INFRASTRUCTURE & DEVELOPMENT March 2014 // Issue: 45
SA R36 each incl. // R360 per annum incl.
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24 Like us! MARCH 2014
Drop for drop The subject of water is on everyone’s lips over the month of March, when the world turns its attention to this hot topic, as do we with the March issue of the SA Affordable Housing magazine.
n this issue, the Water Research Commission (WRC) offers insight into the connection between adequate water access and the entrepreneurial opportunities available to women in rural areas. We are also glad to share news of the WRC having “completed the first year of what promises to be the most accurate national water resource assessment of South Africa,” which, once completed; is to act as a comprehensive tool for leaders in government to “make informed choices about policies concerning South Africa’s water resources.” On page 8 we turn the spotlight on rainwater harvesting in South Africa, with industry insight from Manna Hoogenboezem of Tizagenix, who emphasises investing in the future of water management in the now, and embracing rainwater harvesting as a viable aid to sustaining our water supply in future.
Last, but most certainly not least, on our cover this month is JoJo Tanks, who have been the country’s leading manufacturer of polyethylene plastic storage tanks for more than 30 years. One lucky reader will win a 2500ℓ JoJo Tank worth R2800, plus R2000 cash towards installation and transportation of the tank. See page 7 for more details on how to enter. While any time is a good time highlight both global and local issues of water and sanitation, as water becomes more and more scarce, we can no longer afford to turn our attention away from it. This issue is just the start of our water journey – one that we are committed to addressing in every issue of the SA Affordable Housing magazine going forward. Enjoy the read. Jen
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CONTRIBUTORS LYNDSAY COTTON Lyndsay entered the construction industry in 1989 and has many yearsâ€™ experience in both the civil and commercial spheres of this industry. He is well versed in residential construction and especially roofing, as he erected many of the roof structures in the over 300 luxury houses and upmarket units in residential clusters he constructed. Holding a BSc (QS) degree and a Diploma in Project Management, Lyndsay is the current chairman and serves on the board of the ITC-SA. Although work always takes a priority, his passion is exploring Africa on his KTM990 Adventure.
MANNA HOOGENBOEZEM Manna Hoogenboezem graduated in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Pretoria in 1989. He worked at Unilever for 14 years in various engineering manufacturing management and senior management roles. In 2004 he started a personal care manufacturing business. In 2012 he sold his part of the business and formed Tizagenix, the primary focus of which is consulting, design and installation of rainwater harvesting and water treatment systems for domestic and commercial use.
MALCOLM MCCARTHY Malcolm McCarthy is the General Manager of NASHO. He has extensive knowledge and experience of social and public rental housing both in South Africa and internationally. He has also done extensive work on integrated development planning and spatial development and planning on urban regeneration.
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WATER & SANITATION
Water Resources of South Africa 2012 study under way The Water Research Commission (WRC) has completed the first year of what promises to be the most accurate national water resource assessment of South Africa. Once fully completed, the study will assist decision-makers at all levels of government to make informed choices about policies concerning South Africa’s water resources.
ater Resources 2012 study (WR2012), which was launched in 2012, is the sixth comprehensive national water resource assessment to be undertaken in South Africa since the first was completed in 1952. It is well known that water is South Africa’s scarcest resource, and that the country is parched with a mean annual precipitation of approximately 465mm and an average annual runoff of less than 50 000 million cubic metres. As a result of this inherent scarcity, the country walks a tightrope between socio-economic development and protection of its water resources. This makes quantifying exactly how much water the country has one of the most important tasks to be undertaken in the water sector.
According to the WRC CEO, Mr Dhesigen Naidoo, undertaking regular water resource quantification assessments not only informs the country of its available water resources, but helps to augment decision-makers’ and specialists’ understanding of how the natural hydrological cycle behaves. The study is being executed by a consortium of consulting engineering firms, led by Royal Haskoning DHV (RHDHV). One of the most important aspects of the study is the improvements on the WRSM2000 catchment model (popularly known as the Pitman Model), which is widely used in the South African water resource assessment process.
WATER & SANITATION in the WR2012 study has been broadened to include information on reservoirs, land use/water use and other water resource aspects. New spreadsheets have been compiled, which provide details of this land use/water use, which will make the future updating easier. The project also intends to continually incorporate recent work by other consultants on various catchments, and to update all data. Other progress for the year includes the creation of land use/water use spreadsheets for all 19 water management areas (which have recently been reduced to 9 water management areas), with worksheets with data on dams, abstractions and return flows, irrigation, alien vegetation and afforestation. The project team has also started to determine the optimal water resources observation network (i.e. rainfall, streamflow, reservoir records) which has to be maintained at all costs in order to continuously enhance the assessment and understanding of the country’s water resources.
“The WRSM2000 model is undergoing some major improvements," reports project leader, Allan Bailey from RHDHV. “As this model has links to the models of the Department of Water Affairs for analysing yield of dams (WRYM model) and future water resource planning (WRPM model), it is extremely important that all three models are continually improved. Enhancements to the WRSM2000 model include the inclusion of a number of statistical graphs for checking the consistency of catchment rainfall and natural streamflow and storage yield, grouping of runoff models with similar hydrology for more rapid calibration, addition of an observed storage trace to the reservoir plot so that reservoirs with only storage data can be calibrated, extended time series output link to the WRYM model, which now has the Sami surface water-groundwater interface, time series of groundwater abstractions, and added daily time step functionality for both naturalised runoff at any point in a network adjusted for land use. The WR2012 study will also for the first time create a publicly accessible, web-based and interactive reporting system to continually quantify both the surface and groundwater resources of South Africa. According to the WRC Research Manager, Wandile Nomquphu, it was originally planned for the website to only be up and running once the project was completed in 2016, but the high level of interest in the information the project has to offer has prompted the Commission to bring the date forward. It is now hoped to have the website functional by the end of the year 2014. Compared to the previous water resource study, WR2005 project, the level of detail of water resources information
As part of the capacity building, the research team has presented a number of training courses on the newly improved WRSM2000 model at several universities, with great success. The purpose of the training is to broaden the awareness of the various water resource models available, and how to set up and use the WRSM2000 model for a water resources system. “Deteriorating monitoring of South Africa’s rainfall and streamflow, as well as groundwater levels, remains the biggest challenge to the successful completion of the project,” notes Nomquphu. Spatially representative, longterm consistent records of rainfall, streamflow, groundwater levels and water quality data are essential for achieving a high level of understanding about water resources. Access to good quality data is a serious impediment to the sustainable management of South Africa’s water resources, explains Nomquphu. “Not only are the observation networks shrinking, the quality is deteriorating.” “Apart from the troubling rainfall, streamflow, groundwater levels and data issues, which have been reported on, the research team has also discovered that reservoir data records – key to analysing the water resources of South Africa – have declined alarmingly, with quite a large amount of missing data and suspect readings.” However, the WRC is exploring ways to establish a central home for water data from all its projects where hydrological data are collected. WR2012 is due for completion in April, 2016.
FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: Wandile Nomquphu Research Manager, Water Resources Management (e) firstname.lastname@example.org (c) 072 306 9659
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WATER & SANITATION
This is a good example of a coastal system that recovers rainwater off a 400m2 paved area, using a primary vortex filter to clean the water and then send it to the storage tanks. It acts as an attenuation system and the water is used for general cleaning, washing of boats and gardening.
The beneficial impact of urban rainwater harvesting in South Africa During early 2014, every newspaper in South Africa reported on municipal water service delivery to various town and cities around the country. A number of conclusions can be drawn from these reports. By Manna Hoogenboezem of Tizagenix. • Municipal water infrastructure is old and has been neglected to the extent that many small and large municipalities throughout the country cannot deliver a reliable quantity and quality of water.
• Urbanization and the need for water has driven up the demand without increasing the supply capacity • South Africa’s water catchment system is under enormous pressure and rivers and dams that supply our cities are being polluted.
WATER & SANITATION
• The department of water affairs and municipal authorities have lost key engineering and technical skills associated with the management of water resources. • The question arises, “How can a homeowner or business become independent or semi-independent from municipal water, and at the same time derive a significant benefit from it?”
If a homeowner or business does not have access to a borehole, the only other independent water source would be to consider rainwater harvesting. A number of benefits can be enjoyed from an effectively designed and installed rainwater harvesting system: 1. It is a ‘free’ source of water for the property owner. It is of a good quality and can easily be treated to replace municipal water for potable or non-potable applications. Experience has shown that a welldesigned rainwater system, integrated into the design of a building, pays itself off over a 5-7 year period. 2. The rainwater harvesting system can also be combined to act as a backup water supply system. Thus, should the municipal supply to a town be interrupted, the rainwater tank and pressure system will continue to supply the house or business with water until such time as the water supply is restored. 3. On a macro scale, it can result in the reduction of overall water consumption in a municipal area, resulting in increased water availability during periods of drought. 4. It helps with storm water attenuation and control, reducing erosion and flooding in low lying areas. 5. General water consumption reduction will reduce the pressure on the water supply networks allowing municipalities to focus on reducing water losses within the network.
Various research papers have now shown that the biggest financial benefits to be derived from rainwater harvesting will be in areas with relatively high rainfall (areas along the East Coast of South Africa, Lowveld area of Mpumalanga and Northern Province and some areas in the Western Cape), where the average rainfall ranges from 1 000 to 1 400mm per annum. Most cities and towns in these areas have experienced serious flooding during periods of continuous or intense rainfall, especially in the lower lying areas. The rapid growth in urbanization and industrial development is
largely to blame for this. Hard surface construction (roofing, paving, roads, etc.) is the single biggest contributor to these problems. Rainwater attenuation systems and dams are generally undersized, household soak pits are non-operational and in some township developments, it is not even a requirement to have a soak pit. All the coastal towns rely on water that comes from inland catchment areas. Thus, rainfall within the cities and towns has no significant impact on dam and reservoir levels that service the particular area with water. All the rainwater falling within the coastal towns simply runs into the sea without delivering any benefits to its residents. Any drought within the catchment area of the coastal town will result in the town facing serious water restrictions. Costly capital expenditure projects are then required to ensure these towns do not run out of water during periods of drought. A few desktop studies have shown that should rainwater harvesting be effectively implemented by every household and business in an urban area, it can reduce the municipal water processing required by as much as 1015%. Secondly, all the rainwater harvesting systems act as effective storm water attenuation systems. Within these systems water is consumed on an on-going basis, thus during a period of heavy rain, these systems have to fill up first before they start overflowing and releasing water into the storm water network. A reduction of water flowing into the storm water system will contribute to a significant reduction in water and flood damage during periods of hard rain. By reducing the pressure on the water supply network, capital expenditure can be delayed or better applied to manage future water resources. Though this scenario might be idealistic in the current environment, future water shortages will start forcing residents and businesses to look at rainwater as an alternative supply of water. It is thus important that regulators and town planners start creating a framework where residents within the city limits can effectively and safely harvest rainwater.
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BRICKS & PAVING INDUSTRY INSIGHT
Social housing and regeneration of our inner cities Since the 1970s all South Africa’s larger cities have faced the flight of major business from the central business areas to the suburbs. By Malcolm McCarthy, NASHO General Manager.
ith this migration came the emergence of secondary urban centres that received substantial new investment, resulting in the development of upmarket office and retail opportunities with linked high density residential areas, serving mainly middle and upper income groups. The increased investment in these areas compounded the flight from the inner city. The centres suffered a dramatic drop in asset values – deteriorating building and infrastructure, and a declining rates base all further contributing to further flight. With physical degeneration came an increase in ‘crime and grime,’ as in some instances, buildings were abandoned by
their owners and were hi-jacked and rented out on an informal basis. By the late 1980s this was a common story in a number of the country’s major urban centres. By then, in places like Johannesburg, a reaction to this degeneration was starting. It came from a number of different sources. Investors with large property investments in the city centres including the banks, mining houses and government began to mobilise joint action to arrest the flight and rather refocus on tackling the problems of ‘crime and grime’ and through constructive joint investment to re-establish business confidence in these areas.
