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The Global Assembly Journal for SMT and Advanced Packaging Professionals

Volume 10 Number 8 August 2010

Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue Fundamentals of fatigue

ISSN 1474 - 0893



Volume 10, No. 8 August 2010

Global SMT & Packaging is published monthly by Trafalgar Publications Limited. The journal is FREE to qualified professionals and is available by subscription at a cost of $380.00 for the current volume (twelve issues). Periodicals postage paid at Rahway NJ. Postmaster send address corrections to: Global SMT & Packaging, c/o Mercury International Limited, 365 Blair Road, Avenel, NJ 07001. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means; electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written consent of the publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the text, illustrations or advertisements. The opinions expressed in the articles are not necessarily those of the editors or the publisher. ISSN No. 1474-0893 © Trafalgar Publications Ltd Set Up Product B Designed and Published by Trafalgar Publications Ltd, Bournemouth, United Kingdom-

Printed by Ovid Bell, Fulton, MO, USA.


American edition


2 Editorial Trevor Galbraith Technology Focus

10 Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling Tim Grove and Dr. S. Manian Ramkumar Center for Electronics Manufacturing and Assembly RIT, and Brian O’ Leary, KIC 14 Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue Dr. Mike Bixenman, Kyzen Corporation


26 Benefits of non-restricted feeder locations Denny Yingling, Universal Instruments Special Features

30 Interview—Chris Coccio, Sono-Tek

regular columns


The printed circuit—the unsung bellwether of electronics manufacturing evolution Joe Fjelstad


Run Product B

20 Caution in the face of high growth Walt Custer and Jon Custer-Topai 36 Fundamentals of fatigue Werner Engelmaier

Run Product A

Other Regular Features

6 Industry News 30 New Products 40 Association News

42 SMT Answers 44 International Diary

Tear Down Product A, and Set Up Product C

Area-array packages have solder balls hidden under the package, making it particularly difficult to achieve the correct thermal profile—p. 10.

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 1


Trevor Galbraith

Editorial Offices

Europe Global SMT & Packaging Trafalgar Publications Ltd Unit 18, 2 Lansdowne Crescent Bournemouth Dorset BH1 1SA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (1202) 388997 E-mail: Website: United States Global SMT & Packaging PO Box 7579 Naples, FL 34102, USA Tel: +1 (239) 245-9264 Fax: (239) 236-4682 E-mail: China Global SMT & Packaging Electronics Second Research Institute No.159, Hepin South Road Taiyuan City, PO Box 115, Shanxi, Province 030024, China Tel: +86 (351) 652 3813 Fax: +86 (351) 652 0409 Editor-in-Chief Trevor Galbraith Tel: +44 (0)20 8123 6704 (Europe) Tel: +1 (239) 245-9264 x101 (US) E-mail: Managing Editor Heather Lackey Tel: +1 (239) 245-9264 x105 E-mail:

Circulation & Subscriptions Kelly Grimm Tel: +1 (239) 245-9264 x106 E-mail:


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It’s the last quiet of summer before we gear up for another show season with Electronics Midwest at the end of September, Mexitronica and SMTA International in October and electronica in Munich in November. For your summer reading, we have several articles this month geared toward improving your process: The methods by which thermocouples (TCs) are attached to the PCB assembly, to record the profile as the PCB travels through the oven, significantly impact the measuring accuracy of the profile. This month, we feature a study designed to identify a non-destructive method for attaching TCs, one that can provide a small offset to the actual temperature under an area array package. Poor cleaning agent performance can rarely be overcome with stronger mechanical forces whereas selecting a cleaning agent that matches up to the flux residue opens the process window and lowers cost of ownership. Dr. Mike Bixenman walks us through the world of solder flux residues and discusses the science of choosing the best fit cleaning agent for removing a specific flux. A particular challenge of high-mix production is the frequent changeovers. Eliminating even one half of the time accrued by changeovers can result in drastic profit increases. Denny Yingling discusses the benefits of—and concerns about—nonrestricted feeder location systems in highchangeover enviroments.

Also in this issue: Bob Willis takes a look at some of the design/layout requirements for the introduction of package on package (PoP) assembly. Werner Engelmaier discusses the basic precepts of fatigue in his column on reliability. Werner will also be presenting a two-part reliability workshop and a talk on “Pb-Free Soldering Processes— Survival, Quality, Reliability: Problems & Solutions” at this year’s European Electronics Assembly Reliability Summit in Tallinn, Estonia, September 21st-23rd. More information on this important event, which spotlights reliability, traceability and yield enhancement in electronics manfacturing, can be found at Finally, Joe Fjelstad brings to light a discussion about a possible reordering and simplification of the descriptions of printed circuits. Joe, by the way, will also be holding two workshops at the European Electronics Assembly Reliability Summit. —Trevor Galbraith.

Sandy Daneau (digital) Tel: +1 (239) 245-9264 x104 Cell: +1 (603)-686-3920 Europe—Andy Kellard Tel: +44 7766 951665 Asia/Pacific— Debasish P. Choudhury Tel: +91 120 6453260 Nitesh Madan +91-9818429457 Asia— Carol Chen

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The printed circuit—the unsung bellwether of electronics manufacturing evolution

Joe Fjelstad

The printed circuit—the unsung bellwether of electronics manufacturing evolution The printed circuit is one of the most common icons of electronics, and yet at the same time it is arguably the most unappreciated element of the world of electronics production. It is also arguably the most indispensable. Before there was an integrated circuit, the printed circuit served in that role by integrating first the discrete transistors, resistors and capacitors and other elements that made up a circuit and later by integrating the functions or many different integrated circuits. The printed circuit, or PCB, has undergone enormous change since it was introduced in the 1940s, where it was first used in the manufacture of proximity fuses for mortars and other explosive devices. It is a fact of history that the forage of war has often been responsible for technological advances, and ironically it was these weapons of war and destruction that opened the doors to the first volume production printed circuits. They have never looked back, and they have been on a path of new development and evolution ever since. Today there are many different types of printed circuits, and it is a challenge to keep track of them. Standards, such as those developed by the IPC, have proven in their own way what a difficult task it is. A few examples will help to illustrate this. The IPC Rigid board specification, IPC-2222, identifies six different types of printed circuits:

Type 1—Single-Sided Board Type 2—Double-Sided Board Type 3—Multilayer board without blind or buried vias Type 4—Multilayer board with blind and/or buried vias Type 5—Multilayer metal core board without blind or buried vias Type 6—Multilayer metal core board with blind and/or buried vias This seems to be clear and comprehensive, but there is another specification that addresses flexible circuits, the IPC-2223, where five different types of printed circuits are described: Type 1—Single-sided flex circuit with or without stiffener Type 2—Double-sided flex circuit with plated holes, with or without stiffeners Type 3—Multilayer flex circuit with or without stiffeners Type 4—Rigid flex circuits with plated through holes (PTH) Type 5—Flex or rigid-flex having two or more conductive layers without PTHs These are similar to the first group in most cases with the only exception being that the base material is unreinforced and thus flexible. However, a thin reinforced material can actually be flexible as well, so there is some evident overlap.

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There is also yet another specification, the High Density Interconnection document, IPC-2226, which also describes advanced printed circuit types but use Romans numerals in place of Arabic. These are described as follows: Type I—HDI board having one or more build up layer per side and with through vias from surface to surface. Type II—HDI board having standard printed circuit core with through vias and one or more surface build up layers and PTHs from surface to surface Type III—HDI board having standard printed circuit core with through vias and one or more surface build up layers and PTHs from surface to surface With through vias buried in the core and from surface to surface. Type IV—HDI board having standard printed circuit core with through vias and one or more surface build up layers and PTHs from surface to surface \ Type V—HDI structure fabricated on a passive (coreless) substrate with no electrical connection. With vias, through-vias, and buried/blind vias in layer pairs. Type VI—Alternative HDI constructions where electrical interconnections and mechanical structures are formed simultaneously.

The printed circuit—the unsung bellwether of electronics manufacturing evolution

There are other structures specific to IC packaging that might be added but these examples are sufficiently representative of the many different interconnection structures. Moreover they serve to highlight the challenge of creating a taxonomical structure which will logically embrace and differentiate them. To this end, there is under discussion a possible reordering and simplification of the descriptions of printed circuits. Under consideration is a simple single set of descriptions which will encompass all possible interconnection substrate constructions. Following is a summary of the proposal. Type 1—Single-sided Printed Board, one conductive layer without plated holes [one conductor forming process]. Type 2—Double-Sided Printed Board, 2 conductive layers [one conductor forming process]. Type 3—Multilayer Printed board, without blind or buried vias, with or without formed embedded components [three or more conductor forming processes and one lamination process]. Type 4—Printed board, with blind and/or buried vias, with or without formed embedded components [three or more conductor forming processes and one lamination process] Type 5—Built-up printed board without buried vias in the core with 1 to many build-up layers on either side, with or without embedded components. [multiple sequential conductor forming processes and insulation layer builds] Type 6—Built-up printed board, with buried vias in the core with one to many build up layers on either side, with or without embedded components. [multiple sequential conductor forming processes and insulation layer builds] Type 7—Build-up printed board, without a core with all types of vias in layer pairs and as many layers as necessary with or without embedded components. [multiple sequential conductor forming processes and insulation layer builds] Type 8—Printed board, where the electrical interconnection and mechanical structure, are formed simultaneously using either sequentially or co-laminated process with all types of vias. [one to several sequential conductor forming processes and lamination steps]

Type 99—Printed board not defined— Unique structures with fabrication processing need documented in notes In this proposal, description of the fundamental interconnection structure takes priority over materials allowing any substrate material to be used for any type of fundamental interconnection product. This is a nascent effort, but it is also deemed a necessary task in an effort to eliminate or at least minimize confusion and improve communication between all parties in the electronics design, manufacturing and production chain. It will very likely take some time to build understanding an industry wide consensus; however it is hoped that this cooperative effort will yield an analog to the biology community’s organization of living things (i.e., kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) that will help make clearer the similarities and differences of the products designed, built and used by the industry. This approach should also ultimately help the industry better track the evolution of the printed circuit board and may even allow for the creation of DNA like markers for our products that will make them more traceable in the future. It will be perhaps a long journey but every journey begins with but a single step. If the reader has interest in helping shape this project please feel free to make that interest known by sending an email to Verdant Electronics founder and president Joseph (Joe) Fjelstad has more than 35 years of international experience in electronic interconnection and packaging technology in a variety of capacities from chemist to process engineer and from international consultant to CEO. Mr. Fjelstad is also a well known author writing on the subject of electronic interconnection technologies. Prior to founding Verdant, Mr. Fjelstad co-founded SiliconPipe a leader in the development of high speed interconnection technologies. He was also formerly with Tessera Technologies, a global leader in chip-scale packaging, where he was appointed to the first corporate fellowship for his innovations.

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 5

Basic printed Industry Newsboard repair and rework for copper tracks and pads, part 2

Industry News Alta Manufacturing acquires NRC Manufacturing Alta Manufacturing, a Tier 3 electronics contract manufacturer specializing in NPI to pilot production of complex PCBs, recently acquired Fremont-based NRC Manufacturing, broadening Alta Manufacturing’s manufacturing capacity and adding a proven manufacturing team led by Ratha Chea, president and founder of NRC. Prior to founding NRC, Ratha Chea was co-founder of Orion Manufacturing, which grew to $40M before its acquisition by CTS in 2008. Ratha was responsible for all manufacturing operations and led his team to new production heights. Additionally, he created a low-cost, high-capacity production facility that provided expansive benefits to Orion’s customers. This acquisition is another key step in the growth of Alta Manufacturing. Catalyst Manufacturing Services completes facility upgrades Renovations to Catalyst Manufacturing Services Inc’s Endicott, New York, manufacturing facility have been completed. The contract manufacturer’s facility renovations included a complete upgrade of the operations, including new ESD flooring, new lighting, and a complete re-layout for lean manufacturing process flow. The office area was also completely redone. The renovations complement the new manufacturing equipment and systems the company recently invested in.

