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Design & Construction August - September 2015 // Issue: 21 // Price: R40,00 incl. ISSN 2305-9648


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enterprise

“I have seen the change in the lives of people who joined before me. I have seen the way Sappi has built them up.” – Project Grow timber grower When you plant a tree seedling, you don’t just grow a tree, you grow an enterprise… a community… and you grow people. Since 1983, almost 10,000 farmers have benefited from Project Grow and over 100 small and medium businesses have been established by community members, generating more than 1,100 jobs. To date, more than R800 million has been paid to the growers for the timber they have delivered to Sappi. Sappi’s Project Grow – helping people help themselves and making a lasting difference in the lives of people and communities in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. www.sappi.com


CONTRIBUTORS

CONTRIBUTORS STEPHANIE DYER Stephanie Dyer’s love for, and interest in wood, led to a career in wood science, working at the South African Forestry Research Institute and the CSIR, where she was involved in research on wood properties of indigenous and introduced species. She also provided a wood identification service at these institutes and, since relocating to Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal in 1998, she has continued with the service. Stephanie lectured part-time at Pretoria Technikon for the National diploma in Timber Technology and, more recently, on Forest Products and Processing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Stephanie holds an MSc in Plant Anatomy and is a Professional Natural Scientist.

BRUCE BREEDT Bruce is the Executive Director of SAWPA (The South African Wood Preservers Association), an industry body that promotes wood preservation and the use of preservative treated timber. He studied at the University of the Northwest Province, where he qualified as a civil technology teacher, an occupation he held for five years. Following a brief period in the private sector, he joined the SABS Timber Department in 1996, where he held positions as timber standards writer and project coordinator for fibre technology in the Standards Division until 2004 and then took positions as principal auditor and technical specialist in forestry and timber products in the Certification Division. During his time at the SABS Bruce also represented South Africa on various ISO Technical Committees. He is still involved on all the SABS Technical Committees related to timber products and currently holds the position of chairman for SABS TC 218 – Timber Preservation.

KOOS VISSER Koos Visser is the current President of the Limpopo Institute for Architecture (LIA) and, after serving the architectural profession for 37 years, says he still loves what he does and doesn’t believe in retirement. First entering the corporate world as a learner draughtsman, Koos later completed his degree in architecture at Tukkies (University of Pretoria), followed by appointments with different firms that afforded him valuable experience with specialized application in hospitals, military and air force installations. Having made Tzaneen his home in the 1980s, he went on to head up Ichtus Studio Architects, still thriving today. Koos fondly talks about the benefits of life in a small community. Holding a strong sense of social responsibility, he has served in various organizations over the years – ranging from a business chamber and church committee, to a university council and also the aesthetics committee for the Tzaneen municipality. Pro bono work has happily been done for schools, churches, community projects and mission facilities. In 2001, the Limpopo Institute for Architecture (LIA) awarded him a merit award for the “School of Mathematical Sciences” at the University of the North (now University of Limpopo). Koos places the highest value on his family. Proud to bring a more down-to-earth perspective in tackling the challenges facing the architectural industry today, his value system is apparent. He continues to collaborate with fellow architects, seeking solutions to bring about positive change in his beloved profession, but makes it clear that “the legacy to our kids is the ultimate benefit.”

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DISCLAIMER The views expressed herein are not necessarily those of Trademax Publications. Although we have done our best to ensure the accuracy of our content, neither Trademax Publications nor Timber iQ magazine will be held liable for any views expressed or information disseminated, in editorial content or advertisements, in this issue.


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CONTENTS

CONTENTS 16

26

32

37

6

AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015 //

2

CONTRIBUTORS

8

EDITOR'S NOTE

10

XIV WORLD FORESTRY CONGRESS

12

EVENTS

16

CASE STUDY - AMERICAN ASH

24

RESPONSIBLE DESIGN - ARCHITECT'S PERSPECTIVE

26

COVER STORY - OVERBERG JOINERY WORKS

32

MODIFIED WOOD - SHOWS ITS METTLE

37

TIMBER FRAME BUILDING - FROM BRICK TO TIMBER

42

FLOORING - WHEN CHOOSING YOUR FLOORING

46

LAMINATE FLOORING - LOVELY LAMINATES

48

ADVERTORIAL - SAFCOL

50

COMPANY PROFILE - GEERLINGS 50TH BIRTHDAY

55

BEAMSAW MACHINERY - CMC GROUP

58

PROJECT FEATURE - ELEPHANT HOUSE, ZOO ZÜRICH


CONTENTS

CONTENTS GBCSA RATING - RECOGNIZING REUSED TIMBER

62

URBAN WOOD - U.S.A. PERSPECTIVE

64

TIMBER PRESERVATION - DETERIORATION OF WOOD

68

TOOLS & MACHINERY - CORDLESS POWER

76

PROJECT FEATURE - NEST WE GROW

78

FOREST MANAGEMENT - SECRETS OF A FOREST

86

WORKING FOR WOOD - FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

90

TREE FARMING PROJECT - MONEY GROWS ON TREES

92

TIMBER PROFILE - THE JACARANDA JOULE

94

CITY TREE MANAGEMENT - CITY OF CAPE TOWN

100

REFORESTATION - REAPING THE REWARDS

102

FOREST MANAGEMENT - THE ROLE OF FORESTS

106

TREES FOR LIFE - WILDLANDS' REFORESTATION

108

TOOLS & EQUIPMENT - CIRCULAR SAW

114

64

78

92

94

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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EDITOR'S NOTE

Sowing seeds Some days I think our Timber iQ team functions rather like a forest. We love to plant idea seeds; we never stop trying to grow in both knowledge and service to our clients and the timber industry; we have our own 'eco-system thing' going on at ground level; we also face threats and difficulties -- and some days we feel completely under fire; we have our fair share of saplings around, but we are also fortunate enough to be able to turn to mature giants (our valued clients and contributors) to help keep things cohesive.

A

t the centre of everything lies the tree. In our case, it’s the tree of knowledge, which we seek to harvest – responsibly of course – and then share that information with our readers. Recently we experienced a bout of deforestation within our team. Our former editor has embarked on a different journey, while some of our team members suffered personal losses of loved ones. These events have saddened us. But, we have also enjoyed a process of afforestation. I would like to welcome and introduce our incoming editor, Tracy Swain, at the same time that we, quite aptly, dedicate a considerable number of pages in this edition to forestry. It’s amazing how wood works for us, as you will see from the tree planting programmes featured on pages 92, 102 and 108. Apart from having completely stolen my heart, the little boy pictured on page 108, for me personally, represents the unadulterated purity of intent behind these programmes. I’m inspired to work harder for wood, and as such, I’m pleased to say that forestry features will be a constant on Timber iQ’s pages going forward.

Although I cannot point specifically to every lovely project or great feature covered in this issue, one article that made me pause, especially when I read the stats quoted in the piece, is the story of how repurposed urban trees and timber have served as the impetus for a new breed of USA sawmiller, creating niche markets for trees harvested from urban forests. Read this first-hand account, courtesy of Wood-Mizer, on page 64. I simply must compliment Overberg Joinery Works on a remarkable build that made for this stunning cover and an enlightening read. Craftsmanship in action, indeed. Lastly, we already know that our friends at Makita are celebrating 100 years of innovation this year. What a wonderful milestone for this industry leader. But there’s another grand birthday to mention, that of Geerlings, reaching the 50-year mark. Hearty congratulations on this and all your achievements! With that said, enjoy the August-September edition of Timber iQ. And, hope to see you at the Cape Construction Expo. Celéste


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XIV WORLD FORESTRY CONGRESS

Forests and People: Investing in a Sustainable Future The first ever such Congress to be held on the African continent since its inception in 1926, the XIV World Forestry Congress will be held in Durban from 7 to 11 September 2015.

L

eading up to the event, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Mr Senzeni Zokwana said, “The growing threat of climate change has dramatically thrown the importance of our forests into critical relief,” adding that forests sustain our economies, serve as the lungs of the earth by providing humanity with oxygen while absorbing carbon dioxide, and providing livelihoods to millions of people around the globe. The FAO Sub-regional Coordinator for Southern Africa, Mr David Phiri, added that Africa epitomizes the most important global challenges and opportunities for forests and forestry, saying, “Forests play an essential role in the region. More than a quarter of Africa’s overall energy supply comes from forests, and they are crucial for preventing and reversing desertification. At the same time, however, forests have been seen as significant water consumers themselves.

FAO hopes that all of these issues, and especially the way that they interconnect, will be addressed at the Congress and that the discussions will equip the forest community with a deeper understanding to face the complexities of the world we live in.” Despite South Africa being lightly forested (covering about 7% of our land area), estimates are that more than 2 million rural people depend on the industry for their livelihoods. Various studies show that the creation of employment and business opportunities within the forestry sector is probably the most significant contribution that forestry could make towards providing household food security and improving rural people’s livelihoods.


XIV WORLD FORESTRY CONGRESS

KEY MESSAGES • Investment in forestry is an investment in people • Forests sustain life • Forests act as buffers against environmental change • Integrating forests with other ways of using land is vital for sustainable development • Forests can inspire innovative technologies and products • Improving information about forests leads to better decisions • Sharing knowledge is key to governing forests effectively The Congress outcome, Vision 2050, is set to strengthen the role of forests and forestry in sustainable development and pave the road to a new climate change agreement at the UNFCCC COP21 in Paris in December. Timber iQ is proud to promote sustainable forestry and play a role in this vision, by regularly focusing on different aspects of forestry in this and future editions.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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EVENTS

UPCOMING EVENTS CAPE CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE & TRADE EXPO 12 - 13 AUGUST 2015, CTICC, CAPETOWN View www.cape-construction.co.za for more info

XIV WORLD FORESTRY CONGRESS 7 - 11 SEPTEMBER 2015, DURBAN View www.webapps.daff.gov.za/wfc2015/English/HomePage.html for more info

KNYSNA TIMBER FESTIVAL 8 - 10 OCTOBER 2015, KNYSNA View www.timberfestival.co.za for more info

WOODEX FOR AFRICA 9 - 11 JUNE 2016, GALLAGHER CONVENTION CENTRE, MIDRAND, JOHANNESBURG View www.woodexforafrica.com for more info

GET IN TOUCH

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AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015 //

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CASE STUDY - AMERICAN ASH

American ash --capturing rich, emblematic elements of Polynesian culture 16

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CASE STUDY -AMERICAN ASH

The Sofitel The Palm Dubai is Sofitel Luxury Hotels' flagship Dubai property, boasting 361 island-chic inspired guest rooms and suites, as well as 182 fully serviced apartments. Photography by Eric Cuvillier

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estled within the tranquil groves of the iconic Palm Jumeirah, the resort is encapsulated by a private 500-metre stretch of pearlescent beach, enabling guests to indulge in breathtaking sea views overlooking the shores of the East Crescent.

Totalling more than 100,000m2, Sofitel The Palm Dubai's distinct French luxury offering is embraced by rich and iconic elements of Polynesian culture and civilization.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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CASE STUDY - AMERICAN ASH

In addition to the luxury accommodation, the hotel offers a multitude of food and beverage outlets, a nightclub spread over three levels, a 28-treatment room spa, 1,500m2 of meeting space that includes a ballroom and four conference rooms suitable for conferences, meetings, incentives, events and weddings - accommodating up to 700 people. With an abundance of stunning organic architecture and lush vertical gardens, the resort reflects a timeless spirit and tropical allure.

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY In meeting the client’s intention for the resort to be a place of rediscovery and enchantment, luxury has been taken back to basics, with the Sofitel The Palm Dubai modeled on a Polynesian village – fresh with green foliage, cabana-style fittings, and flowing water features that greet guests as soon as they step inside. The lush, green, vibrant environment is the brainchild of Mahnaz Liaghat, CEO, Mahnaz International Design & Planning and formerly the Design Director of Mirk, who has paid particular attention to the island theme.

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CASE STUDY -AMERICAN ASH

Corridors and smaller spaces were specially designed to evoke the fresh feeling of a green village, with plenty of American ash, bamboo, and earthy-toned surroundings. Taking a stroll through the hotel is in fact like walking through the woods, with dappled sunlight peeking through the treetops. “Our challenge was how to make a six-story building feel like a Polynesian resort…In keeping with the ‘less is more’ ethos, we designed the resort incorporating natural (firstgeneration) materials such as stone, wood, water and nature, and combined this with subliminal design cues. In other words, the fourth dimension that influences our subconscious mind to make a space feel great and complete,” said Mahnaz.

POLYNESIAN THEMES

The lobby itself is set below a traditional, natural wood cabana, complete with tranquil water elements that complement guest relaxation areas. A special feature of the ground floor is a ‘living wall’ vertical garden planted by renowned botanist Patrick Blanc. The Koru, a traditional fern symbolizing the embodiment of new life, accentuates the special vertical garden.

Wherever guests wander, they are accompanied by traditional Polynesian motifs. Intricate details of the Koru, Gecko, Tiki, Turtle, Butterfly, and Tiare flower can be spotted on doors, walls, and floors; all of which symbolize peace, freedom, energy, connection, life, and new beginnings. A tiki comes in many forms, offering protection from evil spirits and its traits can take the form of what one wants the tiki to express. It is thus only fitting that the main entrance to the hotel features the tiki symbol on the massive wooden doors. According to Mahnaz, the wooden ceiling of the entranceway is similar to what is found inside the lobby, offering guests an invitation to explore.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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CASE STUDY - AMERICAN ASH

A space can be a simple transition, a passage to a paradise just beyond. As such, the lobby of the Sofitel The Palm Dubai carries the guest through to the resort outside, where personal rediscovery awaits. The ceiling is designed as a cabana and features the extensive use of American ash to reinforce the experience. In addition, simple and pure water features and vertical walls of floral plants surround the two sides of the lobby, immersing one in a lush green and vibrant environment found in traditional Polynesian villages. To emphasize the experience, lights bounce off the dynamic wood on the ceiling and combine with the green wall to give a truly spiritual meaning to this memorable space. Further, natural materials like water, stone, and wood, and the contrast of captured dark and light shadows and shades symbolize a journey through villages and passages to new experiences. “The reed ceiling and a path draw you towards a ‘Wall of History’ that has been designed to recall aspects of a traditional Polynesian village and their infusion within a modern setting. The wall visually explains the meaning behind the symbols used within the design, and as you walk through the rest of the resort, you begin to feel the connection to the tradition and culture. In addition, vertical plantings and the sharp contrast of light and dark escaping from the edges through the retail corridor create a soft and pleasant connection. The awning-like ceiling is designed to resemble a walk through alleys between villages,” Mahnaz added.

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CASE STUDY - AMERICAN ASH

Other noteworthy elements in the hotel include the checkout counter with its sculpted American ash wood trunks - a departure ticket to remember, according to Mahnaz. The lift lobby, which acts as a transition between the different Polynesian islands, combines wood and reeds and indirect light to bring memories back as if one were walking through nature. Throughout the corridors, the subtle mixture of light and shadows and shades bouncing off wood and stone symbolizes the journey through villages and passages to new experiences. In addition, the impressive ballroom celebrates life and its richness through the use of American ash in its ceiling, which has been designed to represent the bottom of a canoe. The canoe, which is integral to Polynesian culture, represents the progress along life’s journey and is a symbol of changing life, travel, and adventure.

NATURAL LIVING Subtle design, natural raw materials and attention to detail combine perfectly in each room and residence at the Sofitel The Palm Dubai to provide a relaxed environment that focuses on the beauty and simplicity of nature. For this reason, furniture and fixtures have been carved out of natural dark woods, predominantly stained American ash, raw stone and pale onyx.

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Indirect lighting in all living spaces evokes standing under trees in a forest, with the sunlight dappling through hundreds of leaves, making guests feel as though they’re really in a Polynesian village. Inside, exotic-looking stained American ash, vibrant, rich colours, and understated luxury features in every room. All in all, blooming colourful florals, the extensive use of ash and indirect light bouncing off stone and wood combine to create a peaceful and serene moment in every room.

THE DECISION TO USE AMERICAN ASH Mahnaz explained: “Originally we specified reconstituted African walnut in an attempt to stay within the original budget. However, the client was keen on an exotic wood, which at the time did not match well with the design aesthetics of the project. As a result, we selected American walnut and created the initial mock-up rooms. However, the quantity of walnut required for this project meant that it would have taken over five years to source. American ash, with its open grain finish and coarse uniform texture, was the next best alternative that was readily available, in line with the budget, and could satisfy the design requirements of the project. Looking at the resort today, I am proud that it stands as a unique product that is a testimony of the complete design.”


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RESPONSIBLE DESIGN

Design with our environment in mind The other day I stumbled across some old 3rd-year "Bouteg" (Building Technology) notes of mine that I had made under the tutorship of Hans Wegelin and Alan Konya. It reminded me again that, what we as architects need to give special attention to now, is to design as we've been taught: With our environment in mind. Article by Koos Visser, B.Arch. SAIA, (Architect. Pta), president of the Limpopo Institute for Architecture (LIA).

A

s architects, we have a duty to be more energy conscious and to be more sensitive about, inter alia, supporting a sustainable habitat. This is a far bigger prerequisite than just the current concern of electricity or water shortages.

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There has been a lot of hype around ‘energy savings methods’ of late, and to the broader public and unsophisticated media this may seem like a new trend. However, as King Solomon said, “There is nothing new under the sun.” It has always been our responsibility as architects to be specifically thoughtful to all of these areas of design.