INDUSTRY BRICKS &INSIGHT PAVING
An example of urban regeneration in Hillbrow at the Johannesburg Housing Companyâ€™s Landrost building â€“ a social rental housing building. At the same time, the opportunities in the residential housing market spurred further initiatives to stabilize and redevelop these areas. In parts of inner-Johannesburg, private for-profit landlords saw the financial potential of supplying to formal rental housing for low and moderate income households and students. For them, a business opportunity existed in capitalising on the rock bottom capital costs of buildings in these areas. Upgrading them started to meet the high demand for rental housing accommodation by moderate-income households and individuals. But it also started to re-establish a formal housing market and stabilise parts of the inner cities. In some of the hardest and more complicated areas like Hillbrow the non-profit Social Housing Institutions (SHIs) have made a significant contribution. Using access to government subsidy, they have renovated many dilapidated, abandoned and hi-jacked buildings to formal rental for low and moderate income households. By linking the availability of affordable well-managed rental stock with neighbourhood initiatives, like the eKhaya Neighbourhood Programme, they have stimulated the revival of areas where people feel safe and want to live. They have helped give a new face to Hillbrow. The stabilizing and improvement of these areas, making them liveable neighbourhoods, have increased the capital value of buildings, giving additional impetus to investment. These different initiatives have provided a growing number of pockets of regeneration and with them lessons on how to tackle the degeneration. The National Association of Social Housing Organisations (NASHO) is working with municipalities and other stakeholders to use
these lessons in other areas and to regenerate more of our city spaces for residential use. Building inner city areas of vibrant mixed use and gradually mixed income activities. These initiatives are taking the form of properly planned precinct interventions that use investment in social housing as an important mechanism to stabilize areas and increase the value of surrounding properties. This results in increased private sector investment, giving greater income mix and diversities of urban use. The success of such regeneration initiatives involves strong partnerships, mixed and targeted investment, both private and government, and engagement with the people who live or want to live in these areas. Properly managed residential investment initiatives have much to offer in revitalizing our inner cities. Metro strategies for urban regeneration need to give greater heed to this. For more information, visit www.nasho.org.za.
Students flood private residences Private residences are being inundated with applications for accommodation in 2014 amid shortages in the public sector. “We are fielding an unprecedented number of calls from students desperate for quality, affordable accommodation close to campuses,” says Rob Wesselo, Managing Partner at International Housing Solutions (IHS), which has one of South Africa’s largest private student accommodation portfolios. Wesselo says that as students get ready to go to universities and colleges, thousands of them are realising that securing a coveted space at a tertiary campus was just the first hurdle, and that finding a place to live and study poses challenges of its own. He says because of the huge and growing demand, IHS is dedicating a significant chunk of its second fund to ensuring an increased supply of student housing units in coming years. The global private equity investor expects this strategy to deliver returns in excess of 20%. IHS recently launched the second fund, IHS Fund II, in the wake of the massive success of its first fund, the SA Workforce Housing Fund, which enabled the large-scale development of affordable housing in South Africa.
Rob Wesselo. Wesselo says that due to the huge demand and limited supply of student housing opportunities, IHS will dedicate a significant part of its second fund, IHS Fund II, to service this need in the market. “Through our first fund, the SA Workforce Housing Fund, we have already made available 2 184 opportunities in quality student developments,” he says.
According to the Department of Higher Education’s Ministerial Review of South African University accommodation, less than 10% of first-year students can be accommodated. However, much of the available oncampus accommodation remains dilapidated, unhygienic and unsafe. The latest statistics further show a shortfall of 207 800 university beds, and that does not include the shortfall of accommodation for private tertiary institutions. An estimated 400 000 students are currently enrolled at FET colleges, the vast majority of which do not have any on-campus accommodation.
“And in line with our philosophy to create not mere walls for shelter, but to build thriving new communities, our student housing is characterised by their pleasing aesthetics, holistic services including safety interventions, gyms, study areas, cafeterias and shuttle services, as well as sports teams and student representative bodies.” Although student housing also offers excellent opportunities to investors, it must be approached via a sound strategy to mitigate any sector-specific challenges, warns Wesselo.
“The lack of adequate and affordable student housing results in students renting inadequate accommodation off-campus, in locations that are often in appalling condition and overcrowded,” says Wesselo.
“We have therefore invested in a strong internal team of specialists who, together with our property management partners, are experts in student housing financing, delivery and management.”
“Of great concern, is the fact that the poor living conditions of students have been linked to our country’s high drop-out and failure rate, due to these conditions not being conducive to studying and good health,” says Wesselo.
“We have been building a pipeline that will be focused on the provision of quality accommodation opportunities for both private and public higher education institutions, and will target the delivery of at least 5 000 student housing opportunities in Fund II.”
And he says that, as government funding for studies through the NSFAS (National Student Financial Aid Scheme) drives the growth in the student population, the demand for accommodation increases dramatically.*
* FET student funding increased from 61 700 students/ R 318 million in 2010 to 222 800 students/R 2 billion in 2013.
wt4764 pmsa sa affordable housing ROOF TILE j STUDENT ACCOMMODATION
Universities and FET Colleges in South Africa shortage of accommodation.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MAKING PRIVATE RESIDENCES A REAL HOME FOR STUDENTS Many students seeking out accommodation come from very disadvantaged backgrounds, but they are, however, able to access quality off-campus residences with the help of NSFAS funding. The staff at these residences then have the responsibility of educating students in areas of life management such as paying their rent on time, getting along with their diverse neighbours, taking care of facilities and managing their time.
At IHS private residences, this is achieved through providing and enforcing House Rules. Students are encouraged to participate in sporting activities offered on campus, and residences sponsor soccer and netball teams. Other realities of accommodating bursary students on a large scale include ensuring that students are comfortable enough to approach staff about issues such as not being able to afford buying food, personal problems and feeling overwhelmed by the stress of being a student.