OR; and Taipei, Taiwan. It has expected annual sales of $50 million. AMETEK purchased TSE from Pfingsten Partners, LLC, an operationally focused private equity firm based in Chicago, IL. TSE joins AMETEK as part of its Electromechanical Group (EMG), a differentiated supplier of electrical interconnects, specialty metals, technical motors, floor care motors and specialty motors with 2009 sales of $952 million.,

Shackleton acquires RIT Electronics IntriCon Corporation, a designer, developer, manufacturer and distributor of body-worn medical and electronics devices, has completed the divestiture of its non-core electronics business, Anaheim, Calif.-based RTI Electronics, Inc. IntriCon has sold the business to an affiliate of Shackleton Equity Partners, a Los Angelesbased private equity group. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed. IntriCon had previously disclosed its plan to divest RTI Electronics, and results of operations for the business have been reported in discontinued operations since the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009.,

Juki Automation Systems premiers comprehensive online video library Juki Corporation debuted a new online video library resource located at http:// html. The library consists of three parts: Introduction, Products and Company Promo. The Introduction provides company history, a product overview, IS software overview and information about the Juki advantage. The next section, Products, discusses the OPASS, 01005 placement, the KE2070 and KE2080 Series, FX-3 introduction, overview and product guide, W510 selective solder, and S3532 selective solder. Finally, the Company Promo describes why Juki’s products and technologies are advanced and why the company is the best choice to provide innovative automated assembly products.

AMETEK acquires Technical Services for Electronics AMETEK, Inc. has acquired Technical Services for Electronics (TSE), a privately held manufacturer of engineered interconnect solutions for the medical device industry. TSE is headquartered in Arlington, MN, and has manufacturing operations in Jackson, MN; Beaverton,

ZESTRON America adds FHP Reps as new sales rep FHP Reps now represents ZESTRON’s line of chemistries, proven vapor recovery devices and process optimization services in select parts of the western United States. FHP is a privately held local as well as global manufacturer’s representative and distributor that provides affordable,

6 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

best-in-class equipment, consumable and service solutions for the electronics manufacturing industry. The company has been successfully representing well-known names such as Magenta Systems, Austin American and Ersa. US-based firm partners with Canadian company to improve product profitability through cost reduction Blackfox Training Institute, with headquarters in Longmont, Colorado, has formed a strategic alliance with Too Serious! unlimited, a boutique consulting company with offices in Toronto Canada and San Diego California. This unique alliance was formed to create a channel for delivering cost reduction training and workshops for high tech products both as skill-based training and workshop delivery. This alliance is also a response to many manufacturers and product designers who must reduce cost and add margin to their products as the world economy struggles its way out of recession. These training and facilitation products focus on generating significant product cost reductions in high tech products. This workshop format has generated tens of millions of dollars in cost savings as independently audited by Accenture. See for yourself the benefits of solder jet printing So that PCB manufacturers can see for themselves the decisive benefits of stencil-free solder jet printing, which are already enhancing the performance and profitability of more than 100 companies across the UK and Europe, SMT expert MYDATA has set up a new and informative YouTube channel—www. Videos featured on the channel include interviews with current users of MYDATA MY500 solder jet printers who enthusiastically explain how the new technology is helping them to significantly reduce set up times for prototypes and new products, and to work easily with even the most “difficult” of components. Also available on the channel are videos that describe exactly how solder jet technology works and show the MY500 in operation. Videos on the new MYDATA YouTube channel are packed with information, yet typically last


Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 7

Industry News

no more than three or four minutes. Bliss Industries introduces free product demos Bliss now has a demo program in place for customers to be able to bring a Bliss product into their facility. It is a free program where the customer pays only shipping and they can demo it for 30 days. Not all product configurations are available, but a version of every product is. It is a new way for the electronics industry to get their hands on a Bliss product and both see and feel the value.“ With Bliss’ new product demos, it is now easier than ever to find the right cart. Call (408) 9458401 to reserve a demo unit.

KIC Wins Best Suppler of the Year! KIC was selected as Best Supplier of the Year by EM Asia’s readers, who voted based on product availability and product ease of use, maintainability and repairability, technical support, training support, speed and throughput improvements, as well as service quality, overall product satisfaction and product brand awareness. The Innovation Awards program is sponsored by EMAsia Magazine and honors the top 21 brands of various manufacturing-related products, materials and equipment. Koh Young expands to new, larger facility Koh Young Technologies Inc., relocated and expanded its Seoul headquarters to a new, larger building, effective February 12, 2010. The up-to-date facility will enable Koh Young Technology to improve efficiency and delivery to all of its customers and partners. Koh Young will occupy two floors; the 15th floor devoted to development/sales/support, and the 14th floor to manufacturing. The address of the new facility is Koh

Young Technology Inc.#1501 Halla Sigma Valley345-90 Gasan-Dong, GeumcheonGuSeoul, KoreaPostal Code 153-802TEL :+82-2-6343-6000FAX :+82-2-6343-6001. Inovar’s Jed Jones participates in Better Process Podcast Jed Jones, VP of sales and marketing for Inovar Inc., a contract electronics manufacturer providing flexible solutions to OEMs, participated in a recent Better Process Podcast. The podcast is available for viewing and/or downloading at www. Jed Jones spoke with Ken Rayment from the Better Process Podcast about how Inovar, which deals primarily with military and government contracts, continues to set the standard in excellence. The Better Process Podcast discusses manufacturing news. The topics range from US manufacturing, China competition, RFID, lean manufacturing, and manufacturing technology. Torenko and Associates hires Don Evans Manufacturers’ representative Torenko and Associates announced that Don Evans has joined the team as sales engineer. Evans brings valued experience in SMT along with wave solder, conformal coating, repair and test. Don worked for Delco Electronics/Delphi for more than 30 years and was responsible for buying and overseeing the installation of over 60 SMT lines at Delphi Plants, including Delnosa, Del Norte, Condura and Deltronicos. Don recently specified and set up a complete high-speed SMT line in China using the latest technology. He currently resides in McAllen, Texas and will be covering the Reynosa and Matamoros territory. www. FCT Assembly promotes Robert Dervaes to VP of technology for its solder division FCT Assembly promoted Robert Dervaes to VP of technology and engineering for its solder division, FCT Solder. Robert has spent the past 12 years working as the VP of technology and engineering for Fine Line Stencil, another division of FCT Assembly. As VP of technology and engineering for the solder division, Dervaes will direct

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technical development and engineering for both Fine Line Stencil and FCT Solder. With his strong engineering background in both the defense and commercial electronics industries, Robert is a major contributor to establishing Fine Line Stencil as a technological and quality leader in the stencil industry. He is a member of the IPC Stencil Design Task Group and has published a white paper entitled “Conquering SMT Stencil Printing Challenges with Today’s Miniature Components.” www.fctassembly. com OK International receives Best Presentation award from SMTA China OK International was recognized by SMTA China with a Vendor Conference Best Presentation award at the recent Nepcon Shanghai. The award was presented by Mr. Michael Wong, SMTA China Technical Advisory Council Chairman for a paper entitled “Minimizing Microcracks in Solar Cell Interconnection During Manual Soldering.” Written by Hoa Nguyen, VP of technology, and Paul Wood, advanced applications manager at OK International, the paper was presented on the morning of April 21st on the show floor at Nepcon China by Paul Wood and Vincent Goh. Mr. Wood accepted the award at a breakfast reception and awards ceremony hosted by SMTA China. The paper documents the management of a precise process window controlling time and temperature to maintain 1-2 µm intermetallic layer and reduce thermal stress on the delicate silicon wafers during tabbing and bussing operations. Download a copy of the presentation at okinternational/newsletter/2010/OKI265-01Issue10/news2.html Harold Breen joins STI Electronics STI Electronics, Inc., a full service organization providing training, electronic and industrial distribution, consulting, laboratory analysis, prototyping, and small- to medium-volume PCB assembly, has appointed Harold Breen as business development/sales manager. Harold brings a great deal of experience in sales engineering, account management, design and development support, and project management. Breen joins STI from Innovative Manufacturing Solutions (IMS) LLC, where he consistently maintained the highest gross margin contribution for products sold over the entire sales staff.


Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 9

Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling

Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling Tim Grove and Dr. S. Manian Ramkumar Center for Electronics Manufacturing and Assembly Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY, USA, and Brian O’ Leary, KIC, San Diego CA, USA Area-array packages have solder balls hidden under the package, making it particularly difficult to achieve the correct thermal profile. Improper melting of solder balls will lead to poor solder joint formation and will damage the BGAs or the entire assembly. These components also tend to be expensive and, hence, represent a particular challenge for assemblers. The goal of this study was to identify a non-destructive method for TC attachment that provides a small offset to the “actual temperature under a BGA.”

Figure 1a. TC attachment on top of the BGA.

Keywords: Thermal Profiling, Area Array Packages, Thermocouples, Actual Temp.

Figure 1b. TC attachment on the bottom of the PCB directly underneat the BGA location.

10 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling

Introduction The oven recipe, which consists of the reflow oven zone temperature settings and the speed of the conveyor, will determine a specific time-temperature profile for a given PCB assembly. In order to achieve a good quality PCB assembly, the timetemperature profile should be within the product and process specifications. This is determined by the solder paste, components and substrate tolerances. As a result, the accuracy of the profile becomes a critical element in the quality of the electronics assembly. The methods by which thermocouples (TCs) are attached to the PCB assembly, to record the profile as the PCB travels through the oven, significantly impact the measuring accuracy of the profile. Many electronics assemblers do not have the luxury of sacrificing production PCBs and BGAs for the purpose of measuring their profiles. Yet they need to make sure that these assemblies are processed in spec. Area-array packages have solder balls hidden under the package, making it particularly difficult to achieve the correct thermal profile. Improper melting of

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6







Belt Speed (cm/min)

Table 1. Oven recipe used in the study.


solder balls will lead to poor solder joint formation and will damage the BGAs or the entire assembly. These components also tend to be expensive and, hence, represent a particular challenge for assemblers. The goal of this study was to identify a non-destructive method for TC attachment that provides a small offset to the “actual temperature under a BGA.” Project metric The “gold standard” of TC attachment for a BGA is to place the TC accurately on top of a single pad and then to solder the BGA on top, without using any additional solder material beyond what exists on the pads and BGA balls. Preliminary research found that using a flattened bead TC and a BGA rework station allowed for an accurate and reliable location of the TC on a single

Figure 2. Flattened TC bead located directly underneath the BGA.

Figure 3. Profile overlay for reference TC, small BGA and 31 mil PCB.

Figure 4. Profile overlay for reference TC, small BGA and 62 mil PCB.

Figure 5. Profile overlay for reference TC, large BGA and 31 mil PCB.

Figure 6. Profile overlay for reference TC, large BGA and 62 mil PCB.

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 11

Evaluating the accuracy of a non-destructive thermocouple attach method for area-array package profiling

Equation. Formula to calculate temperature offset from reference TC to nondestructive TC attachment.

small variations in the amount of material applied when needing to reattach a TC, Figure 7. Temperature offset for 2 PCB sizes and two PCB thicknesses. resulting in skewed temperature readings. A second pad/ball. This study used a flattened benefit with the aluminum tape is that it bead TC soldered under the BGA as the is already widely used in the electronics reference TC. assembly industry. Furthermore, previous research The project metric included the reveals that aluminum tape provides both difference in temperature between the accurate and repeatable TC readings temperature recorded by the TC attached while complying with the criteria as a using aluminum tape at two locations with non-destructive attachment method. The respect to the BGA (Figures 1a and 1b), and repeatability includes measurements when the flat TC that measured the temperature the TCs are reattached numerous times. under the BGA (Figure 2). A small delta T Other TC attachment methods, such as indicates that the particular method and high-temperature solder or adhesives, risk

Figure 8. Graph for temperature offsets All Zones combined based on the AI formula.

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location tracks very closely with the flat TC soldered under the BGA. Results and discussions The different experiment phases were carried out using a forced convection oven with six heating zones and one uncontrolled cooling zone. The measurements from the cooling zone were truncated for the analysis to avoid misinterpretation of data. The oven recipe that was used for the different experiments is shown in Table 1. Sixteen total profile runs were conducted by using four combinations of BGA and PCB sizes, assembling two BGAs per PCB, and running two replications for each run combination. The substrate was a two-layer FR4 PCB, 31 mil thick and 62

Figure 9. Graph for temperature offsets for Reflow Zone only based on the AI formula.

