman, Brian Arthur, Annalee Saxenian and others that seemed to reinforce this point. It’s really ideas that drive companies and economies. Temperament The Center for Application of Psychological Type found strong correlation between the fast growing companies and two CEO temperament types: in Myers-Briggs terminology, these were the Sensing-Thinking-Judging (STJ) and, even more important, the Intuitive-Thinking- Judging (NTJ). The two temperaments represented about twenty-five percent of the total population but accounted for approximately seventy-five percent of the leadership in a study of the Inc. 500 fastest growing companies.

Economy Economy grown grown from from within within by high growth-rate “gazelles” by high growth-rate “gazelles”

Economic Gardening


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Mechanical versus Biological Business managers and economists tend to speak of organizations and economies were machines (rev up the economy, steer the organization) and not living, biological things. Revving up a rainforest or steering a wolf would sound ridiculous but well educated people continue to talk about organizations and economies as if they were mechanical in nature. It took Nobel Laureate scientists to show us that unpredictability in companies and economies is a deep law of living things. The emerging science was called “Complex Adaptive Systems” or “Complexity” as we came to know it. Self-organization There is a related principle in complexity science called self organization. Scientists now know that nature runs large scale operations and it does it rather well but without anyone in control. There is no CEO in the ant den and there is no president of the board issuing instructions in bee hives. No squadron leader barks flight orders to a flock of geese. Ants and bees and geese operate on simple, local sets of instructions with short feedback loops and out of this order emerges. The work of the ant den and the bee hive gets done with no one in control. The flock of geese maintains its shape, identity and function with no one in charge.

Frozen

Edge of Chaos as continuum

Stability

Innovation

Complexity

Chaos

+

Organizations and economies also operate in these three regimes. In the frozen regime, no information gets transferred and no activity takes place, so it is impossible to adapt. In the chaotic regime, information and change takes place so fast that nothing is stable enough to retain its identity. In the stable regime, there is a regular rhythm of activity in which identity is retained but adaptation to changing conditions is slow. While humans may favor stability, nature favors the line between stability and chaos (edge of chaos) because it is here that constant adaptation goes on which allows an organism to survive over the long run.

BETA VERSION

Edge of Chaos This term describes the fine line between stability and chaos where innovation and survival are most likely to take place. As a way to think about these regimes, consider what form H2O takes in each. In the frozen regime, it would be ice. In the stable regime, it would be water. In the chaotic regime, it would be steam.


ARCHINOMICS A Theory by Ronald Wall

Theory The sustainable performance of cities or nations is strongly related to the development of firms, trade and capital flows -- and specifically their related degree of network connectivity. The research argues for an improved understanding of the relational structures of corporate power excercised by cities and nations upon others. Tenants There is a strong coherence between urban development levels (place) and their share of global corporate investment (network). The model focuses on forign direct investment (one firm invests in another firm and gains some control). Foreign investment cia inter-urban competition will generate more development than industrialization. This leads to Entrepreneurial Cities where the city is both a structure and agent. These cities develop new structures for producing, serving, working and living. Hypothesis The total corproate connectivity of cities, nations or regions will reflect their overlal level of development The relational alliances, strengths directions between nodes will reveal the corporate government structure -- giving insight into power relations. Application To Architecture And Planning Archinomics emphasizies adaptive planning -- going beyond local decisions to consider the changing needs and connectivity of space. New designs much account for progression of needs, not mere housing of similar values. This must be aparent in both large- and small-scale developments, realizing that socio-economics of the user, and how the predominant industry effects the work and transoportant of the city. The emphasis of a city being part of a network changes the way transportation and organization is considered, gicing new meaning to the mall, office park, and other conglomerations of program.

Sustainable Cities To call a city susatinable requires a mutlitide of factors. Climate control, climate neutral and zero carbon are terms often associated but the term goes beyond to include investment, civic engagement, and national and international coordination. Sustainable cities are those in constant motion, incorporating new, cleaner technologies and engaging industry and socio-economics to assure that the city remains cutting-edge and a viable competitor as markets and society evolves. Ronald Wall, Theoretician Ronald Wall developed the Archinomics theory in 2009 as a doctoral student in Economic Geography at Erasmus University. Originally trained as an architect, Wall began his career as an urban planner for OMA and MVRDV where his work focused on international urban development projects. He is a recipient of the Rotterdam Design Prize and International Design Award. His continuing work includes a world city network study for The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and the Dubai Urban Planning Council. He is a senior member of the Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies in The Netherlands.

Investors Seek long-term commitments Target social and environmental benefits Come from mission-driven institutions Dearch for catalytic opportunities

Cities Create common goals Build platform for investable strategies Develop oplicy for investments Leverage power to catalyze markets Funds Taregt specific sectors and locations Meet social and environmental onligations Develop new products Aggreate capital Develop sustainability


Transition Studio 2.0 --------> Precedent Studies Pratt Institute:: Graduate Architecture and Urban Design

Multinational Power and the City Multinational companies are richer than most world nations. In 2004, General Motors had the larger Gross National Product (GDP) than 148 of the 192 countries of the world. In 2005, Wal-Mart had a higher revenue than all of sub-Saharan Africa. The top one hundred multinationals and their subsidiaries generate two thirds of the world’s GDP.

Interscaler Corporate Connectivity

Multinational power strongly determines urban development. Knowing a city’s position and relation within multinational networks can determine future development.

Sustainability Spatio-Economic Programs

Subsidiary

Planning and Design

City

Local investment by multinationals will undoubtably incorporate goals of the multinational in strengthening its businesses and its own revenue potential. The same goes for the community involvement and philanthropy in which the company participates. These investments must be studied thoroughly to understand their implications and how these important decisions will shape a city in certain, intentional directions.

Complexity

Global Regional Social Innovation Globalization (Society)

Local

Environmental Innovation

Scarcity Economic Innovation

Infrastructural Innovation

Governance Forces

Market Forces

Sustainability

Urbanization (space)

Transition to Design Concept Archinomics is based on foreign direct investment and the effect of big business on the growth of an area. The theory is primarily geared towards longterm development and power dynamics, but should also be considered in the planning phases when discussing prominant industries in and around Pughkeepsie to better understand how the industy would fare in light of international competition. It is imperative that our district include diverse businesses and industries to assure that jobs remain stable and the city grows.

BETA VERSION

Headquarters

An investment by a multinational firm can mean large changes for an urban area with enw investments in infrastructure and jobs, bringing people and technology. However, a multinational is by design a corproation with its own identity and agenda. In studying foreign direct investment, it is important to understand the goals of corporations in buying certain smaller companies and the cities they are housed in.


Precedent Studies (XXL)