__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

The Jewish population of New South Wales Key findings from the 2016 Census and Gen17

Dr David Graham with Leon Narunsky


JCA is a Sydney-based, not-for-profit organisation serving the NSW and ACT Jewish communities. As the central point for fundraising and strategic planning, JCA is the communal hub that connects the needs of the community with the services that JCA’s 23 member organisations provide in the areas of: aged and community care; culture, engagement and outreach; history, heritage and Holocaust remembrance; Jewish education; security and advocacy; and community continuity.

Acknowledgements This report was conceived and authored by Dr David Graham who was assisted by Leon Narunsky. JCA funded the licence for access to census data from ABS and the purchasing of specially customised 2016 Census tables. Survey data in this report have been extracted directly from the Gen17 datafiles. The Gen17 Australian Jewish Community Survey was jointly conducted in 2017 by JCA (Jewish Communal Appeal) in Sydney and the Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation (ACJC), Monash University, Melbourne. Key financial support for Gen17 was provided by the Education Heritage Foundation in New South Wales and in Victoria by Gandel Philanthropy, Pratt Foundation, Besen Family Foundation, Cher Family Foundation, JewishCare Victoria and Australian Jewish Funders.

Authors Dr David Graham is a demographic research consultant to JCA in Sydney. He is an Honorary Associate at the Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish Studies, University of Sydney, Honorary Research Associate at the University of Cape Town, and Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR) in the UK. A geographer by training and expert in the study of Jews in Britain, Europe, Australia and South Africa, his skills encompass statistics, survey methods and GIS. Dr Graham was instrumental in the development and success of the nationwide Gen17 Jewish community study and has published widely for academic, professional and general interest audiences both nationally and internationally. He holds a DPhil from the University of Oxford. Leon Narunsky is a Research Assistant to DJG Research. Formerly the CFO of JCA his career has encompassed actuarial, financial and computing roles in the Australian insurance industry including CFO of the IAG/NRMA IT division, Head of Knowledge and Data Management and Senior Manager, Planning and Analysis. In South Africa, Leon headed up the National Mutual Life Association Actuarial Department.

First published 2020


Contents

1 Introduction and key findings

4

2 New South Wales in context

10

3 Geography

12

3.1 Jewish population distribution

12

3.2 Jewish population change by suburb and neighbourhood

14

3.3 The ‘most Jewish’ suburbs

17

3.4 Internal migration

18

3.5 Geography and population change in ACT

20

4 Demography 21 4.1 Age and sex structure

21

4.3 Jewish births

26

4.4 Jewish deaths (data from communal records)

27

4.5 Natural population change

28

4.6 Age and sex structure of Jews in ACT

28

5 Immigration and belonging

29

5.1 Place of birth

29

5.2 Language

32

5.3 Knowledge of Hebrew and Yiddish (Gen17)

34

5.4 Immigration

36

5.5 Reasons for migrating (Gen17)

38

5.6 Immigrant wellbeing and integration (Gen17)

40

6 Jewish households

42

6.1 Jewish household type

42

6.2 Average household size

44

6.3 Household tenure

44

6.4 Household composition

46

6.5 Lone persons

46


2 

  The Jewish population of NSW

7 Jewish partnerships and families

48

7.1 Jewish families

48

7.3 Marital status and age

53

7.4 De facto and same-sex couples

55

8 Intermarriage 56 8.1 Intermarriage by religion of partner

56

8.2 Intermarriage by partnership type and sex

58

8.3 Children of intermarried Jews

59

8.4 Intermarriage by age

59

8.5 The intermarriage rate (Gen17)

59

8.6 Intermarriage: Jewish attitudes and behaviours (Gen17)

61

9 Income, wealth and poverty

63

9.1 Personal income

63

9.2 Personal income (Gen17)

64

9.3 Personal income by location

65

9.4 Personal income in ACT

66

9.5 Household income

66

9.6 Household income (Gen17)

67

9.7 Househood income by location

68

9.8 Family income

68

9.9 Wealth and poverty (Gen17)

69

10 Education and schooling

72

10.1 Educational institutions

72

10.2 Educational institutions by location

74

10.3 Type of school attended (Gen17)

75

10.4 Take-up at Jewish schools

76

10.5 School choice for Jewish families (Gen17)

77

10.6 Attitudes towards Jewish schooling (Gen17)

82

10.7 Cost of Jewish schooling (Gen17)

83


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    3

11 Volunteering 11.1 Volunteering by various indicators

87 87

11.2 Volunteering by type of organisation and Jewish identity (Gen17) 89 11.3 Reasons for not volunteering (Gen17)

12 Care and welfare

92

93

12.1 General health and limiting conditions (Gen17)

93

12.2 Need for care assistance by age

95

12.3 Need for care assistance by location

96

12.5 Care and consumer choice (Gen17)

98

12.6 Provision of unpaid care assistance

100

13 Appendices Appendix 1. Construction of ‘broad’ geographical areas using the ASGS boundary system

102 102

Appendix 2. Jewish population change from 2011 to 2016 based on SA2 area boundaries 104 Appendix 3. Long term population change

106

Appendix 4. Age and sex in single years, Jewish population, NSW

109

Appendix 5. Change in total Jewish households, 2011 to 2016

110

Appendix 6. 2016 Census adjustment methodology

111

Appendix 7. Glossary

113


1 Introduction and key findings

This report combines findings from the 2016 Census and the Gen17 Jewish Community Survey on the Jewish population of New South Wales (NSW)1. Brief summary data are also reported for Jews in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The Australian census was held on 9th August 2016 and carried out by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It is unparalleled in terms of the breadth and depth of information it provides about the Jewish population. Gen17 was a nationwide survey carried out in 2017 by the Jewish community with a sample size of 3,938 in NSW. It adds a level of detail about Jewish life that is unavailable from census data. This combination of sources shines a very bright empirical light on the Jewish community enabling planners and other interested groups to better understand this population. In this report, unadjusted census data (i.e. enumerated or raw numbers) are denoted with the subscript ‘u’, (e.g. 123u), adjusted (or estimated) data have subscript ‘a’ (e.g. 123a), and interpolated data have subscript ‘i’ (e.g. 123i) (see Appendix 6)2. The treatment of census data presented in all tables is indicated in the table title. Where data have been drawn from the Gen17 survey, this is indicated in the text and in chart and table titles. In the following summary, data relate to the census unless otherwise indicated.

1 2

Geography •  NSW’s estimated Jewish population was 47,800a, 40.5% of the national Jewish population and an increase of 4.9% since 2006. However, growth slowed, rising by just 0.5% in the second half of the decade •  Jews made up an estimated 0.62% of the NSW population, compared with 0.66% in 2011 •  95% of NSW Jews lived in Greater Sydney, a far greater proportion than the general population (64%) •  Most Jews lived in Eastern Suburbs— North (47%) where 17% of the population is Jewish •  Between 2011 and 2016 Eastern Suburbs—North grew by 1.4% and Eastern Suburbs—South grew by 1.7%. Botany and Regional NSW grew by 32% and 29% respectively. Upper and Lower North Shore contracted by 11% and 4% respectively •  Locally, Rose Bay had the largest Jewish population (3,562a) in NSW followed by Bellevue Hill (2,979a) and Vaucluse (2,806a) •  The most Jewish area was Dover Heights where 61% of residents were Jewish, the only area in NSW with a Jewish majority

For more information about Gen17 and to view a detailed methodology see Graham D and Markus A, 2018 Gen17 Australian Jewish Community Survey – Preliminary Findings, JCA and Monash University For a detailed explanation of the adjustment methodology and a discussion of the complications relating to the 2016 Census, see Graham D with Narunsky L 2019 The Jewish Population of Australia: Key findings from the 2016 Census, JCA and Monash University