Many tertiary institutions run feeding schemes, with which IHS residences partner to ensure that students are not literally starving their way through their student years. In addition to important considerations such as safety and a healthy, clean environment, there are more social aspects of student life that are also addressed to ensure students in private residences do not miss out on the student experience: • The presence of a house mother/house father so that students may have someone to talk to. Many are very far away from home and they do get homesick. • Interaction with universities to include students in in-house student activities. These include sport and academic monitoring and recognition. • Social functions • Transport to and from university
The effect of climate change on concrete tile and metal roof coverings in the domestic environment In his book, â€˜Four Degrees of Global Warming,â€™ Peter Christoff writes that the international community agreed only five years ago in December 2009 that, in order to avoid the worst impacts of human-induced climate change, global warming must be limited to not more than two degrees. By Lyndsay Cotton, General Manager of LCP Roofing and Chairman of the ITC-SA. he scientists all agreed, however, that current national emissions targets are ambitious and that an average global warming of four degrees Celsius by or before 2100 is catastrophically more than likely.
Southern Africa is experiencing these effects of global warming and resultant climate change, including more frequent extreme weather events, heat waves, drought and heavy rainfall.
Climate change is defined as the shift of weather conditions over time. Our average temperature throughout the world has steadily increased over recent decades, resulting in more unpredictable and extreme weather, as compared to one or two generations back. Some places are getting hotter, others colder. Previously drier zones are getting wetter and others are drying out.
Additionally, many of the good building practices and norms employed by previous generations have been ignored and forgotten in a society where price, speed of construction, lack of skills and punitive interim interest rates dictate acceptable standards. These seemingly unrelated issues are resulting in more and more roof systems failing either partially or in their entirety.
CONCRETE ROOF TILING PRACTICE
SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS:
The practice of mechanical fixing has been largely ignored in inland areas. With the advent of SANS10400XA in the built environment, specifiers are increasingly looking at various methods to meet energy usage requirements and generally, one of these in domestic housing in South Africa, is to increase eavesâ€™ overhangs to the maximum.
TERRAIN CATEGORIES SHOULD BE CAREFULLY ASSESSED
This, unfortunately, exacerbates the issue, and the likelihood of tiles lifting or blowing off the roof increases tenfold. It is always a good idea to mechanically fix tiles with 2.8mm diameter galvanized nails of the appropriate length and at a minimum of two to three rows on all eaves and at least one row on all verges. Coastal areas will necessitate the inclusion of storm clips as well. Use of an under tile membrane in all instances, and not only where minimum pitch dictates, should be a fundamental part of a tiled roof system. Tests have proven that the membrane plays an important part in preventing excessive pressure build-up inside the roof during high wind conditions and especially when gusting. Although modern under tile membranes serve little purpose in terms of energy efficiency, they do, however, also perform a vital function in protection against water penetration during extreme rainy conditions. Although more expensive, the use of thermally efficient membranes will serve both the purpose of prevention of pressure buildups and serve energy efficiency requirements.
METAL SHEETING Whilst concrete or clay roof tiles have always enjoyed a timeless acceptance, the acceptance of metal sheeting as a domestic roof covering in South Africa has undergone a more seasonal popularity. Unfortunately, and especially during times of wane, good sheeting practices have fallen by the wayside and skills are lost.
Category one is defined as exposed smooth terrain with virtually no obstructions and in which the height of any obstruction is less than 1.5m. This category would include sea and lake shores, treeless plains with little other than short grass. Category two is defined inter-alia as undeveloped outskirts of towns and suburbs, with few trees, hillside or other exposed areas. Newly developed estates would fall into this category. Category three will generally include closely spaced obstructions having the size of domestic houses and also wooded areas and suburbs which are fully or substantially developed. Category four will be terrain with numerous large, tall and closely-spaced obstructions and will include large city centres and forests. Whilst most popular manufacturers and suppliers specify a minimum standard for their fixings or fixing spacings, the caveat is that they allow or design for a category three or even four in their minimum design standards and this is often either not known by or ignored by the system specifier. A terrain category two roof, for example, should have a factor of 0.8 applied to all purlin spacings and a factor of 0.65 applied to terrain category one roofs. Lack of sufficient purlins or inadequate spacings and the fixing of the purlin itself to the underlying structure is probably one of the single most common reasons for upliftment of sheeting systems. MARCH 2014
ROOF HEIGHTS, LOCATIONS AND ELEVATIONS Buildings over 10m in height should have purlin spacing reduced by an additional 20% over and above the aforementioned. Furthermore, it is deemed good practice in many other countries to add an additional purlin (in between the standard spaced runs) over the last two trusses at all eave gables.
The importance of the correct choice of fixing solely, if not for any other reason than to prevent separation, cannot be stressed enough.
HOLDING DOWN STRAPS
Concealed fix profiles, although primarily designated for the industrial market, are very popular in residential applications, but they come with their own challenges. The 700mm wide profile is widely used in inland applications and yet it is often forgotten that this profile is ideally intended for low and medium wind conditions â€“ not exactly the right choice in newly developed and very exposed locations.
Little cognizance is taken by the homebuilder of the SANS10400-K requirements for roof wire or straps. A minimum of two strands of 2.4mm galvanised wire to be built in a minimum of 340mm into brickwork for tiled roofs. For sheeted roofs this requirement extends to a minimum of 1.2mm x 30mm hoop iron strapping built in a minimum of 600mm deep into brick walls. In both instances, sufficient tail should extend above the wall plate level to completely wrap over the truss. In no instance should the positioning be further than 200mm from the centreline of the roof truss. A prudent homebuilder should request a truss layout plan well before completing his brickwork.
Overhangs are considered to be a weak point in any roof and should be kept to the minimum and, where unavoidable, overhangs greater than 500mm should be positively fixed. This will also include all lean-to roofs, canopies, walkways, gate entrances, etc. Strong windresistant soffits should ideally be installed under all overhang areas.
Marley Roofing, Safintra
CONCEALED FIX PROFILES
FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: (c) 082 441 5026 | 0861 LCPROOF (e) email@example.com (w) www.lcproofing.co.za
FIXINGS The popularity of light gauge steel structures or purlins is growing and, once again, the specifier and consumer need to be aware that traditional fixings and fasteners, such as standard tek screws, are not suitable in these applications. The chance of separation between the sheet and purlin is a very real possibility in high wind load conditions. Kare Industrial Suppliers can be contacted for expert advice in this regard.