Evaluating the accuracy a non-destructive attach method GlobalofSMT AD:Layout 1thermocouple 2/6/10 12:03 Page for 1 area-array package profiling

mil thick. Both PCB sizes were same (203.2 x 139.6 mm) except for the thickness variation. The two BGA components used included BGA 160 (15 x 15 mm-1 mm pitch) and BGA 1156 (35 x 35 mm-1 mm pitch). A flattened TC was soldered under the BGA to measure the true temperature under the BGA. Care was taken to place the flattened TC bead directly on a BGA pad, and with the use of a rework station, the BGA was soldered onto the pads. The bead was sandwiched between the pad and the solder ball without touching any of the other BGA solder balls/pads. Two additional TCs were attached to measure the BGA temperature by use of aluminum tape in the following locations: • The top face of the BGA • The underside of the FR4 PCB, below the BGA Temperature differences between the reference TC and the nondestructive TC attachment methods The analysis was carried out using the temperature difference between the TCs attached with aluminum tape and the flat TC soldered under the BGA. The temperature difference was measured for the most critical part of the profile, the reflow zone, within the reflow oven. The method used to calculate the temperature difference was to take every data point generated by the KIC Explorer profiler and to subtract the reference TC data from the relevant location TC data. Figures 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 summarize the temperature differences with various BGA sizes and PCB thicknesses. Combining all data from this experiment and past experiments with the various BGA and PCB sizes, a generic empirical relationship (Equation) and graphs (Figures 8 and 9) were created for assembling plastic BGA packages on FR4 PCBs with TC attach on the top of the BGA and PCB bottom, using aluminum tape. Based on the experimental data, the derived empirical relationship provided a closer fit for TC attachment on the top of the BGA when compared to the TC attachment on the PCB bottom below the BGA. Figures 8 and 9 show the predicted temperature difference for TC attach on the top of the BGA, for a given PCB/ BGA combination, using the empirical relationship derived from the PCB and BGA parameters. Figure 8 is for all zones combined and Figure 9 is for the reflow zone only. In order to use the graph in Figure 8 or Figure 9, an Assembly Index (AI)

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needs to be calculated by making use of the PCB and BGA parameters as shown below. Additional confirmation runs need to be carried out to validate this graph. Conclusion Using aluminum tape to attach a TC directly onto the top of the BGA provides a good approximation of the temperature readings under a BGA. Furthermore, this offset can be calculated with a reasonable level of confidence by using a formula developed in this research and displayed in this article. For a relatively small BGA

and thin PCB, that offset is less than 2˚C. Thicker boards and larger BGAs produce larger offsets, which can be approximated by the referenced formula and associated graph.

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 13

Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue

Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue Dr. Mike Bixenman, Kyzen Corporation, Nashville, TN, USA Understanding the effects of solder flux residues is critical to matching the cleaning agent to the residue, and matching the cleaning agent to the residue is key to effective and efficient cleaning. This article introduces the process cleaning rate theorem, discusses the characterization of both cleaning agents and flux residues, and explores how to determine the best fit properties of multi-component compositions, ultimately providing a method for selecting cleaning agents that saves both cost and time over the trial-and-error method.

Keywords: Cleaning, Cleaning Chemistry, Flux Residue, LeadFree, Miniaturization

The move toward lead-free soldering and miniaturization represents two force fields converging that increase cleaning complexities.1 Higher lead-free melting temperatures requires the use of fluxes with greater thermal stability. The problem: lead-free alloys exhibit poorer wetting properties, which require higher flux capacity and strength to improve wetting and flow. Flux technology also plays an important role in reduced voiding by increasing the need for high oxidation resistance, oxygen barrier capability, high thermal stability and low volatility.2 Miniaturization requires the flux to be more stable at peak reflow to prevent oxidation, which requires a higher content of rosin or resin (modified or synthetic rosin, resins and/or polymers). Reducing flux volatility results in greater amounts of circuit assembly flux residue. Halide free flux materials require higher levels of weak organic acids, which increase the level of ionic materials that can form an electrochemical cell.2 Flux residue variation impacts the electronic assembly cleaning process. Understanding the effects of the solder flux

residues is critical to matching the cleaning agent to the residue. The thermal phases during the soldering process influence the flux residue cleaning parameters. The number of heat excursions and time above alloy liquidus can cause flux burn off, polymerization, and hardening of the flux residue. These harden flux residues when partially cleaned form white residue, which represents one of the most complex problems in electronic assembly. White residue left after the cleaning process is commonly the result of extracting and removing soluble flux residue ingredients while leaving behind an insoluble ionic white powder. With the wide acceptance of noclean soldering processes, boards may see multiple reflow cycles (top side, bottom side, through-hole, and selective soldering), since the residue was not designed to be cleaned. This was made possible in large part due to no-clean flux technology advances. Each consecutive reflow exposure hardens the rosin/resin translucent film by driving out solvent molecules. As a result, the flux residue forms a hard shell that is increasingly difficult to dissolve and clean.

Watch a video on the process cleaning rate theorem on Global SMT TV online at

14 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 15

Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue

Lead-free soldering and miniaturization complicates this process due to increased melting temperature and component density.2 The surface tension of SAC (tin-silver-copper) alloys is roughly 20% higher than eutectic tin-lead, which results in poorer wetting. This wetting deficiency needs to be compensated with improved flux compositions that lower surface tension and increase thermal stability. Additionally, miniaturization aggravates the flux burn-off factor due to the need for lower volatility and greater oxidation resistance. Reduced volatiles mean a greater amount of flux residue, with a higher molecular weight.2 Additionally, new flux compositions may contain more oxidation resistant chemical bonds that change cleaning properties. To prevent tombstoning, a longer soak period is needed for leadfree soldering, which may cause greater cleaning difficulty. White residue formation of these flux residues is more prone to formation in high temperature soldering conditions. As a result, lead-free and miniaturization creates a condition where high thermal heat is generated making the flux more difficult to clean and prone to white residue formation.3 Process cleaning rate theorem The process cleaning rate theorem holds that the static rate (solubility of the flux residue in the cleaning agent) plus the dynamic rate (thermal and mechanical energy) equals the process cleaning rate.4 The static cleaning rate is a key indicator for predicting the cleaning agent that best matches up to the flux residue. Static

• Size: 3.0” x 4.0” x 0.60 mil print • FR-4 with LPI Solder Mask • IPC Specified pad sizes and geometries • Chip caps utilized ◊ 1210 SMR ~ 0.5 mil gap ◊ 1825 SMC ~ 1.0 mil gap • Caps place bi-directional • Caps positioned to: ◊ Minimal shielding ◊ One-side shielding ◊ Two-side shielding

Figure 1. Test board and test board specifications.

testing is performed using low thermal and mechanical energy forces. Cleaning agents that dissolve flux residues under these conditions exhibit high levels of cohesive energy for the residue. The basic principle is that “like dissolves like.” Cleaning agents that do not match up to the soil do not usually dissolve the soil.5 Kinetic energy forces applied to cleaning agents that exhibit a high cohesive energy for the soil opens the process window. For many flux residues, temperature is a key driver, as flux residue softens when heat is applied. Mechanical energy, properly applied, moves highly effective cleaning agents to constricted areas resulting in flux removal under low gaps components. Boundary cleaning

agents that are poorly matched to the soil require higher energy levels and longer wash time to remove the soil. For nonwater soluble flux residues, mechanical energy works only when the cleaning agent dissolves the residue. Poor cleaning agent performance can rarely be overcome with stronger mechanical forces.

Figure 2. Interaction plot.

16 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue solubility parameters Choosing the best fit cleaning agent for removing a specific flux residue requires characterization of both cleaning agents and the flux residue. Solubility parameter characterization can be used for single and multiple component compositions for both the soil composite and the cleaning agent blend. The solubility characteristics of multiple component compositions can be compared to known values just as similar values of solvents and polymers are compared to determine if the cleaning agent can dissolve the flux residue. To characterize the solubility parameters of the cleaning agent for the soil, similar tests are run on the soils at their various concentrations, temperature, and time levels. The goal is to identify differences at the lowest applied levels for concentration, temperature, and time. When testing selected cleaning agent candidates using elevated levels for concentration, temperature, and time, solubility differences can be clearly identified. This methodology helps the investigation more closely match the solubility characteristics of the cleaning agent to the soil. The testing also identifies optimal process parameters for wash time, temperature, and concentration. To illustrate, consider the need to

Matching the cleaning agent to the flux residue

clean lead-free water soluble flux residues. Due to higher reflow temperatures, and the need to improve thermal stability and wetting, many lead-free water soluble flux residues do not completely clean with DI water cleaning agent. To better understand the cleaning agent that best matches up with lead-free soils, a cleaning study was conducted. Over 50,000 data points were generated from this study. The objective was to match up water soluble flux residues to with best technology based cleaning agent. The test boards were populated with 1210 and 1815 chip cap resistors (Figure 1). Following cleaning, the components were removed and the level of flux residue under the chip caps graded and analyzed statistically. The interaction plot illustrated in Figure 2 shows the percent flux residue removed on nine Lead-Free water soluble flux residues using eight cleaning agents. The data findings show that cleaning agent 2 was the best matched cleaning agent for seven of the nine lead-free water soluble flux residues tested. None of the cleaning agents provided total cleanliness on Solder Pastes 6 & 9. This indicates that these two solder pastes are not cleanable with DI water or cleaning agents ran at 3.5% concentration level. For Solder

Paste 6, cleaning agent 2 provided the best performance but requires a slightly higher concentration level to open the process window. For Solder Paste 7, cleaning agent 2 provided the poorest performance, which indicates that a different soil composition that is a poor match. When determining the best fit properties of multi-component compositions, it is important to elevate the factors and levels in the designed experiment to see differences. In this particular example, the cleaning agent concentration was 3.5%, wash temperature of 140°F, and belt speed of 3.5 feet per minute. This equates to roughly 1.25 minutes of wash time. At these levels the best fit cleaning agent properties are easier to identify. Selecting a cleaning agent that matches up to the flux residue opens the process window and lowers cost of ownership. Cleaning agents that work at lower concentration levels, lower temperatures, higher processing speed, and lower impinging force carry numerous benefits. The less time exposure there is to the electronic assembly hardware, the better the material compatibility window. The benefits of characterizing the flux residue and matching to the best fit cleaning agent

save time and money over the commonly used trial and error method. References 1. Bixenman, M., Lee, N.C., & Stach, S. (2009, Oct). Ionic Cleanliness Testing Research of Printed Wiring Boards for Purposes of Process Control. SMTAI Technical Conference. San Diego, CA. 2. Lee, N.C. (2009, Oct). Lead-Free Flux Technology and Influence on Cleaning. SMTAI Technical Conference. San Diego, CA. 3. Bixenman, M., Zhang, P., & Shi, C. (2008, May). White Residue on Printed Wiring Boards Post Soldering / Cleaning. SMTA China Conference. Shanghai, China. 4. Stach, S., & Bixenman, M. (2004, Sep.). Optimizing Cleaning Energy in Batch and Inline Spray Systems. SMTAI Technical Forum. SMTA, Rosemont, IL. 5. Hansen, C.M. (2007). Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User’s Handbook. CRC Press. New York.

Mike is the chief technology officer for Kyzen Corporation. For questions or information regarding this topic, please email

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 17

Caution in the facesphere of highplacement growth and its implications Wafer-level solder

Walt Custer and Jon Custer-Topai

Caution in the face of high growth 2010 is certainly a year of recovery. Second quarter global electronic equipment sales could be up 25%+ compared to the same quarter in 2009 (Chart 1), and May 2010 world semiconductor shipments set an all time record high (Chart 2). However, beginning early this summer there were signs (& warnings) of at least a moderation in growth due to a potentially fragile world economy. The global “purchasing managers’ index” softened in June (Chart 3). Although it is still in expansionary territory (PMI >50), this June decline signaled growth at a slower pace. Stock prices (a timely measure of business and consumer confidence) also declined as money managers moved to more stable investments (Chart 4). No one is saying the sky is falling, but a message of caution is prudent. Electronic components (semiconductors, printed circuit boards & other passive components) have seen their order growth significantly exceed end market demand (Chart 5). A downward “component 20100712

growth correction” is now likely. We are moving into the fall “busy season.” Fortunately any slowdown will likely just mute the typically robust pre-Christmas electronics ramp up, but be wary of next January. Currently growth has peaked throughout the electronic “food chain.” Admittedly this growth is at very high levels but don’t assume it will last forever. 2010 will be a fine year (Chart 6). Just be careful as seasonal demand ebbs in December. End markets • Gartner lowered its worldwide IT spending forecast to 3.9% y/y growth or $3.350 trillion in 2010. • Worldwide PC shipments reached 82.9 million units in 2Q’10, a 20.7% increase from the second quarter of 2009.—Gartner (Chart 7) • Asia Pacific smartphone shipments are expected to grow 53% y/y to 76.7 million units in 2010 and surpass 100 million units in 2011.—Canalys • Worldwide media tablet shipments

Electronic Equipment OEM Composite vs. Custer Global Equipment Model Quarterly Revenue Growth



% Growth (quarter vs same quarter in prior year)

CCG estimate 7/14/10 based upon partial data




• •

will grow at a 57.4% CAGR from 7.6 units in 2010 to 46 million units in 2014.—IDC Wireless-charging devices are expected to grow from 3.6 million units in 2010 to 235 million units in 2014.—iSuppli Global consumer electronics industry had revenue of about US$694 billion in 2008 and is expected to grow at a 5% +/- CAGR during 2010-2013.—RNCOS LCD TV shipments are expected to grow to 188 million units in 2010 and surpass 260 million units by 2014.—DisplaySearch Worldwide 3D TV shipments are projected to reach 4.2 million units in 2010, 12.9 million units in 2011, 27.4 million units in 2012 and 78.1 million units in 2015.—iSuppli

Semiconductor related • Worldwide chip sales should grow by 28.4% to $290.5 billion in 2010 followed by 6.3% growth in 2011 to $308.7 billion, 2.9% growth in 2012 to

World Semiconductor Shipments

US$ Billions (3-month average)

Monthly US$

Record high




10 0.0 -10.0 -20.0

70 Company Elec Equip Composite CCG World El Eq Model

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 01

Composite of 70 Electronic Equipment Suppliers; Custer Consulting Group World Model

Chart 1.