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    5

•  Since 2011, NSW experienced a net loss of 355a people to other Australian states and territories, mainly Victoria (211a) and Queensland (109a) •  Since 2011, Ku-ring-gai (Upper North Shore) experienced a net loss of 470a Jews to other places in NSW. Eastern Suburbs—South had a net gain of 192a and Botany had a net gain of 148a •  There were 838a Jews in 2016 in the ACT, an increase of 18% since 2006

Demography •  In 2016 the median age of Jews in NSW was 44 years compared with 38 years generally. In 2006 the Jewish median age was 42 years •  31% of the Jewish population in NSW was aged 60 years and above in 2016. The size of the sixty-something cohort grew by 60% in the decade to 2016 •  Gen17 survey data indicate that the average age at first birth for Jewish women in NSW aged 45 to 49 was 30.0 years old compared with 26.4 years for those aged 65 to 69, i.e. it is increasing •  Jewish women in NSW aged 45 to 55 years have had, on average, 2.0 babies each (below replacement level) and 11% of Jewish women in this age group are childless •  An average of 486 Jewish babies were born in NSW each year from 2012 to 2016 •  Jewish funeral records indicate an average of 447 Jewish deaths took place in NSW each year from 2012 to 2016 •  The median age of Jews in the ACT was 36 years, rather younger than in NSW (44 years)

Immigration and belonging •  4 9% of NSW Jews were not born in Australia compared with 30% in the general NSW population •  While 43% of overseas born Jews in NSW were aged under 40, this was the case for 63% of Australian-born Jews in the state •  19% of Jews in NSW were born in South Africa, 16% in Europe and 6% in each of Israel and the Former Soviet Union •  The size of the South Africa-born population in NSW (~9,000a people) remained essentially unchanged between 2011 and 2016

•  37% of Jews in the Upper North Shore were born in South Africa •  3,600a NSW Jews spoke Hebrew at home and a further 3,277a spoke Russian •  4 6% of Gen17 respondents in NSW read Hebrew ‘quite well’ or ‘very well’; 26% spoke it ‘well’ •  The average annual number of Jewish overseas arrivals to NSW was 29% lower in the 2011-2015 period than in the 2006-2010 period •  Almost as many Jewish migrants arrived in NSW from South Africa in the five years from 2001 to 2005 (1,303) as they did in the ten years from 2006 to 2015 (1,488) •  Of the 1,675 total Jewish arrivals to NSW from 2011 to 2015, 26% came from South Africa and 26% came from Israel •  Gen17 data indicate that 83% of Jewish migrants to NSW were more satisfied with their lives in Australia than in their country of origin. Levels of satisfaction increase the more time spent living in Australia


6 

  The Jewish population of NSW

•  21% of Jewish migrants to NSW felt ‘more at ease’ with people from their own country (Gen17). This was the case for 32% of those from Israel and 29% of those from South Africa •  65% of Jews born in Australia had a very strong sense of belonging to the country compared with 46% of those born elsewhere (Gen17)

Families •  The total number of Jewish households in NSW in 2016 was 17,452u (3,811u lone persons, 12,926u families, 715u group households) •  In 69% of Jewish households, all members were Jewish (31% of these are lone persons); in 14%, one or more has No religion (or not stated); in 17% one or more has a non-Jewish religion •  Average Jewish household size in NSW was 2.7 persons per household, compared with 2.9 in the general NSW population •  27% of Jewish households in NSW rented their home, compared with 31% generally. In Sydney Inner City 54% of Jewish families rent •  7% (1,174u) of Jewish households in NSW were one parent families compared with 12% generally; 36% were couples with children compared with 33% in NSW generally; 22% were lone persons, similar to the proportion in NSW generally (23%)

•  45% of Jewish families in NSW consisted of married couples with children compared with 40% generally •  4 8% of Jewish families in NSW had at least one dependent child compared with 47% generally •  7% of NSW Jews aged 15 and above were currently divorced compared with 6% generally. Gen17 data showed that 19% of NSW Jews aged 18 and above had divorced at least once •  6% of NSW Jews aged 15 and above were currently widowed compared with 5% generally. Among Jews aged 80 to 89 in NSW, 17% of men were widowed compared with 60% of women

Intermarriage •  19,853i Jewish people in NSW live with a partner. 25% of Jews in a couple had a partner who did not report being Jewish—11% had a partner with No religion and 14% had a partner with a nonJewish religion •  The proportion of partnered Jews in NSW who had a Jewish partner fell from 79.0% in 2006 to 75.2% in 2016 •  Between 2011 and 2016 the number of Jews with a partner of No religion increased by 41%. The number with a non-Jewish partner declined by 4% •  9 0% of partnered Jews in NSW were married

•  7% of Jews in NSW aged 20 to 39 lived alone compared with 33% of those aged 85 and above

•  79% of married Jews had a Jewish partner compared with 39% of de facto Jews

•  77% (10,007u) of Jewish families in NSW consisted of married couples and 13% (1,640u) were de facto couples

•  There is little difference in the propensity of Jewish men and women to had Jewish partners


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    7

•  When both parents report being Jewish in NSW, 97% of children are reported Jewish; when only the mother reports Jewish and the father reports an Other religion, the percentage is 50%; when only the father reports Jewish and the mother reports an Other religion, it is 15% •  28% of married Jews aged 30 to 34 had a spouse who did not report being Jewish

•  Jewish households in NSW were almost four times as likely to have annual incomes of $260,000 or above compared with all other households in NSW (15% versus 4% respectively) •  The median annual Jewish household income in NSW was $127,200, 65% higher than the rest of NSW households ($77,200)

•  Gen17 indicates that the intermarriage rate in NSW for Jews marrying between 2010 and 2017 was 23%

•  Jewish couples with children had average household incomes of $197,600, 2.5 times higher than Jewish one parent households ($78,600)

•  21% of intermarried Jews say they do not feel very well accepted by the Jewish community

•  Gen17 data indicate that 9% of Jewish households in NSW had incomes of $500,000 or more

•  4 6% of in-married Jews attend Friday night meals every week compared with 15% of intermarried Jews

•  Excluding lone persons, 20% of Jewish families had incomes of $260,000 or above (compared with 5% generally). Jewish median annual family income was $152,100

•  26% of Gen17 respondents in NSW are very concerned about intermarriage in Australia and 38% are somewhat concerned

Economics •  In 2016, Jews were four times as likely as the rest of the NSW population to have had personal pre-tax incomes of $156,000 per year or more (the highest income bracket measured by the census) •  Jewish median personal income was $55,400, 61% higher than general in NSW ($34,400). However, Gen17 data indicate Jewish median personal income in NSW may have been $74,000 •  At $50,600, median Jewish personal income was $10,000 lower in Eastern Suburbs – South than Eastern Suburbs – North; median personal income was lowest in Botany ($40,400 per year) •  Median personal income for Jews in the ACT was $69,700

•  19% of Gen17 respondents said they were ‘Just getting along’ or ‘Poor’; for Jewish households with incomes of under $25,000 per year this was 62%; it was 49% for Jews who were currently married but separated •  Relatively few (under 5%) respondents reported experiencing deprivation (limiting their ability to afford food and medicine)

Jewish schooling •  In 2016 there were 7,317a Jewish children in NSW schools, a 9% increase since 2011 •  Jews were 1.7 times more likely than the rest of the NSW population to send their children to private schools •  There were 26% more Jewish children of primary school age in 2016 compared with 2006; by contrast there were 7% fewer of secondary school age