BRICKS & PAVING
Technicrete donates stock bricks and roof tiles to Bushbuckridge housing project Beneficiaries in ten wards in the Bushbuckridge Municipality benefited from the collaboration between Buscor, a leading passenger bus company that operates predominantly in the Lowveld region of the Mpumalanga Province and Technicrete, a manufacturer of concrete products, to assist in the construction of ten houses for the local community.
echnicrete donated 10 000 Double Roman high quality roof tiles as well as 160 000 discounted Technicrete stock bricks. Buscor, under the Chairmanship of Mrs Nora Fakude gave R2 million towards the project, as well as garnering contributions from local builders and suppliers in the region.
The project, which fell within the Special Project Portfolio of Mr David Mabuza, Premier of Mpumulanga, was designed to assist some of those living in this region where poverty is prevalent and the supply of housing is desperately needed. In some cases, beneficiaries of these new houses â€“ most of whom were elderly â€“ had been living in an environment of squalor.
BRICKS & PAVING Access to the construction site proved difficult due to lack of roads and utilities, but local hardware store, Laduma assisted in collecting and delivering bulk stock from the Technicrete factory to a centralised depot for ongoing distribution. Technicrete supplied discounted materials with a certain amount of stock supplied for free, which enabled the overall price per house to be reduced. Technicrete chose the Double Roman roof tiles due to their suitability for the houses being built. The roof tiles are a cost effective and aesthetically pleasing choice. The stock bricks guarantee good durability, strength, thermal insulation, longevity, as well as being fire resistant. Approximately 1 000 tiles and 80 ridges were used per house. The Double Roman roof tiles come in a variety of antique or smooth colours. Technicrete has an active social responsibility programme that assists with projects that can utilise their concrete products and technologies. For the Bushbuckridge residents who received these ten houses, it was a dream of a lifetime to be able to house their families in a house that was stable and built with good quality materials.
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University of Cape Town’s Corobrik Architectural Student of the year winner’s design of a desalination and salt harvesting plant helps alleviate water scarcity As the impact of climate change continues to dominate international debate, there is an increasing need for responsible corporate citizens, not only to adopt environmentally responsible practices, but to promote the concept of sustainable development as widely as possible.
ustainability is an integral part of Corobrik’s corporate culture, which goes far beyond its mission to supply durable clay bricks and pavers of the finest quality to the southern African construction industry. The company is committed to playing its part in slowing the pace of climate change embracing the three pillars of sustainable development, but with special emphasis on environmental issues and reducing the environmental impacts of the business. Corobrik’s Christie van Niekerk said that Corobrik had, for many years, considered the architectural community crucial in the process of providing sustainable development and this was one of the important reasons why the company was supporting the Architectural Student of the Year Awards for the 27th year running.
Talia Gild’s entry, entitled ‘Architecture of the Machine’ is a desalination and salt harvesting plant situated in Hout Bay. Gild said, "My dissertation was born out of the fascination of large scaled infrastructural engineered/architectural projects, where the individual human is absent from its initial architectural and programmatic goals. This is a project where the architecture is formally governed by a process that is mechanical and systematic.” “I chose to explore the machine of our future water supply, that of a desalination plant. 2013 marks the year that we, South Africa, are no longer water ‘secure’. In other words, the population of the country is going to exceed the amount of water available to us.”
He was presenting prizes to the winning students from the Western Cape region at the University of Cape Town. “These annual awards aim to promote and reward design excellence amongst students whilst encouraging a broadening in understanding of the environmental issues and their resolution. Through discourse around thesis projects design paradigms are inevitably challenged and new design ideas evolve, giving depth to architectural resolution, while building technical skills sets required by architects of the future.” Talia Orli Gild was the regional winner of R8 000, Christo van der Hoven was awarded second prize of R6 000, while Simon Tollman won third prize of R4 000. A R4 000 prize for the best use of clay masonry was also presented to Robert Bowen. “The talented students who have received prizes today have demonstrated that they have taken on board their far-reaching responsibilities and have excelled themselves in their design projects,” van Niekerk said.
Pictured at the Western Cape regional finals of the Corobrik Architect Student of the Year competition are Christie van Niekerk from Corobrik with the winner Talia Gild and her supervisor Nic Coetzer from the University of Cape Town.
“A desalination plant in Hout Bay, able to produce 30 000M ℓ/day of potable water, is situated on the edge of the industrial sector, harbour, the informal settlement of Hangberg and the beginning the mountainous terrain of The Sentinel. Incorporated are sustainable energy devices to help supplement this extensive energy consuming process." With great infrastructure comes great responsibility, therefore the design of this infrastructure must be coupled with public activities. Building something that helps our future livelihood must be something that people can also interact with, and identify with, thereby creating a physical and emotive landmark. Second placed Christo van der Hoven’s thesis is entitled, ‘Tunnel vision’ in which he investigates infrastructural opportunism through an architectural lens. He investigates the anthropology, architecture and engineering associations of a four kilometre Huguenot tunnel between Paarl and Worcester in the Western Cape was selected in which a mushroom farm can engage with its subterranean context. Simon Tollman’s thesis is entitled ‘Life in the Cracks: Architecture in the space left over between adjacent city buildings. Tollman states that regulations govern forms cities take. Their indiscriminate application causes ‘leftover’ spaces between buildings. Separate buildings accessed from a public thoroughfare were inserted, attached parasitically to buildings that flank the site. Behaviours characteristic of city life were accommodated – living, working, eating, outdoor recreation, civic socialisation, and parking – and explored within the constraints of the site.
Robert Bowen received a special award for the best use of clay brick in his thesis entitled ‘The world according to Graaff’ in which a ruined and forgotten building is rediscovered by energy company G.I.E.C. They see the similarities between their intentions and those held by David Graaff and realise the marketing potential of his legacy. A cooling plant and public bathing facility is built within the ruins on the foreshore. In order to achieve the romance, mystery and intrigue of Victorian ruins, clay bricks have been incorporated into the design. The national winner, to be chosen from the eight institutional winners participating, will be announced and presented with a cheque for R50 000 at the 27th National Student Architect awards function in Johannesburg in April 2014. “Corobrik has continued to make advancements in its ongoing drive towards sustainability,” said van Niekerk. “Among these are the uses of energy efficient and environmentally responsible operating systems underpinned by SANS 14001 Environmental Management System certification and through the Clay Brick Association the commissioning of research, technical projects and a full Life Cycle Assessment to advance the cause of masonry walling as an imminently sustainable and appropriate, cost-effective construction method for South Africa.” “Architectural students need to be aware of how easy it is to achieve sustainable and energy efficient architecture with clay brick and of course the new technologies that are being continuously developed and able to mitigate the impacts of built structures on the environment, so that these can be incorporated seamlessly into their designs going forward.”