RESPONSIBLE DESIGN

Now more than ever, it is clear that we as architects have to re-assess our design methods by going back to the basics, as the numerous, sensitive and responsible mentors and teachers before us have taught us. All the energy saving, green building techniques bandied about today are not new – they have always been there, but are too often forgotten or ignored by many of us in the architectural profession. This has to change. It is time for architects to take the lead again in the strive to protect our environment. We must utilize everything at our disposal to influence clients, developers, government and individuals, for all to embrace the so-called green building techniques, to make buildings more user friendly and more efficient – and this must be done not just to score ‘green points,’ but through the entire life cycle of the development. This will have to be a concerted effort and must include all our professional industry partners. The energy crises we are currently experiencing in South Africa and which we will most probably continue to experience for a number of years, do, although they present many frustrations, also present a great opportunity to educate, influence and implicate. We have to employ techniques that will save energy and other resources like water. Consider the following options: The re-use of old building waste; the utilization of re-purposed materials and buildings; the renovation of buildings; and the minimizing of air-con needs by natural convection and ventilation through the Venturi effect. Moreover, we must also minimize or hopefully eliminate the use of building materials that are toxic to us and our environment. We are not facing an easy task: There are stakeholders and other heavyweights with influence in industry whose vested interests may not be similarly aligned, and we could face resistance and other difficult challenges that might undermine our efforts to fulfil these goals. We need to be vigilant and guard against being bamboozled or easily influenced without considering all the facts. We cannot summarily believe all the hype from some manufacturers about how ‘green’ their products are, for that is something that is already rife in this artificial world. Research and investigate first! I really believe that one of our main objectives must be to empower people through education, enabling them to understand the dynamics of not only energy saving strategies, but also how to treat our environment with more respect. Like the saying goes, “Where there is a will, there is a way.” Architects can and should show the world the way. Koos Visser is the LIA President and has his own practice, Ichtus Studio Architects/Argitekte. He can be reached via email at architects@ichtusstudio.com.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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COVER STORY


COVER STORY

Barn-raising in the Overberg A new post and beam building harmonises with its rural surroundings and fulfils the client's brief of being eco-friendly, multi-functional and a beautifully built space.

Erection of the pre-assembled frame in situ


COVER STORY

Purpose-made jib with a winch for erecting frames

“Can you build me a post and beam barn?” This was the initial email inquiry to post and beam construction company Overberg Joinery Works (OJW) from a prospective client near Swellendam. It transpired that the client was looking for a builder to construct a traditionallooking structure that would be used as guest accommodation and a games room on his Overberg lifestyle farm. In addition, the brief was firm: The building must harmonise with the rural landscape and must be a true eco-build. The project was perfectly suited to OJW’s traditional carpentry and joinery methods that have been used to construct buildings for centuries, and to the company’s sustainable building practices that use low carbon footprint techniques and materials, such as locally-sourced and milled alien trees. For OJW owner Simon Smith, post and beam construction is both his profession and his passion. “Historically, timberframed buildings started out as humble huts that made

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best use of whatever people could find to make a shelter,” he says. “But as construction techniques became more sophisticated, the size and complexity of buildings grew to include enormous threshing (agricultural) barns, elegant Tudor mansions and even the roofs of cathedrals – many of which are still going strong, as long as a thousand years after they were built. “Post and beam construction involves the use of age-old carpentry skills and joinery joints such as mortise and tenon, dovetail and scarf. No nails are used!” he emphasizes. Simon’s passion for post and beam construction is contagious, and the Swellendam inquiry soon became a new project for OJW. Building design can be done in-house at OJW, so once the 3D CAD drawings had been approved by the client, they were submitted for planning permission – which was granted without a hitch. OJW set out to work on the build late in 2014, with Simon promising completion in just four months.


COVER STORY

Entire building pre-assembled with all joints cut and marked in the OJW Grabouw workshop

THE PERFECT TIMBER FOR THE JOB First the ‘light footprint’ foundations had to be completed: The timber building was to be anchored to 20 individual concrete pad stones. This method, explains Simon, uses a tiny amount of concrete compared to that needed to construct conventional buildings, thereby achieving a considerable reduction in the overall carbon footprint of the building. In a stand of Eucalyptus cladocalyx - commonly known as sugar gums - near Stanford, the ideal trees were found. Simon explains, “Sugar gums provide ideal timber for post and beam construction; they are sufficiently large trees to get the big beams we need, and the timber is really dense and strong.” He adds that, as the timber is used ‘green,’ meaning immediately after felling, he looks for timber that will dry slowly over several years. “If the timber dries too quickly - which can easily happen in South Africa’s climate - excessive splitting can happen. This is less likely to happen with sugar gums.”

CRAFTSMANSHIP AT WORK The trees were milled and all joints fitted at OJW’s Grabouw workshop, with every individual section carefully marked, much like an enormous jigsaw puzzle, so that they could quickly be put together on the site.

Simon points out the considerable advantages of this premanufacturing of the building: “It means that when all the sections arrive on site, they can be erected very quickly by just a small team. Once the frame is up, the roof can go on, and this means that all future work is weather-proofed. Then neither rain nor blazing heat stops work. This build was completed over the summer, with my team nicely shaded from 40-degree temperatures.” The post and beam frame - which Simon calls ‘the skeleton’ of the building - took four weeks to erect. The five sections known as Bent frames were put together on the ground, then hoisted to their final vertical position using an ageold technique comprising a block and tackle and mast, known as a ‘jib,’ powered by an electric winch (rather than a big team of men pulling ropes, as would have been a common sight in past times). Once the frame was standing regally against the backdrop of the Langeberg mountains, the roof and external cladding could go on. The roofing is colour-bonded Victorian profile roof sheets fixed onto treated purlins, which have a cavity-filled insulation blanket laid on top of a sisalation vapour barrier and pre-painted ceiling sarking board. Exterior cladding is also eucalyptus, which, says Simon, tends to weather to a mellow silvery grey over the years.

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COVER STORY

Sling brace frame as seen from inside

The roofing and exterior cladding took just another four weeks, and then it was on to the interior and ‘service’ work. This entailed internal cladding, flooring, wiring, the installation of solar water heating, rainwater catchment, plumbing, and finishing touches. Everything required for a turnkey project, from concept to completion, took the total build time to four months. Job done. Building delivered! Simon recalls the client’s astonishment at the rate of progress achieved between each of his weekly visits to the site. “I think the client was a bit sceptical when I gave him a four-month build schedule before we started. But with so much of the ‘manufacturing’ of the building being done at the factory, coupled with post and beam as a building method, you can make spectacular progress with just a very small team of men on the site.” He adds that the speed of build and small work team needed for the job was particularly appreciated by the client because the site is also a family home, and security and privacy were uppermost in his mind.

SATISFACTION DELIVERED Post and beam construction is also very well-suited to hard access and environmentally sensitive sites such as this

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one, explains Simon. It took just four trips in a modestsized truck to transport the largest construction materials (the frame) to the site, and a small all-terrain forklift unloaded them. The new building stands amidst fynbos and, to the relief and delight of the client, damage to the fynbos from trafficking by vehicles and men was minimal. Being highly satisfied with the speed and straightforwardness of the build formed just a minor part of the client’s pleasure in his new building though. “We are gobsmacked by the sheer beauty of the building,” is the feedback that has given Simon the most pleasure. The building is very attractive from the outside, but it would probably be fair to describe it as understated, as it harmonises so successfully with its environment. The real ‘wow’ factor comes when you walk inside. It’s only then that you see the stunning sling brace post and beam construction towering above in the double-volume interior. As well as being functional, the graceful lines of the curving roof trusses coupled with the colour and texture of the timber is truly beautiful. This building is set to give a great deal of pleasure to its owners and their descendants far into the future.


COVER STORY

Completed build in its environment

WHAT IS POST AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION?

PRACTICALITIES

Also known as timber frame building, post and beam is an age-old method of building using heavy section timbers joined together with traditional joinery joints, such as mortise and tenon, dovetail and scarf joints. Post and beam buildings lend themselves to uses ranging from home extensions through to very large buildings, such as restaurants and wine cellars. They are very durable, easily lasting for hundreds of years. There are many timber-framed buildings in Britain that date back a thousand years or more.

PRICE: Post and beam construction starts at approximately the same cost as for conventional brick, being around R8 500/ m2. Naturally though, costs will be greater for more complex designs and frame types, such as the more labour-intensive sling brace frame over the more basic king post.

Overberg Joinery Works (OJW), Sustainable Building and Joinery, is an Elgin Valley based company owned by Simon Smith. He and his small team of skilled workers construct post and beam buildings throughout the Western Cape. Major projects further afield are considered.

FOR MORE INFORMATION: (t) 021 859 2456 (e) Initial enquiries: office@ojw.co.za (e) Technical and business development: simon@ojw.co.za (w) www.ojw.co.za

IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE: The timbers are actually so large and dense that they keep their strength for longer than a steel frame because of a ‘charcoaling’ process on the outside of the beam that protects the centre of the beam from further fire damage. This is reflective of how living trees survive wild fires. WOOD ROT AND INSECT ATTACK: The part of the tree that insects eat, namely the outer sapwood, is removed in the milling process. That leaves the strong dense heartwood remaining, which becomes more impenetrable by boring insects as it dries. For those who want a ‘belt and braces’ approach though, there are ecofriendly products available with which the timber can be treated at the factory stage.

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MODIFIED WOOD

Modified wood shows its mettle Since Rhino Wood established its full production capacity in July 2014, the team has produced and placed approximately 30,000m2 in the African market. And whilst Rhino Wood continues to be a firm favourite for decking applications, various projects have proven its diversity and true potential. MODIFICATION THAT MATTERS Primarily, customers are attracted to the quality, appearance and durability of this locally manufactured product. However, Rhino Wood has also noticed the trend towards responsible procurement of timber-related goods. Because Rhino Wood uses only sustainably grown plantation pine, and the materials used in its patented impregnation process are up-cycled from landfill, the product is viewed as extremely environmentally friendly. Thought-leading architects, lodge builders and developers alike are realizing the need to use sustainable building materials like Rhino Wood (RW), thus reducing the massive strain on natural forests.

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Highlighted here are just two of Rhino Woods’ flagship projects to date.

MATLOSANA MALL, KLERKSDORP The total length of this exquisite, modern mall, designed by SVA Architects, is about 700 metres, and it boasts five entrances. The predominant access leads to the Piazza, which is further emphasized by an iconic feature named “The Basket” that acts as a focal landmark for the centre. The “basket” is constructed entirely out of Rhino Wood 140mm boards that clad the intricate steel substructure with a span of over two metres.


MODIFIED WOOD

RHINO WOOD DEFIED TIMELINES: The timeframe for the project was rigid, and contractors were put to task meeting tight construction deadlines. Because the timber was needed for a variety of cladding looks, it needed to be of consistent quality and appearance – and Rhino Wood again met the requirement.

RHINO WOOD MET ALL SPECS: The specifications and

RHINO WOOD NEGATED MAINTENANCE: Considering the size and design of the mall profile, maintenance was a key concern for the client since accessibility due to the height of the structure is limited. The 140mm cladding boards were the perfect solution because they do not require maintenance, and would form a grey patina, thereby giving the structure a naturally-aged look.

lengths required for the project were peculiar. Normally, this would cause excessive wastage; however, Rhino Wood was able to supply exact dimensions, reducing the waste to nothing. This was a remarkable achievement as the requirements changed a few times throughout the project life cycle. Locally based, Rhino Wood was able to remain flexible and deliver on the client’s demands.

FEEDBACK: The positive feedback from the contractors indicates they were very happy with the timely delivery and ease of fixing. Their costing forecasts were also accurate as there was negligible waste.

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MODIFIED WOOD

VUMBURA PLAINS LODGE, BOTSWANA Wilderness Safaris is one of Africa’s foremost ecotourism operators, with access to nearly three million acres of the continent’s finest wilderness and wildlife. As a conservation organization, Wilderness Safaris places particular attention to the impact of their camps on the surrounding environment. Where possible, materials that are sensitive to the immediate and global ecosystem are used in order to sustain ecotourism and the environment for future generations.

RHINO WOOD EXCEEDED SPECS: Wilderness Safaris required a replacement walkway in the existing Vumbura Plains camp in the Okavango Delta, connecting the entire lodge to the rooms. The walkway is raised for the guests’ safety and to have less impact on the riparian environment. The timber requirement was very specific: It had to be durable, stable, require little to low maintenance, and be easy to install. A sandblasted finish to fit in with existing lodge design was also required. Again, Rhino Wood was able to deliver on all the requirements. The timber was cut exactly to size, consistence in quality was not compromised, and there was very little waste because the delivered product met all the installation criteria.

FEEDBACK: An unexpected bonus for lodge staff was the significant reduction in noise that resulted from the Rhino Wood installation. This benefit results from Rhino Wood having exceptional dimensional stability plus a very flush finish. Wilderness Safaris are very happy with the consistency of the product and how it has blended with the existing lodge design.

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: Rhino Wood (t) 011 892 5306 (e) scott@rhinowood.co.za (w) www.rhinowood.co.za

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TIMBER FRAME BUILDING

From brick to timber...a sustainable change of mind It was through Cape Town's timber network that Swissline Design met a man with a predicament. He was in possession of drafted plans for a new home that proposed a conventional brick building, but it had always been his dream to build sustainably - and in timber frame. As their discussion continued, they realised that they shared common ground, and a working partnership was proposed. The result is the beautiful timber frame home featured here.

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ith renewed inspiration to follow his dream, the client decided to convert the planned brick building into an entirely timber-framed structure.

Revised building plans were submitted and subsequently approved. He had expressed difficulty in finding a reputable timber frame builder that would meet all his precise requirements, but Swissline Design actually felt that the client’s vision was well-aligned with their own specific manufacturing standards, which include the following:

• Ensuring that the home’s exterior looks exactly like a conventional house • Delivering well-insulated walls, floors and roofing so that the home is cool in summer and warm in winter, without the need to use artificial air conditioning • A low noise level • Speedy assembly (this shell was erected in only three days with a crane) • Sustainable and off-grid capabilities • Making sure the home is safe and sound, to the highest level of expectation

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TIMBER FRAME BUILDING

After assessing the original blueprint, Swissline Design worked very closely with the client to make sure that adaptations could be made according to his needs. The client provided input based on his personal design preferences, coupled with special limitations. In turn, Swissline Design offered a professional construction and manufacturing solution backed by years of experience. The client, who has some experience with European building methods, has been extremely pleased that he did not have to proceed with the original plan. He had strict requirements for a fully insulated house and feels that the same result (no ‘thermal bridging’) could not have been achieved in a conventionally built house, and that the fully insulated walls and roof were made possible solely by the timber-frame building method.

MORE ABOUT THE R-VALUE The R-Value on the walls is about 5.75 and the U-Value is about 0.174. (The client supplied his own double-glazed windows.) The Eco-Insulation™ product used (blow-in, recycled non-flammable paper) has high insulation values and is an easily applied product for internal walls. The comprehensive system of using insulation in walls, flooring and the roof, in combination with double-glazed windows and aluminium shutters on the outside, works very well. It ensures an excellent indoor climate during the whole year, being cool in summer and warm in winter without using air conditioning – resulting in savings in power and money for the client.

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TIMBER FRAME BUILDING

CHOICE OF TIMBER - AND TREATMENT The external walls were composed of spruce frames with OSB 3, insulated with Eco-Insulation™. Special 60mm Knauf boards were imported and fixed to studs in order to be able to plaster the façade and create additional insulation qualities. The internal walls were similarly made up, but without the need for the Knauf boards. The roof structure consists of spruce beams, which were lime-washed to the client’s requirements. The double volume created a unique opportunity to create high-volume walls. The staircase was specified as solid oak treads with spruce stringers, and the visible bulkheads are exposed spruce (European pine). The client was hesitant to use harmful chemical treatments and opted for the most natural treatment process.

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TIMBER FRAME BUILDING

THE EASE OF THE BUILD To start, council plans were approved without problems. This is a very positive sign, because building with timber is the most sustainable way of building, and it is therefore heartening to see the Council supporting this industry. The assembly of the shell structure (walls, floors) onto an existing foundation, done by crane, took a mere three days, after which the roof structure was assembled and all the finishing touches (plaster, etc.) done. The house was completed in three months from the build start date.

CLIENT SATISFACTION No extra maintenance required: When a timber frame home is cladded with a Siberian Larch timber, the façade would require no maintenance (oiling or sanding not necessary). In this case, the client chose a plaster-painted finish on the exterior, therefore the required maintenance would be the same as for any painted home. The client opted for the plaster finish because the location of the site demanded that the build fits and blends in with the environment. The overall effect contributes to the home looking just like a conventional mortar house. Cost effective: This build remained within the client’s budget. The biggest cost, and therefore also savings point in a building project of this nature, is the time spent on construction. This timber frame build was completed with a much shorter construction time than conventional methods, yielding significant savings for the client.

Specifically, after the client received approval on the plans, the site was ready to go. Once the foundation and slab were finished, it was set up to accommodate installation of the shell (the assembled wood elements), saving time and reducing costs. Needing only three days to erect the shell was significant, and described by the client as “fantastic.” The accompanying cladding and blow-in insulation choices added to the efficiency of the build. The client commented that the plastering on a conventional brick house would never have been finished so quickly, with the added reassurance that the walls are completely straight and even in all directions. The right company for the job: The client had struggled to find the “right and experienced” people for this job, until he connected with Swissline Design. In a written note of appreciation to Swissline Design, he expressed his thanks for the effort involved and the excellent work done. In his words: “It is so rewarding that everything we have thought about and had in mind has worked out. It was exciting for me to see the final outcome, after all my work and effort put in, from doing all the planning and drawings, to finally also overseeing the construction site. I would not have liked missing this experience. It was the right decision to go this route and start the whole approval process again, changing from a conventional build to a wooden house. I would do the same again.” For more information, visit www.swisslinedesign.co.za.