8 

  The Jewish population of NSW

•  From 2006 to 2016 Jewish enrolments in primary Government schools increased by 64%, non-government increased by 3%; at the secondary level, Jewish enrolments contracted in both Government (by 20%) and non-Government (by 3%) schools •  The shift away from non-government primary schools was especially pronounced in Eastern Suburbs – North from 73% in 2011 to 61% in 2016 •  Gen17 shows that 68% of 18-29 year olds in NSW attended a Jewish school at both primary and secondary levels compared with 26% of 40-49 years olds and 9% of those age 50 and above •  JCA and census records indicate that 46% of Jewish school-aged children in NSW attended Jewish schools in 2016 compared with 50% in 2011; take-up declined from 47% to 40% at the Jewish primary level •  Gen17 respondents in NSW with at least one child in a Jewish primary school were 1.7 times as likely to have had household incomes of $300,000 or above compared to families with at least one child in a government primary school (37% versus 22%) •  Families in NSW with at least one child in a Jewish secondary school were almost five times as likely to have had household incomes of $300,000 or more compared to those with at least one child in a government secondary school (34% versus 7%) (Gen17) •  72% of Orthodox families choose Jewish primary schools compared with 27% of nonOrthodox families (Gen17) •  Gen17 respondents said the main advantages of Jewish schooling are ‘Strengthening Jewish identity’, ‘Provide a sense of belonging to the Jewish community’, and ‘Developing Jewish friendship and networks’: i.e. social and ethnocentric motivators

•  55% of Gen17 respondents aged under 45 years said the cost of sending one or more of their children to a Jewish school had prevented them from doing so •  55% of families with at least one child in a Jewish school said that the cost entailed either a significant or major financial sacrifice; when family income was $150,000-$299,999 this was 60% and 84% for families with incomes below $150,000

Volunteering •  30% of Jews in NSW said they had volunteered in the previous 12 months compared with 20% in NSW generally •  Volunteering is sensitive to life cycle stage but Jews aged 15 to 19 were most likely to have done so (42%) •  Jewish women were more likely to have volunteered than Jewish men (32% versus 28%) •  Volunteering was most common among Unemployed and Never married. It was highest among Australia born Jews (36%) and lowest among Israel and FSU born Jews •  Gen17 survey data indicate that 55% of volunteers had only volunteered for Jewish organisations. They also volunteered more frequently for Jewish organisations •  Self-described Masorti respondents were most likely to have volunteered (66%) followed by Modern Orthodox (63%). ‘Just Jewish’ (44%) were least likely •  Among the volunteers, 23% had done so for a synagogue and 19% for a school •  The most common reason given for not volunteering was insufficient time (45%)


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    9

Care and welfare •  Most (86%) Gen17 respondents in NSW reported having good general health. 14% had poor health. This was the case for 48% of those aged in their late eighties •  19% of Gen17 respondents said their daily activities were limited because of a longterm health problem or disability. This was the case for more than half of those aged 80 and above •  Moderate Pain or discomfort was the most common impairment (28%) followed by moderate Anxiety or depression (22%) (Gen17) •  There were 2,793a Jewish people in NSW in need of assistance with ‘core activities’ in 2016. 52% of those were aged 80 and above •  Of those in need of assistance in NSW, 25% did not live at home i.e. they lived in nursing homes or ‘accommodation for the retired’ •  In 2016, 893a Jewish people lived in nursing homes and accommodation for the retired in NSW, a rise of 18% since 2006 •  JCA records indicate that there were about 640 Jews in nursing homes in NSW in 2016 •  In 2016, 48% of Jews in nursing homes or ‘accommodation for the retired’ in NSW were aged 90 and above compared with 34% in 2006 •  4 3% of Jewish people aged 90 and above in NSW lived in a nursing home or accommodation for the retired •  58% of Gen17 respondents in NSW would prefer a care environment with a ‘Jewish ethos’ but not necessarily with kosher facilities. 53% of Modern Orthodox respondents would prefer one with kosher facilities

•  56% of respondents in NSW said the cost of home care should be financed by their own income, savings and investments (Gen17) •  32% of those in NSW aged 80 and above said they did not have sufficient financial provisions to pay for their care needs into old age. This was the case for 53% of those born in FSU countries (Gen17) •  5,421a Jews aged 15 and above in NSW provided unpaid care assistance to others. 61% of these care givers were women. 28% of women in their late fifties did so •  20% of Gen17 respondents in NSW provided regular assistance to close relatives suffering from physical or mental ill-health or disability


2 New South Wales in context

The 2016 Census differed from previous censuses in several important ways. This impacted the approach we have taken to adjusting the data for non-response. The details of this approach can be found in our report on the 2016 Census for Australia3 . It should also be noted that the approach taken to adjusting the 2011 and 2006 census data has been amended for comparative proposes. Therefore, figures for those censuses in this report may differ slightly from those previously published.

since 2006 (45,572a). But during this period, the pace of Jewish population increase slowed having risen by 4.4% between 2006 and 2011 but by only 0.5% between 2011 and 2016. Of the 7.5u million people in NSW in 2016, 4.1u million reported being Christian compared with 758,000u who reported a non-Christian religion and 1.9u million people who reported no religion. Christianity dominated NSW’s religious landscape in 2016 accounting for more than half (55%) of the state’s total population (Figure 1).

In 2016 the Jewish population of New South Wales (NSW) was estimated to be 47,800a, 4, 5 or 40.5% of the national total. This represented an increase of 4.9% or 2,227a people in the decade

Figure 1. The changing religious identity landscape of NSW, 1991 to 2016 (enumerated)* 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000

Not stated

4,000,000

No religion Other religions

3,000,000

Christianity

2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1991

1996

2001

2006

2011

2016

* Data do not include ‘Supplementary codes’ (2006, 2011) and ‘Inadequately described’ (1991, 1996, 2001, 2016)

3 4 5

A detailed methodology and description of the key differences between the 2016 Census and previous censuses can be found in Graham with Narunsky 2019 op. cit. p7-8 and p70-74 The enumerated figure for NSW in 2016 was 36,902u An estimated or adjusted census figure (denoted by a) is an enumerated (raw) census figure that has been adjusted by 29.53% (see footnote 2).


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    11

But in proportionate terms, Christianity declined sharply between 2011 and 2016 in NSW—by 10 percentage points down from 65% (Table 1). By contrast, 26% of people in NSW described themselves as having ‘no religion’, a rise of 8 percentage points since 2011. These dramatic changes were mostly a result of people switching from Christianity to no religion. The overall picture in NSW is one of increasing religious

diversity with non-Christian denominations almost quadrupling in number since 1991 and rising from 9.2% in 2011 to 10.2% in 2016. Jews made up a very small proportion of the total NSW population in 2016 at 0.50%u or 5u per 1,000u people6. By comparison, for Hinduism it was 24u per 1,000u, for Buddhism it was 28u per 1,000u and for Islam it was 36u per 1,000u.

Table 1. Proportionate size of religious groups in NSW – 1991-2016 (enumerated)* 1991

1996

2001

2006

2011

2016

77.3%

74.7%

72.5%

68.1%

65.0%

55.4%

Islam

1.4%

1.7%

2.3%

2.6%

3.2%

3.6%

Buddhism

1.0%

7,452,016

2.4%

2.6%

2.9%

2.8%

Hinduism

0.4%

0.6%

0.8%

1.1%

1.7%

2.4%

Judaism

0.5%

0.5%

0.6%

0.6%

0.6%

0.5%

Other religions

0.2%

0.4%

0.5%

0.6%

0.8%

0.9%

No religion

10.0%

12.9%

11.9%

14.3%

18.1%

25.6%

Not stated

9.1%

7.8%

9.1%

10.1%

7.8%

8.8%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

5,717,620

5,977,765

6,230,758

6,511,649

6,869,229

7,452,016

Christianity

Total N

* Data do not include ‘Supplementary codes’ (2006, 2011) and ‘Inadequately described’ (1991, 1996, 2001, 2016). Columns may not to sum to 100% due to rounding.