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BRICKS & PAVING
Corobrik face brick enhances design of Port Elizabeth’s Helenvale Resource Centre Through design, the building’s form and plan layout openly engage with the community of Helenvale which it serves.
Quality building materials and good design should not only be restricted to high profile buildings. In fact, even greater thought needs to be put into facilities that serve those that need them most. In this case, it was the Helenvale Resource Centre in the north of Port Elizabeth.
hristie van Niekerk, Corobrik’s Western Cape Manager, said that one of the chief challenges facing those involved with this project from the very outset was finding a balance between providing the best quality building materials and meeting the tight budget provided by the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (NMBM). The end result was the selection of the Roan Satin face bricks for the super structure and internal walls and the Roan Travertine face bricks for the external boundary walls, entrance walls and outbuildings. 65 000 and 102 000 of each were used respectively with quantities having to be adjusted and increased as the project progressed. The choice of clay face brick was a perfect fit with the need to keep maintenance costs to a minimum. The inclusion of environmentally friendly characteristics that include automatic electric light management, heat pumps, rainwater harvesting and wall and roof super-insulation add to the sustainability. As van Niekerk pointed out, clay brick is not only characterised by its longevity, but also by its ability to save on electricity, as it helps regulate temperature in both summer and winter. Architect, Miles Hollins, from The Matrix…cc Urban Designers and Architects in Port Elizabeth, who
conceptualised the project, said that it had progressed from a scheme that included extensive renovations to a complete rebuild of the facility. “The existing community centre was an isolated event on a barren, rocky site in the heart of the Helenvale Community. Too small and in a severe state of disrepair, it no longer served the needs of the local community. The initial brief called for extensive renovations to the existing building, as well as additional facilities. However, after a thorough analysis of the site and brief and through intense consultation with the client and the community, we realised that the full civic potential of the site could only be realised by demolishing the existing infrastructure to make way for a new, more legible and integrated facility,” he explained. The creation of a community plaza that extends the civic landscape from a new urban park that forms part of the Helenvale Precinct Plan across Leith Street (the primary modal interchange in Helenvale) and then climbs up to the main public entrance to the building was key to the design of the new facility. 3 000 of Corobrik’s Burgundy Pavers were used as borders to define the walkway leading to the entrance of the centre.
BRICKS & PAVING
“This spatial relationship really connects the new complex with the community it serves. The tree-shaded plaza includes a tall marker tower that defines place and a welcoming pergola that ferries the community into the lightly enclosed Community Street,” said Hollins.
The exterior of the Helenvale Resource centre is largely faced in Corobrik’s Roan Satin, which was selected to best complement the building’s form and function with tight budgetary constraints in mind.
A secondary interior circulation route of the newly completed Helenvale Resource centre with clerestory glazing for natural light and ventilation.
He added that this Community Street was the most special area and the primary functional and spatial organizational element of the building. Various community functions (including community offices, subdividable community hall and a large multi-use hall) are attached to this space. The axis of the Community Street orientates the entire complex parallel to Leith Street. This is a spatial characteristic prevalent in the densely packed, semiformal, urban fabric of Helenvale. “This linear space is thus the dominant form, characterised by transparency and defined by a skeletal framework of highly detailed, laminated timber mono-pitch roof support structures. The community plaza flows through this space, accentuated by the continuation of the material and pattern on the ground plane and a spinal vertical plane stretching from outside to inside and then outside again,” said Hollins. He said that this was not the only issue that needed to be taken into consideration by the architects when meeting the needs of the community that used the Helenvale Resource Centre. One thing was long waiting periods which were particularly difficult for those in ‘conflict situations’ and needing services such as counselling or parole supervision. To address this, the Community Street includes seating pods for waiting. These semi-enclosed, semi-transparent, timber-clad forms create smaller, more intimate, subspaces that provide privacy, whilst also allowing for public interaction. Community service facilities (including the Councillor’s chambers and a boardroom) are located beyond the seating pods and flank the Community Street on the Leith Street side of the building. In contrast to the Community Street, the form in which these are housed is a less articulated, simplified, sharp-edged, flat-roofed, solid ‘plain white box.’ The openings in this form are grouped into a linear element that further highlights the horizontality of this form and directs attention towards the main public entrance to the Community Street.
The Helenvale Resource Centre is situated within the Northern suburb of Helenvale, Port Elizabeth. This image highlights the intensity of the urban grain which is Helenvale.
“The small community hall and large multi-purpose hall belong to the same functional family and thus have similar forms and articulation. They are both characterized by a rich pattern of deep red face brick flanking walls, enveloped in a cranked plane of heavily articulated, charcoal-coloured cladding,” Hollins concluded.
CEMENT & CONCRETE
Precast slabs from Elematic ideal for social housing Delivering social housing projects for the public sector is different from delivering private sector projects, as deadlines are driven by political imperatives rather than programming.
onstruction products which can be installed quickly and accurately, like precast hollow core concrete floor slabs from Elematic South Africa (ESA), therefore make a great deal of sense when it comes to meeting those looming deadlines. ESA is currently supplying some 10 000m² of hollow core concrete slabs to City Deep Green, a social housing project that is currently under way in City Deep, Johannesburg. City Deep Green is being developed by the Johannesburg Social Housing Company, Joshco, and is one of several similar projects that are under way at the moment. As Gauteng continues to expand and people come to the province in search of jobs, the need for decent accommodation keeps increasing. Many old hostels in and around the city have been converted into social housing to provide accommodation for families coming from other areas, but the shortage has still been dire.