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FLOORING

When Choosing Your Flooring... With timber being a natural product, you cannot really make a mistake in selecting the 'right' wood for your flooring -- even with such a wide variety of wood types on offer. But here SAWFLA provides some sound advice on how to make a choice that will ensure the perfect fit for your specific needs. WHAT TYPES OF TIMBER TO USE

MAINTENANCE

Your first consideration should be your budget, since this will determine whether an engineered wood, solid wood, laminate or vinyl option can be selected. Rest assured, with the range of products and decors available nowadays, there is something to suit every budget. If you are going to choose from woods, a good starting place is to decide whether you want light or dark wood, and if you prefer it with a wide or with a normal width board.

Factory sealed wood flooring products are quite easy to maintain:

COLOUR Again, choose between light or dark woods. Currently, there is a large amount of oak-stained floors on the market to choose from and even some with different finishing techniques that bring out the true beauty of the grain and surface.

USAGE For commercial installations, a hard timber is recommended. (Refer to the Janka Hardness Scale.) If you are using laminates or vinyl, a commercially graded product should be used. Remember: Stiletto heels will indent most flooring.

LAMINATED & HARDWOOD

FLOORING CONTACT

Piet van der Linde 079 495 2727 // piet@proinstall.co.za

www.proinstall.co.za

• Wipe up any spills immediately with an absorbent cloth or towel • Regularly remove dust with a broom or vacuum cleaner • Place walk-off mats at all doorways from the outside • Use felt pads under furniture Long-term wear and tear is caused by dirt trodden onto the floor from the outside. Dirt that got walked in, such as gravel and sand, acts like sandpaper and can cause displeasing scratches. To prevent this, we suggest that you place large doormats at all entrances and at kitchen sinks. What works well is a hard-bristle mat outside and a soft cotton-type mat inside. The outside mat is to remove mud, dirt, etc. while the inside mat removes moisture. A mat at the kitchen sink as well as at the hob is recommended, as these high-traffic areas are prone to mechanical wear caused by the turning action on the balls of the feet as one moves away from these areas. It is very important not to wash the floor with a soaking mop or cloth. Rather use a dry mop and spray, a recommended floor cleaner onto the mop, or wipe the floor with a wellwrung, damp or moist cloth. Special flooring mops are available from most reputable flooring suppliers.


QUALITY YOU CAN STAND ON

Ivon: 083 556 7773

South Africa

QUALITY YOU CAN STAND ON

FLOORING • DECKING • SANDING • STAIRS

INSTALLATIONS NATIONALLY Overlay proudly celebrates 10 years in the industry this year. We specialise in timber products - from consultation to specification, right through to installation. We operate mobile units from our offices in Cape Town and Johannesburg into the rest of South Africa and Africa.

STAIRS

CONTACT: 021 951 1424

FLOOR CARE

FLOORING

www.overlaysa.co.za

DECKING

E-MAIL: sales@overlaysa.co.za

SPECIALISTS IN:

Laminated Flooring | Engineered wood | Bamboo | Carpets Underfloor Heating | Blinds | Vinyl | Suppliers and in-house fitters to both the Commercial and Domestic Sector.

TEL: 021 510 1592 WEBSITE: www.ifloors.co.za

Unit 8, Northgate Estate, Highway Park, Gold street


FLOORING FASHION AND LONGEVITY Oak flooring, 190mm to 240mm wide, is very much in vogue today. The current trend is for a natural look with light-washed colours coming through – especially grey and white tones. If installed and maintained correctly, a wooden floor can outlive the homeowner. The longevity of the floor is largely determined by how well it is maintained. It is important to read the manufacturers’ instruction on the required care of your floor and to follow the maintenance regime.

WOOD SPECIES (HARDEST WOOD TYPE TO SOFTEST WOOD TYPE)

JANKA RATING

Brazilian Walnut (Ipe)

3684

Bolivian Cherry

3650

Brazilian Teak (Cumaru)

3540

Brazilian Rosewood (Tomarindo)

3000

Ebony

3220

Brazilian Cherry / Jatoba

2350

Mesquite

2345

Santos Mahogany

2200

Cameron

1940

Merbau

1925

Purpleheart

1860

CONSIDER THIS WHEN PURCHASING FLOORING

Tigerwood

1850

Hickory and Pecan

1820

Rosewood

1780

Wood and laminate flooring products may vary in their resistance to swelling, fading, density and joint strength. Reputable suppliers will offer full disclosure – in writing – on all these product features.

African Padauk

1725

Locust

1700

Wenge

1630

Red Pine

1630

Zebrawood

1575

True Pine

1570

Sweet Birch

1470

Hard / Sugar Maple

1450

Kentucky Coffee Tree

1390

Natural Bamboo

1380

Australian Cypress

1375

White Oak

1360

White Ash

1320

American Beech

1300

Northern Red Oak

1290

Caribbean Heart Pine

1280

Yellow Birch

1260

Yellow Heart Pine

1225

Carbonized Bamboo

1180

Cocobolo

1136

American Walnut

1010

Teak

1000

American Cherry

950

Soft and Ambrosia Maple

950

Paper Birch

910

Cedar

900

Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf)

870

American Red Elm

860

Lacewood

840

Cumaru

790

Sycamore

770

S. Yellow Pine (Loblolly & Shortleaf)

690

Douglas Fir

660

Sassafras

630

Larch

590

Cypress, Southern

570

Chestnut

540

Poplar

540

Hemlock

500

White Pine

420

Basswood

410

Eastern White Pine

380

Most problems with flooring products occur as a result of poor installation. It is worth paying a little more to have your flooring installed by a trained team. SAWLFA, in conjunction with the South African Bureau of Standards, has published standards that deal with the general principles of installing solid wood, engineered wood, as well as laminate floors. These guidelines are available to the public and should be strictly adhered to by installers. SAWLFA is the Southern African Wood, Laminate & Flooring Association. For more information, visit www.sawlfa.co.za.

JANKA HARDNESS SCALE The Janka hardness test measures the force required to embed a .444 inch steel ball to half its diameter in wood. This is one of the best measures of the ability of wood species to withstand denting and wear. It is also a good indicator of how hard a species is to saw or nail.

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You won’t see our new collection on the runway. Our new collection is the runway. www.egger.com/laminate-flooring

Our new laminate flooring is coming! See for yourself – not in Milan, New York, or London – but instead at your EGGER partner, Azura Distributors. Cape Town: 021 534 0870 · Johannesburg: 011 837 8462 · www.azura.co.za


LAMINATE FLOORING

Lovely laminates To make the right choice of flooring for your home, you need to consider a number of things, including personal taste, budget, practicality and durability. “After all, it’s a surface that covers the largest area of your home, and your final choice will have a lasting impact on its overall appearance,” Jasmin Kraneveldt, from leading flooring retailer Bathroom Bizarre, recently commented. “Flooring is something that you come in contact with on a daily basis, both visually and physically – it’s a surface that you, your family and your friends will walk, stand, sit, play, spill and grow up on. As a result, to a large extent, it sets the tone for the look and feel of your home. Because flooring is quite costly to install, it isn’t a feature that can be changed too often. As such, before choosing a specific type of flooring, it is important that you consider the pros and cons of each type and then make a well-informed decision.” There are various different types of flooring available; the main ones include carpeting, tiles, and laminate, hardwood and vinyl flooring.

CHOOSING LAMINATE Kraneveldt added: “Laminate flooring is becoming one of the most popular floor coverings on the market. It is affordable, beautiful, and easy to install. The only drawback to laminate flooring is the fact that it is not water-resistant, so it shouldn’t be used for bathrooms, kitchens or outdoor applications.”

Alpine Forest - Savio 5410-4 1 from Bathroom Bizarre

WHY LAMINATE FLOORING HAS BECOME SO POPULAR: • Value for money: Laminate flooring offers real value for money – it is more affordable than hardwood flooring and wall-to-wall carpeting. • A choice of colours and textures: The variety of on-trend colour and texture options are also a big calling card for laminate flooring. • Supreme durability: The joy of laminate floors is that they are made from high-density fibre boards, which is an incredibly durable material that will provide years of good looks and underfoot comfort. • Quick and easy to install: When it comes to installation, there’s no need for any special glues, because laminate flooring boasts a tongue and groove click system that allows you to simply snap the boards together. It also doesn’t matter what your subfloor is, so it can be laid on top of wood, plywood, concrete or even existing vinyl flooring. • Hygienic and great for allergy sufferers: Laminate flooring benefits those people with allergies, because it’s quick to clean and it boasts a nonporous surface that doesn’t absorb dust, allergens or spills like carpeting does. • Easy maintenance and cleaning: Keeping your laminate wood floor clean couldn’t be easier – there’s no need for varnish, wax, or polish. Simply vacuum them clean, and to remove any stubborn marks, wipe them down with a non-abrasive product specifically designed for laminate floors.

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Alpine Forest - Makalu 2012 from Bathroom Bizarre

Alpine Forest - Mount Tyree 3303 2 from Bathroom Bizarre


Single Coat Oil-Based Wood Stain

Protects, nourishes and colours wood in one easy application We love wood! That is why we’ve committed years of research into a new product that we’re particularly proud to launch - Jax Oleum.

Whether it’s kept in its natural state or treated with colour, all wood needs to be nourished and protected.

• Non-toxic • For indoor and outdoor use • Can be used on all types of natural, untreated wood • Colour and absorption will vary depending on wood • Test the Oleum colour on wood being treated Jax Oleum is incredibly effective and highly durable. Just 1 litre covers about 50m², and takes only one coat to colour and protect your wood against water, heat and sunlight. It is simple to apply – you just need to sand down and clean your natural wood and then apply the oil using a cloth. After a few minutes the oil will have penetrated into the upper layers of the wood and then you simply wipe away the excess. It can be used inside & outside for gum poles, window frames, flooring, doors and furniture, etc. You can also use it on all veneers. In one application you can change the colour of any absorbent natural wood product to a colour that will enhance the grain and transform the look. We have over 30 colours to choose from or you can mix existing colours to create your own. We can also match and make up other colours on request, with a minimum order quantity.

Treat your wood and increase its lifespan by applying our maintenance oil when needed. Jax Oleum is proudly manufactured in South Africa using natural, eco-friendly material. www.jaxoleum.co.za +27 11 444 7221 info@jaxoleum.co.za

CONNECT WITH US


ADVERTORIAL

Quality timber products

from a world-class company SAFCOL is a world-class, global business engaged in multi-functional plantation forestry, revolutionising the integration of plantations and communities. Our business focusses on timber harvesting, timber processing and other related activities.

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e are a State-Owned Company that falls under the Department of Public Enterprises. Apart from managing the State’s investment in forestry, the company also plays a catalytic role in the realisation of the State’s afforestation, rural development and economic transformation goals. SAFCOL produces quality lumber used for a variety of products, which includes building structures and making furniture.

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BUILDING WITH TIMBER - NOT ONLY FEASIBLE, BUT EXTREMELY ATTRACTIVE TOO SAFCOL’s cutting-edge forestry and milling techniques has ensured that we produce a much higher quality of locally grown, structural lumber – which makes constructing with lumber not only feasible, but extremely attractive too. Timber framed structures offer vastly improved thermal qualities, improving the quality of living conditions of occupants while reducing the energy requirements; it also offers increased speed and ease of construction, and enhanced use of local renewable resources.


ADVERTORIAL

Beketelani Primary School, the timber frame school built by SAFCOL. Timber is a natural insulator with the ability to absorb or lose heat slowly. Timber buildings are extremely energy efficient and heavily insulated, resulting in a decrease of fossil fuel heating needs, which can result in lower electricity bills. Timber houses are very strong and can endure most weather conditions. The pre-fabrication system in timber processing allows for better quality control, and yields a higher quality end product. When compared to brick and mortar, timber frames could potentially result in as much as 30% shorter, more predictable construction time.

FURNITURE MANUFACTURING

School desk made by furniture making trainees at SAFCOL’s Timbadola Sawmill.

Timber frame building is a time-honoured, energy-efficient and environmentally sound, structurally safe and above all, aesthetically pleasing method of building. Timber is a renewable building material; it is easy to work with and provides endless alternatives in design. It is also a store of carbon and has a low embodied energy.

SAFCOL has also embarked on a furniture making project, whereby young unemployed youth are trained to manufacture school desks. To date, the company has manufactured more than 1,000 desks that have been handed over to rural schools in the Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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COMPANY PROFILE

SCM at LIGNA 2015

Geerlings celebrates th its 50 birthday While past decades have seen the woodworking machinery market grow, shrink and grow, as industries do, with newly emerging competitors, markets, a global recession and changing political and industry environments, Geerlings has diversified and weathered all these challenges to be the success it is today. GENERATION TO GENERATION

THE MOVE TO NEW MACHINERY IN THE 1990S

The roots of Geerlings (Pty) Ltd go back to 1947, when firstgeneration Dutch immigrant Jan Hendrik Geerlings started his own saw sharpening company JH Geerlings and Son in Krugersdorp. After venturing into machinery maintenance during the 1960s under the leadership of Jan Geerlings, Geerlings (Pty) Ltd was officially registered In March 1965 and immersed into the second-hand machinery sales and maintenance market. Hetti Geerlings, Jan’s wife, joined the firm in 1980 and became Chairman of the company during the early 1990s. Their son Arnold took his place on the team in 1990. He worked his way up from the factory floor to head up sales during the mid-1990s and ultimately became Managing Director after buying out the rest of the family’s shares in 2008.

To meet changing market needs, Geerlings started selling new machinery from Italy in the early 1990s. In 1994 Arnold went to Tuscany and secured Bulleri CNC, amongst other principals. In 1995 Jan and Arnold attended the LIGNA trade fair in Hannover, looking for a wider range of new machinery agencies. This resulted in Geerlings securing several European manufacturing agencies over the next few years, the most predominant being the SCM Group – then leaders in both the traditional and the emerging CNC high-technology machinery market that was developing fast in the 1990s. Included in the deal was SCM, the main brand name, Minimax (semi-professional), Gabbiani (beamsaws), Morbidelli (CNC machinery), and many more.

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COMPANY PROFILE

SCM LIGNA Engineers

GEERLINGS THANKS ITS CUSTOMERS Geerlings acknowledges that its successes and growth would not have been possible without its customers, who grew with the company. Geerlings openly thanks all its clients for their years of loyal support and ongoing investment in their mutual relationship. Many clients have grown into impressive businesses and today lead their industry sectors, including joinery (doors and windows), kitchen furniture, shopfitting, and also niche markets like boat building and moulding manufacturing. Geerlings heartily congratulates these clients on their successes and wishes them prosperity and growth into the future.

One of the sole agencies that Geerlings was able to secure and build a great relationship with is the Celfa Finishing Group, specialists and technology leaders in the world’s finishing market. This addition saw Geerlings become the leader in finishing in the local market, added to its deep roots in the already established high-technology CNC and panel processing industries. In this period Geerlings also added Freud Tooling, which proved to be a fantastic product range and today is a world leader. Geerlings, during the late 1990s, also started selling Holytek traditional machinery from Taiwan, a proven, steadfast and reliable brand. The entities’ strong business relationship continues after 18 successful years. The growth in product scope required supplementary growth in after-sales-service capacity, which necessitated the opening of branches in Cape Town, Durban, and George (which now has a satellite operation in the Eastern Cape).

DIVERSIFICATION IN THE YEARS 2000 The ‘New Millennium’ saw big changes in South Africa. Geerlings used this period to finalize its product range and deepen existing supplier and client relationships. Geerlings diversified its machinery range to include aluminium and PVC machinery ranges, most notably from FomIndustrie, and including both traditional and CNC options. The range from Fom includes automatic lines, CNC centres, sawing machines, thermal break lines and software, and more traditional machines such as end milling, corner routers and crimpering machines.

GEERLINGS: 2015 AND BEYOND Leading the team today is a new Managing Director, Cornelis Rostoll, with 19 years of experience in high technology, installations and service. Martiens Bezuidenhout, the seasoned and newly promoted Service Director, has built strong bonds throughout the industry during his 18 years in this field. A newcomer to Geerlings, George McPhail, is serving as Sales Director. Rounding up the team are the key administrative personnel, Jackie Armstrong and Minette Göpper, who back the core staff up with their professional skills honed over years of loyal and dedicated service. Arnold Geerlings now focuses his attention on international sales whilst still providing financial and technical sales advice to the rest of the team. Geerlings continues to offer technical backup service in the form of ongoing maintenance and breakdown servicing. At each of the branches, teams of staff and trained technicians are available for call-out and telephonic consultations.

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• Agents and merchants of imported and African timbers • Suppliers to Boat Builders, Joiners, Carvers, Furniture Manufacturers, Shopfitters, Cabinet Makers and Kitchen Manufacturers • We also supply direct to the public and cater for the hobbyist • Importers of Oak, Beech, Maple, Cherry, Teak, Meranti and many more • Over 60 species of timber in stock • Customers are welcome to come in and select their own timber • Solid T&G wood flooring and solid mouldings available • Machining Service: timber cut and planed to customer’s specifications • Bargain Bins and Turners Corner with new exotics in stock

CONTACT DETAILS:

CONTACT SALES

Tel: 021 5522631 Fax: 021 5522678 15 Second Street Montague Gardens

Mark Machattie: 083 234 6497 Leo Geel: 073 049 9435 Roy Purdham: 082 493 0211

Email: sales@countrywoods.co.za Website: www.countrywoods.co.za Like us on Facebook


COMPANY PROFILE

SCM Quicklink Software

A LOOK AHEAD Our principle suppliers SCM and Cefla once again outperformed themselves at LIGNA 2015, and we were so pleased to have some of our long-term and new clients enjoy the riveting technology on show at the event. SCM displayed their ‘Smart Manufacturing Flexicel’ incorporating the Pratix S CNC, Sigma Flexi Cut beamsaw, with loading and offloading. They also showed their impressive ‘Airfusion’ K560 edgebander, detailing their biggest advancement in edgebanding, with polyeurothane and slimline technology that gives a joint-free edgebanding result. Cefla displayed many innovations, including their new inert coating technology by Sorbini. This allows any surface or edge to be prepared to perfection, including MDF, HDF, raw chipboard, etc., making it possible to turn low-cost material into profitable products. In many ways, the leaps in design and productivity of these advanced machines will be determining the future growth of Geerlings and our customers.