18 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

2009 recession much sharper but shorter than 2001


0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10


Chart 2.

Caution in the face of high growth


$317.8 billion.—SIA

• Global semiconductor market is ex•

• •

• • • •

• Indian semiconductor market will grow

pected to grow 27% to $290 billion in 2010.—Gartner Worldwide semiconductor manufacturing equipment sales grew 142% y/y and 32% q/q to US$7.46 billion in 1Q10.—SEMI Semiconductor equipment spending is expected to grow 113% to $35.4 billion in 2010.—Gartner Semiconductor manufacturing equipment demand is increasing, driven mainly by Windows 7 OS, PCs and mobile phones in emerging economies and DRAM.—SEAJ SIA appointed Brian Toohey president of the association. China produced 40 billion ICs in 2009.—Information Network Automotive MEMS sensor shipments are expected to increase 17.8% y/y to 591 million units in 2010.—iSuppli Image sensor sales are forecast to grow 31% to $8.5 billion in 2010.—IC

from $5.4 billion in 2009 to more than $8 billion in 2011.—India Semiconductor Association

EMS, ODM & related assembly activity Adeptron appointed Eitan Haimovich and Ron Ben-Haim to its board of directors after Sima Mor and Sharon Amir resigned. Alta Manufacturing acquired NRC Manufacturing. AW Europe added SIPLACE SMT lines. Axiom Manufacturing Services named Marc Shukman supply chain manager and Mike Doyle IT manager. Bela added a DEK Horizon 03i screen printer. Bepe Electronics installed an EKRA E1 II screen printer. Borisch Manufacturing, Kentwood, Michigan, purchased an adjacent 16,000 SF building and added 150 jobs. 20100719


U.S. Stock Index - S&P 500

Global "Purchasing Managers" Index 58

Cal-Comp Electronics (Thailand) set up a new EMS subsidiary in Malaysia. Celestica, San Jose, California, facility was named one of the Bay Area’s Top 60 Employers in 2010. Compal: • invested additional NT$79.581 million (US$2.468 million) in its subsidiary ShengBao Precision Electronics. • will establish notebook computer manufacturing base in Chongqing by 2011. • plans to complete Vietnam factory by 4Q’10. • set up small production base in Sichuan, China. Coronex Electronic installed three FX-3 and two KE-2080 Juki automated SMT assembly machines. CTS Electronics: • added a Paratronix V494 Parylene coating machine in Moorpark, California. • received best partnership award from Motorola.


S&P 500




54 52





1200 1000





42 40




36 34


32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 07 08 09 10


Chart 3. 20100718

17171717171717171717171717171717171717171717 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Conference Board


Chart 4.

World Electronic Equipment, PCB & Semiconductor Shipments


Global "Electronic Foodchain" Outlook 2010 vs 2009

Converted @ Constant 2008 Exchange Rates

3/12 rate of change

PCB El Equip


"0" Growth

Combined GDP



Electronic Equipment

1.3 1.1

Henderson Ventures


Henderson Ventures

Rigid & Flex PCBs


Custer Consulting Group



0.7 0.5 3 6 9 123 6 9 123 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 00 01


Semi Capital Spending







40 60 % Change



Source: Custer Consulting Group

Chart 5.

Chart 6.

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 19

Caution in the face of high growth 20100719


Personal Computer Unit Shipments World Units (Millions)






41234123412341234123412341234123412341234123412 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 98 99

Gartner 10/09 + Gartner 2009 annual forecast 12/09 Servers not included

Chart 7.

EC Electronics installed fully automatic SMD line in Petrosani, Romania. Elitegroup Computer Systems: • received a motherboard and graphics card production contract from Asustek. • set up its seventh business unit specifically for ODM of netbook and notebook PCs. EE Technologies added a DEK Horizon 03iX for its eighth assembly line. Elbit Systems received a $130 million contract to supply Latin American Army with command, control, computer & communications systems and electronic warfare systems. Elcoteq: • was named Philips’ Best Overall Supplier 2009. • received EMS contract from Sarantel for assembly, test and supply chain of antennas. EMS-Electra entered a JV with Hasec Elektronik in Romania. Enics Switzerland named Sabina Romagnolo its GM. FCT Assembly promoted Katie Powell to regional sales manager of Canada, the northeastern USA and Texas. Fideltronik added two new SMT lines and hired 30 workers. Flextronics: • terminated 360 workers in Zalaegerszeg, Hungary. • is developing a power manufacturing and service facility in Ganzhou, Jiangxi. Foxconn/ Hon Hai: • lifted Shenzhen wages by 30%. • retained top enterprise title in Taiwan

according to the survey results released by China Credit Information Service. • is building a new plant in the Henan city of Hebei, northern China, with expected 300,000 workers. • formed JV with Pan-International Industrial to develop Taipei Information Park. • Shenzhen computer assembly plant had a fire. • signed over management of staff dormitories at its complexes in Shenzhen to Shenzhen CPM Property Management and Kaiyuan Property Management. • invested in automation equipment to reduce reliance on labor. • added 400 jobs at its Kutná Hora, Czech Republic, server manufacturing plant. • Foxlink subsidiary invested NT$931 million (US$28.91 million) to acquire 15.94% stake in Power Quotient International. • acquired Sony’s LCD television production in Slovakia and Mexico. GES opened a 100,000 SF contract manufacturing services center in Saigon High Tech Park in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Gio plans to expand its SMT production lines from 4 to 24 by the end of 2010. GMA Manufacturing achieved ISO 9001:2008 and AS9100B registration. HTC is spending USD45 million to expand capacity at HTC Electronics. IEC Electronics: • named Susan Topel-Samek CFO. • received $6.1 million order from a military and defense customer. Imago added a NXT II, Fuji SMT line.

20 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Integrated Micro-Electronics and Narra Venture Capital II acquired an aggregate 67% stake in PSi Technologies. Incap received an inverter manufacturing contract from Kenyan Thames Electricals. Ionics EMS was delisted from the Singapore bourse. Jabil Circuit sold its Brest, France manufacturing facility to Mercatech. Kimball Electronics partnered with Xhale Innovations for producing HyGreen hand hygiene intelligent sensor technology systems. Kinpo raised its workers’ wages in China. Kitron: • sold its Development Department in Oslo to Simpro. • appointed Thomas Löfgren GM, Kitron Sweden, and Stefan Tjust managing director of Kitron AB in Karlskoga. • will set up a fully owned subsidiary in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, by January 1, 2011. LaBarge: • hired 100 workers in Tulsa, Oklahoma. • received a $3M cable contract for Raytheon Missile Systems. • received a $5 million/yr PCBA contract from Parker Aerospace for F-35 jet fighter, A350 commercial jetliner, and C-17 military transport aircraft. Lincoln International acted as the exclusive financial advisor to BreconRidge during its sale to Sanmina-SCI. Macrotron moved to a 40,000 SF facility at 44235 Nobel Drive in Fremont, California. MC Assembly acquired Chase Corporation’s EMS assets. Micro Forge was acquired by Contract Production Ltd. MTL Group: • moved to a 300,000 SF advanced manufacturing facility in Rotherham, South Yorkshire. • invested Rs 400 crore to set up manufacturing plant and research unit in Gurgaon, India. Note: • became PCB and electromechanical unit supplier for Cleanergy’s mini power station. • closed its Gdansk, Poland, operation. • added Siplace D1/D2 placement line in Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. Paradise Manufacturing ended operations. PartnerTech: • opened a new purchasing office in Chang An, China. • received a SEK 5 million (EUR 520,000) Powerbox manufacturing order from Opcon AB. Plexus will open an engineering facility in Germany in 2011. Rapid Tooling moved into 14,310 SF

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 21

Caution in the face of high growth

manufacturing facility in Plano, Texas. Scanfil: • acquired 40% of Panphonics. • sold its real estate in Oulu, Finland. Sparton sold its Jackson, Michigan, and London, Ontario, closed properties. STI Electronics named Harold Breen business development/sales manager. Sypris Electronics’ Tampa, Florida, facility received ISO 14001 certification. tbp electronics added two additional PCBA cleaning machines. tbp electronics received EN9100 aeronautics industry certification. TPV raised wages in China by 15-20% following a 15% increase in January. TT appointed Bruce Richard business development manager for Rogerstone, UK, facility. USI began phasing out its motherboard business after Lenovo shifted orders to Compal, Wistron and Quanta Computer. Victron opened its Rosarito, Mexico, facility. Videoton acquired 51% of STS Group. Wynncom set up mobile phone design engineering and manufacturing subsidiary unit, Wynn Telecom, in China.

Materials & process equipment Asahi Kasei Chemicals received a contract to recycle waste water from Sony Chemical & Information Device Corp.’s PCB plant in Suzhou, China. Bayer opened a functional films research center in Singapore. Blakell Europlacer launched dual-gantry Iineo II pick-and-place machine designed for high-speed LED placement on ultralong printed circuit boards. Christopher Associates introduced a yield improvement tool for solder paste printing called SPC+ Software developed by Koh Young Technology. C-MAC MicroTechnology added a cold storage facility at its Great Yarmouth test house facility. DEK: • appointed SmartRep to distribute its mass imaging technologies in Germany. • expanded into the Brazilian market with a Fuji Do Brasil partnership. Dow Advanced Materials: • appointed Dr. Dominic Yang to VP, Dow Electronic Materials.

22 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

• received 2009 Outstanding Supplier award from UMC.

• plans to expand trimethylgallium

capacity by 60 metric tons/year by 2011 with a new metal organic precursor manufacturing plant in Korea. • received Best Partner Award from Pegatron-Unihan. • Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials developed an improved hot melt composition for manufacture of PCB, optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. DYMAX opened a new sales and application office in Seoul, South Korea. Everett Charles Technologies joined the Goepel electronic GATE partner program. Furukawa Electric acquired Furukawa Lear. GOEPEL electronic added CSI to its GATE partner program. Henkel received 2010 Automotive News PACE Environmental award for its Aquence Co-Cure coating process. Heraeus introduced stamped circuit board thermal management technology. Microbond Assembly Materials named Technica its master distributor for U.S. market.

Caution in the face of high growth

JPSA named John Bickley worldwide sales & marketing director. Juki Automation Systems introduced comprehensive online video library at html. Limata raised €759K start-up capital for its UV-LED PCB technology. LPKF received a major order for laser systems for depaneling assembled PCBs. Methode released a conductive inkjet printable ink that can be printed directly on treated polyesters. Microscan was named “2010 Best Company to Work” by Seattle Business magazine. Mitsubishi Electric resumed sales of flex PCB UV laser cutting machines. Nippon Mektron developed a 3D-formable flexible substrate. Nordson: • DAGE introduced ITS new 4000Plus multi-purpose bondtester. • EFD was named “Best Places to Work in Rhode Island 2010” by the Providence Business News. • YESTECH released its FX-UV automated conformal coat inspection system.

OK International upgraded its website Panasonic Electric began volume production of halogen-free packaging material “MEGTRON” in Taiwan. Park Electrochemical appointed Greg Westphal VP and GM of Park’s Neltec, Inc. business unit. Polar Instruments introduced enhanced hatched plane impedance modeling “XFE” for flex and rigid flex PCBs. Rogers Corporation received these awards: “Level A Credit Company for Labor Security” and “Jiangsu Provincial May 1, 2010 Honorary Labor Medal” from Chinese government. Rohwedder AG became insolvent. SEHO Systems introduced its PowerRepair soldering system. Shat-R-Shield introduced clear conformal coatings for LED and printed circuit boards. SinkPAD commercialized thermal management for aluminum LED PCB applications. Suss MicroTec relocated its substrate bonder division in Waterbury, Vermont, to Germany.