6

The interpolated percentage for Jews is 0.54%i. See Appendix 6 which discusses the enumerated, interpolated and estimated (adjusted) numbers.


3 Geography

3.1 Jewish population distribution In 2016 most (87%) of Australia’s Jews lived in just two states, 41% in NSW and 46% in Victoria7. But Jewish population concentration extends well beyond state level. Thus, within NSW, the vast majority (95%) of Jews lived in Greater Sydney (‘Sydney’ from here-on) whereas this was the case for 64% of the state’s general population. (Other religious minority groups are also highly concentrated in Sydney relative to NSW generally, for example, 95% of Muslims, 94% of Hindus and 90% of Buddhists in NSW lived in Sydney.)

In Map 1 it can be seen that even in Sydney most Jews lived in only a few places8 : Eastern Suburbs—North, Eastern Suburbs—South, Sydney Inner City, Ku-ring-gai (colloquially ‘Upper North Shore’), Chatswood Lane Cove and North Sydney Mosman (together they are colloquially the ‘Lower North Shore’). These five locales account for more than four out of five (82%) Jews in NSW. Indeed, Eastern Suburbs—North alone accounts for almost half (47%) of the state’s Jewish population.

Map 1. Jewish population distribution, Sydney region, 2016 (estimated)*

* Source: ABS 2016 Census, ASGS boundaries at SA3 level. Map created with MapInfo Pro v16

7 8

For further details of NSW’s Jewish population compared with other states and territories see: Graham with Narunsky 2019 op. cit. p15-16. These are all SA3 level areas based on ABS’s ASGS boundary classification (see Glossary Appendix 7)


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    13

This pattern of concentration is revealed in even greater detail in Map 2. Again, just a few places accounted for most Jews. To the north of Sydney harbour, the largest concentration was in St Ives and there was a notable presence south of this area towards the harbour—the ‘Lower

North Shore’. But the vast majority of Jews lived south of the harbour in Eastern Suburbs. Dover Heights (SA2) alone accounted for over one in ten (11.5%) Jews in the whole state with adjacent neighbourhoods accounting for much of the remainder.

Map 2. Jewish population distribution, eastern Sydney, 2016 (estimated)*

* Source: ABS 2016 Census, ASGS boundaries at SA2 level.


14    The Jewish population of NSW

3.2 Jewish population change by suburb and neighbourhood

Eastern Suburbs – North the population increased by 1.4% (up 313a from 22,058a to 22,371a) and in Eastern Suburbs – South it increased by 1.7% (up 110a from 6,437a to 6,547a). This is, perhaps, slightly less than might have been expected for Eastern Suburbs – South given steeper rises previously experienced, but this increase does not include adjacent Botany which grew by 32% and where 959a Jews lived in 2016. Meanwhile, the Upper North Shore experienced an 11% decrease (down 511a from 4,608a to 4,097a) and the Lower North Shore9 decreased by 4% (down 98a from 2,674a to 2,576a). These trends reflect the continued movement (mainly through internal migration) away from the North Shore and south to the Eastern Suburbs and Botany.

As noted above, in the decade between 2006 and 2016, the Jewish population of NSW increased by 4.9%, up from 45,576a to 47,800a people. Sydney’s Jewish population increased by 4.2% over the decade, substantially less than the general increase experienced by the city overall (16.1%). More significantly, the NSW Jewish population increased by 4.4%a between 2006 and 2011 and by just 0.5%a between 2011 and 2016, reflecting a considerable decrease in the rate of growth. The change between 2011 and 2016 varied considerably by location. This is shown in Table 2 which uses ‘broad’ geographical areas which are the basis of much of the geographical analysis presented in this report (see also Map 1). In

Table 2. Jewish population distribution and percent of total Jewish population in NSW, 2016 (estimated) Percentage of total Jewish population

Percentage change from 2011-2016

2011

2016

2011

2016

Eastern Suburbs – North

22,058

22,371

46.4%

46.8%

1.4%

Eastern Suburbs – South

6,437

6,547

13.5%

13.7%

1.7%

Upper North Shore (Ku-ring-gai)

4,608

4,097

9.7%

8.6%

-11.1%

Lower North Shore (Chatswood – Lane Cove and North Sydney – Mosman)

2,674

2,576

5.6%

5.4%

-3.7%

Sydney Inner City

2,424

2,486

5.1%

5.2%

2.6%

728

959

1.5%

2.0%

31.6%

Rest of Sydney

6,604

6,131

13.9%

12.8%

-7.2%

Rest of NSW

2,036

2,633

4.3%

5.5%

29.3%

47,570

47,800

100.0%

100.0%

0.5%

Area (based on SA3 boundaries)*

Botany^

Total

* ASGS boundaries, such as SA3 used here, were first introduced in 2011 so cannot be compared with earlier census boundaries based on the ASGC system (see Appendix 1) ^ Botany has been separated out from rest of Sydney as it is an important growth area. But it is also geographically distinct from Eastern Suburbs – South.

9

Consisting of the two SA3 areas ‘Chatswood – Lane Cove’ and ‘North Sydney – Mosman’


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    15

In terms of population distribution, nearly half (46.8%) of NSW’s Jewish population lives in Eastern Suburbs – North while Eastern Suburbs – South accounts for over one eighth (13.7%) and despite its strong growth, Botany accounts for just 2.0% (Table 2). The North Shore (Upper and Lower combined) accounts for 14.0%. There are various ways to examine the data at more localised geographical levels. In the following section, we have chosen to use boundaries that will be more familiar and intuitive to those who live in these areas, SSC boundaries rather than ASGS boundaries10. The data are shown in Table 3. This shows that Rose Bay had the largest Jewish population (3,562a) in NSW in 2016 followed by Bellevue Hill (2,979a) and Vaucluse (2,806a). Rose Bay was also the largest suburb in 2011, though not in 2006, when Bellevue Hill was slightly larger. This is reflected in the change statistics: Rose Bay grew by 22% over the decade to 2016 whereas Bellevue Hill grew by less than 2%. (A table showing population change based the ASGS boundaries, introduced in 2011, at the SA2 level is presented in Appendix 2.)

The strongest growth in the 2006 to 2016 decade occurred in the far south of the Eastern Suburbs in Little Bay which more than tripled (up 244%, albeit from a population base of only 42a) and Pagewood which almost tripled (196% from a population base of 77a) (Table 3). Areas also in the south, but with larger Jewish populations, that also grew strongly were Maroubra (28%) and Randwick (15%). Tellingly, in both these places this growth occurred between 2006 and 2011 ceasing thereafter. Meanwhile, and as noted, Rose Bay increased by 22% but all other major growth over the decade was in the south, for example, South Coogee (43%), Matraville (42%), Botany (149%) and Zetland (134%). By contrast, declines were greatest in St Ives (-11%), St Ives Chase (-37%), Killara (-33%), East Lindfield (-34%), Hunters Hill (-13%) and Cremorne (-31%). All of these suburbs are located in the North Shore, although decadal declines also occurred in Bondi (-14%) and Bondi Beach (-4%) in the Eastern Suburbs.