"Geerlings sells the right machine with technical support behind it to build a serious relationship with our best asset, Our Client"

MESSAGE FROM ARNOLD GEERLINGS South Africa has changed a lot in the past 20 years; our industry even more so. Today all of our successful clients are those who invested in technology rather than labour. Even though we are aware employment needs to be created, in our view productivity is even more paramount for the success of any woodworking enterprise into the future. Making your company poised for growth is best achieved by investment in new technology, to manufacture faster, smarter and more cost effectively. Geerlings has founded its relationships with all the major industry leaders on the basis of their growth and needs. We would like to do the same with new clients wishing to expand their potential.

BRACKEN TIMBERS Growers and Sawmillers of Quality Pine Timber

timber home architectural design tel: 021 702 2968 | www.timberdesign.co.za

TEL: 074 136 6666 FAX: 033-4131355 / 086 602 6795 CELL: 076 413 5900 E-MAIL: milladmin@brackentimbers.co.za Main Dundee Road, Greytown, 3250 P O Box 141, Greytown, 3250


BEAMSAW MACHINERY

Citi Board & Timber KZN invests in NIMAC beamsaw from CMC Group The much-anticipated arrival of the latest release NIMAC panelsizing beamsaw at Citi Board & Timber created huge excitement in the area. During the commissioning phase, many of City Board & Timber's clients viewed the machine in action.

W

ith the building sector in the region showing a dramatic increase of late, the panel component market in Pietermaritzburg is also growing, placing topquality cut and edge boards in high demand. City Board & Timber owner, Prem Ramlall, together with his wife Rashina, specialises not only in the panel cut-and-edge industry but also supplies hardware and retail to this industry. The formidable husband and wife team offers on-hand servicing directly to their clientele, and with being directly involved in all day-to-day operations they had to change the way they work in order to cope with the demand.

Mitesh Sukdeo, factory manager at Citi Board & Timber, pictured here with CMC technical sales representative Tony Howes as they put the NIMAC beamsaw through its paces.

COMBINING TECHNOLOGY WITH QUALITY Over the last four years, Prem and Rashina have engaged in a technology drive to improve the efficiency of their factory as well as increasing quality and on-time service to clients. Since Prem instituted a step-by-step format at the start of the drive to add value to his business, he has increased his turnover by an impressive 40%.

The new Smartek Edgebander MD-402 with digital display.

Last year, Prem decided to purchase a comprehensive wrap door plant to supply a complete package to his clients, and ordered an Easyjet nesting machine from CMC Group supplier Busellato SCM. He subsequently added a rotary DETROIT SCREW compressor and drier system for the entire operation as well as a CMC Smartek spraybooth system. He completed the purchase with a double table RIBEX ROBO vacuum press from sales director for the CMC Group, Cecil Schickerling.

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BEAMSAW MACHINERY

Citi Board & Timber owner Prem Ramlall assisting clients at the front office. The technology and effectiveness of these products inspired Prem, and when the numbers added up positively over the current financial year, he again called on the CMC Group to put the next phase of his plan into action. Schickerling observed that Citi Board & Timber produced high-quality components with almost 20% fewer staff but with increased product turnover of 40% during 2014. Instead of operating with low-skilled labour in his factory, Prem has employed operators with specialised skills, and this, coupled with the new technology he invested in, provided him the desired results.

HAVING THE RIGHT BEAMSAW In any panelsizing operation, the cutting process is the most crucial factor since everything runs off accuracy and quality from that point on. In consultation and investigating all his options available, Prem decided to continue supporting the CMC Group, because of the consistency of the company and also the personal relationship he has established with Schickerling and CEO Pieter Olivier.

Schickerling added that the most valuable part of jobbing on a beamsaw is not the high quality components; rather, when you cut different sizes for different clients, the optimization of board becomes crucial, since this saves on waste and limits the offcuts in a factory. The ideology that a beamsaw is only suited for mass production and multiple production runs of same-size cutting lists is probably the worst misconception of our industry. A beamsaw can produce up to five or six panel cuttings at the same time, but is at its most effective when producing single-panel optimising cuts at high speed, with no size defects and accurate optimising and fast label systems. The NIMAC beamsaw produces accuracy as close as 0.003mm on programmed sizes on boards. Compare this to a panelsaw or wallsaw operation, where you rely solely on the effectiveness and productivity of the human who is operating the panelsaw on the day. During a regular shift, a single panel cut on a beamsaw can produce the work of three panelsaws with six staff. The beamsaw only requires two people to get this done accurately.

MULTIPLE BENEFITS Prem has recognized the effectiveness of this machine in a short space of time. In the last two months, returned orders due to cutting defects have reduced by 90%, and those returns had been done on his panelsaws during the commissioning of the new beamsaw. Schickerling adds that less handling of panels before and during cutting helps to reduce the damage to boards and components before the edging stage of the operation. Rashina and her brother Mitesh have also reported a saving on blade sharpening, with three times the amount of components getting cut on a single blade before sharpening as opposed to three panelsaws doing the same work. This has also resulted in a savings on power consumption and labour costs.

The NIMAC beamsaw installed at Citi Board & Timber was the first in the area. Prem opted for this machine based on positive reports of these machines already installed in Gauteng province, indicating the model’s reliability and excellent pricing structure coming out of Europe. The NIMAC group is a 40-year old panelsizing machinery production company with vast numbers of machines operating in factories all over the world. The CMC Group has been amazed by the service levels and availability of spares from NIMAC, as well as their great communication service to customers.

Rashina further noted that the Opticut software supplied with the beamsaw is not only easy to use, but its report and stock management system provides her with essential tools to run the buying and order department much more effectively. She shared that, in years before, when their suppliers ordered board and edging components, a massive physical stock count had to be done. But now, in mere seconds, she can pull a detailed report on stock levels and order the required products right away. This also saves them money and prevents having unused stock, thereby creating more space in the factory so that staff can work in a much safer and effective environment.

Staying on par with developments, Rashina insisted that all the cutting programme instructions be handled by the front desk and that all PCs be equipped to send information to operators each day to produce the required orders for the clients. She also insisted on a barcode label and print system to identify each component and supply the edgebander operators with accurate information on each panel.

Schickerling has paid the highest compliments to the Citi Board & Timber team, both during and after implementation, for their devotion to get this system up and running in such a short space of time. The CMC Group would like to thank Prem and Rashina Ramlall for their faith in CMC and wishes them all the best going into the next year of working harder and smarter.

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NO NAILS, JUST CRAFTSMANSHIP


PROJECT FEATURE

Photograph: © Andreas Buschmann


PROJECT FEATURE

Elephant House, Zoo Zürich It was at this year's HWZ International Wood Conference that Timber iQ first learned of the iconic Elephant House, its structure, complex roof system, and the intricacies of its construction and assembly. Here we gladly share more details from architect Markus Schietsch. A CONTEMPORARY APPROACH As a first building block in the master plan of the extension of the Zürich Zoo, the Kaeng Krachan Elephant Park allows, by its size and structure, for a contemporary and close-to-nature approach in keeping the 10 elephants. In accordance with modern zoo philosophy, the visitor immerses into the habitat of the animals for a holistic nature experience. For this reason, the architectural elements were conceived as an interplay of architecture and landscape, entering into a symbiotic relationship. All the visible building components were designed as analogies of nature. The organic and free formed structures interweave with the natural vegetation and induce the atmospheric interior space. The new elephant house with its exterior compounds is embedded in an extensive and densely vegetated landscape at the foot of a rock wall.

THAT WOODEN ROOF The characteristic element of the new elephant house is its striking wooden roof, which blends into the landscape as a shallow free-form shell structure. The roof dissolves into a transparent mazelike structure that establishes an organic relationship to the surrounding forest. In the interior, the roof unfolds its atmospheric effect: As if through a canopy of trees, the sunlight filters through the intricate roof structure, generating constantly changing light atmospheres.

Photograph: © Andreas Buschmann

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PROJECT FEATURE

Photograph: © Andreas Buschmann

The roof spans the interior landscape with the central inner compound that is framed by the densely vegetated visitor path, as well as an underwater viewpoint to see the gentle giants dive and swim, a visitor lodge, and the management area for the fostering of the elephants that is not visible to the visitor. The roof is designed as a shallow wooden shell with a free span of 80 metres. Prefabricated, cross-laminated timber panels were bent on site into their form and nailed up. The openings were cut out on site from the massive wooden shell. The continuously changing façade structure consists of lamellas that seemingly grow up to the edge of the roof as an organically shaped band, indicating the load-bearing areas. The iconographic shell of the roof, combined with the dynamic façade, form an atmospheric envelope and pictographic ‘nature construction,’ concentrating the essence of the design into a symbiosis between architecture and landscape.

PROJECT PARTICULARS CLIENT: Zoo Zürich AG PLACE: Zürich, Kanton Zürich, CH DATE: 2008 – 2014 SIZE: Floor area 8,440m2, Volume 68,000m3 ARCHITECT: Markus Schietsch Architekten GmbH, Zürich PROJECT MANAGEMENT: cga GmbH, Winterthur | BGS Architekten, Rapperswil COST MANAGEMENT: Fischer Architekten AG, Zürich | BGS Architekten, Rapperswil LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT: Lorenz Eugster Landschaftsarchitektur GmbH, Zürich Vetsch Partner Landschaftsarchitektur AG, Zürich STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Walt + Galmarini AG, Zürich BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEER: TriAir Consulting AG, Jona ELECTRO ENGINEER: Schmidiger + Rosasco AG, Zürich LIGHT ENGINEER: Bartenbach Lichtlabor AG, Innsbruck

Photograph: © Andreas Buschmann

Plan: © Markus Schietsch Architekten

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( )

Extremely thin glue line possible

Agent: HĂœSTER MACHINETOOL COMPANY www.huster.co.za

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GBCSA RATING

Recognizing reused timber In a recent statement, marking the milestone 100th Green Star SA certification awarded by the Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA), CEO Brian Wilkinson explained the need for a rigorous, standardised system that rates exactly how green projects are - with tangible results to back up such claims. Both responsibly harvested timber and reused timber have a firm place in this system.

I

ncorporating stringent rating tools and employing independent assessors to evaluate submissions and allocate points based on green measures implemented for projects, the GBCSA's Green Star SA rating system is the official certification for green building projects. A Green Star SA rating certifies that businesses have honoured their green building claims.

NEW BUILDINGS - OFFICE V1.1. RATING TOOL The following extract is from the GBCSA MAT-8 Sustainable Timber Technical Manual as relating to the Office v1.1. rating tool, which is applicable exclusively to commercial industry for new buildings. Two points can be awarded through this rating, and the aim of the credit is to encourage and recognize the specification of reused timber products or timber that has certified environmentally-responsible forest management practices. One point is awarded where 50% (by cost) of all timber products used in the building and construction works have been sourced from any combination of the following: • Reused timber; • Post-consumer recycled timber; or • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Certified Timber. An additional point is awarded where 95% (by cost) of all timber products used in the building and construction works satisfy the above-mentioned sourcing criteria. If the material cost of timber represents less than 0.1% of the project’s total contract value, the credit becomes ‘not applicable’ and no points are accumulated towards the materials category score.

CREDIT CRITERIA This credit addresses all timber within the project, including formwork, temporary works and composite wood products.

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No distinction is made between applications, temperate or tropical timbers, or between hardwoods and softwoods. It must be clearly demonstrated that all timber in the project has been accounted for, and that reused, recycled and FSC-certified timber jointly accounts for at least 50% – 95% of cost. For each source that is claimed to satisfy the requirements of this credit, the supplier will be required to certify the credentials of the timber against the Credit Criteria. • Recycled Timber For this credit, recycled timber must have a minimum of 50% – 95% post-consumer recycled content; postindustrial content cannot contribute towards this credit. • FSC FSC Certificates must be presented for all FSC Certified timber. FSC Chain of Custody Certificates must also be provided for the final party in custody of the material or product until it has been procured for the project.

EXPECTED TIMBER USES INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: • Structural timber including wall, floor and roof structures; • External and internal cladding; • Flooring/wall/ceiling finishes; • ­Internal and external joinery, including windows, doors, and other specialist uses of timber such as installed furnishings, joinery fixtures or balustrades; and • ­Structural formwork. • ­Retained timber in refurbishment: Any pre-existing timber that is retained in a refurbished project can be included in the calculation of this credit, if its quantification is well justified.


GBCSA RATING

TABLE MAT-8.1: CHAIN OF CUSTODY REQUIREMENTS INDUSTRY TYPE

Building & Construction

Printing & Paper

DOCUMENTATION The documentation requirements (to substantiate or prove the claim) are very precise. They include short reports, quantity surveyor reports, specification extracts, FSC Certificates, supplier and contractor confirmation, etc. to show cost calculations, supplierreceipted costs, material costs, timber schedules, the types of timber used as well as how the timber was used, etc.

PROCESS STAGE

CHAIN-OF-CUSTODY REQUIRED?

Sawmills, Lumber Yards

YES

Manufacturers of forest products Timber Broker

YES YES

Building Contractors

NO*

Retailers (e.g. DIY stores)

NO

Pulp, Paper producer

YES

Paper merchant

YES

REFERENCE:

Broker

YES

GBCSA MAT-8 Sustainable Timber Technical Manual

Printers

YES

Publisher

NO

*The last person in the chain of ownership of materials being supplied to the construction project does NOT need to be CoC certified, but the company those materials are being received from, does. The important issue here is ownership.

For more information, call the Green Building Council of SA (GBCSA) at +27 86 104 2272 or visit www.gbcsa.org.za.

WOOD-MIZER SAWMILLS, SECONDARY PROCESSING AND BLADE MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT

DISCOVER HOW OWNING A WOOD-MIZER PORTABLE SAWMILL IS AN INVESTMENT THAT PAYS. Wood-Mizer Africa (Pty) Ltd Unit 1 Leader Park, 20 Chariot Rd, Stormill Ext 5, Johannesburg Tel: +27 11 473 1313, enquiries@woodmizerafrica.com, www.woodmizerafrica.com


URBAN WOOD

New York Heartwoods’ co-founder and owner Megan Offner at the mill. Photograph by Jimmy Pham.

The Emerging Economy of

Urban Wood -- a US Perspective Sawmillers from the USA are turning logs harvested from urban woodlots into valuable sawn timber products used in niche applications, with these industries now providing the momentum for a resurgent US economy. Article by: Megan Offner, co-founder of New York Heartwoods Original story: The Wood-Mizer Way, Spring/Summer 2014

PUTTING URBAN WOOD INTO PERSPECTIVE “New York Heartwoods (NYH) began in 2010, with the help of Dave and Steve Washburn, Hugh Herrera, myself, and a Wood-Mizer LT40. Our plan to manage and harvest trees ourselves was scratched when we realized how many were falling over, dying and being removed by arborists from urban areas. “Multiple, severe storms and several invasive insect epidemics have led to unprecedented challenges to our forests and communities. Budgets of municipalities and land owners are stretched with the re-occurring removals of downed or dying trees.

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Landfills across the country are struggling to keep up with the amount of wood waste that is being generated. “At the same time, people need jobs and communities are evolving to become more resilient. By processing urban wood, we participate in creating solutions: reducing wood disposal expenses, redirecting material from our waste stream, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide released from decomposing mulch and resulting from the transport of wood products from elsewhere), fuelling the demand for local wood products, and growing an exciting new economy.”


URBAN WOOD

Megan Offner milling a white ash log. Photograph by Rose Kallal. According to Stephen M. Bratkovich from the USDA Forest Service:

"In the United States, over 153 million cubic metres of urban tree and landscape residue are generated every year. Of this amount, 15% is classified as 'unchipped logs.' To put this figure in perspective, consider that if these logs were sawn into boards, they theoretically would produce 914,400 kilometres of timber, or nearly 30% of the hardwood timber produced annually in the United States."

UNDERSTANDING SUPPLY AND DEMAND “Due to annual weather events like hurricanes Irene and Sandy, and the arrival of pests such as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), we have access to more logs than we are equipped to process. Harvesting logs ourselves is labour intensive and therefore, in most cases, cost-prohibitive at our scale. Working with tree services, we can have waste logs delivered for free or, at most, for the cost of the fuel used and the driver’s time. Arborists with side firewood businesses sell us delivered logs at inexpensive wholesale firewood prices. On occasion, we do recover downed trees that land owners call us about or with permission as we pass in our travels.” Community relationships are the key to both supply and demand. Beyond the tree services that provide logs and clients to buy wood, are land owners, institutions, land trusts, the Department of Transportation, utility companies, municipal land managers, and local officials. As most towns and cities are burdened with increasing costs for city-wide services, decreasing revenues, rising landfill costs, and decreasing landfill space, redirecting logs creates waste management solutions, reduces storm cleanup expenses and tipping fees for debris disposal, and can generate wood for park benches, picnic tables, fencing, flooring and cabinets for city buildings.