The City Deep area in particular has always been a central node for labour and there continues to be a shortage of housing there. As a result, Joshco has been developing properties owned by the City of Johannesburg in the area to create additional rental housing stock. Families earning less than a stipulated income per household then qualify for a subsidy to rent these homes, which will not be sold and will remain the property of Joshco as rental properties. The Motheo Construction Group – an established BEE construction company, which generates some 90% of its turnover from government work – is the main contractor at City Deep Green. Completion of 328 units is set for May 2015. The project, which is situated on Greatermans Street in City Deep, has been constructed in phases as funding has become available from various donors. The current phase requires the delivery of 220 housing units by June 2014.
CEMENT & CONCRETE
Units are being constructed in four-storey, walk-up blocks and will be one and two-bedroom homes with basic finishes. Highly engineered raft foundations have been used because of the specific ground conditions on site. These have been followed by structural brickwork and then precast Elematic slabs on three levels. Finally, the structures will be topped by IBR roof sheeting. John Whiteman of Motheo Construction Group explains that the project engineer specified precast hollow core concrete slabs, as they are faster to erect than the traditional cast in-situ concrete floor slabs. “ESA was appointed on its known ability and its price. Quality and efficiency of erection are the deciding factors on a job such as this,” he says. He adds that the accuracy of the slabs and the finish are always good, saying that the slab soffits are neat and the v-joints fit together without gaps, resulting in a good quality, aesthetically pleasing finish. ESA and Motheo have worked together on several projects before, and are also currently working together on another Joshco project in Soweto, so reliability and an open working relationship have been key to doing business. ESA manufactures its hollow core concrete slabs at its ISO 9001 accredited facility on the East Rand. “Our in-house engineers ensure that the product specifications meet the correct requirements for each project and the slabs are manufactured accordingly. Dedicated installation teams transport the slabs to site and install them. Our SABS certification assures clients of the quality of our products,” says Craig Webber, director at ESA . Although labour complications, rain and year-end pressure at the end of 2013 combined to put a great deal of pressure on the team, the Motheo Construction Group and ESA agree that they have worked well to overcome these challenges as a team and to keep the project on track.
ABOUT ESA: Elematic South Africa (Pty) Ltd manufactures precast hollow core concrete slabs for the South African market. Elematic is a well established international brand. The company was established in Finland in 1959 and has since set up precast production plants in more than 70 countries worldwide. As part of the Consolis Group, which focuses on research and development in cement and precast concrete products, Elematic is backed by extensive knowledge and experience. Elematic South Africa supplies the latest available technology in precast concrete products. Its state-of-the-art production facility on Gauteng’s East Rand is ISO 9001 certified and all its products carry the SABS mark of quality.
FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Craig Webber Elematic South Africa (Pty) Ltd (t) 011 423 2700 (c) 083 614 9848
CEMENT & CONCRETE
New wireless moisture measurement system improves concrete quality and control Local pre-cast concrete manufacturers and concrete ready-mix supply and delivery companies can ensure that their concrete is produced to the highest standards of quality by making use of advanced wireless moisture measurement technology developed by German-based moisture control expert, Ludwig Moisture Control.
he state-of-the-art Ludwig FL-Mobimic SlimLine microwave moisture measuring system and wireless Bluetooth transmission system consists of a microwave moisture measuring probe with integrated temperature sensor, transmitting unit and a receiver module. The system was developed in-house by Ludwig in mid2012, and is exclusively distributed in the local market through Pan Mixers South Africa (PMSA) â€“ the largest supplier of concrete brick, block and paving-making machinery and technology in Africa.
Ludwig Moisture Control managing director, Manfred Ludwig, was one of PMSA's international guests at the 2013 bauma Africa Trade Fair in September, who was on hand at the company's display stand to provide visitors with the opportunity to obtain expert advice and insight, while showcasing the latest advancements that the Mobimic SlimLine wireless moisture measuring system has to offer.
CEMENT & CONCRETE
He says, "As the smallest microwave moisture probe of its kind, Mobimic SlimLine is a new generation of wireless measuring. With a height of just 29mm and a diameter of 75mm, the probe can be placed effortlessly into confined spaces. This breakthrough in design enables precise humidity monitoring in process flows â€“ an advancement that was previously impossible with wired sensors."
"Expansion of these industries has prompted an increased demand for better quality concrete and greater control during concrete manufacture, as well as delivery in the ready-mix sector. The Mobimic SlimLine system has a proven track record in international markets for effectively achieving these objectives, and I have full confidence that similar results will be realised in Africa too."
Ludwig points out that the data captured from the probe is transmitted by means of an industrial grade Bluetooth connection. "The combination of the probe with a transmitting and receiving unit means that the Mobimic SlimLine can be used in stationary mixers with a rotating mixing drum, ready-mix trucks and moving bulk containers. What's more, it can also be used in drying and mixing processes."
Booysen states that PMSA plans to focus on its 2014 strategic imperatives, which include monthly industryspecific open training sessions held onsite at the PMSA showroom and sales facility. "To add greater value to our existing product offering, we will be hosting various concrete industry experts from our current suppliers in Africa and Europe, who will provide guests with specific workshops and training that is in line with PMSAâ€™s offering to industry throughout 2014."
According to Ludwig, a major challenge in moisture control is the fact that end users are often unaware of the exact amount of water content in the aggregates. "Accurately controlling the water and moisture content ultimately ensures energy savings, increased productivity and an improvement in the quality of concrete products ranging from concrete bricks and blocks, to roof tiles, pipes, as well as delivery trucks," he adds. PMSA marketing and sales manager, Quintin Booysen, notes that the company has been an authorised Southern African distributor for Ludwig for several years. "We have worked in close collaboration with Ludwig Moisture Control over the years to ensure that we make the company's complete range easily accessible to the local market, in addition to providing all customers with the latest product training, as well as comprehensive aftersales and technical support." Although the Mobimic SlimLine wireless moisture measuring system is a niche product, Ludwig is optimistic that the company will obtain measurable market share in Africa, as a result of the continued expansion of the concrete pre-cast and ready-mix industry, both locally and in Southern Africa. MARCH 2014
WATER & SANITATION
Inadequate water access deprives
women of entrepreneurship opportunities Areas with water shortages deprive women of access to productive wealth, such as education and paid formal and informal employment. This was one of the findings of a WRC study into women in rural areas, which found that women's entrepreneurial dreams are not fulfilled as they struggle to have access to water.