Table 3. Largest 50 Jewish suburbs in NSW (SSC*), 2006, 2011 and 2016 (estimated)^ Number

Percent change

Suburb

2006

2011

2016

2006-11

2011-16

2006-16

Rose Bay

2,927

3,348

3,562

14.4%

6.4%

21.7%

Bellevue Hill

2,934

2,971

2,979

1.3%

0.3%

1.5%

Vaucluse

2,685

2,765

2,806

3.0%

1.5%

4.5%

North Bondi

2,486

2,487

2,604

0.0%

4.7%

4.7%

Dover Heights

2,413

2,517

2,382

4.3%

-5.4%

-1.3%

St Ives

2,432

2,408

2,174

-1.0%

-9.7%

-10.6%

Maroubra

1,496

1,936

1,908

29.5%

-1.5%

27.6%

Randwick

1,509

1,863

1,742

23.5%

-6.5%

15.4%

Bondi

1,910

1,757

1,640

-8.0%

-6.7%

-14.2%

Bondi Junction

1,177

1,332

1,323

13.2%

-0.7%

12.4%

Bondi Beach

1,033

1,027

987

-0.5%

-3.9%

-4.4%

Continued on next page 10 The SSC (State Suburb Code) is a boundary system used by ABS to more closely match neighbourhood boundaries that most people are familiar with. In particular they are more intuitive than the equivalent SA2 boundaries but do not mesh precisely with the ASGS hierarchical system. For example, the ASGS SA2 boundary called ‘Rose Bay – Vaucluse – Watsons Bay’ conflates several areas that, from a Jewish point of view, are spatially distinct and are separate in the SSC system. But potential for confusion remains as there are a number of cases where the same name is used in both systems, e.g. Dover Heights (SA2) has 5,505 Jews whereas Dover Heights SSC has only 2,382 Jews. That is because the SA2 boundary incorporates, inter alia, part of an area most people (and also the SSC classification system) would consider to be Rose Bay.


16    The Jewish population of NSW

Number Suburb

Percent change

2006

2011

2016

2006-11

2011-16

2006-16

Woollahra

705

772

749

9.6%

-3.1%

6.2%

Double Bay

739

633

675

-14.2%

6.5%

-8.6%

Darling Point

544

526

569

-3.3%

8.2%

4.6%

Kingsford

479

527

561

10.0%

6.4%

17.1%

Kensington

436

497

446

14.1%

-10.3%

2.3%

South Coogee

304

334

435

9.9%

30.3%

43.1%

Matraville

294

315

418

7.1%

32.8%

42.2%

Coogee

411

435

391

5.8%

-10.0%

-4.8%

Hunters Hill

439

383

381

-12.8%

-0.6%

-13.3%

Queens Park

348

339

372

-2.5%

9.7%

7.0%

Paddington

361

357

370

-1.2%

3.8%

2.6%

Bronte

335

325

307

-3.2%

-5.4%

-8.4%

Mosman

361

305

306

-15.5%

0.1%

-15.4%

Waterloo

423

399

297

-5.8%

-25.6%

-29.9%

Botany

115

198

288

71.2%

45.5%

149.1%

St Ives Chase

443

366

281

-17.3%

-23.3%

-36.6%

Killara

406

287

272

-29.2%

-5.4%

-33.0%

Clovelly

199

226

259

14.0%

14.5%

30.4%

Point Piper

285

200

251

-30.0%

25.7%

-12.0%

Waverley

321

257

249

-19.9%

-3.4%

-22.6%

Darlinghurst

164

208

240

27.2%

15.0%

46.3%

Redfern

272

245

231

-9.7%

-6.1%

-15.2%

Pagewood

77

154

228

100.7%

47.6%

196.2%

Chatswood

139

225

214

61.9%

-5.1%

53.7%

Rosebery

247

232

209

-5.9%

-10.2%

-15.6%

Edgecliff

158

146

201

-7.3%

37.4%

27.4%

Lane Cove North

130

172

194

32.3%

12.7%

49.1%

Surry Hills

241

230

188

-4.5%

-18.3%

-22.0%

Lindfield

221

225

187

1.9%

-17.1%

-15.6%

Pymble

197

206

179

4.4%

-13.2%

-9.4%

Lane Cove

163

178

168

9.7%

-5.6%

3.6%

Gordon

129

117

161

-9.1%

36.9%

24.4%

Cremorne

222

174

154

-21.8%

-11.2%

-30.6%

Elizabeth Bay

156

134

152

-14.2%

13.0%

-3.1%

Roseville

170

183

152

7.7%

-17.3%

-10.9%

Little Bay

42

121

145

186.6%

19.9%

243.8%

Zetland East Lindfield Wahroonga

62

92

145

48.6%

57.3%

133.8%

212

170

140

-19.9%

-17.7%

-34.1%

155

107

137

-31.3%

28.8%

-11.5%

Other

11,463

12,153

12,396

6.0%

2.0%

8.1%

Total

45,572

47,570

47,800

4.4%

0.5%

4.9%

* This table is based on State Suburb Code (SSC) boundaries as these are considered to be more intuitive than the equivalent SA2 boundaries based on the ASGS system and are also available from 2006, allowing for longer range comparisons as the ASGS was only introduced in 2011 (see Glossary Appendix 7) ^ Jewish population change data since 1991 can be found in Appendix 3 based on postcode boundaries.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    17

3.3 The ‘most Jewish’ suburbs The estimated proportion of Australia’s population that is Jewish (0.49%a) has fallen slightly from 2011 (0.52%a), as it has in NSW (from 0.66%a in 2011 to 0.62%a in 2016). Locally, the proportions are much higher, for example, in Eastern Suburbs – North more than one sixth (17.1%) of the population is Jewish, and this is the case for almost one in twenty in Eastern Suburbs – South (4.5%) (Table 4). While Rose Bay is the largest Jewish suburb, it is only the second most densely Jewish suburb, and by some considerable margin (Table 5). The most densely Jewish area is Dover Heights where three out of five (60.5%) people are Jewish, the only area with a Jewish majority in NSW. In Rose Bay that is the case for one in three (34.2%). Three other neighbourhoods in NSW are more than a quarter Jewish: Vaucluse (29.0%), North Bondi (27.4%) and Bellevue Hill (26.8%).

Table 4. Jewish population as a percentage of total population by SA3 area, 2016 (estimated)* Percent Jewish

Area (based on SA3 boundaries) Eastern Suburbs – North

17.1%

Eastern Suburbs – South

4.5%

Upper North Shore (Ku-ring-gai)

3.3%

Botany

2.0%

Lower North Shore (Chatswood – Lane Cove and North Sydney – Mosman)

1.2%

Sydney Inner City

1.1%

Rest of Sydney

0.1%

Rest of NSW

0.1%

Total NSW

0.6%

* Calculations based on the estimated Jewish population in an area as a proportion of the total estimated population in that area

Table 5. Jewish population as a percentage of total population for the 50 most densely Jewish SSCs* in NSW, 2016* Suburb*

Percent Jewish

Suburb*

Percent Jewish

Suburb*

Percent Jewish

Dover Heights

60.5%

Woollahra

9.8%

Matraville

4.1%

Darlinghurst

2.0%

Rose Bay

34.2%

St Ives Chase

8.6%

Hunters Hill

3.9%

Gordon

2.0%

Vaucluse

29.0%

Bondi Beach

8.2%

Chifley

3.7%

Rosebery

2.0%

North Bondi

27.4%

South Coogee

7.6%

East Lindfield

3.6%

West Pymble

2.0%

Bellevue Hill

26.8%

Edgecliff

7.5%

Kingsford

3.5%

Waterloo

2.0%

Suburb*

Percent Jewish

Point Piper

17.1%

Tamarama

6.2%

East Killara

3.2%

Cammeray

1.9%

Bondi

15.8%

Maroubra

6.0%

Little Bay

3.1%

Lindfield

1.8%

Double Bay

14.0%

Pagewood

5.8%

Kensington

2.9%

Northbridge

1.8%

Bondi Junction

13.5%

Randwick

5.6%

Elizabeth Bay

2.8%

Eastlakes

1.7%

Darling Point

13.1%

Waverley

5.5%

Paddington

2.8%

Redfern

1.7%

Watsons Bay

12.6%

Centennial Park

5.3%

Botany

2.6%

Pymble

1.7%

St Ives

12.1%

Clovelly

5.3%

Killara

2.5%

Queens Park

11.7%

Bronte

4.4%

Coogee

2.5%

* Calculations based on the estimated Jewish population in an area as a proportion of the total estimated population in that area, where there more than 100 a Jews in that area. * an SSC is a State Suburb Code (see note to Table 3)