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URBAN WOOD

Logs recovered after Hurricane Sandy. The ability to ameliorate local issues while creating valuable timber may lead to municipal contracts and resources that will support both log supply and the demand for products. Over the last decade, the amount of timber produced in the USA has also dropped dramatically, giving urban wood the potential to gain greater market share and act as a catalyst for new businesses and US timber production. Industry research also indicates that the growing popularity and profits associated with ‘buying local,’ the interest of big retailers in the specialty products of small businesses, and the demand for green building materials increasing at a rate of 13% per year, all position urban wood products to be a successful part of an economic renaissance.

GIVING MEANING AND MARKETING TO URBAN WOOD Portable band sawmills have a great advantage over large circular sawmills when working with urban trees. Their ability to travel to sites can eliminate logistical challenges and expenses of transporting or disposing of logs. For example, after hurricane Sandy, landfills were at full capacity, so many cities and towns across New York State designated parking lots for the staging of logs. Local sawyers were invited to come and mill what they wanted for free, but it still took months for many of those piles to diminish. The possibility of hitting metal, common in urban trees, is too expensive a risk for commercial circular sawmills. Metal can dull blades and slow down band saw production, but since the blades are inexpensive and easy to sharpen, that value can be recouped with proper marketing of the tree’s story and the wood’s character.

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Urban trees generally have lower branches and contain metal or other foreign objects, creating dramatic knots, colours, and grain. These unique characteristics, along with the tree’s history, are desirable to artisans, fabricators, interior designers and architects for the creation of furniture, flooring and other custom products. Documenting the tree’s story and providing pictures of its transformation into finished products adds value by making it more meaningful to the buyer.

LOOKING TO THE FUTURE “As my access to urban markets is one of NYH’s strengths, I am increasingly brokering wood for other local sawyers with a similar ethos. I see that in the same way that marketing and distribution hubs are being created to assist the success of small farmers, and local wood being the next ‘local food,’ there is needed support for the growing number of independent sawyers. My interest is in creating a for-profit model, in order to show that urban wood is good business that is both economically and ecologically successful. As our population grows, so does the amount of urban land in the United States. According to the Journal of Forestry, by 2050 the amount of urbanized areas is projected to increase from 3.1% in 2000 to 8.1%, a total of 392,400 km, which is larger than the state of Montana. With this, the production and sale of urban wood will also grow, and there will be more integration into municipal management systems. Innovation is happening on the ground – one mill at a time.”


TIMBER PRESERVATION

Understanding timber preservation Part 2: The deterioration of wood Depending on the conditions of service, timber may be attacked by one or more outside agencies, causing degrade. Proper design and preservation practice can eliminate or minimise such attack. FUNGI (DECAY) IS A PRINCIPAL CAUSE OF ATTACK Fungi are classified as a separate kingdom, with characteristics of both plants and animals, differing from plants in that they have no chlorophyll in their structure. They develop from minute spores and when germinated in suitable conditions, send out filaments called hyphae. These penetrate the wood structure and if suitable conditions exist, break down the wood tissues into simple chemical compounds on which they feed. Under favourable conditions, the development of attack can be rapid. Timber that is attacked by fungi is sometimes covered by a mass of intertwined and overlapping hyphae resembling cotton wool, collectively called mycelium. When the fungus is mature and conditions are suitable, it produces fruiting bodies (mushrooms) which are very different from those of normal garden plants. They can be microscopic or relatively large, either in the form of a fleshy plate standing out on edge from the decayed wood, or as a thick, flat skin covering part of the wood. Fungal spores are produced by the fruiting body in vast numbers and may be carried for considerable distances by air currents, animals, birds, etc. to other wood, where they will germinate if conditions are suitable.

FUNGI DEVELOP IF THESE CONDITIONS EXIST: • Moisture content suitable for their development • Adequate oxygen supply • A temperature range to suit their life cycle • Adequate nutrients • Sufficient Time Timber preservation is largely built around the nutrients; i.e., rendering the wood nutrient toxic, unpalatable or uninhabitable. There are two main groups of fungi that can cause decay in timber.

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Whilst some particular fungi may be representative of both groups, they are usually classified as either wooddestroying or wood-disfiguring fungi.

Severe fungal decay in window frame.

WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGI These fungi feed on the compounds of the cell wall and consequently can weaken the structure of the wood to such an extent that the wood breaks and crumbles away. Wood-destroying fungi can be subdivided into three groups:

A) BROWN ROTS: In this group, the fungi feed mainly on the lighter-coloured cellulose content of the cell wall and leave the darker lignin more or less intact. The timber, after attack, may become dark brown in appearance and as it dries, the surface can become badly broken by deep transverse and longitudinal cracks. Generally, apart from the colour and smell, this can give the appearance of wood that has been charred in a fire. The decayed timber usually feels very dry and is low in strength, light in weight, and burns easily. The most common brown rots are often found attacking softwood timbers and the lighter hardwoods.


TIMBER PRESERVATION

B) WHITE ROTS:

1. STAINING FUNGI

In the white rot type of fungi, the breakdown of the material forming the cell is more complex, since the cellulose and lignin are both attacked. The affected timber eventually becomes much lighter in colour and weight and loses its strength properties. Badly decayed timber does not crumble in the same way as that which has been attacked by the brown rots. The timber breaks down more in a longitudinal direction with a fibrous appearance, and there may be pockets of decayed wood between apparently sound areas. The transverse cracking found in the brown rot attack is generally absent.

The sapwood of most species of timber is susceptible to fungal staining, which can occur in both logs and sawn timber – especially in climatic conditions of warmth and humidity. Although staining fungi may be the only ones present initially, true decay fungal attack may follow unless control is initiated. One of the most commonly occurring stains is referred to as ‘sapstain’ or blue stain, and usually manifests itself as a blue-black, blue-grey, brownish or purplish discolouration of the timber. Freshly felled softwoods are particularly susceptible and in cases of severe attack, the entire sapwood may be stained. Staining is generally caused by fungi that depend on sugars and starches present in the wood rays, and rarely utilise the lignin or cellulose as in the case of wood decay fungi. It should be noted that chemical stains (as opposed to fungal stains) can occur in timber with a high tannin content, when in contact with such metals as iron, copper or copper alloys.

C) SOFT ROTS: This group is typically found in wet situations such as cooling towers and wood in contact with the ground. The physical and chemical character of the form of wood cell attack caused by the group of fungi responsible for soft rot, differs markedly from that of the decay types described above. Decomposition commonly results from the organism making longitudinal cavities in, and parallel to, the axis of the cell wall. In wet wood, its presence is evident if surface layers are soft and may be readily scraped away. When dry, surfaces will exhibit a profusion of fine cracks and fissures – both with and across the grain. Microscopic examination would reveal the characteristic cell wall cavities. Hardwoods are thought to be naturally more susceptible to this form of degrade than softwoods, although no wood is completely resistant.

An example of fungal attack of a transmission pole. Fungi may discolour wood or destroy its structure, reducing its strength and causing the wood to become brittle.

2. MOULDS This form of disfigurement is caused by fungi that produce a powdery or woolly mycelial growth and masses of spores at the timber surface. The most common colours of these surface moulds are black, shades of green, brown, and occasionally orange. The moulds that cause disfigurement are most severe on sapwood, particularly that with a high carbohydrate content. Mould fungi are very similar in all other important aspects to staining fungi; i.e., colonisation, proliferation, nutrient requirements and limited or no capacity to utilise the cellulose and lignin content of the timber, thus having negligible effect on the strength of the timber. As with fungal stains, the activities of moulds may increase the permeability of woods to fluids. Obviously, the consequence of this is that the affected timber absorbs moisture more rapidly and favours the development of fungal decay. Generally, mould fungi are more tolerant to preservative chemicals than staining or decay fungi, which is why moulds sometimes appear on treated timber. Nevertheless, most of the chemicals used for stain control will deal adequately with moulds also. Since moulds are usually superficial, they can be readily removed by brushing or planing, though shallow spot staining on some hardwood commodities such as plywood face veneers, may occur.

WOOD-DISFIGURING FUNGI Some wood colonising fungi, whilst having little or no effect on the strength of timber, can reduce the commercial value by adversely affecting its appearance.

FUNGI OF THIS TYPE FALL INTO TWO CATEGORIES: Fruiting bodies of mature fungi on wood.

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TIMBER PRESERVATION

ANOTHER PRINCIPAL CAUSE OF ATTACK: WOOD BORERS Practically all timbers, under certain conditions, may be attacked by wood borers of one sort or another. Infestation by some wood borers may be of little or no significance, whereas attack by other borers may be serious and necessitate remedial action. Wood borers are beetles that, at some stage of their development, bore into wood for food or shelter. Beetles pass through four distinct stages of development: egg, larva, pupa and adult. With the majority of wood borers, the major damage to wood material is done by larvae that actively tunnel in the timber from which they derive their nourishment. With some exceptions, the only damage they cause as adult beetles is the cutting of a flight- or emergence hole through the surface of the timber as they escape from it. After emergence, they usually live for only a few weeks. After mating, the females may re-infest the timber from which they emerged.

1. THE LYCTID BORERS Lyctid borers infest the sapwood of susceptible hardwood timbers at between 8% and 25% moisture content, but never the heartwood. The susceptibility of the various species of hardwood is determined by two factors – starch content and pore (vessel) size. Female Lyctid beetles lay their eggs beneath the surface of the wood by inserting their ovipositor into the pores. Any species in which the pores are too small to accommodate the ovipositor will be immune from attack. Equally, if otherwise susceptible timber contains insufficient starch, there will be little or no larval development – and that particular piece may be less damaged.

Lyctid attack can be serious. Symptoms are surface holes with digested wood as a fine flour-like powder.

Severe Anobiid attack to softwood shelving.

2. THE ANOBIID BORERS There are a number of Anobiid species that are important, the best known being the Common Furniture Beetle. Although a high moisture content is not essential, the Furniture Beetle prefers rather damp, humid conditions. Flooring attack is most severe in those houses where subfloor ventilation is insufficient. Pine is technically susceptible, but instances of its infestation are rare, being usually limited to material of high moisture content. Old furniture is commonly infested, particularly pieces such as pianos and cupboards with plywood backing made from softwood veneers. The female beetle lays its eggs in cracks and crevices in susceptible timber and also on the rough surface of unprotected end grain. The larval period lasts 1-3 years and attack can be serious, because, once initiated, it is unlikely to cease or die out of its own accord. Symptoms are surface holes with digested wood as a granular powder.

3. CERAMBYCID BORERS Also known as Longhorn Beetles, most of the 13 000 species belonging to this family are forest insects. Only a few attack timber whilst seasoning or when used in buildings. One species is, however, particularly worthy of mention.

The symptoms of Lyctus (Powder-Post Beetle) attack are surface holes and, in most instances, the presence of digested wood, which appears as a fine flour-like powder. Only the sapwood of certain hardwoods is susceptible to Lyctid attack. Because heartwood is never attacked, structural weakening can be caused only to those building timbers that have a large sapwood content, e.g. Eucalyptus, Saligna Poles. Where timbers (often with a very wide band of Lyctid-susceptible sapwood) are used for building,

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An attack by Hylotrupes, commonly known as the European House Borer. There are normally no signs of damage until exit holes appear.


Pressure Treated Timber Timber with a moisture content below 20% cannot rot. This may not always be possible when used outside in exposed conditions as it requires proper application and maintenance of a suitable penetrating and water repellent wood sealer. The options are to use either naturally durable but expensive exotic hardwoods, or less costly locally grown non-durable Pine or Eucalyptus (gum) timber or poles, that have been pressure treated with a suitable wood preservative to the desired exposure or hazard class.

The H class system is a guide to help you buy the correctly treated timber for your project. Be sure to look for the required H class on the timber as well as one of the two quality marks given below.

Sustainable Timber Resource Timber is the most sustainable building product available to man. It’s naturally renewable. Over 90% of plantations grown in South Africa are FSC® certified.

Hazard classes: H2— dry interior above ground H3— exterior above ground H4— in ground contact H5— in contact with fresh water and wet soil H6— in contact with marine waters

For more information on preservative treated timber, or where to find a SAWPA member, contact us on 011 974 1061 or sawpa@global.co.za or visit our website at www.sawpa.co.za

A member of


TIMBER PRESERVATION

A) SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES Subterranean termites are soft-bodied insects, by nature ill-equipped to survive in the open because they lose moisture and die from dehydration. They conserve their moisture by working within a self-contained, enclosed gallery system. Typically, with the species that commonly attack timber in service, the nest from which the attack originates will be in a tree or a partially decayed piece of wood buried or half-buried in the ground. From the nest, foraging galleries will be tunnelled through the surrounding soil to useful food sources. The interior of susceptible timber will be eaten out, without perforating the surface layers and exposing the termites to the atmosphere. Sometimes the excavated wood is replaced by a honeycomb structure of digested matter, through which the insects can move quite freely. Alternatively and notably, in timbers with well-defined annual rings, the termites might eat out the early wood, leaving concentric rings of the denser late wood more or less untouched.

Severe subterranean termite damage to building timbers.

Hylotrupes Bajulus is also known as the European House Borer. In South Africa it is referred to as the Italian Beetle, because it’s believed that it was introduced into South Africa in timber packing cases that contained marble imported from Italy. It was as a result of infestation by this borer that regulations, initially under the forest act and later in the building regulations, were promulgated to prevent the spread of these and other pests. Hylotrupes Bajulus is located in the coastal and warmer low-lying areas of South Africa, with exceptional seriousness in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape. It attacks the sapwood of softwood with no visible symptoms until exit holes appear.

TERMITES Termite (white ant) damage is accepted as a significant risk to building and other structural timbers in most parts of South Africa. Wherever there is a risk of termite attack, it is wise to take some precautions. For buildings, these precautions usually take the form of chemically treated soil barriers or physical barriers, and the use of properly preservative-treated timber. There are many varieties of termites and borers encountered in various localities, and there appears no reason to think that the areas affected are not spreading. Like bees and some ants, termites Termites can cause are social insects living in severe damage to timber. colonies. Some species, in a mature colony, may contain several million individuals, whereas with other species, numbers seldom exceed more than a few hundred.

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When lightly tapped, infested wood often has a "papery" sound. If probed, the thin surface is easily broken to expose the gallery system beneath. Obviously, the presence of live termites in a freshly exposed gallery indicates active attack. A deserted gallery could mean old attack from a colony which might or might not still be active, or a foraging area that has been disturbed to such an extent that it has been (temporarily or permanently) abandoned by an active colony. Subterranean termites are not found throughout South Africa, but are limited to an area north of the Great Kei River in the east and the Olifants River in the west.

B) DRY WOOD TERMITES Dry wood termites occur throughout the tropics and the sub-tropics of the world. A few species extend into the warmer temperate regions. Some live in dry, sound wood; some live in the dead wood of living trees, apparently depending upon moisture from the living portions; and some live in damp wood. Those species that live in dry wood, or at least, in wood not especially moist, are spoken of collectively as dry wood termites. Those of greatest known economic importance belong to the genus Cryptotermes, popularly known as powder-post termites. Only two species of Cryptotermes have so far been found infesting buildings in South Africa. One of these, Cryptotermes brevis, is an exotic species introduced into, and established in, Durban. It is now of considerable economic importance. The second species Cryptotermes merwei - is an indigenous species distributed along the coastal belt from Durban to Port Elizabeth. Whereas C. brevis is essentially a domestic species and is found infesting timber within buildings only, C. merwei has only been found infesting outdoor timbers.


TIMBER PRESERVATION

MARINE BORERS Marine borers can be divided into two main classifications: the Molluscs and the Crustaceans. Marine borers are distributed along the South African seaboard and are found all over the world. They can be most active in the warm waters of the tropic zones, particularly in large river estuaries where the lower salinity is more conducive to their growth.

1. THE MOLLUSCS Commonly known as ‘shipworm’ because of their wormlike appearance, the molluscs produce eggs that hatch in the sea and attach themselves to a piece of wood. They bore into it leaving only a tiny hole on the surface, growing larger as they feed, and therefore boring larger tunnels. If a mass of molluscs attacks a wooden pile that is of a susceptible species and has not been preservative treated, it may be completely eaten away within three months. The Teredo is the most prevalent and destructive species and will attack most timbers. Mollusc attack is recognized by the very long round tunnels that riddle the inside of the timbers (often leaving the surface intact) and by the smooth, shell-like coating in the tunnels.

The Limnoria species or gribble make small shallow holes in timber and cause erosion of the wood surface. The crustaceans are not as prevalent and do not attack as rapidly as the molluscs. Their attack is similar to that of dry-wood borers, with irregular holes or galleries in the wood, and the damage is not concealed like that of the molluscs. They work mostly between high and low watermark, often eating the pile away until it develops an ‘hourglass’ appearance. They breed irregularly, the female laying eggs in the wood and the larvae attacking the wood in which they occur, very rarely travelling very far from it.

FIRE

Piling attacked by marine borers.

2. CRUSTACEA Commonly known as ‘gribbles,’ Crustacea includes the species Limnoria, Sphaeroma and Chilura. In form, some species like Chilura resemble the prawn, while others like Sphaeroma resemble the wood louse or slater.