Technic launched an updated and expanded website Teledyne purchased Optimum Optical Systems and Intelek plc. Wacker Chemie acquired FESIL Group´s silicon-metal production site in Holla (near Trondheim). Yuntianhua obtained a 51% stake in Zhuhai Fuhua Composite. Zuken appointed Steve Chidester head of product marketing for Europe and America. Walt Custer is an independent consultant who monitors and offers a daily news service and market reports on the PCB and assembly automation and semiconductor industries. He can be contacted at or visit Jon Custer-Topai is vice president of Custer Consulting Group and responsible for the corporation’s market research and news analysis activities. Jon is a member of the IPC and active in the Technology Marketing Research Council. He can be contacted at

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 23

Benefits of non-restricted feeder locations

Benefits of non-restricted feeder locations Denny Yingling, Universal Instruments, Binghamton, New York

Companies that specialize in high-mix production are negatively affected by the frequent changeovers these environments require. Eliminating even one half of the time accrued by changeovers would result in drastic profit increases for manufacturers. This paper discusses the challenges presented by frequent changeovers and explores one solution: non-resricted feeder locations. Keywords: High Mix, Changeovers, Non-Restricted Feeder Locations, Cost Reduction

One critical production element that has long been debated is how to measure changeover times between production runs. Some will measure this by calculating the time it takes for the last board to exit the first machine until the first board exists the last machine. Others will use the last machine only as the primary indicator for both last board out and first board in, and of course there are numerous combinations of everything in between. The one constant that has remained between all of these methods is the negative affects that changeover has on the utilization and profit rates of manufacturers. Effects of changeover on high mix environments The companies most affected by changeovers are manufacturers who specialize in high mix production. High mix and high volume shops both have identical challenges in regards to needing their lines to remain running in order to make profits. However, high mix manufacturers are faced with additional barriers in that the nature of their business requires them to tackle changeovers much more frequently. It is common to find high mix OEMs and CEMs performing upwards of ten changeovers per line on a daily basis. This is ten times a day the manufacturer is losing money due to their equipment sitting idle. Current changeover tools There have been several tools developed to help combat high changeover times (i.e., offline changeover stations, removable feeder bank carts, and many others). Changovers per day

Average time per changeover

2 4

Although these items have provided some type of relief from inefficient line utilization, there still remain significant opportunities to improve. Other attempts have come from software solutions that allow for common setups and other methods of grouping production. While these provide some relief, they present their own set of issues. If a single part is revised in the common setup, then engineering time becomes affected as the common setups need to be recreated. In situations where the common setup consists of hundreds of products, the engineering effort becomes extensive and costly.

“Eliminating even one half of the time accrued by changeovers would result in drastic profit increases for manufacturers.” In most high mix environments, a high portion of the changeover time is attributed to simply changing from one variation of a product to another variation. This typically requires feeders to be rearranged from one location on the machine to another location and a few remaining feeders are simply added to the Weekly downtime

Yearly downtime

1/2 hr

7 hrs

364 hrs

1/2 hr

14 hrs

728 hrs


1/2 hr

21 hrs

1,092 hrs


1/2 hr

28 hrs

1,456 hrs

Table 1. Relationship between changeovers and downtime, assuming an average changeover time of one half hour and calculated using a 7-day production schedule.

24 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 25

Benefits of non-restricted feeder locations

machine, as optimization and balancing software has placed each individual program in the most optimal feeder location on each machine in the line. When the manufacturer is running small lot sizes, the changing and adding of feeder locations on each machine takes more time to complete than the actual time it takes to finish the order. Losing time and profits The negative effects of changeover on a company’s profitability can easily be displayed on a linear scale. Let’s assume that an average changeover time between products takes one half hour to complete for the entire line (including screen printer, first pass inspection, etc). Table 1 helps display the relationship that exists between changeovers and line downtime: From looking at the table, it is easy to calculate profits that are being lost. If

we assume an $80 US/hr burden rate on the line, two daily changeovers result in $29,120 US yearly loss. As the changeovers increase, the profit loss directly follows. For the manufacturers with eight daily changeovers, their yearly profit loss climbs to $116,480. These numbers become even more staggering as some manufacturers struggle going from one product to the next and post longer changeover times in the range of one to two hours. We can assume that one half of the changeover time displayed above is spent moving and arranging feeders and the other half is spent changing the screen printer and setting up ovens and AOI machines. While time spent changing screen printers, setting up ovens, etc., is more than likely a constant that will always remain, there are additional avenues to further expedite the feeder and component arrangement process on the platforms.

Eliminating even one half of the time accrued by changeovers would result in drastic profit increases for manufacturers. Non-restricted feeder locations One method being explored by many platform manufacturers is a form of nonrestricted feeder locations. This process will allow feeders to be placed (or remain) on the platforms, and the machine will pick parts based on their physical locations rather than each feeder’s programmed location. This method of operation all but eliminates the need to move feeders during changeover and offers a significant cost saving benefit and opportunity to increase profits. The non-restricted feeder location feature tends to be supported by two main styles of operation: cluster and alternating. The cluster method consists of loading feeders in desired production sequence

Figure 1. Cluster method. Each color represents a different product.

Set Up Product B

Run Product B

Run Product A

Tear Down Product A, and Set Up Product C

Figure 2. Alternating method. Each color represents a different product.

26 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Benefits of non-restricted feeder locations

on the feeder banks (front and rear of the machines) in individual product optimized order, but in available slots beginning from left to right. This method also supports putting the largest lot size product in the software-generated optimal positions and then building subsets of the products around it. This style is commonly used on lines where the same customer products are run with several different variations of the same products. Figure 1 displays the cluster method. The alternating side approach is only applicable on machine vendors who have feeder loading capabilities on two sides of the machines. This method uses one side of the machine as a “set up station” while the other side of the machine is producing. This means that while side A is running production, feeders are being prepared and loaded onto the opposite side of the machine. When side A completes production, the platform begins to run production on side B while side A is torn down and setup for product C begins. This style is commonly utilized in environments where completely different customer products are run on the line and little to no common part numbers existing between the two products. Figure 2 displays the alternating method.

“Even though nonrestricted feeder location does not meet every manufacturer’s needs, it has become increasingly popular in an effort to reduce downtime in high mix environments.” Arguments against non-restricted feeder locations While the non-restricted-feeder-locations feature offers significant cost saving measures, there are some concerns when using this method. The most commonly expressed concern among manufacturers is the worry of incorrect components being placed on the board. The concern is legitimate in that rework, bad reputation and recalls will greatly outweigh any cost

savings that has been achieved using the non-restrictedfeeder-location 3600CPH = 120 + (8mm) feeders features. Few of SQ foot print = L (42”) x W (42”) the equipment MaX Board Size: 558.8mm (22.0”) x 609.59mm (24.0”) manufacturers have countered this concern by 4000C = Traditional Dependability + New Technology offering a form of validation that can be used in conjunction with this feature. Most of these validations ® are achieved by a means of associating the component information to a particular feeder and then leveraging their intelligent feeders and interfaces to report on the information. A For more info visit: means in which Email: or Call: 603.895.5112 to identify the Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation components that are currently on feeders is the only location validation through intelligent true way to ensure the integrity of the feeders and interface, as building bad product remains when allowing feeders to product can cause any manufacturer to be placed in any location on the platforms. lose more than just profits. The other argument that is typically made involves the effects that nonrestricted setups have on the throughput of the line. While it is true that nonrestricted feeder locations are not ideal for every production environment, in most cases the reduction in changeover times significantly outweighs the slight reduction in throughput times. Taking into account that a few seconds decrease in cycle times per board is highly acceptable in a lot size of 40 when the time required to do changeover has decreased by 15 minutes.

Lesson 1 :


Conclusion Even though non-restricted feeder location does not meet every manufacturer’s needs, it has become increasingly popular in an effort to reduce downtime in high mix environments. This feature offers a substantial amount of cost savings and increased profitability when utilized in the manner that suits each environment. However, it is critical to select a supplier that can support non-restricted feeder

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 27


Interview—Chris Coccio, PhD, Sono-Tek Corporation Sono-Tek is well known for its ultrasonic coating systems for electronics and advanced energy applications. Compared to conventional pressure spraying methods, the company’s ultrasonic nozzles do not clog, and they reduce liquid usage, waste and environmental impact while achieving much more precise, uniform thin film coatings. Sono-Tek is continually developing new applications for its unique technology, replacing wasteful practices in a world that is growing ever more environmentally sensitive. We recently spoke with Sono-Tek’s chairman and CEO, Chris Coccio.

Chris, what industries do you primarily serve with ultrasonic spray nozzles?

uniformity and reduced emissions. What other benefits do the systems provide?

First and foremost is the electronics industry. This is where our company made its mark by introducing the ultrasonic spray fluxer to PCB manufacturers in the early 1990s, and we have been the leading spray fluxer manufacturer ever since. More recently, we have added new products to serve the growing advanced energy market, with our ExactaCoat and FlexiCoaters providing a superior way to apply expensive thin films to fuel cells and solar cells with minimal waste and great precision. SonoTek also has applied its coating systems to other industries, including manufacturers of implantable medical devices and major industrial customers in the glass, textile and food industries.

It all starts with the ultrasonic approach to atomizing a liquid to create a coating, which results in a low energy spray that provides great uniformity and does not wastefully bounce back into the environment. We can then separately shape and control the geometry and impact of the liquid particles to achieve a variety of coating objectives. The ultrasonic nozzle itself has a large bore with no restriction, so clogging is a thing of the past—and maintenance is greatly reduced, even with sticky rosin fluxes.

Sono-Tek’s ultrasonic spraying systems provide a dramatic reduction in overspray, savings in raw materials, improved process and transfer efficiency, greater

The non-clogging nature of Sono-Tek’s ultrasonic nozzles is said to provide significant advantages over other fluxing methods in precision selective fluxing of SMT circuit boards and components as well as fluxing through-hole and SMT circuit boards with standalone and inline systems. Can you tell us about some of

28 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

the advantages? The principal advantage is in reduced maintenance and downtime, resulting from the non-clogging nature of the nozzle itself. Another advantage includes greater precision of the flux coating, which inturn, results in higher product reliability and lower reject rates. The ability to handle rosin fluxes has become increasingly important as manufacturers shift to lead-free solder with benefits from the use of rosin fluxes. Sono-Tek is continually expanding its technology offerings in advanced energy applications, with large and small scale solutions installed at some of the largest solar cell and fuel cell manufacturers in the world. Please describe some of these solutions? We have developed a series of robotic machines that contain XYZ axes, allowing our nozzle systems to move over the conveyed or stationary work piece in any


programmed manner required. These machines come in a bench-top configuration suitable for development work on fuel cells and solar cells known as the ExactaCoat, as well as in a freestanding configuration with a conveyor capability suitable for production work, known as the FlexiCoat. There are different versions of both of these primary machines, some for solar cells and others for fuel cells, with different capabilities and options such as low oxygen, inert atmosphere, very high-temperature substrate capability, etc. With a proven reputation as a world leader in stent coating technology, Sono-Tek has some of the most advanced precision medical device coating systems on the market. What are some common medical applications of your ultrasonic technology? This is a very exciting field, and our business of providing precision coaters for implantable medical devices is growing on a global basis. We began with cardiac stent coaters nearly 10 years ago, and have since branched out to provide specialized equipment for coating peripheral vascular stents, balloon and catheter coaters, bone replacement implant coaters, hernia mesh coaters, and more. This will continue to be a growth segment for us as more coated implantables are developed to meet emerging medical needs. Sono-Tek’s ultrasonic nozzles have proven successful in numerous nanotechnology applications such as spray drying. What are some of the benefits of using the nozzles for such applications? Nanotechnology applications benefit from small and uniform droplets, which lead to the uniform particles or coatings that are required in this field. Traditional spray dryers with pressure nozzles produce too wide of a distribution of particles compared to an ultrasonic spray dryer, so there is a significant process yield benefit with our nozzle systems. Our equipment also is used often to apply nano-layer coatings. The liquids used for these coatings typically contain a suspension of millions of nano-particles. These tiny nanoparticles have a natural tendency to agglomerate together, creating a larger clump of particles and thereby reducing the benefit of them being nano in size. The high-frequency vibration of our ultrasonic nozzles will separate the clumps of particles back into individual nanoparticles, allowing them to provide their intended benefit of being nano in size. One

example is for a self-cleaning glass coating application, where the ultrasonic spray allows the nano-materials to de-agglomerate and become more readily assembled on the surface of the glass to produce the desired properties—something that is not possible with pressure nozzles.