18    The Jewish population of NSW

3.4 Internal migration Although we can see how the population has changed from census to census, that is not the same as understanding the movement of Jews across Australia and within NSW, known as internal migration. In the five years to 2016 at the national interstate level, NSW experienced net loss (remainder after population losses are subtracted from gains) of 355a people to all other states and territories. Most of this loss was attributable to Victoria (-211a) and Queensland (-109a) (Figure 2).

Migration also occurred at the more localised level (Table 6). Within NSW the largest net movement was away from Ku-ring-gai (Upper North Shore) which experienced a net loss of 470a Jews. By contrast, Eastern Suburbs – South had a net gain of 192a and Botany had a net gain of 148a, rather substantial given its relatively small base in 2011 of 728a. Other net losses were Eastern Suburbs – North (117a) but off a huge base and Chatswood – Lane Cove (87a).

Figure 2. Net migration flow between NSW and all other states, 2011 to 2016 (estimated)

Net of migration flow from/to NSW (persons)

50 6

19

0 -19

-50

-8 -34

-100 -109 -150 -200 -211 -250 Victoria

Queensland

South Australia

Western Australia

Tasmania

Northern Territory

ACT


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    19

Table 6. Net Jewish migration flow into NSW suburbs (SA3 areas) between 2016 and 2011 (estimated)* Jewish population 2016 Eastern Suburbs – South Botany Sydney Inner City

Net change 2011-2016

6,547

192

959

148

2,486

65

630

58

Cronulla – Miranda – Caringbah

220

34

Marrickville – Sydenham – Petersham

280

32

Blue Mountains

203

27

Manly

198

26

Ryde – Hunters Hill

882

26

Strathfield – Burwood – Ashfield

319

18

Gosford

320

17

Hurstville

216

10

Pittwater

231

8

1,118

4

Warringah

North Sydney – Mosman Leichhardt

407

0

Baulkham Hills

250

-1

Kogarah – Rockdale

286

-1

Richmond Valley – Coastal

439

-4

Hornsby

348

-17

Canada Bay

241

-19

Chatswood – Lane Cove

1,459

-87

Eastern Suburbs – North

22,371

-117

4,097

-470

Ku-ring-gai

* Calculations based on the estimated Jewish population in areas with more than 150 a Jews

Finally, we can look at net migration flows between particular suburbs within Sydney. As noted in Table 6, Ku-ring-gai experienced a total net loss of 470a Jews between 2011 and 2016. In Table 7, reading down the columns, we can see that a large proportion of this loss (345a people) was to Eastern Suburbs – North. (Reading across the rows we see the converse, Eastern Suburbs – North had a net gain of 345 Jews from Ku-ring-gai.) Meanwhile, Eastern Suburbs – North itself experienced a net loss of 311a Jews to

Eastern Suburbs – South as well as Sydney Inner City (74a) and Botany (39a). Botany experienced net gains from Eastern Suburbs – South (74a), Sydney Inner City (40a) and Eastern Suburbs – North (39a). Gen17 survey data indicate that 10% of householders had lived in their current home for 30 years or more while just over half (52%) had lived there for up to six years. 10% had recently moved, i.e. they had lived in their current home for less than one year.


20    The Jewish population of NSW

Table 7. Net migration flow between selected NSW suburbs, 2011 – 2016 (estimated)

Botany Botany

Sydney Inner City

Eastern Suburbs – North

Eastern Suburbs – South

Chatswood – Lane Cove

Kuring-gai

North Sydney – Mosman

Ryde – Hunters Hill

Other

-40

-39

-74

0

-3

4

0

4

-74

0

-3

-51

-23

1

44

311

-13

-345

-18

-5

74

-4

-6

-8

5

58

-3

-1

14

57

73

-10

1

5

17

Sydney Inner City

40

Eastern Suburbs – North

39

74

Eastern Suburbs – South

74

0

-311

Chatswood – Lane Cove

0

3

13

4

Ku-ring-gai

3

51

345

6

3

North Sydney – Mosman

-4

23

18

8

1

-73

Ryde – Hunters Hill

0

-1

5

-5

-14

10

-5

Other

-4

-44

-74

-58

-57

-1

-17

16

Total

148

65

-117

192

-87

-470

4

26

-16 239

3.5 Geography and population change in ACT In 2016, the number of Jews in ACT (Australian Capital Territory) in 2016 was 838a, an increase of 17.7% since 2006. Growth was strongest in the first half of the decade (up 13.5%) compared with the second half (up 3.7%). ACT’s Jewish population is spread out and can be found in 67 suburbs. Unusually, Jews are not concentrated in any particular part of Canberra as they are in most other cities where they reside. The top 10 areas (out of 131) account for just 36% of ACT’s total Jewish population; the equivalent for NSW is 48% (and that’s out of 4,500 SSCs). Only three ACT suburbs—Ainslie, Kingston and Watson—appear in the top ten for each of the last three censuses suggesting high levels of population change. This may reflect the unique nature of Canberra’s Jewish population; more itinerant, secular and less Jewishly cohesive than other communities.

Table 8. Largest 10 Jewish suburbs in ACT (SSC), 2006, 2011 and 2016 (estimated) 2006

2011

2016

Watson

24

29

36

Giralang

4

7

35

Ainslie

26

44

34

Griffith

27

24

32

Bruce

10

23

31

O'Connor

17

34

30

Hackett

11

12

28

Curtin

19

18

26

Barton

14

8

25

Kingston

30

22

25

Other

531

588

536

Total

712

808

838


4 Demography

4.1 Age and sex structure The median11 age of Jews in NSW is 44 years which is considerably older than the general population at 38 years. The older Jewish age structure is evident in Figure 3 which indicates

that 43% of the Jewish population is aged under 40 years compared with 52% generally. By contrast, 31% of the Jewish population is aged 60 years and above compared with 22% generally.

Figure 3. Jewish population structure compared with the general population, NSW, 2016 (estimated) 90+

0.8%

80-89

2.2% 3.5%

5.2%

70-79

6.8%

8.9%

Age group

60-69

14.4%

10.7% 12.6% 12.8%

50-59

13.4% 13.3%

40-49 11.4%

30-39 9.1%

20-29

13.9% 13.6%

10.8% 11.9%

10-19

12.1% 12.6%

0-9 0%

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

Percentage of total population from each age group Jewish (N = 47,800)

All others (N = 7.7m)*

* This number incorporates an adjustment for the estimated resident population (ERP) complied by ABS and is based on the census post enumeration survey (See Graham with Narunsky 2019 op. cit. p70)

11 The mean and median are both measures of the average. The advantage of the median over the more familiar mean is that very large values (outliers) are less distorting.