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Wood is naturally consumed by fire. Its use as a fuel and as a source of charcoal is well known. This does not mean that wood is an unsafe building material; rather, the reverse is true. Wood is a good insulator; hence fire is a surface phenomenon. The core of wooden beams maintains a low temperature, sustaining the natural strength of wood. Large beams and structures, while burning, will continue to hold up a building during a fire. Compare this with steel which becomes hot, loses strength, sags and collapses suddenly. Wood has a well-known char rate typically 0.6mm/min; hence design for fire can be accommodated. However, wood can continue to burn after a heating fire source is removed, hence the use of anti-glow agents. These cause the fire and glow to extinguish. Other chemicals can inhibit the ignition of wood by fire and can inhibit or slow up the spread of flames. Improved fire resistance and fire retardancy are valid wood protection processes. Most casualties in burning buildings are caused by toxic fumes emitted by burning fittings and furnishings. Serious injuries from the collapse of fire-damaged structural timber are virtually unknown.


TIMBER PRESERVATION

WEATHERING Timber is liable to breakdown by weathering. Ultraviolet radiation present in sunlight has a strong, degrading effect on the wood substance, particularly in the presence of moisture. This effect is responsible for the familiar grey discolouration to which exposed timbers are subjected.

South Africa

However, since ultra- violet radiation cannot penetrate timbers to any depth, this is purely a surface effect mainly of aesthetic significance. More serious breakdown is caused by the periodic movement of moisture into and out of the timber. As the cell wall takes up and releases moisture, it swells and shrinks, and continuous repetition may cause the bonds between the wood fibres to weaken, so that minute checks or cracks are formed. Unless the process of swelling and shrinking is inhibited by some form of protection, these cracks may enlarge until the timber becomes both visually unattractive and perhaps structurally unsound. The greatest danger of weathering is that the persistent presence of moisture may promote decay.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS SAWPA gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the Timber Preservers Association of Australia (TPAA) towards this article. SAWPA is an organisation comprising timber treaters, suppliers of preservatives, as well as organisations, institutions and individuals with a mutual interest in timber preservation and the use of preservativetreated timber. SAWPA promotes the benefits of timber preservation, assists in the establishment of and adherence to standard specifications for preservative treatment of timber, and supports the maintenance of standards in all sectors of the preservation industry. SAWPA is a facilitator to the industry and an information centre for both consumer and industry affairs.

..The point of a making a one-of-a-kind deck is to produce a work of art that’s an expression of you ...and you alone.

Abu Camp, Botswana For more information, visit www.sawpa.co.za.

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Distributors throughout Africa


TOOLS & MACHINERY

Experience cordless power Experience the power, versatility and convenience of battery power. The STIHL MSA 200 C-BQ cordless chainsaw is a compact, lightweight yet powerful piece of equipment that is ideal for professional craftsmen, landscapers and DIY enthusiasts, and as it is battery-operated, it can be used anywhere, any time. ITS MANY ADVANTAGES INCLUDE: VERSATILITY This is the most powerful battery-operated chainsaw made by STIHL, suited to multiple applications and tasks for both professional and home users (cutting up firewood and fallen branches and other property maintenance, craftwork, woodwork, and general DIY activities), while weighing less than 4kg with guide bar and chain and excluding the battery. It is powered by a Lithium-ion battery for convenient use wherever it is needed. It is also emission-free and low noise, making it ideal for use in enclosed spaces or in noise-sensitive areas such as residential gardens and public parks, hospital and school grounds, etc.

SAFETY & COMFORT The MSA 200 C-BQ has the traditional safety and comfort features that users have come to expect from STIHL, including the QuickStop Super Chain Brake and a lowvibration, low kickback PM3 chain. The ergonomically shaped handle and rear control handle with soft-grip component ensure safe use in all operating positions.

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Added benefits include the chain quick tensioning system which makes it very easy to tension the chain, and a toolless filler cap. And because it low on noise, the MSA 200 C-BQ can safely be used without ear protection.

MAINTENANCE The MSA 200 C-BQ has an extremely energy-efficient brushless electric motor (EC), which is lightweight and compact. It runs quietly, generates very low vibrations and does not require servicing. The STIHL Ematic chain lubrication system provides maximum lubrication, longer wear and less oil consumption than conventional methods of chain lubrication, reducing possible oil consumption by up to 50%. STIHL power tools and equipment are only available through a network of specialist retailers, who offer detailed advice on the operation and maintenance of the STIHL products they supply. Robust performance, astute design features, an internationally proven reputation for excellence, and a solid and dedicated after-sales-service and maintenance network make STIHL a great choice for professionals and home users alike.


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PROJECT FEATURE

Nest We Grow Memu Meadows, 158-1 Memu Taiki-cho, Hiro-gun Hokkaido, Japan


PROJECT FEATURE

Nest We Grow In response to an international design-build competition, a forward-thinking group of students proposed a quintessentially Californian approach, embracing many ideas still new to Asia -- from where most of them hail.

T

hose Californian ideas formed into ‘Nest We Grow,’ which grew from a shared interest in the materials that make up our build environment, with a focus on renewable materials. In this project feature we learn from team leader Hsiu Wei Chang how their vision became a reality. “Our team of graduate students, comprised of two Taiwanese, two Chinese, and two American, sought to examine what structural and material elements we could combine to create this community and food-oriented space. We recognized how modest materials and actions are celebrated in Berkeley and wanted to explore their implications in Asia. Our initial research started with techniques we find readily in California, including rammed-earth walls and straw bale construction. We presented these ideas in pursuit of a building that would introduce renewable building techniques to an area of Japan that could take advantage of these concepts. What we found was an appreciation for the difficulty of applying transnational technology in a new environment.

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE “We also focused on a heavy timber construction technique coming from the US, which uses large sections of wood. In Japan this translated to the composite column, which uses smaller pieces of wood to generate a larger column.

Nest We Grow won the 4th Annual LIXIL International designbuild competition in 2014, and unlike structures built in the first years of the competition, it is an open, public structure. Its main intent is to bring people in the community together to store, prepare and enjoy local foods in the setting of Hokkaido, Japan.

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PROJECT FEATURE


PROJECT FEATURE

slope roof: transparent curragated panel 450

2100

2100

2100

2100

450 +10.100

+10.100

850

+9.250

operable skylight window gutter

+9.000

exterior envelope: translucent curragated panel

2200

rope

Fluorecent Light

Log (D=100~150mm)

+7.050

+6.958

sliding window: translucent curragated panel 2200

+4.800

handrail: rope

Chain

+4.850

+4.758

Hemp Rope

+4.600

Wood Block 2200

Iron Pot

Hemp Rope (D=10mm)

Trunk Seat

+3.360

+2.650

+2.550

wood panel

+2.400 2400

concrete wall wood table concrete footing concrete stool packed soil

+0.250

+0.300

±0.000 1020

2100

2100

2100

2100

1020 0

500

1000

2000 mm

A-A SECTION SECTION A-A

It took considerable effort to identify a way to join materials, which was influenced by both local carpentry practices and the Japanese material market. We were also under a considerable time constraint with the entire building process taking only six months to complete. “The wood frame structure mimics the vertical spatial experience of a Japanese larch forest from which food is hung to grow and dry. A tea platform in the middle of the nest creates a gathering space where the community can visually and physically enjoy food around a sunken fireplace. Local foods make up the elevation of the Nest as people see the food forest floating above the landform. “The wall at the base of the building, in addition to creating a micro topography, helps to block the prevailing north-west winter wind. The Nest takes advantage of the transparent plastic corrugated sheets on the façade and roof, allowing light in for the plants, and heating the space during colder months, extending the usability of the Nest. Sliding panels in the façade and roof open to facilitate air movement through the structure during the summer and warmer parts of the day. The tea platform sits up into the Nest, keeping it in the warm air created by the skin during the colder months, and in a cross-ventilated area during the warm summer months.

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PROJECT FEATURE


PROJECT FEATURE

SUMMER Summer

WINTER Winter

NORTHWEST northwest PREVAILING WIND prevailing wind

72

25

O

O 6

5

4

3

2

1

feet

-1

-2

6

-3

5

Eggplant

Lettuce

Cabbage

Pumpkin

Wheat

Soy Bean

Tomato

Blue Honeysuckle

Beet Daikon Radish Potato Cucumber Watermelon Buckwheat

4

3

2

1

feet

-1

-2

-3

Eggplant EGGPLANT

Lettuce LETTUCE

Cabbage CABBAGE

Pumpkin PUMPKIN

Wheat WHEAT

East EAST

Tomato BLUE BlueHONEYSUCKLE Honeysuckle BEET Beet DAIKON Daikon RADISH Radish POTATO Potato Cucumber CUCUMBER Watermelon WATERMELON Buckwheat BUCKWHEAT TOMATO

NORTH North

East

Growing GROWING

SoyBEAN Bean SOY

WEST West

North

Harvesting HARVESTING

SOUTH South

West

Storing STORING

South

Cooking//DINING Dining COOKING

Composting COMPOSTING

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PROJECT FEATURE


PROJECT FEATURE

“The program of the Nest is decided according to the life cycle of these local foods: growing, harvesting, storing, cooking/dining, and composting, which restarts the cycle. All members of the community help to complete each stage, allowing the structure to become a platform for group learning and gathering activities in the Nest throughout the year. Community participation extends and completes the life cycle of local foods, which is a symbiotic relationship. This is the timeline of people and food in the Nest, and this is the Nest for people and food.”

Picture owned by Stora Enso

“The openness of the façade allows the building to incorporate the surrounding natural environment into the interior climate, but can also be closed off to create a buffer between the two. The funnel-shaped roof harvests rain water and snow melt. The collected water is delivered to tanks that are then used to irrigate the plants in the concrete wall. The shape signifies the Nest’s ability to bring nature in the form of air, water and light into the Nest.

PROJECT PARTICULARS CLIENT: LIXIL JS Foundation COMPLETION DATE: November 2014 DESIGN GROUP: College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley: Hsiu Wei Chang, Hsin-Yu Chen, Fanzheng Dong, Yan Xin Huang, Baxter Smith, Max Edwards (Instructors: Dana Buntrock, Mark Anderson) PROJECT SUPERVISOR: Kengo Kuma & Associates, Takumi Saikawa STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Masato Araya MECHANICAL ENGINEER: Tomonari Yashiro Laboratory at the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo / Bumpei Magori, Yu Morishita CONTRACTOR: Takahashi Construction Company FLOOR AREA: 85,4m2 PHOTO CREDIT: Shinkenchiku-sha Co., Ltd.

GLULAM

TIMBER

FINGER JOINT BEAMS OSB

SAWMILL

CEILING AND FLOORING

HWZ International SA Pty (Ltd.) www.hwz.co.za capetown@hwzinternational.com m.detko@hwzinternational.com gareth.hare@ifatimber.co.za

OfÞce Product specialist Distribution partner

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// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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FOREST MANAGEMENT

Secrets of a forest Exactly what qualifies as a forest - ten trees, a hundred trees, or perhaps a thousand? No. A forest is created when two trees' crowns are touching. Article compiled by: Staff writer CelĂŠste Perrin With input and content oversight provided by Dr John Scotcher, Environmental Consultant for Forestry SA

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FOREST MANAGEMENT

A

surprising fact perhaps, but a definition aptly granted to afford protection and prevent precious trees from summarily being cut down. Today in South Africa most of the timbers used for trade and commercial purposes (such as construction) are ‘alien’ species; in other words, they are not indigenous timbers that are found naturally within our country, but were introduced from other countries at some past point. Nowadays grown mostly in Kwa-Zulu Natal and Mpumalanga, but with some spread across the Western Cape and Southern Cape as well, these timber plantations cover approximately 1.2 – 1.3 million hectares of land – but are not subject to any regulatory conservation programmes. They are, however, subject to a number of environmental laws, such as the need to use water lawfully in terms of the National Water Act, the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, the National Forests Act, the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (alien and invasive species regulations), the EIA regulations for new afforestation, and the National Heritage Resources Act. On the other hand, indigenous timber species and forests are protected under the National Forests Act, 1998 (Act No. 84 of 1998). It is unlawful to cut down any protected tree, just as it is unlawful to cut down indigenous forests to make space for forest plantations or any other form of land use or land development. Interestingly enough, many alien plantations host indigenous trees within the forest management unit, and it is not uncommon to find the foresters employing stringent conservation programmes to protect the natural timber species. But responsible forestry wasn’t always the norm. Until roundabout the 1850s, South Africa’s indigenous forests were being managed unsustainably until the government of the day made allowances for the introduction of alien species. This gradually alleviated some of the pressure on our natural timbers and, over time and as regulatory protection of indigenous species evolved, proper forestry management programmes also started being implemented. Today about 80% of plantations in South Africa are Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified.

STAMP OF APPROVAL Using ‘certified’ timber means the timber bears the mark of an exacting certification system that verifies its lawful origin, that it was grown and harvested in a responsible manner, and complies with all the statutory requirements for health, safety and labour practices. Put another way – certified timber provides the reassurance that the timber was not illegally logged.

Forest certification attests to responsible, sustainable forest management practices, and Chain-of-Custody Certification confirms that timber has passed lawful hands in a legitimate manner throughout the supply chain. The three leading certification systems used worldwide today, recognized because they are independent third-party programmes, are: • SFI – the Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (most widely used in North America and Canada) www.sfiprogram.org • PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (favoured by smaller forest owners as well) www.pefc.org • FSC - Forest Stewardship Council (probably the best known certification programme, also well supported in South Africa) https://ic.fsc.org At present there is no South African law in place to ensure that timber imported from overseas countries into South Africa was sourced legally or from sustainable forests, and the trade in exotic hardwoods, hugely popular, is unregulated. This is unfortunate, but, as with most matters of importance that require change, the impetus arguable lies in education and voluntary cooperation, not forced mandates. And whilst the responsible consumer is becoming ever-more informed and environmentally conscious, the timber trade plays a pivotal role in supporting the use of certified timber.

PROTECTING THAT MOST WORTHY The Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries publishes an annual list of all protected trees under section 12(1) (d) of the National Forests Act. More specifically, “In terms of section 15(1) of the National Forests Act, 1998, no person may cut, disturb, damage or destroy any protected tree or possess, collect, remove, transport, export, purchase, sell, donate or in any other manner acquire or dispose of any protected tree or any product derived from a protected tree, except under a license or exemption granted by the Minister to an applicant and subject to such period and conditions as may be stipulated.” Contravention of this declaration is considered a first category offense, and persons found guilty could be sentenced to a fine or imprisonment for up to three years, or to both a fine and imprisonment. Herewith the list of protected tree species under the Department’s notice number 908, as published in the Government Gazette dated 21 November 2014 under Schedule A:

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PROTECTED TREES SPECIES

ENGLISH COMMON NAMES

BOTANICAL NAME Acacia erioloba

Camel thorn

Acacia haematoxylon

Grey camel thorn

Adansonia digitata

Baobab

Afzelia quanzensis

Pod mahogany

Balanites subsp. maughamii

Torchwood

Barringtonia racemosa

AFRIKAANS (A), SEPEDI (P), SESOTHO (S), SETSWANA (T), TSHIVENDA (V), ISIXHOSA (X), ISIZULU(Z)

OTHER COMMON NAMES

NATIONAL TREE NUMBER

Kameeldoring (A)/Mogohlo (NS)/Mogôtlhô (T)

168

Vaalkameeldoring (A)/Mokholo (T)

169

Kremetart (A)/Seboi (NS)/Mowana (T)

467

Peulmahonie (A)/Mutokota (V)/Inkehli (Z)

207

Groendoring (A)/Ugobandlovu (Z)

251

Powder-puff tree

Poeierkwasboom (A)/Iboqo (Z)

524

Boscia albitrunca

Shepherd’s tree

Witgat (A)/Mohlôpi (NS)/Motlhôpi (T)/Muvhombwe (V)/ Umgqomogqomo (X)/Umvithi (Z)

122

Brachystegia spiciformis

Msasa

Msasa (A)

198.1

Mingerhout (A)/Mohlomê (NS)/Mutu-lume (V)/Umfomfo (Z)

684

Swartwortelboom (A)/isiKhangati (X)/isiHlobane (Z)

527

Breonadia salicina

Matumi

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza

Black mangrove

Cassipourea swaziensis

Swazi onionwood

Catha edulis

Bushman’s tea

Ceriops tagal

Indian mangrove

Cleistanthus schlechteri var. schlechteri

False tamboti

Colubrina nicholsonii

Pondo weeping thorn

Combretum imberbe

Leadwood

Curtisia dentata

Assegai

Elaeodendron transvaalensis

Bushveld saffron

Erythrophysa transvaalensis

Bushveld red balloon

Euclea pseudebenus

Ebony guarri

Ficus trichopoda

Swamp fig

Leucadendron argenteum

Silver tree

Lumnitzera racemosa var. racemosa

Tonga mangrove

Lydenburgia abbottii

Pondo bushman’s tea

Lydenburgia cassinoides

Sekhukhuni bushman’s tea

Mimusops caffra

Coastal red milkwood

Newtonia hildebrandtii var. hildebrandtii

Lebombo wattle

Ocotea bullata

Stinkwood

Ozoroa namaquensis

Gariep resin tree

Philenoptera violacea

Apple-leaf

Pittosporum viridiflorum

Cheesewood

Podocarpus elongatus

Breede River yellowwood

Podocarpus falcatus (Afrocarpus falcatus)

Outeniqua yellowwood

Podocarpus henkelii

Henkel’s yellowwood

Podocarpus latifolius

Real yellowwood

Protea comptonii

Saddleback sugarbush

Protea curvata

Serpentine sugarbush

Prunus africana

Red stinkwood

Pterocarpus angolensis

Wild teak

Rhizophora mucronata

Red mangrove

Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra

Marula

Securidaca longepedunculata

Voilet tree

Sideroxylon inerme subsp. inerme

White milkwood

Tephrosia pondoensis Warburgia salutaris

Swazi-uiehout (A)