Such informal economic activity was seen as possibly bringing some income to womenâ€™s households as well as the broader community, as some local people would be employed.
Women stated that if they had access to water they would like to have gardens for vegetables in order to sell produce for a living. Some said that they would also like to plant fruit trees in orchards, as a means to earn a living. Others said that if they could get water they would establish small informal economic enterprises. Among the enterprises mentioned was a brickyard for the purpose of helping the community to speed up development.
Additionally, the study found that brewers of African beer, who apparently provide a socially and traditionally valued service within Mbuzini village in Mpumalanga Province, often failed to brew enough beer to satisfy the demand due to inadequate access to water. In Mbuzini village beer brewing was considered to be a significant consumer of available water, with each of the numerous brewers using one hundred and sixty litres (160 L) per day. Respondents indicated that water-consuming small-, medium- and micro-enterprises (SMMEs), such as brick making and building construction, also suffered, as water scarcity frequently delayed their projects.
hile interviewing various respondents from Muyexe village located in Giyani, Limpopo, project leader, Dr. Barbara Nompumelelo Tapela, noted womenâ€™s perceptions, expectations and aspirations for service delivery. Women expressed how they yearn for a move beyond the confines of reproductive roles, such as child care, towards greater involvement in productive roles.
Over 17 000 tons of Rocla toilets Against a backlog requirement of 180 000 toilets, the Amathole District Municipality issued a tender for concrete panel toilets to be manufactured and installed in a very poor and rural part of the Eastern Cape, Amathole. Rocla Sanitation won the first phase of the tender and has currently delivered to site 17 500 of the 25 000 toilets required by June 2014. Simon Wells, Business Manager: Sanitation at Rocla, said, “The project started in March 2011, and in order to offer some local opportunities for employment – some 70% of the 200 locally employed are women – we opened a dedicated factory in Butterworth and utilised local resources. This factory will remain operational until the project is completed next year. We also provided on-site training.” “Amathole is quite a mountainous area, making deliveries in bakkies treacherous, yet innovative at times, through the usage of donkeys to carry the concrete panels to site. The concrete panels, which are light and easy to handle, have been manufactured from a newly patented concrete technology, with all components having hand grips, enabling top structures to be erected in 15 minutes. The community, we believe, is happy with the aesthetics of the toilet structures. A second tender is currently in the adjudication phase, and we are extremely optimistic of our ability to be successful with this second phase,” said Wells.
ith an average concrete panel weighing 102.5kg, and a complete toilet weight of 705kgs, this entire project will have approximately 17 875 tons of concrete paneled toilets available for residents, making it the largest single project with which Rocla Sanitation has been involved.
The Rocla Sanitation concrete toilets can also be relocated by households and are deemed the most suited for the Expanded Public Works Programme. The reality of the concrete panels design is that there are only six panels that make up the complete structure which is a huge plus for the quality and longevity of the product; they offer a relatively large interior (900mm wide x 1 100mm deep x 2 000mm high, conforming to all relevant standards and offer the safety of a dual opening locking system (i.e. they can be opened from the inside while locked from the outside). From manufacture to installation – depending on logistics and other contractor timescales – it takes ten days, including curing time for the concrete. This is a huge step forward for the community who in the past had no access to clean water or hygienic sanitation. The project is being funded under the Municipal Infrastructure Grant Programme. MARCH 2014
Energy saving made simple - Eco-Insulate Developers and project managers in the various housing sectors are increasingly seeking one-stop solutions to meet the requirements of SANS 10400 XA regulations to ensure their projects are energy efficient and provide comfortable living spaces for the inhabitants.
he regulations can, however, be confusing, so we asked Richard Ellis, the general manager of popular green insulation brand, Eco-Insulation to explain how it really works. “Insulate above the ceiling, under the floor or even inside the walls to keep cool in summer, warm in winter and to save energy. For the property owner, this means less electricity or gas usage and therefore real savings in your pocket. For the developer, it means total compliance with the specified R-value for the roof, under national building regulations. Because Eco-Insulation resists the flow of heat, less heat will be lost from the home or office in winter and less heat will enter the building during summer. As a form of energy, heat always flows to a cooler area, escaping out of the building in the winter and entering the building during summer. Eco-Insulation creates an eco-friendly, fire-safe and non-toxic barrier that controls temperature all year round,” he says. In addition, the developer can add the following benefits to the new home, without breaking the bank to do it: • As well as energy saving, home insulation also acts as a sound suppressor. Ceiling, roof or wall cavity insulation can reduce the transmission of sound from one room to another or from noise generated outside. In modern noise-laden environments, increasingly more homeowners are soundproofing their homes. • A well insulated home will increase its overall comfort and add to its resale value. In today’s times of rapidly rising energy costs, it pays now more than ever to insulate and make your home an energy saving home. “Eco-Insulation not only offers the Ultimate Climate Control, it is also the ultimate green building product, too. Helping the environment and protecting you and your family against the intensifying effects of global warming. Visit our website at www.eco-insulation.co.za to find out why Eco-Insulation is the ultimate green product. EcoInsulation is also listed on the Specifile online service, from which the project manager may draw further technical information,” says Ellis.
Eco-Insulation General Manager, Richard Ellis (left) on site with Cape Town installer, Dave Renecle. Photo: Gareth Griffiths. While the brand has developed a great reputation among individual retrofit clients and developers of new projects, as can be seen by the great number of positive comments on Hello Peter and on its website, it is a serious brand that has earned its technical endorsements by standards organisations, including SABS and TIASA. “Ask to see an up-to-date Product Compliance Certificate next time you call for an insulation quote. We were one of the first suppliers to qualify,” says Ellis Best of all, Eco-Insulation installed in the home or office is not expensive. What’s more, you get payback on your money over a period of months and not years.
FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: (t) 061 474 2462 (e) firstname.lastname@example.org (w) www.eco-insulation.co.za