22 

  The Jewish population of NSW

As noted, the Jewish population of NSW increased by an estimated 4.9% between 2006 and 2016, primarily as a result of international migration (see section 6.4, below) rather than migratory gains from other states (see section 4.4) or natural increase (see below). Meanwhile, the median age of Jews increased from 42 years in 2006 to 44 years in 2016. Figure 4 shows this ageing graphically. It is apparent how the successive lines steadily shift to the right of the graph i.e. to older ages. This is also reflected in the fact that the number of people in their sixties increased by 60% in the decade, a result of the post WWII baby-boomer generation ageing. By contrast, numbers in their twenties and fifties declined (by 14% and 13% respectively). These changes are mainly the result of ‘population momentum’ (i.e. the hard-wired or underlying age structure of the Jewish population) rather than migration or changes in birth or death rates. As such, it also indicates the likely size of different age groups going forward. Thus, we might expect an equally large increase (also of around 60%) of people aged in their seventies in the 2016 to 2026 decade.

A useful way to understand the shape and likely future trajectory of NSW’s Jewish population is to examine its population structure graphically. This is called a population pyramid and is presented in Figure 5. It shows undulating peaks and troughs which indicate larger and smaller age group sizes. The largest peak is for people aged in their late sixties—these are the baby-boomers who have been entering retirement in recent years. There is a smaller peak of people aged in their early forties—this is the ‘echo’ of the baby-boomer generation, and there is also an ‘echo of the echo’; a peak of children aged around 8 years old with a relatively large group aged 5 to 9 years old in 2016, i.e. the grandchildren of the babyboomers. Beyond that third peak, we can see that the number of children being born is steadily declining, a result of population dynamics. I.e. in the absence of significant net migration, there are simply fewer women of childbearing age coming up the population ranks and, therefore, fewer children being born.

Jewish population in each age group

Figure 4. Jewish population change, NSW, 2006 to 2016 (estimated) 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0-9

10-19

20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60-69

70-79

80-89

Age group 2006 (N = 45,576)

2011 (N = 47,570)

2016 (N = 47,800)

90+


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    23

Age

Figure 5. Age and sex structure for the Jewish population of NSW in single year cohorts, 2016 (estimated) 102 99 96 93 90 87 84 81 78 75 72 69 66 63 60 57 54 51 48 45 42 39 36 33 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0

Male

450

400

350

Female

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Number of people per age categrory

Data on the number of people in each single year age cohort are presented in Appendix 4 (Table 65). The pyramid can also be used to examine how the population structure has changed over time. In Figure 6 we can see that compared with 2006, there were relatively more children aged under

10 (+14%) in 2016 but relatively fewer people in their twenties (-14%) and fifties (-13%). But most strikingly there were many more people aged in their sixties (+60%) and nineties (+63%).


24 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 6. Population change: age and sex structure for the Jewish population of NSW, 2006 and 2016 (estimated) 100+ 95-99 90-94 85-89

Male

Female

80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69

Age group

60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 2,000 1,750 1,500 1,250 1,000 750

500

250

0

250

500

750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000

Number of people in each cohort Male 2016

4.2 Age by location We now examine the age structure in terms of location (Table 9). This shows that Eastern Suburbs – South and Botany have the highest proportions of Jews aged under 20 (29% and 28% respectively). Botany has the lowest proportion of older Jews (age 60+).

Male 2006

Female 2006

Female 2016

Sydney Inner City has the highest proportion of young adults (twenty and thirty somethings). Lower North Shore and Rest of Sydney have the highest proportions of Jews aged 80-89 (9%) and aged 90 and above (11%) respectively.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    25

Table 9. Age distribution of Jews in NSW, 2016 Eastern Suburbs North

Eastern Suburbs South

Upper North Shore

Lower North Shore

Sydney Inner City

Botany

Rest of Sydney

Rest of NSW

Total

0-9

13.1%

14.3%

11.8%

11.8%

6.3%

14.7%

9.2%

9.7%

12.1%

10-19

11.2%

14.2%

16.0%

6.6%

4.2%

13.7%

7.7%

8.5%

10.8%

20-29

9.5%

7.3%

9.9%

7.9%

16.2%

7.8%

7.6%

7.1%

9.1%

30-39

11.1%

10.5%

7.0%

11.2%

21.0%

12.8%

12.2%

11.3%

11.3%

40-49

12.1%

17.0%

12.7%

12.4%

9.3%

16.7%

15.1%

15.3%

13.4%

50-59

12.3%

11.5%

16.5%

12.7%

9.8%

13.1%

12.5%

14.3%

12.6%

60-69

14.4%

10.8%

14.5%

18.1%

15.1%

10.3%

15.0%

19.5%

14.4%

70-79

9.0%

7.3%

7.1%

10.3%

10.8%

6.3%

10.0%

9.4%

8.9%

80-89

5.2%

4.3%

3.9%

7.0%

6.0%

3.5%

6.7%

3.9%

5.2%

90+

2.0%

2.8%

0.7%

1.9%

1.3%

1.1%

4.0%

1.0%

2.2%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

Total

The next two tables present age data by broad geographical area for 2016 as well as population change since 2011. Gains can be seen across the board in Botany and Rest of NSW. Gains also occurred in Sydney Inner City, especially among younger cohorts and in the Eastern Suburbs, where the picture was more mixed. For example,

in Eastern Suburbs – South there was a 27% increase in the number of 10-19 year olds but a 25% decrease in the number of 30-39 year olds (Table 11). By contrast, in Upper North Shore, gains occurred among those aged 60 and above.

Table 10. Age group by location 2016 (estimated)* Eastern Suburbs North

Eastern Suburbs South

Upper North Shore

Lower North Shore

Sydney Inner City

Botany

Rest of Sydney

Rest of NSW

Total

0-9

2,930

937

482

304

155

140

601

212

5,762

10-19

2,497

934

654

171

104

131

503

185

5,179

20-29

2,129

475

405

205

402

74

497

155

4,343

30-39

2,474

687

286

288

521

122

797

246

5,420

40-49

2,718

1,118

519

320

231

159

992

334

6,391

50-59

2,756

755

675

328

242

124

821

313

6,015

60-69

3,224

706

596

465

373

98

982

426

6,870

70-79

2,018

479

293

266

267

60

655

206

4,243

80-89

1,166

285

159

180

149

34

440

85

2,499

456

181

28

49

32

10

263

22

1,043

22,369

6,557

4,098

2,575

2,475

952

6,552

2,186

47,765

90+ Total

* Excludes No Usual Address and Migratory – Offshore – Shipping


26    The Jewish population of NSW

Table 11. Age group by location, percentage change 2011 to 2016 (estimated)* Eastern Suburbs – North 0-9 10-19