531.1

Boesmanstee (A)/Mohlatse (NS)/Igqwaka (X)/Umhlwazi (Z)

404

Indiese wortelboom (A)/isinkaha (Z)

525

Bastertambotie (A)/Umzithi (Z)

320

Pondo-treurdoring (A)

453.8

Hardekool (A)/Mohwelere-tšhipi (NS)/Motswiri (T)/ Impondondlovu (Z)

539

Assegaai (A)/Umgxina (X)/Umagunda (Z)

570

Bosveld-saffraan (A)/Monomane (T)/Ingwavuma (Z)

416

Bosveld-rooiklapperbos (A)/Mofalatsane (T)

436.2

Ebbeboom-ghwarrie (A)

598

Moerasvy (A)/Umvubu (Z)

54

Silwerboom (A)

77

Tonga-wortelboom (A)/isiKhaha-esibomvu (Z)

552

Pondo-boesmanstee (A)

407

Sekhukhuni-boesmanstee (A)

406

Kusrooimelkhout (A)/Umthunzi (X)/Umkhakhayi (Z)

583

Lebombo-wattel (A)/Umfomothi (Z)

191

Stinkhout (A)/Umhlungulu (X)/Umnukane (Z)

118

Gariep-harpuisboom (A)

373.2

Appelblaar (A)/Mphata (NS)/Mohata (T)/isiHomohomo (Z)

238

Kasuur (A)/Kgalagangwe (NS)/ Umkhwenkwe (X)/Umfusamvu (Z)

139

Breëriviergeelhout (A)

15

Outniekwageelhout (A)/Mogôbagôba (NS)/Umkhoba (X)/ Umsonti (Z)

16

Henkel se geelhout (A)/Umsonti (X)/Umsonti (Z)

17

Regte-geelhout (A)/ Mogôbagôba (NS)/Umcheya (X)/ Umkhoba (Z)

18

Barberton-suikerbos (A)

88

Serpentynsuikerbos (A)

88.1

Rooistinkhout (A)/Umkhakhase (X)/Umdumezulu (Z)

147

Kiaat (A)/Morôtô (NS)/Mokwa (T)/Mutondo (V)/Umvangazi (Z)

236

Rooiwortelboom (A)/isiKhangathi (X)/Umhlume (Z)

526

Maroela (A)/Morula (NS)/Morula (T)/Umganu (Z)

360

Krinkhout (A)/Mmaba (T)

303

Witmelkhout (A)/Ximafana (X)/Umakhwelafingqane (Z)

579

Pondo poison pea

Pondo-gifertjie (A)

226.1

Pepper-bark tree

Peperbasboom (A)/Molaka (NS)/Mulanga (V)/ isiBaha (Z)

488

Widdringtonia cedarbergensis

Clanwilliam ceder

Clanwilliamseder (A)

19

Widdringtonia schwarzii

Willowmore ceder

Baviaanskloofseder (A)

21

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AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015 //


WORKING FOR WOOD

Working for the environment...working for wood

In his Budget Vote speech this year, Gauteng MEC for Economic Development, Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Lebogang Maile, included tree planting as part of his department's commitment to drive sustainability. Here is an extract from his speech. “In line with the SOPA commitment to build clean and environmentally sustainable development corridors, we will intensify the Bontle ke Botho campaign. Our aim is to inspire a mass movement for a clean, environmentally sustainable and beautiful city region that has presence in every township and community. This campaign will mobilise citizens to become champions for environmental protection. It will be defined by tree planting, the establishment of nurseries in townships, river clean-ups, rehabilitation of dumping sites into outdoor gyms and playgrounds, and recycling of waste by sorting at source. We will work closely with the Department of Education, community-based organisations and environmental groups to ensure that the youth are the primary messengers for a

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clean and green Gauteng. In September, the campaign will be rolled out in every township and every school. It will be defined by activities such as Environmental Camps and Competitions for schools, province-wide clean-up campaigns, relays, and the establishment of waste warriors and cadets in every ward, neighbourhood and township. Together with local government, we will continue to sensitise communities to the economic benefits of waste recycling by establishing three buy-back centres and Working for Waste depots in Sedibeng, Ekurhuleni, Tshwane and West Rand. Twenty thousand (20,000) trees will be planted in Tembisa township as part of our climate change mitigation strategy.�


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TREE FARMING PROJECT

Many of the small growers are women who are able to support their families with the income from their harvests.

When money does grow on trees All parents are used to telling their children that money doesn't grow on trees. However, in the case of Sappi's Project Grow in South Africa, the old adage has been thoroughly challenged.

T

he critically important role of the pulp, paper and forestry industry to the growth, development and rural stability of the country cannot be underestimated. Sappi Southern Africa is an integrated forest products company meeting the needs of domestic as well as international customers through a wide range of products. Sappi is one of the major economic contributors in Southern Africa, where the company operates a number of its business units. Sappi Forests’ own plantations are supplemented by timber under contract from small grower suppliers. Many of these growers belong to Project Grow – a tree farming project founded by Sappi in 1983, enabling members of the community to become self-sufficient by contributing to the economic growth and upliftment of their communities.

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PROJECT GROW The project has proven that there is tremendous opportunity for small communal growers, who were once subsistence farmers, to positively impact the value chain of the forestry industry. Over the years, as the project expanded, it has come to include community forestry projects as well as forestry projects granted to land reform beneficiaries. From this project – which has an 80% participation rate by women – more than 100 SMMEs have been established, creating more than 1,100 additional rural jobs.


TREE FARMING PROJECT

Project Grow has led to the establishment of more than 100 SMMEs, creating more than 1,100 additional rural jobs, with a 80% participation rate by women. A few years after planting her land to gum trees, she had her first harvest, and was astonished by the remuneration she received from the timber. It was with this revenue that she could finally build a substantial house for herself and her family. Today it proudly stands on the land adjacent to her original one-roomed mud and wood home.

Hauling harvested timber to the depots is just one example of forestry value chain enterprises which have emerged thanks to small-scale forestry in rural areas.

Project Grow plays a key role in assisting emerging rural farmers to enter the formal economy on a sustainable basis.

SUCCESS STORY Mrs Anna Msweli, a 77 year-old widow who lives in the Sokhulu area near KwaMbonambi on the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast, is just one example of the many successes that have been achieved with this project. Before she planted her first crop of trees in December 2000, she lived off her pension benefits and vegetables grown only for the consumption of her family. Life wasn’t easy; as a single parent and grandparent, Anna also had to take care of her children and grandchildren. She and her family lived in a small, one-roomed hut with clay walls and a thatched roof. After hearing about Project Grow and how others had benefited from it, she enquired about her stretch of land and whether it would be suitable for the project. It was, and Anna began her participation in the project. She had no idea how her life would change for the better.

Moreover, Anna has not just been able to take care of herself well into her retirement days, but she also provides food and shelter for her children and her grandchildren. “Everything changed after that first harvest. I built the beautiful brick and mortar house I live in – I even sleep in a proper bed now. I also fenced the property to provide us with security, and when my daughter got married in a big tent in the garden, it was the proceeds from Project Grow that funded it,” said Anna, with a look of fulfilment on her face. Anna is a true testament to the success of Project Grow; she continues to plant and grow gum trees on her land with great vigour. Being involved with Project Grow awards Anna a sense of achievement, not only because it enables her to adequately provide for her family, but also because she can give back to her community by granting friends and neighbours employment. Since 1983, almost 10,000 farmers have benefited from Project Grow and over 100 small and medium businesses have been established by community members, generating more than 1,100 jobs. To date, more than R800 million has been paid to the growers for the timber they have delivered to Sappi. Project Grow plays a key role in assisting emerging rural farmers to enter the formal economy on a sustainable basis, thus relieving rural communities of their reliance on the natural indigenous environment for commodities such as fuel and building materials. With Project Grow, the farmers are provided with free seedlings and technical advice, and a market is guaranteed when the trees are harvested.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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TIMBER PROFILE

Anaheim Jacarandas, California – Photograph by Frank Reyes.

Wood works

The Jacaranda joule

In this issue we take a closer look at the versatile wood produced by the beautiful Jacaranda tree -- a persistent grower not welcomed everywhere, but with a lot to offer. Article by: Stephanie Dyer, Timber Information Services

JOSTLING FOR POSITION Jacaranda, although native to South and Central America, is planted all over the world in dry and subtropical climates. It is believed to have been introduced into the Cape region of South Africa in the early 19 th century by Baron Heinrich von Ludwig, a snuff merchant. For many years it was a popular tree for planting in gardens, parks and along streets throughout South Africa, largely because of its spectacular spring show of mauve-blue flowers. Tshwane (Pretoria) is known as the Jacaranda City because of the transformation that takes place in the city when the Jacarandas are in flower. However, due to its habit of invading natural areas in South Africa, Jacaranda was declared an invasive species (a Category 3 Invader) in 2001, which means that it may not be planted. It is also a declared invasive species in Queensland, Australia.

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Jacaranda mimosifolia – Photograph by mauroguanandi.


TIMBER PROFILE

Jacaranda mimosifolia sample, treated. Photograph by Peter Upfold.

JAUNTILY JACARANDA The wood of Jacaranda has an attractive light yellow to straw colour, and heart- and sapwood are not distinguishable. The moderately light-weight wood has a straight grain, fine texture, is relatively knot-free, and is easy to work. The wood is nondurable and requires treatment against fungal and insect attack. Uses of Jacaranda wood include furniture and cabinet work, decorative veneer, plywood, panelling, boxes, crates, vats, framing, boat building, poles, tool handles, toys, pulpwood, carving and turnery. The wood is often carved in its wet state and wood carvers from Zimbabwe and Swaziland prefer this species to any other for the carving of large ornamental giraffe, often seen at craft markets and stalls. It is also useful firewood. When flowering, the tree provides forage for bees and is valuable in apiculture. Parts of the tree also have medicinal properties.

LEGENDARY When the Jacarandas in Pretoria bloom, it’s also year-end exam time at the University of Pretoria. Legend has it that, should a blossom from a Jacaranda tree drop on your head, you will pass all your exams. How fitting that our own legendary Madiba recognized the Jacaranda, a well-known, well-loved tree that deserves to be preserved. To quote from his inauguration speech at the Union Buildings in 1994:

Jacaranda mimosifolia trunk and canopy - Makawao, Hawaii – Photograph by Forest and Kim Starr.

To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous Jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the Bushveld... – Nelson Mandela

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TIMBER PROFILE

Fall of the Jacaranda – Photograph by Daniel Lee.

THE PROPERTIES OF THIS VERSATILE TIMBER ARE SUMMARISED BELOW FOR THE WOOD ENTHUSIAST:

JACARANDA: HARD FACTS Botanical/Scientific name:

Jacaranda mimosifolia (Family: Bignoniaceae)

Trade name:

Jacaranda / Jakaranda (South Africa) Other names: Coraba-guassú, Jacarandá-caroba, Jacarandá-mimoso, Palissandra (Brazil), Mimosa-leaved Ebony, Black Poui, Green Ebony, Corabaguacu, Blue Jacaranda

Origin:

Jacaranda is native to Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina and is reported to be endemic to the endangered piedmont forest of north-west Argentina and Bolivia.

Conservation status:

The species appears in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species of 2009 in which it is listed as “vulnerable” due to its natural habitat being converted to agriculture. Its official current rating is: Vulnerable B1+2ac, ver 2.3 (needs updating).

Bole characteristics:

Jacaranda is a medium to large tree which grows to a height of 5 to 15m, with stem diameters ranging from 0.6 to 1.2m.

Colour:

Yellow or straw-coloured to light brown.

Grain pattern:

Straight-grained and fine-textured. The wood produces attractive figuring on tangentially sawn surfaces.

Density:

The density ranges from 480 to 580 kg/m3 (30-36 lb/ft.3) with the average for commercial timber being about 530 kg/m3 (33 lb/ft.3).

Strength/Bending properties:

Although not very dense, the wood is fairly strong, hard and tough for its weight.

Seasoning:

Air-drying: Boards should be seasoned slowly under cover to avoid distortion. Material of 25mm in thickness requires approximately two months to air-dry. Kiln Drying Schedule 3 is recommended (see below). Dry wood is stable in use.

Durability and preservative treatment:

The wood is not durable and requires treatment against fungal and insect attack. It is liable to termite, Lyctus- and marine borer attack. It is resistant to preservative treatment.

Working and finishing properties:

The wood saws easily. Wet wood may be woolly when processed. It planes well and gives a smooth finish. It peels easily for decorative veneer. The wood is likely to split in nailing and screwing, making pre-boring essential. It glues, stains and polishes well.

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AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015 //


TIMBER PROFILE

Jacaranda mimosifolia - Haleakala Ranch, Hawaii – Photograph by Forest and Kim Starr.

TIMBER DRYING SCHEDULE FOR JACARANDA (Jacaranda mimosifolia) Supplied by H-P Stöhr, Timber Drying Institute (timberdrying@mweb.co.za) Dry Bulb temperatures (°C) and Relative Humidity (%) at the following Timber Moisture Contents Drying schedule no.

3

Green

40%

30%

18% to final

DB

RH%

DB

RH%

DB

RH%

DB

RH%

50

71

55

64

60

53

70

36

DB = Dry bulb temperature, RH = Relative Humidity Please note: Drying schedules only serve as a guide to the kiln operator, with the response of the timber to the drying condition being the criterion.

REFERENCES AND SOURCES:

PROTA 4U Database / Jacaranda mimosifolia.

Bolza, E and Keating, W G. 1972-2000. ‘African Timbers, the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species.’ CSIRO, Australia.

Van Vuuren N.J.J., Banks C.H. and Stöhr H-P. 1978. ‘Shrinkage and density of timbers used in the Republic of South Africa. Bulletin 57.’ Department of Forestry, Pretoria.

Dyer, S., James, B. and James, D. (in preparation) ‘Woods of Southern Africa.’

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – Jacaranda mimosifolia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacaranda_mimosifolia

Otto, K.P. and Van Vuuren, W.F.J. 1977. ‘The mechanical properties of timbers with particular reference to those grown in the Republic of South Africa. Bulletin 48.’ Department of Forestry, Pretoria.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2015 and http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_2_3

Department of Environmental Affairs https://www. environment.gov.za/alienandinvasivespecies

‘Statement of Nelson Mandela at his Inauguration as President - 10 May 1994, Pretoria.’ http://www.anc.org.za/ show.php?id=3132

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TIMBER PROFILE

JACARANDA LENDS ITSELF TO MANY DECORATIVE AND CREATIVE APPLICATIONS. HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES.

Jacaranda pen – made by Keith Larret, photograph provided by Timber Information Services.

Jacaranda vases, made and photographed by Andrew Early.

Jacaranda bench, made and photographed by Andrew Early.

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NO NAILS JUST CRAFTSMANSHIP


CITY TREE MANAGEMENT

City of Cape Town Approves Tree Management Policy Trees play a pivotal role in improving the aesthetics of properties, public open spaces, road reserves and verges. But quite often residents are unsure when it is their city's responsibility to prune, maintain or remove trees. The City of Cape Town's Tree Management Policy, approved by full Council recently, addresses tree management in Cape Town's changing social, legislative and environmental context.

T

he aim of the City’s Tree Management Policy is to provide a uniform approach to the management of trees on City-owned land across the city. This excludes the management of trees that grow on private properties, unless the tree impacts on public spaces. The policy takes into account the selection of appropriate species for the urban environment, careful selection of appropriate planting locations, the conditions for the removal of trees, tree planting, tree pruning, removal, tree protection and maintenance.

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“The City Parks Department is responsible for tree management – and this includes avenue planting, cluster planting, historic trees, and streetscapes. The City recognizes that streets are public spaces where residents engage and interact and are not used purely for vehicle mobility. Therefore landscaping, particularly tree cover, is an important element of streetscaping that helps to build social cohesion among communities,” said the City’s Mayoral Committee Member for Community Services and Special Projects, Alderman Belinda Walker.


CITY TREE MANAGEMENT

The City is responsible for choosing new trees with care and planting them, subject to available space and the anticipated size of the mature tree. New tree planting can take place when developers, residents or other parties request that trees be planted within their municipal area on City land. Preference will be given to local indigenous trees, but exotic species that are non-invasive and suited to local conditions are not excluded. Should trees be damaged as a result of vandalism, lightning, or by the impact of human activity, replacement planting or blanking will be done. Replacement planting can also be done when existing streetscapes or avenues of trees start to age and new trees are inter-planted to prevent a negative impact on the aesthetic view. “Residents can apply to the City Parks Department for trees to be planted on sidewalks or verges in residential areas. This will, however, be dependent upon the availability of funds and suitable trees. One of the conditions for such requests will be the shared responsibility for the upkeep of the trees. Owners of adjacent properties must undertake to water the trees

until they become established, while the City Parks Department will be responsible for the pruning of the trees when required,” said Alderman Walker. The pruning and removal of trees on City land will be done by the City Parks Department or an appointed service provider and will be dependent on a number of factors. Requests for pruning or removal must be directed to the local City Parks area office. The policy also makes provision for champion trees; i.e., trees that are of exceptional importance and deserve national protection as a result of their remarkable size and age as well as their aesthetic, cultural, historic and tourism value. Such trees are protected by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Champion Trees Project. “Trees not only create a sense of place, but also enhance the social and public environment. They help to reduce our carbon footprint, change roadways into scenic drives, and become symbols of city landscapes,” added Alderman Walker.

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REFORESTATION

Reaping the rewards of community reforestation Building long-term environmental sustainability is a top priority for eThekwini Municipality, which includes the City of Durban and surrounds. Through interactive programmes that engage communities to plant indigenous trees in areas of previously degraded forest, eThekwini Municipality is setting a fine example of how reforestation works. Information sourced from the Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department (website) of eThekwini Municipality, and all photographs courtesy of the Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department.