The SonoFlux EZ ultrasonic spray fluxing system is an economical system designed on a reciprocating platform. How does this system maximize topside fill? The first step is the reciprocation itself, which positions the nozzle under the holes in the circuit board as they pass over the moving nozzle. The second step is the Impact Nozzle itself, which combines precise non-clogging ultrasonic atomization with the ability to direct the liquid flux droplets at high velocity, literally driving the flux up through the through-holes on the PCB, providing the best topside fill in the market—but avoiding wasteful overspray and environmental contamination. The SonoFlux EZ is easily integrated into all major wave solder machines and is compatible with all PCB fluxes, including fluxes that contain rosin. How is this accomplished? The SonoFlux EZ is available in either a standalone version for placement in front of a wave solder machine or a retrofit version for incorporation inside of a wave solder machine. The ability of the ultrasonic nozzles to handle rosin fluxes without clogging and minimal maintenance is what sets this equipment apart from other approaches. What innovations can we expect to see from Sono-Tek Corporation in the near future? We expect to continue to selectively identify applications and industries that would benefit from our technology, and to create solution platforms to meet existing needs. A good example is our new Hypersonic platform, which is just now being applied in a joint venture with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York State for high-production fuel cell coating applications. The Hypersonic is a very fast and wide reciprocating platform, and the joint venture program is designed to show its suitability for fast moving fuel cell production lines. Thank you, Chris.

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 29

Title New Products

New products Solder paste recycling unit reduces waste to less than 10% of current volume Seika Machinery, Inc., announces that with the implementation of its patent pending Solder Paste Recycling (SPR) unit, Seika is able to reduce the amount of waste material to less than 10 percent of current volumes by recycling solder paste. Solder paste used with screen printers has a limited shelf life. When solder paste is exposed to the environment, solvents evaporate and cause it to dry. This leads to misprints, which requires disposal since it is no longer useable. However, instead of disposing of it, solder paste now can be recycled in-house. In approximately 34-45 minutes, the unit turns wasted solder paste into solder bar. The easy-to-use system enables approximately 90 percent of waste solder paste to be recovered.

Aqueous Technologies premiers new automatic defluxing and cleanliness testing system Aqueous Technologies Corp. introduces the Trident OneShot automatic defluxing and cleanliness testing system. Trident OneShot is designed to provide automatic cleaning (de-fluxing), cleanliness testing, and drying of post-reflow circuit assemblies. While Trident OneShot’s price is very low, it features all of the power and process control of the company’s flagship model, Trident III, winner of 12 major industry awards. Trident OneShot is capable of removing all flux/paste residues (rosin, no-clean, water soluble) from any alloy and is designed to use a selection of pre-dosed defluxing chemistries. Simply add the contents of the pre-measured chemistry into Trident OneShot, close the door and press the button. No measuring, no mixing, no mess. The boards will be cleaned, cleanliness tested, and dried in less than 30 minutes (the fastest cycle time in its class). Next generation FX-UV automated conformal coat inspection system Nordson YESTECH, a subsidiary of Nordson Corporation introduced its next generation inspection solution, the FX-UV automated conformal coating inspection system. Conformal coatings used by electronic manufacturers contain U.V. indicators for the purpose of quality inspection. Since coatings are transparent, units must be viewed under black light in order to verify coverage and non-coverage. The Nordson YESTECH

FX-UV makes inspection of conformal coatings simple and convenient by automating the inspection process for quality, consistency and thickness of coatings under UV lighting, with the use of proprietary inspection algorithms. The FX-UV’s advanced inspection algorithms provide fast and completely automated inspection for coverage, selected areas of non-coverage, de-lamination, cracks and bubbles. With no programming required, the inspection set-up is fast and intuitive, typically requiring only a few minutes. High-tech printer features low operation costs Essemtec’s new in-line stencil printer, the Tucano, features exceptionally low energy consumption and cost of ownership. The Tucano offers higher printing speed, lower cycle time, additional traceability functionality, larger print area and higher precision than its predecessor, the SP900. The most significant mechanical modification is that ball screw drives were replaced by belt drives, which Essemtec also

30 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

builds into SMD pick and place machines. By this, the printer gained precision and productivity. Repeatability is now at 10 µm, printing speed measures 250 mm/s at its maximum and the cycle time is below 15 seconds. Tucano also features new traceability functions and even more autoset-up functions, allowing for a quicker first-time-set-up. High-speed LED placement on ultra long boards Blakell Europlacer announced a new capability for high speed LED placement on ultra long boards. The highly flexible, dual gantry IINEO II pick and place machine now provides unrivalled PCB dimensions and is capable of handling oversized PCBs up to 1610 x 600 mm with

The Adventures of James Bondless

a placement rate up to 27300 cph. PCBs up to 1610 x 460 mm can be handled without reducing the huge feeder capacity of 264 8-mm positions. By using only the front side of the machine for feeders, IINEO II still achieves 132 positions 8 mm and can increase the board size to 1610 x 600 mm. This is a market first, and with Blakell Europlacer’s concept of turret head, all heads can reach the complete board without de-rating.

Siemens, Mentor Graphics partner on new SIPLACE Operations Information Broker (OIB) Siemens Electronics Assembly Systems GmbH &Co. KG (SEAS) and Mentor Graphics Corporation announce the first phase of integration between Siemens’ SIPLACE product range and Mentor’s Valor® MSS™ suite of manufacturing operations products via the SIPLACE Operations Information Broker (OIB). The SIPLACE OIB interface technology provides advanced capabilities for information exchange between Valor MSS and the entire range of SIPLACE SMT placement machines. The key point is that factory and line-level management software from Valor and machine-level software and hardware functionality on the SIPLACE side of the OIB interface can evolve flexibly without the need to change the interface itself. This sustainable interoperability is the main value for end-users who can select systems from

Mentor Graphics and Siemens with the confidence that they will work together long-term, delivering value as a combined system with minimum downtime and production mistakes that arise from data communication problems.,

Assembléon feeder takes 4-mm tape to improve 01005 chip placement and reduce waste by 75% A 4-mm feeder for Royal Philips Electronics subsidiary Assembléon’s A-Series pick & place machines improves the reliability of 01005 component placement. Assembléon’s ITF3 feeder accepts the new W4P1 all-plastic tape standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission (under IEC 60286-3-2: Type VI). The tape eliminates the paper dust that can cause bad solder connections to the micro-miniature components. It is also static free, and gives a more stable pick & place operation for a better pick rate. Its smaller size also helps to cut waste by 75% compared with traditional 8-mm tapes on a 2-mm pitch. The company worked closely with Murata, which originally developed the W4P1 tape, to develop the feeders. Maximum process control for SEHO selective soldering systems SEHO Systems GmbH set a new milestone for the

Smart Sonic’s 440-R® SMT Detergent is guaranteed to safely clean any type of solder paste from any fine-pitch stencil and is the only stencil-cleaning chemistry verified for specific parameters of Environmental Safety, User Safety and Cleaning Efficiency by the U.S. EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program.

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New Products

control of automized selective soldering processes with its new flux control. Unlike existing control units, which shows whether the function of the nozzle is all right at the time of a test cycle run prior to the actual flux application, SEHO’s new flux control measures the actual flux quantity jetted by the drop jet nozzle during the process. The measured quantity is compared with a reference value learned earlier. If the system detects a deviation, an error message is initiated. In addition, the software clearly indicates, which part of the printed circuit board has not been fluxed correctly. Thus, the real time and real quantity drop jet fluxer control ensures highest process reliability and constant process conditions without any influence on the cycle time. Electrolube adds new reflow oven cleaner to its range Electrolube, added a new product to its cleaning range. Reflow Oven Cleaner is a specially formulated micro-emulsion for cleaning reflow ovens and wave solder machines. Reflow Oven Cleaner (ROC) is a non-flammable, low toxicity and odour solvent designed to remove all types of flux residues and with regular use the cleaner can prevent the build-up of condensed flux residues in reflow ovens and wave solder machines, reducing downtime and improving the cleaning process. ROC can be used at temperatures of between 20-50 °C, with an optimum working temperature

makes any contour a possibility. Changes to the cutting paths are made through programming the software included with the machine, or right in the CAD software.

of 40°C. The performance of the cleaner is increased by spraying into a warm oven and leaving for just a few minutes before wiping off the residue with ease.

LPKF introduces new laser for depaneling LPKF’s MicroLine 1000 S presents a compact and cost-effective method for UV-laser depaneling of thin-rigid and rigid-flex assembled PCBs. The system combines a low entry level price with the highest cutting quality and superior process capabilities. At the same time, it is especially flexible and therefore suited for high manufacturing variance. With UV-laser cutting of assembled and/or unassembled PCBs those offering limited space will benefit. The UV laser beam can cut right along delicate components or circuit paths without mechanical or thermal interference. The tool-less method

Frontline announces the release of InCAM™ 2.0 — its new CAM solution for HDI and IC packaging production Frontline PCB Solutions, an OrbotechMentor Graphics company, released version 2.0 of InCAM™, its new CAM solution for high density interconnect (HDI) and integrated circuit (IC) packaging production. InCAM 2.0 introduces brand new functionality and significant improvements that increase data integrity and reduce job cycle time. The new, third-generation Advanced Etch Compensation algorithm works up to five times faster than before and has a revised, easy-to-use user interface. In addition to preserving the original data, etch compensation is added and attributed and smooth transitions are executed. Other highlights of this version include Automatic Impedance Line Recognition, Automatic Backdrill Creation and Analysis, and Critical Via Checks.

32 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Paragon’s total kitting solution cuts cost of component acquisition Paragon Electronics Components’ Total Component Management™ (TCM®) service is proving popular with manufacturers looking to maximise their competitive advantage and capitalise on improving market conditions. As well as cutting the real cost of component acquisition by up to 20%, one of TCM’s major attractions lies in Paragon’s ability to provide a centralised hub for diverse kitting requirements. A total kitting solution that takes responsibility for manufacturers’ entire bill of materials, Paragon TCM has significantly evolved the concept of electronics supply chain management. Rather than a ‘one size fits all’ approach, Paragon TCM delivers a tailored, agile service solution to provide the company’s customers with complete, accurate, assembly-ready kits driven by sales, rather than forecasts.

APS Novastar’s LS60V-LED, a new solution for LED placements for short to medium run SMT assembly APS Novastar’s LS60V-LED automated SMT pick and place machine specifically addresses customers’ requirements for longer LED panel lengths, LED package nozzle dimensions and material selection and utilizes APS Novastar’s proprietary touchless centering system, providing placement rates of up to 4800 cph. The new LS60V-LED handles panels up to 800 mm in length and is available with an array of nozzles designed for the most common LED packages from CREE, Nichia, and Philips Lumileds and Luxeon. Custom manufactured nozzles are available to address a customer’s specific application needs. The APS Novastar LS60V-LED is capable of placing 0201s, SOICs, 15mil pitch QFPs and CSPs, BGAs, and microBGAs. In addition to the machine’s industry leading, easy-to-learn operating

New Products

system, the LS60V-LED incorporates the precision and repeatability required by today’s demanding LED package assembly and prototyping applications. Bliss Industries to launch new BlissLift with increased capacity Bliss Industries Inc. introduces the new BlissLift (BL600) with a more robust column, larger lift platform and increased load capacity. The new BL600 operates identically to the standard BlissLift and boasts the same easy-to-use controls that help prevent dents and scratches during product movement. The lift also features the same adjustable width legs and push bar. The standard model (BL400) lifts 400 lbs with a 12” load center. The new BL600 features a heavy-duty column, capable of lifting more than 600 lbs at a 24” load center. Additionally, Bliss plans to offer an optional pre-installed outlet strip for burnin and test applications. SUSS MicroTec tackles the LED market with dedicated lithography system SUSS MicroTec introduced the next generation of its MA100e mask aligner, a dedicated lithography solution for manufacturing high-brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs). Based on SUSS MicroTec’s production proven mask aligner design the automatic MA100e Gen2 processes wafers up to 4 inches and enables an industry leading throughput of 145 wafers per hour with reduced cycle times. CTS Electronics Manufacturing Solutions announces specialized coating capability In order to support customers in highly specialized markets, CTS has expanded its in-house conformal coating capabilities at its Moorpark, California, facility. Customers in the medical, defense, aerospace and automotive markets find that CTS’ in-house capability is very cost effective and reduces the manufacturing cycle time. The introduction of the Paratronix V494 Parylene coating machine will enable CTS to meet the high demands of these industries. The sophisticated process will provide transparent, ultra-thin, ultra-uniform coatings that are critical to

protect electronic components in applications of high reliability sectors or those subject to harsh environment conditions. Ecliptek enhances automated solution to address competitors’ shortages and long lead times As the rest of the frequency control industry experiences extended lead times and capacity shortages, Ecliptek has augmented its successful Competitor Cross Reference processor to recognize and highlight critical parametric differences between competitor items and Ecliptek’s closest match. Ecliptek’s system evaluates competitors’ items for cross compatibility first. If there is a difference in a critical parameter that precludes a cross from being established, the system now records those differences and displays them in the search results. This enhancement strengthens customers’ ability to quickly evaluate the importance of any variations to their specific application.

PCB pad plating formulations against five different probe tip styles. Optical photographs were taken of the PCB pads before and after the cycling, and scanning electron microscope images and energy dispersive X-ray analyses were performed on the pads after each test, looking for plating integrity of the pads and copper foil penetration. Based on a severity ranking system, the Mercury® radiusflat probes consistently scored the lowest damage rating to each PCB pad.

Increase ATE load board life: Multitest’s Mercury® contactors minimize pad wear ATE load boards are critical test cell components and test contactors must not damage the load board pads. Multitest’s flat-technology Mercury® contactors virtually eliminate PCB pad damage. In a controlled study of spring probe geometries performed on a variety of ATE load board contact pads, the Mercury® ‘J’ tip (radius-flat) PCB-side geometry displaced the least amount of surface gold plating on pads 0.5 mm pitch and larger. The evaluation tested the most common

Absolute Turnkey introduces the Absolute Test Advantage (ATA) for OEM customers Absolute Turnkey, a leading manufacturer of the complete end-to-end EMS solution, announces the Absolute Test Advantage (ATA) program for OEMs and the EMS marketplace. The ATA program was developed to provide customers with the ultimate in test capabilities, such as boundary scan test services, flying probe testing, in-circuit test (ICT) integrated boundary scanning with flying probe testing or ICT test services, and much more. Additionally, the ATA program

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 33

New Products

provides customers with flexibility and gets their products to market quickly. The ATA helps customers to rapidly introduce innovative technology with the highest quality standards. The complete solution also provides speed in getting OEM customers’ products to market quickly. The end-to-end solution is ideal for engineering services, prototypes, pilots, and production.

New boundary scan integration solution into Agilent in-circuit tester GOEPEL electronic GmbH and Agilent Technologies Inc. released the UCM3070 boundary scan plug-on module for the Agilent Utility Card of the Agilent Medalist i3070 Series 5 in-circuit tester. It is the first boundary scan solution for the Agilent Utility Card worldwide and a part of a marketing agreement between the two high-tech companies. This new integration allows the customer easily to combine the in-circuit-test from Agilent Technologies with boundary scan test from GOEPEL electronic in one machine. The UCM3070 Boundary Scan plug-on module is available from GOEPEL electronic and its worldwide network of resellers, or directly from Agilent Technologies., Heated dispense valve with temperature control The Tridak Model 775H heated valve allows heavy, stringy, temperature-sensitive or reactive materials to be dispensed with ease. The dispensing valve, which is a pneumatically operated spool valve, is supplied with a temperature controller and thermocoupler. This allows accurate heating of the material being dispensed from ambient up to 350°F. The 775H valve can accurately dispense volumes as little as 0.01 mL and can also provide continuous, adjustable flow. Leadless, low-profile, hermetic, SMT packages with improved electrical performance StratEdge introduced a new family of fully hermetic, low-profile, leadless surface mount (SMT) packages with

improved electrical performance. The SM family of packages fits aerospace, avionics, automotive, and telecom industry applications and is especially suited for LEDs, MEMS, and optical devices. These new packages incorporate a metal plug in the base that allows a direct ground path for enhanced electrical performance. Anticipated performance is DC to 30+ GHz. The first package offered has a 5x5 mm outer dimension and 28 I/Os. There are plans for other configurations including packages with 4x4 mm, 6x6 mm, and 8x8 mm outer dimensions. All SM packages meet stringent MIL-STD requirements for hermeticity. Practical Components designs custom PC practice kits and boards Practical Components can now design custom practice PC boards or complete kits. The Practical team will help create customer boards and start saving time and money by using dummy parts and custom PCB Practice Kits. Customers simply choose board material, size and thickness, fiducials, stencils, surface pad finishes, and components required. These are just some of the choices available. All Practical Components’ products are designed to help engineers qualify their technology and save money while improving the production process.

Tyco Electronics unveils solderless LED socket solution Tyco Electronics launched the Solderless LED Socket, Type CM, for easy integration of the new Cree XLamp® MP-L™ multichip LED into light fixtures. The socket, designed shortly after the release of Cree’s breakthrough 1500 lumen output LED, offers customers a simple termination solution for the LED while allowing ample optical clearance for the provided 120 degree beam angle. An additional benefit of the socket is the snapon connect feature for the LEDIL Tyra

34 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

series of reflectors, which offers directional optics in 18, 30 and 50 degree beam angles. Ellsworth Adhesives is adding PRC Rapid Seal product line offering Ellsworth Adhesives added the PPG Aerospace PRC Rapid Seal® sealants product line. The PRC Rapid Seal® line offers high-performance, flexible, chemical resistant sealants that are designed for a variety of industrial applications. PRC brand sealants are available in a gun grade, self-leveling, and spray-applied consistencies. The comprehensive line of PPG Aerospace products including the PRC Rapid Seal® 650, PRC Rapid Seal® 652, PRC Rapid Seal® 655, PRC Rapid Seal® 670, and PRC Rapid Seal® 680 is available on the Ellsworth web site. Vapour permeability testing for electronics and enclosures One of the big reasons why electronics and products fail is water vapour seeping in, creating short circuits and corrosion. It not only works its way in past seals, it permeates through the very material of a protective electronic enclosure and insulation as well. Now Versaperm makes measuring permeability a lot easier, not just for enclosures and seals but for material samples, finished components and even coatings. The latest equipment can measure in the parts per million range (parts per billion for some gasses and materials). And, whereas conventional techniques can take several days, Versaperm’s advanced products and sensor options can take from as little as 30 minutes for some materials. Results are reliable, repeatable and accurate. Enhanced hatched plane impedance modeling XFE for flex and rigid flex PCBs Flex and rigid flex designers and fabricators have long asked for additional field solver capability to enable modeling of PCB transmission lines with meshed or crosshatched ground return planes. XFE (“Xhatch Flex Enhancement”) is an extension to the Polar Instruments’ Si8000m and Si9000e which enables the rapid modeling of lossless transmission lines with this type of ground return structure. This is a long awaited enhancement for the flex and flex-rigid community.

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 35

SMT Answers

Fundamentals of fatigue

Werner Engelmaier “Fatigue consists of two different damage mechanisms—plastic deformation driven low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and elastic strain driven high-cycle fatigue (HCF).”

Fundamentals of fatigue In one of my past columns, I put the importance of fatigue in perspective1, and I have talked about solder joint fatigue extensively2-4 as well as fatigue of the platedthrough vias in printed circuit boards5 less adequately. However, I have not discussed the basic precepts of fatigue in this column. Fatigue consists of two different damage mechanisms—low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and high-cycle fatigue (HCF). The LCF-damage mechanism is dominated by the cyclic plastic strains and the material property of importance is the ductility. In contrast, the HCF-damage mechanism is dominated by elastic cyclic strains and the material properties of importance are the tensile strength and the modulus€of elasticity. The interaction between the LCF- and HCF-damage mechanisms is shown in Figure 1 in a Manson-Coffin plot. The typical dividing line between domination by LCF and HCF is about 1,000 mean cycles-to-failure for most metals. The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of € any metal is characterized by the CoffinManson relationship shown in Equation 1. The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is characterized by the Basquin relationship shown in Equation 2. These two relationships can be combined to describe the fatigue behavior as shown in Equation 3. The practical utilization of Equation 3 is difficult, since both σ'f and b have to be € determined using long-term experiments. This is illustrated in the Manson-Coffin plot shown in Figure 1, with the slopes being b and c, respectively for the HCF and LCF fatigue mechanism, and the intercepts for each are given by σ'f/E and ε'f. Because there are relationships € between fatigue properties and tensile properties, Equation 3 can be written in terms of material properties more easily obtainable6. The relationship in Equation 4 is more typically written in the form of€ the Engelmaier Fatigue Model6,7 to describe the

fatigue behavior of metals. The relationships underlying Equation 5 were developed to be able to predict the fatigue life from tensile properties and brought about a unified ductilitydependent low-cycle fatigue and strengthdependent high-cycle fatigue8 approach.

Equation 5 has been used for some major study programs9,10 and the development of test methods11,12. How well this works is illustrated in Figure 2, which shows fatigue curves determined by the model in Equation 5 for two electrodeposited copper foils and

Equation 1.

c Δε p = ε,f N f where

Equation 2.

Δεp ε’f N f c

= plastic cyclic strain range, = fracture ductility/plastic strain at fracture of the metal, = mean fatigue life, cycles-to-failure, = fatigue ductility exponent, -0.5 to –0.7.

σ f, b Δε e = Nf E where Δεe σ’f E Nf b

= elastic cyclic strain range, = fatigue strength coefficient of the metal, = modulus of elasticity of the metal, = mean fatigue life, cycles-to-failure, = fatigue strength exponent, varies between -0.05 to -0.12 for most metals.

Equation 3.

, c σf b , Δε = Δε p + Δε e = ε f N f + Nf E

105 0.1785og Su  exp( Df )  −0.6 0.75 Nf + 0.9  Δε = N f Df  E  0.36 

Equation 4.

105 0.1785og S  exp( Df )  −0.6 0.75 Nf = Δε max (eff) + 0.9 u  Nf Df  E  0.36 

Equation 5.

= mean fatigue life, cycles-to-failure, where Nf Df = fracture ductility, plastic strain at fracture, of the metal, Su = tensile strength of the metal, E = modulus of elasticity of the metal, Δεmax(eff) = maximum effective applied cyclic strain range.

36 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Fundamentals of fatigue

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 37

Fundamentals of fatigue

Figure 1. Manson-Coffin plot showing the interaction of low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting in the fatigue behavior of the metal.

fatigue data points spanning the range from 17 to 280,000 cycles-to-failure. References: 1. Engelmaier, W., “Fatigue and Creep Wearout Failures in Electronics—A Historical Retrospective,” Global SMT & Packaging, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2009, pp. 38-40. 2. Engelmaier, W., “How to Estimate Solder Joint Reliability, Part 1,” Global SMT & Packaging, Vol. 7, No. 9, September 2007, pp. 60-64. 3. Engelmaier, W., “How to Estimate Solder Joint Reliability, Part 2,” Global SMT & Packaging, Vol. 7, No. 10, October 2007, pp. 64-66. 4. Engelmaier, W., “Wear-Out System Reliability with Multiple Components and Load Levels,” Global SMT & Packaging, Vol. 8, No. 7, July 2008, pp. 30-39.. 5. Engelmaier, W., “Printed Circuit Board Reliability Issues,” Global SMT & Packaging, Vol. 1, No. 3, October 2001, pp. 44-45; also in IPC Review, Vol. 46, No. 9, October 2005, pp.1415. 6. Engelmaier, W., “A Method for the Determination of Ductility for Thin Metallic Materials,” Formability of Metallic Materials 2000 A.D., ASTM STP 753, J. R. Newby and B. A. Niemeier, eds., ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1982, pp. 279-295. 7. Engelmaier, W., “A New Ductility and Flexural Fatigue Test Method for Copper Foil and Flexible Printed Wiring,” IPC Technical Paper IPC-TP-204, The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Northbrook, IL, April 1978. 8. Manson, S. S., Thermal Stress and Low-Cycle Fatigue, McGraw-Hill, New

Figure 2. Manson-Coffin plot showing the interaction of low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) resulting in the fatigue behavior of the metal foils [Source: Reference 9].