HOW DID IT ALL START? Motivated by the opportunity to host a number of2010 FIFA World Cup™ matches, eThekwini Municipality undertook to hold a ‘climate neutral’ event, and offset the associated carbon emissions. To reduce the unavoidable total carbon footprint, declared at a massive 307,208 tons CO2 equivalent, the Municipality committed to plant indigenous trees and restore local natural habitats. To start, a reforestation project aiming to offset approximately 42,000 tons CO2 equivalent was established in November 2008.

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The area chosen, in which the total offset was expected to be achieved over a 20-year period, was the buffer zone of the Municipality’s Buffelsdraai Regional Landfill Site, just outside Verulam.

BUFFELSDRAAI COMMUNITY REFORESTATION PROJECT How does it work? Local unemployed community members collect indigenous tree seeds, which they propagate and nurture into tree seedlings, and these later get planted in the buffer zone around the landfill site.


REFORESTATION

WHERE:

North of Durban, near Verulam.

SCALE:

The total buffer zone area is 800 hectares, partially taken up with established woodland and riverine forest. That left a range of approximately 520 hectares to be planted.

SUITABILITY:

All areas marked for reforestation were previously either sugar cane farmland with limited productive capacity, or infested with invasive alien plants.

AGENT:

The Wildlands Conservation Trust (WCT) was the appointed implementing agent.

SCOPE:

Launch and implementation of the WCT - Indigenous Trees for Life Programme (ITFL) as well as on-site tree planting.

SUCCESS:

As of January 2015, a total of 595 476 indigenous trees had been planted on more than 412 hectares of land.

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS:

• The diversity of tree species in the areas previously under sugarcane has increased from 0 (zero) to 51. • In areas previously under sugarcane, the listed bird species increased from 91 to 145 in five years. • The supply of other ecosystem services such as water quality, flood attenuation, sediment regulation, biodiversity refuge conservation, and river flow regulation, has also improved greatly. • The long-term climate change adaptation needs of local communities are enhanced, including short-term resilience to dangerous weather patterns such as storms and droughts.

HUMAN BENEFITS:

• More than 685 local community members, mostly unemployed, have been empowered by the programme to become “Tree-preneurs” by setting up small indigenous tree nurseries at their homes. Tree seedlings are exchanged for credit notes, which can be used to obtain food, basic goods, and pay for school fees. • To date, 448 jobs have been created in surrounding communities (43 full-time, 16 part-time, 389 temporary). • In total, the equivalent of R13.5 million in benefits, has been spent on the surrounding communities since the project began in 2008.

REAPING THE REWARDS The communities empowered through this project are some of the poorest and most vulnerable in Durban. Early reports of an increase in food security and education are testament to the merits of reforestation and prove that the socioeconomics of this well-managed programme are significant. A social impact assessment found the following positive impacts were yielded within the first two years of the project already: • Improved schooling for children • More disposable income to cover additional needs (i.e. for transport) • An increase of 40% in access to adequate food supply by project participants in two of the project communities The project has prominently highlighted the way that natural ecosystems support and protect human communities, and the way that human communities can support, restore and protect local ecosystems. At the 2011 Durban Climate Change Conference, the Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project was officially recognized as one of 10 most outstanding worldwide climate change programmes. Following the success of the reforestation efforts at Buffelsdraai, two other projects were subsequently initiated in eThekwini Municipality – one at iNanda Mountain, and the other at Paradise Valley Nature Reserve.

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

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REFORESTATION

INANDA MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY REFORESTATION PROJECT (IMCRP) WHERE:

Immediately north of iNanda Dam.

SCALE AND SUITABILITY:

Local communities around iNanda Mountain are rebuilding a 250 hectare coastal scarp forest. The forest was badly degraded over many years by uncontrolled fires, over-harvesting and infestations by invasive alien plants. The entire project is located within community-owned land that is administered by the Ingonyama Trust Board (ITB) for AmaQadi and Amaphephe the Traditional Authorities).

AGENT:

The Wildlands Conservation Trust (WCT) is the appointed implementing agent.

SCOPE:

Launch and implementation of the WCT - Indigenous Trees for Life Programme (ITFL). The IMCRP actively involves people from surrounding communities, who are employed to undertake a range of duties. Data as of April 2015: • A total of 195 full-time jobs and 81 temporary jobs have been created by the program since its inception. • At iNanda Mountain, 151,353 trees have been planted over 82 hectares of land, with a further 834 hectares cleared of invasive alien species.

SUCCESS:

The most important attribute of this project is its demonstration that the functionality of local ecosystems can be restored, whilst also delivering on climate change adaptation and mitigation targets. It simultaneously ensures an improved supply of a large number of other ecosystem services (e.g. flood attenuation, sediment regulation, biodiversity refuge conservation and river flow regulation) whilst creating jobs and skillsdevelopment opportunities, and sequestering carbon. All of these help to bolster Durban’s resilience to future climate change events and most importantly, build awareness amongst impoverished communities.

PARADISE VALLEY NATURE RESERVE In November 2011, at the time Durban hosted the COP17 CMP event, the “Durban Community-Ecosystem Based Adaptation” (Durban CEBA) initiative was launched. The initial project site, situated in the Umbilo Catchment, forms a core part of the Municipality’s investment into mitigating the CO2 emissions associated with the COP17-CMP7 event.

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The first component of this became the reforestation project, again implemented by the Wildlands Conservation Trust, at the Paradise Valley Nature Reserve in Pinetown. (A concurrent large-scale alien plant control project is also being implemented at the site, through the municipal Working for Ecosystems programme.) Most recently, on Saturday, 13 June 2015, the eThekwini Municipality hosted a successful Reforestation Fun-Walk and Information Workshop at the Paradise Valley Nature Reserve, actively involving the community.


REFORESTATION

Programme participant Mr Lucky Sheppard Ndlovu â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Maphephetha

'TREE-PRENEUR' PROCESS

S

PRENEU EER TR

READY F TIL OR UN

ES

CREDIT N OT

TREES G RO SUED S IS EI

CREDIT NOT E

S EE

E TOR ES

COLLECTED

ANGED FO CH R EX

CK RU YT

TR

ES

NTED PL A

For more information about the reforestation programmes and additional planned activities, contact Errol Douwes on 031 311- 17952 or via email to Errol.Douwes@durban.gov.za.

REFERENCES: Buffelsdraai Landfill Sites Community Reforestation Project http://www.durban.gov.za/City_Services/development_ planning_management/environmental_planning_climate_ protection/Projects/Pages/Buffelsdraai-CommunityReforestation-Project.aspx iNanda Mountain Community Reforestation Project http://www.durban.gov.za/City_Services/development_ planning_management/environmental_planning_climate_ protection/Projects/Pages/Inanda-Mountain-CommunityReforestation.aspx

N

HOLDING N U TO

TR E

S AT THE T OD RE GO

Y ER RS

UN & CO TS TR E

B

TOR MEAS ITA U IL

S RE

FA C

W

N&

LE SA

CARED F OR

PL ANTED DS & EE

INATED RM GE

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Young local community members (tree-preneurs) with the goods they have bought with their trees.

TREES TAK E

// AUGUST / SEPTEMBER 2015

105


FOREST MANAGEMENT

The role of forests Forests are dominated by trees and are often described as the 'lungs' of the planet because of the way trees produce oxygen and filter air. Forests are actually much more than this: They provide vital life-supporting ecosystem goods and services to people, including food, wood, fibre and medicine, and protect them from natural disasters such as floods and landslides through soil stabilisation. Article by: The Environmental Planning and Climate Protection Department of eThekwini Municipality Photograph by Errol Douwes

P

oor people and those living in rural areas are often highly dependent on forests for their basic survival and safety. This is certainly the case in eThekwini Municipality but, as in other parts of the world, many local forests have either been lost or reduced in size. It is only recently that people have begun to grasp the true extent to which forests support life on earth. The largest forest ecosystems, such as those that occur in the Congo Basin and other tropical regions, have a massive influence far beyond their boundaries. Forests help to generate and regulate rainfall and other weather patterns across many countries, and even entire continents. Due to the large density of biomass in forests (in the form of trees), these habitats also store a very high volume of carbon, thus playing an important role in reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (a powerful greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change) in the atmosphere.

Such efforts, in the form of multiple small forest protection and restoration projects worldwide, are making progress towards stabilising and perhaps eventually reversing forest loss. These projects contribute to an understanding of how climate change might be stabilised, while boosting local biodiversity, and ensuring improved resilience of landscapes and people. Durban is situated in one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 35 Global Biodiversity Hotspots, namely the Maputaland-PondolandAlbany corridor, and contains a variety of forest types including Northern Coastal Forest, Swamp Forest, Mangrove Forest, Eastern Scarp Forest and Dune Forest. In the pages to follow, we learn more about the successful Buffelsdraai Community Reforestation Project unfolding north of Durban, near Verulam.

Forests cover about one third of all land around the globe and deliver a multitude of important ecosystem services, both locally and globally. The rate of global deforestation has accelerated so rapidly over the past 100 years that it is estimated that every year approximately 5.21 million hectares of forest are lost (FAO, 2010).

REFERENCE:

While the crisis of deforestation should not be understated, there are also some positive forest protection efforts underway.

http://www.durban.gov.za/City_Services/development_ planning_management/environmental_planning_climate_ protection/Publications/Documents/ BuffelsdraaiInformationBooklet.pdf

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Douwes, E.; Roy, K.E.; Diederichs-Mander, N.; Mavundla, K.; Roberts, D. 2015. The Buffelsdraai Landfill Site Community Reforestation Project: Leading the way in community ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change. eThekwini Municipality, Durban, South Africa.


TREES FOR LIFE

Siyanda Ngema, holding his future in his hands

Trees for life...

Wildlands' reforestation work The Wildlands Conservation Trust (WildlandsTM) is a registered Non-Profit Organisation whose core business is the furtherance of a green economy to drive sustainable development. Wildlands is currently active in five provinces in South Africa, working with rural and urban communities to restore and protect the ecosystems on which they depend. Article by: Dr Roelie Kloppers, Executive Director of Wildlands Conservation Trust Photographs by: Kelvin Trautman

W

ildlands’ work is conceptually structured through five programmes that are implemented across 17 Community Ecosystem Based Adaptation (CEBA) sites. The programmes are mutually interdependent and complementary, focused on building robust ecosystems that underwrite human well-being and sustainable development. The programmes centre around interventions aimed at sustainable natural resource use and the development of a green economy.

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THESE ARE: • Indigenous Trees for Life • Recycling for Life • Greening Your Future • Conservation SPACE • Ubuntu Earth


TREES FOR LIFE

Nursery caretaker with trees

Over the past ten years, the programmes have progressively developed into signature Wildlands interventions. When all five programmes are implemented together, it unlocks the ability of communities to address environmental degradation and poverty. This then enables those communities to enhance local ecosystem health, thereby shielding them from the adverse effects of climate change and landscape transformation. In effect, it enables Community Ecosystem Based Adaptation (CEBA). The CEBA framework was originally developed with the eThekwini Municipality in the lead-up to COP17, and it has since grown into a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework that underpins Wildlands’ work. The two mechanisms used to involve local communities in active restoration through growing and planting indigenous trees are the Indigenous Trees for Life and Greening Your Future Programmes.

INDIGENOUS TREES FOR LIFE

BHP Green Team working

Indigenous Trees for Life was first piloted by Wildlands in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Since its inception, it has grown to be an active intervention wherever Wildlands operates. Indigenous Trees for Life is based on a simple idea that poor, jobless and marginalised communities can ‘grow’ themselves out of poverty by propagating indigenous trees and bartering these trees for livelihood support.

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TREES FOR LIFE

Seeds

Success stories are aplenty: People are building brick houses, getting solar power at their homes, harvesting rainwater with JoJo tanks, sending their kids to school and university (and kids themselves are getting bikes that enable them to get to school on time), obtaining driver’s licenses to enable employment, or simply trading trees for food.

TREES ARE CHANGING LIVES During the last year, Wildlands traded more than 1 million trees from tree-preneurs across the country, with a barter value of R7,4 million. In the last five years, more than 5 million trees were bartered from poor communities. The programme does not only changes lives, but also connects well-being with the environment in people’s minds – indigenous trees represent a better life and a way to grow a better future. The programme has been adopted by the KZN Provincial Government through the Integrated Greening Programme and has considerable corporate support.

GREENING YOUR FUTURE Through the Greening Your Future Programme, the trees propagated by tree-preneurs are planted in restoration sites, thereby restoring indigenous forests, riparian zones and sequestering carbon that local communities can then trade as a source of annuity income. To this end, Wildlands has entered into significant partnerships with the eThekwini Municipality, the Department of Environmental

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BHP Green Team working Affairs, and corporate donors. In total, 1,2 million trees were planted in the 2014-2015 year, and 4,440ha of degraded land was restored through these efforts. Moreover, on the back of these successes, the Department of Environmental Affairs has awarded a second large restoration grant to Wildlands through which this model will now be replicated in the Western Cape (Stellenbosch), Eastern Cape (Port St Johns and Hoggsback), Gauteng (Moreletta Spruit) and Mpumalanga (Kruger to Canyon Biosphere).

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WILDLANDS AND ITS PROGRAMMES: (t) 033 343 6380 (e) info@wildlands.co.za (w) http://www.wildlands.co.za


FREE EXPO AND WORKSHOP PASS

Conference

Valued at R200

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12 – 13 August 2015

Cape Town International Convention Centre Conference

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EXPO HOURS Conference Trade Expo

Tuesday 12 August 2015 11:00 – 18:00

*VIP CODE: SAR01

Wednesday 13 August 2015 10:30 – 16:00

NETWORKINg INVITATION

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Date: Wednesday 12 August 2015

solutions of tomorrow from 100+ exhibitors who will be displaying: Chemicals and admixtures Consultants Contracting services Construction tools and equipment Finance and insurance Finishing and facing materials Flooring Formwork and scaffolding HVAC Landscaping products and services

Conference Trade Expo

Time: 17:00 - 19:30 Dress: Business casual

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HOW TO REgISTER Get your free ticket by visiting easycode. com/ccreg And use the *VALIDATION CODE on the TOP to redeem this voucher and enjoy free entry

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WHAT TO EXPECT? 3000+ visitors

100+

exhibiting companies

20+

participating partners

13

FREE workshops CapeConstructionExpo

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Cape Construction

Association and strategic partners

meghan.gilson@hypenica.com

www.cape-construction.co.za


Conference

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12 – 13 August 2015, Cape Town International Convention Centre

Conference

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R SPONSO a s a e t a and Particip and exp R O T I B or EXHI twork! e n s s e sin your bu CapeConstructionExpo

CT_Construction

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TOOLS & EQUIPMENT

The new Makita Circular Saw - powered by two 18V Lithium-Ion batteries Makita has made another exciting addition to the already comprehensive range of Makita 18V Lithium-Ion cordless tools, but this time with a bit of a twist.

T

he DHS710ZK Circular Saw is powered by two 18V batteries, installed in series on the machine to supply energy to the powerful 36V DC motor drive system. This offers great versatility as it utilises your existing 18V battery and charger system, as well as being a significantly more affordable option than having to purchase a 36V tool and batteries. The DHS710ZK (185mm blade) is as powerful as a corded circular saw, but with the added advantage of not having to worry about extension cords and electrical power points. This lightweight, well-balanced model is ideal for cutting roof rafters, sheeting and more. The model has a sturdy base plate and locking guide, and it is easy to adjust to the depth of cut required. Operator comfort and more control during operation have not been overlooked. An ergonomically designed handle with soft grip reduces the magnitude of vibration and hand fatigue while the non-skid elastomer provides a sturdy grip. The DHS710ZK has a maximum cutting capacity of 68.5mm at 0 degrees and 49mm at 45 degrees. The convenient blower function at the front of the machine flows sawdust off the cut line for a better cutting view. The two red battery lights will come on when the batteries need recharging, and the operator will feel the saw slowing down. There is also a thermostat that will switch the machine off if it overloads, to prevent motor burnout. This model is compatible with the Makita 5.0Ah (45 minutes charge time), 4.0Ah (36 minutes charge time) and 3.0Ah (22 minutes charge time) batteries. The batteries and the charger are sold separately. The 3.0Ah batteries are interchangeable with other 18V Makita Lithium Ion cordless tools in the range, while the 4.0Ah and 5.0Ah batteries are compatible with all models that start with a

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the model name and have a star on the battery terminal. The rechargeable and eco-friendly 18V 3.0Ah Li-Ion batteries provide longer run time. The LXT Li-Ion battery generates an impressive 430% more lifetime work with two-and-a-half times more cycles. When you are looking for hassle free, powerful cutting performance, look no further than the new DHS710ZK Cordless Circular Saw. For more information, visit www.makita.co.za.


BETTER THAN TIMBER

The design and construction of a fence around your home is not just for boundary markings. It also complements the style of your home alongside providing privacy and some level of security.

UCO Decowood is a durable strip made from fibre cement. It is environmentally friendly, termite-proof and weather resistant. Ideal for both internal and external use, it can be used as stair risers and treads, ceilings, feature walls, louvers, decking and fencing.

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24764 Wood 09/2014

Timber iQ August/September 2015 | Issue: 21  

Timber iQ - Design & Construction is a glossy magazine dedicated to all aspects of timber design and construction, bringing its readers rele...

Timber iQ August/September 2015 | Issue: 21  

Timber iQ - Design & Construction is a glossy magazine dedicated to all aspects of timber design and construction, bringing its readers rele...

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