York, 1966. 9. Engelmaier, W., “Results of IPC Copper Foil Ductility Round Robin Study,” IPC Technical Report IPC-TR-484, The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Northbrook, IL, April 1986. 10. Engelmaier, W., “Designing Flex Circuits for Improved Flex Life,” Proc. 12th Electrical/ Electronics Insulation Conf., Boston, MA, November 1975. 11. “Flexural Fatigue and Ductility, Foil,” Test Method, Test Methods Manual IPC-TM-650, The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Northbrook, IL, August 1980. 12. “Standard Test Method for Ductility Testing of Metallic Foil,” ASTM E 796, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1991.

of electronic packaging and interconnection technology. He is the chairman of the IPC Main Committee on Product Reliability. The TGM-Exner Medal was bestowed on him in 2009 in Vienna, Austria, he was elected into the IPC Hall of Fame 2003, and was awarded the IPC President’s Award in 1996 and the IEPS Electronic Packaging Achievement Award in 1987. He also was named a Bell Telephone Laboratories Distinguished Member of Technical Staff in 1986 and an IMAPS Fellow in 1996. More information is available at, and he can be reached at

Werner Engelmaier will be giving some of his reliability workshops at Conferences in Tallinn, Estonia, September 21-23, 2010 and GEM Expo Brazil 2010 in Sao Paolo, Brazil, October 5-7, 2010. He will be available for in-house workshops and consulting in both English and German in Europe in the June timeframe; for details of the workshops go to www.engelmaier. com; for more information about the workshops and consulting contact Werner Engelmaier has over 44 years experience in electronic packaging and interconnection technology and has published over 200 papers, columns, book chapters and White Papers. Known as ‘Mr. Reliability’ in the industry, he is the president of Engelmaier Associates, L.C., a firm providing consulting services on reliability, manufacturing and processing aspects

38 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 39

The printed circuit—the unsung bellwether of electronics manufacturing evolution Association & institutes news

Association & institutes news IPC releases position statement on the trade of conflict metals The Solder Products Value Council (SPVC) of IPC — Association Connecting Electronics Industries® issued the organization’s position statement on conflict metals during a Supply Chain Workshop held in May by the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) and the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) in Vancouver, British Columbia. The IPC SPVC position statement reads, “The IPC Solder Products Value Council supports governments, nongovernmental organizations and industry groups in their efforts to eliminate trade of ‘conflict metals,’ especially mined tin from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. “The IPC SPVC believes that based on solder manufacturers’ position in the value chain, smelters and mines are in the best position to develop and implement a system to ensure mineral traceability from the exporter back to the mine site and to develop chain of custody data. Furthermore, the IPC SPVC supports ITRI’s (formerly known as the International Tin Research Institute) efforts to achieve that goal.” The purpose of the workshop held by EICC and GeSI was the development and implementation of a credible system that could validate that minerals are sourced responsibly. For more information on the activities of the IPC SPVC, contact Tony Hilvers, IPC VP of industry programs, at IPC releases study of quality benchmarks for EMS industry In response to member requests for benchmarking data, IPC—Association Connecting Electronics Industries® released the IPC Study of Quality Benchmarks for the Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) Industry for 2009. This report is designed to provide information to EMS companies interested in comparing their key 2009 operating variables to those of other EMS providers by net sales and type of product. The survey-based study covers financial

and production data, assembly attributes, yields, defect rates (DPMO), customer returns, supplier performance, customer satisfaction and certification data. The survey sample includes twenty-four EMS companies, primarily small and mediumsized, with 2009 net sales ranging from under $1 million to more than $100 million. Participants provided point-of-reference data for sales growth, expenses on research and development (R&D) and capital equipment as a percentage of net sales, average collection and payable periods, and the number of printed circuit boards (PCBs) completed in 2009. Respondents also reported internal yields for key processes, including surface mounting, wave soldering and selective soldering. All of the respondents included relevant customer satisfaction metrics regarding returns and on-time customer deliveries. IPC Study of Quality Benchmarks for the Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) Industry for 2009 is available for sale to IPC members for $475 and to nonmembers for $950. The report is free to companies that participated in the survey. For more information or to purchase the report, visit or contact Sree Bhagwat, IPC market research manager, at or +1 330-677-5563.

SMTA announces 7th International Wafer-Level Packaging Conference (IWLPC) Program The SMTA and Chip Scale Review magazine are pleased to announce the presentation line-up for the 7th Annual International Wafer-Level Packaging Conference being held October 11-14, 2010 at the Santa Clara Marriott Hotel in Santa Clara, California. Registration is now available on-line with Early Bird conference pricing in effect until September 10, 2010. Attendees will benefit by gaining the latest knowledge with six applicationoriented tutorials, expert panel discussions, a presentation from distinguished keynote speaker Dr. Bradley McCredie from IBM, and 15 tech sessions.The conference will include three tracks with papers covering:

40 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

• • •

Wafer Level Packaging MEMS Packaging 3-D Integration

Exhibit space is limited but there are still tabletop spaces available. Please contact Leslee Johns,, at SMTA with questions or for more information about the exhibition. This premier industry event explores leading-edge design, material, and process technologies focused on waferlevel packaging applications. There will be special emphasis on the numerous device and end product applications (RF/wireless, sensors, mixed technology, optoelectronics) that demand wafer level packaging solutions for integration, cost, and performance requirements. Visit for more information. Contact Melissa Serres at 952-920-7682 or with questions. SMTA Announces Fall Certification Dates and Locations Each SMTA SMT Processes and Six Sigma/Green Belt Certification program is a three-day offering consisting of a 1.5day refresher workshop on topics in SMT Processes. The program concludes on days two and three with an open and closed book examination. Fall Certification Dates and Locations: • October 12-14 (Processes) - San Jose, CA—In conjunction with the International Wafer-Level Packaging Conference • October 26-28 (Processes & Six Sigma/Green Belt) - Orlando, FL— In conjunction with the SMTA International Conference and Electronics Exposition

SMTA Certification is intended for manufacturing and process engineers. Additionally, production, design, test and quality engineering personnel, as well as SMT assembly managers who want to confirm their current competence at a fundamental level of overall process technology should also consider participating. For information on certification or to register, contact Melissa Serres at 952-9207682 or or visit www.

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Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 41

SMT Answers

SMT Answers SMT Answers, found online at, offers a place for members of the electronics manufacturing community to ask and answer questions—it’s a community-based ‘help board.’ Registration is not required for participation. Here are some recent questions and answers. Jump online any time to ask your own questions or help others out. Solder iron tip Go/No Go indicators We have been asked to write a specification for our supplier, to guide/instruct their line supervision on how to control the use of solder iron tips. Basically, something along the lines of a (daily/weekly) checklist of visual indicators for them that is as objective as possible. Obvious points would be whether the tip will wet, and is there excessive corrosion (what is unacceptable corrosion?)? With smaller tips, any deformation would be a No Go, and also possibly trigger an investigation into how the damage was caused. An alternative that was suggested was to establish a fixed term for tips, after which time they are replaced regardless of condition, but short of adding hour-meters to the solder stations we do not see this as at all practical, and even then there would be too many variables to consider. The type of work is a mixture of Pbfree and SnPb soldering on anything from surface mount repairs to wires, terminal blocks, and other large through-hole devices. Any thoughts on this? Does anyone actually already do this?

A: Soldering tip life is one of the questions that are frequently asked when selecting a soldering station. Tip life is influenced by the alloy being soldered, thermal mass, tip design and tip recovery. Some might take issue with these points, but having the ability to solder at the lowest possible temperature for the shortest period of time and forming the proper intermetallic bond is the goal. Soldering irons that do not have the ability to recover lose their heat and can provide cold solder joints. Operators’ will often

from ERSA. Go to for additional information. Reflow specifications for hallogen free PCB with hallogen free paste We are using hallogen free solder paste with air reflow. We are using reflow specs as mentioned below: • Peak Temp: 245 ±5˚C • Over 230˚C : 50–60 sec • 150–200˚C: 90–110 sec Are these specs are OK or need some changes. Is there any problem using hallogen free solder paste with air reflow?

This question has no answers yet. Have one? Post it at compensate for the inefficiencies of the soldering iron to recover by increasing the tip temperature which causes the tip to degrade at the elevated temperature. If the iron does not have an automatic temperature set back feature the tip will oxidize at the elevated temperature while the iron sits idle thus decreasing the tip life. Soldering stations that have the ability to have a rapid recovery without over shoot and can maintain a stable temperature when needed will increase tip life especially if they have idle set back features. Irons with the rapid recovery and set back temperatures typically can make a solder connection at a temperature 75 to 100 degrees lower in temperature than conventional soldering irons which also will extend tip life. If you were assessing the time a soldering iron is actually soldering you might find the idle period is significant and leads to the tip oxidation and deterioration. Plating thickness is also a contributor to tip life but most soldering irons are limited to the power and size except for the more efficient systems

Could thievage affect oven profiles? We have started using a second supplier for our multilayered PCBs and they leave a considerable ammount of copper thievage on both external and internal layers as it improves their yield. Does anyone think that this increase in the volume of copper in the board could affect our oven profiles?

This question has no answers yet. Have one? Post it at

These questions and answers are the opinion of the author(s). The Publisher does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or veracity of the information contained on this page.

42 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010 – 43


International Diary 7-10 September electronica India/productronica India Bangalore, India 15-17 September GlobalTRONICS Singapore 21-23 September European Electronics Assembly Reliability Summit Tallinn, Estonia

28-20 September Electronics West Rosemont, Illinois, USA

31 October-4 November IMAPS Symposium Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

5-7 October GEM Expo Brazil São Paulo, Brazil

9-12 November electronica Munich, Germany

24-28 October SMTA International Orlando, Florida, USA

30 November-2 December Printed Electronics USA Santa Clara, California, USA printedelectronicsusa10/pe.asp

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44 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

European Electronics Assembly

Reliability Summit Plenary Sessions

September 21-23, 2010 Tallink Spa & Conference Hotel, Tallinn, Estonia Register online:

Pb-Free Soldering Processes—Survival, Quality, Reliability: Problems & Solutions Werner Engelmaier, Engelmaier Associates LLC Reliability – The Bedrock of a Sustainable Electronics Industry Joe Fjelstad, Verdant Technologies

Process Track

Jet Printing Malin Siberg, MYDATA Automation AB

Reliability Issues for New Technologies Marc Chason, Marc Chason & Associates Inc

How Clean Is Clean? Sheila Hamilton, Teknek Ltd

SMT Printing Solutions for Heterogeneous Assembly Clive Ashmore, DEK Printing Machines Ltd

Speed, Repeatability, Quality, and Traceability; does this work together well? EKRA

Comparing available detector types for X-Ray inspection David Bernard, Nordson DAGE Resource-efficient conformal coating in electronic assemblies Alexandra Rost, Zestron GmbH

The effect of mixing BGA and solder paste alloys on the formation of voids Alan Plant, Cookson Electronics Reliable wave and selective soldering means observing materials’ solder heat resistance Juergen Friedrich, ERSA

Test Track

FlyScan and flying probe platform Sergio Vigno, Seica SpA Reliability Evaluation of Printed Wire Boards Using Interconnected Stress Test (IST) Paul Reid, PWB Interconnect Solutions

Assembly Track

How to ensure reliability within the product life cycle – focus on production processes Dr. Viktor Tiederle, RELNETyX AG Compared statistic capabilities of dispensing solder paste with various dispensing methods Philippe Mysson, EFD INTERNATIONAL INC.

Materials Track

UV-ACA-Adesives – electrically conductive Hightech-Adesives Achim Battermann, Panacol-Elosol

Choosing the Optimum Assembly Process Peter Grundy, PG Engineering Ltd/Kirsten Soldering AG Competitive Benefits of Build-to-Order in SMT Production Sebastian Weckel, Siemens Electronic Assembly Systems GmbH & Co KG SMT Yield Enhancement—Don’t sweat the big stuff— small stuff matters…. Alec Moffat, MVP-DPC Using a closed-loop, vision-controlled routing system to optimize quality and product cost. ASYS

Reliable encapsulants for microelectronics Harald Neumeier, DELO Industrial Adhesives Solder Paste Attributes for Maximizing the Print & Reflow Process Windows Karthik Vijayamadhaven, Indium Corporation Influence of micro alloying additions on metallurgical properties of lead free alloys Gerjan Diepstraten, Cobar Europe BV – Balver Zinn Evaluation and test strategies for conformal coatings and solder pastes and processes Dr. Manfred Suppa, Lackwerke Peters GmbH + Co KG

Product reliability depends on good materials all along the supply chain, well maintained equipment and able personnel. Collect practical know-how at this event where experts present their experience from case studies as well as new developments.

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smart manufacturing

just got smarter

Gerd Koschnick,

Manager of Process Technology

Natalia Telwa, SMT Process Manager

Smart companies use Valor.

Peiker, one of the leading suppliers of components in the sector of communication technologies in vehicles as well as for professional radio applications, recently implemented Valor’s vManage manufacturing execution software suite in their manufacturing facility in Germany. The implementation of the software in Germany was a success, so that Peiker decided to deploy vManage in their manufacturing facility in Juarez Mexico, as well. Gerd Koschnick, Manager of Process Technology for Peiker, said: “The traceability requirements in the automotive industry are stringent. We needed a solution which could satisfy all our traceability regulations without adding to the unit costs, and also provides instant visibility into the chain of data from component lot codes to individual PCBs to final product assembly.” Natalia Telwa, SMT Process Manager, added: “What we did not realize was the added value we would receive from Valor’s traceability solutions. Not only do we have immediately accessible and accurate component trace data, but the vManage system also delivers closed loop control of our SMT machine feeder setups, low level warnings to trigger supply of replacement reels and real-time monitoring of our SMT line performance. So we are cutting downtime and improving productivity which lowers our unit costs. Plus: we have the traceability we needed in the first place.” Mr. Koschnick summarizes: “Implementing vManage in Germany was a smart decision. Now we are going to grow the benefits by expanding the deployment to our facility in Mexico.

46 – Global SMT & Packaging – Celebrating 10 Years – August 2010

Global SMT & Packaging 10.8 - European edition  

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