Eastern Suburbs South

Upper North Shore

Lower North Shore

Sydney Inner City

Botany

Rest of Sydney

Rest of NSW

Total

2%

-8%

-2%

10%

35%

18%

-10%

-2%

<1%

<1%

27%

-18%

-2%

14%

61%

-5%

14%

2%

20-29

-9%

-2%

-14%

-19%

-7%

26%

-16%

1%

-9%

30-39

-10%

-25%

-9%

-21%

23%

-3%

-15%

3%

-11%

40-49

5%

13%

-16%

27%

2%

64%

9%

11%

7%

50-59

-5%

4%

-27%

-17%

-20%

33%

-11%

-11%

-9%

60-69

13%

7%

15%

0%

24%

87%

4%

20%

12%

70-79

27%

30%

27%

17%

-12%

-4%

41%

45%

25%

80-89

-12%

-24%

-28%

-6%

-26%

12%

-3%

-4%

-13%

90+

40%

19%

32%

11%

13%

188%

31%

53%

32%

1%

2%

-11%

-3%

2%

32%

-1%

8%

<1%

Total

* Excludes No Usual Address and Migratory – Offshore – Shipping

4.3 Jewish births Census data can be used to provide an estimate of the size of the Jewish birth cohort since it records the total number of babies aged under 1 recorded on the night of the census (9th August 2016). It should be stressed that this is only indicative of the birth cohort and therefore these data represent a proxy for Jewish births rather than an actual measure12. The data are examined in two ways: the ‘point estimate’ shows the estimated number of babies aged under 1 in the census. The ‘average estimate’ is the annual average of the number of children aged under 5 in the census. This approach ameliorates the possibility of temporary fluctuations that might affect the point estimate as well as the typically higher non-response level for very young babies in the census. The results are shown in Table 12 for 2006, 2011 and 2016 for Australia-born, Jewish children. Based on the point estimate, it suggests there were 464 Jewish ‘births’ in NSW in the year to the Census night in August 2016. This is 2% lower than the 2011 equivalent and 13% lower than in 2006. However, if the data are analysed

in terms of averages, then this suggests a slightly larger birth cohort of 486 in 2016 and a 5% increase over the decade. But it also suggests a 10% decrease between the 2007 to 2011 period and the 2012 to 2016 period. Gen17 data indicated that the average age at first birth of Jewish women in NSW aged 45 to 49 years old was 30.0 years. Average age at first birth has been increasing as it was 27.7 years for women aged 55 to 59 and 26.4 years for women aged 65 to 69. In addition, the census shows that 10% of women aged 45 and above13 have never had a baby – an indicator of childlessness. It also shows that on average, Jewish women in NSW aged 45 to 55 years have had 2.0 children which demographers consider to be below replacement level and other data suggest this figure was higher in recent decades. 11% of women in this age group were childless. Figure 7 summarises the data for Jewish women aged 45 and above (i.e. past their reproductive years) and shows that 45% have had two children and 2% have had five or more children.

12 In practice, there is some uncertainty about the accuracy of the census data relating to very young children (under two years old) where under-reporting is more likely than for other groups. 13 This is the age by which the vast majority of women will have given birth.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    27

Table 12. Jewish ‘births’ in NSW, Australia-born, alternative measures (estimated) Year / period

Point estimate for ‘births’ in the 12 months prior to the census*

Average number of ‘births’ in 5-year period prior to census

Total ‘births’*

5 year % change

10 year % change (2006-2016)

2006

535

x

x

2011

473

-12%

x

2016

464

-2%

-13%

2002 to 2006

463

x

x

2007 to 2011

542

17%

x

2012 to 2016

486

-10%

5%

* These are not counts of births as such but estimates from the total number of babies aged under 1 on the night of the census

Figure 7. Number of children ‘ever born’ to Jewish women aged 45 and above, NSW (Ns refer to the estimated number of women in each category) 4 children, 759, 6%

5 or more children, 209, 2% No children, 1,229, 10%

3 children, 2,979, 24%

1 child, 1,552, 13%

4.4 Jewish deaths (data from communal records) To complete the demographic picture of the Jewish community in NSW, we now examine Jewish deaths using communal statistics on Jewish funerals (burials and cremations). These have been gathered by JCA and show that a total of 464 funerals were recorded in 2016 in NSW. For the period 2012 and 2016, 2,217 Jewish funerals took place, an average of 447 per year (Figure 8). By comparison, 2,012 funerals were recorded for the period 2007 to 2011 (402 per year). In other words, the annual average number of Jewish deaths14 has been increasing.

2 children, 5,512, 45%

Figure 8. Total Jewish burials and cremations recorded, NSW, 2006-2017

Total recorded Jewish burials and cremations

600 477

500 419 400

407

447 392

378

388

430

470

464

485

396

300 200 100 0

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Sources: Sydney Chevra Kadisha, North Shore Temple Emanuel and Emanuel Synagogue

14 Note this is not the same as the ‘death rate’ which is the number of deaths as a proportion of the population in a particular time period.


28    The Jewish population of NSW

4.5 Natural population change In summary, the 2007-2016 decade saw considerable demographic dynamism. The first half of the decade (2007-2011), births outpaced deaths (average of 542 birth per year against an average of 402 deaths), on average by about 140 persons per year—in other words, natural increase occurred. However, in the second half of the decade, 2012-2016, while births continued to outpace deaths, the average fell to only about 39 persons per year—a much reduced level. Focusing on point estimate data alone we see that in 2016, there were 464a Jewish births and, coincidently, 464 Jewish deaths in NSW, indicating zero natural change. (Note these data do not reflect other population changes such as net migration (see section 6.4) and assimilation.)

Table 13. Jewish population by age and sex, ACT compared with NSW, 2016 (estimated) Male

There are less than a thousand Jews in ACT, of whom 51.5% are female and 48.5% male (Table 13). Teenagers are under-represented although the proportion aged under 20 was 23% in both ACT and NSW. Nevertheless, the average age of Jews in ACT, 36 years, is rather lower than for those in NSW, 44 years. Compared with NSW, the 20-29 and 30-39 age cohorts in ACT were notably larger in proportionate terms (14% and 16% for ACT versus 9% and 11% respectively for NSW). By contrast, there are proportionately fewer older Jews in ACT than NSW.

Total

ACT % of total

NSW % of total

0-9

47

67

114

14%

12%

10-19

34

39

73

9%

11%

20-29

43

70

113

14%

9%

30-39

65

70

135

16%

11%

40-49

60

44

104

13%

13%

50-59

47

53

100

12%

13%

60-69

52

40

92

11%

14%

70-79

39

34

73

9%

9%

80-89

13

9

22

3%

5%

4

0

4

0%

2%

402

426

828

100%

100%

90+ Total

4.6 Age and sex structure of Jews in ACT

Female


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    29

5 Immigration and belonging

5.1 Place of birth As a traditionally immigrant community, half (49%) of the Jewish population of NSW was not born in Australia. This compares with just under a third (30%) for the rest of the NSW population. One in five (19%) Jews in NSW was born in South Africa, almost one in six (16%) was born in Europe, and 6% was born in Israel (Figure 9). Despite this high level of non-Australian nativity, a high proportion of Jews in NSW nevertheless hold Australian citizenship (94%) reflecting the fact that a majority of overseas born Jews are well integrated within Australian society. Between 2006 and 2016, the proportion of Jews in NSW that was born in Australia increased by 15% (Table 14). This shows the Jewish population

is becoming increasingly ‘native’. Nevertheless, migration from some countries showed increases, for example, the number of Jews born in Israel increased by 23% in the decade and the US-born population increased by 18%. By contrast, the number born in Germany and all East European countries declined by more than 30%, a reflection of the older Holocaust Survivor generation passing on. Meanwhile, the largest migrant group, South Africa-born Jews, experienced a net increase of 4.4% over the decade but, notably, did not increase at all between 2011 and 2016, indicating the end of a long and demographically fruitful period of Jewish South African migration to NSW.

Figure 9. Place of birth, Jewish population of NSW, 2016, N=47,800 (estimated) Rest of Europe 3% UK 5%

Other 3%

Israel 6%

Former Soviet Union* 6% Australia 51%

Eastern Europe 8%

South Africa 19%

* Former Soviet Union includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan


30â&#x20AC;&#x192;

â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Table 14. Jewish population of NSW by place of birth, 2006, 2011 and 2016, and change* (estimated) Number

Percentage change

2006

2011

2016

2006-2011

2011-2016

2006-2016

20,377

22,316

23,462

9.5%

5.1%

15.1%

South Africa

8,633

9,018

9,015

4.5%

0.0%

4.4%

Israel

2,211

2,449

2,708

10.8%

10.6%

22.5%

UK

2,098

2,180

2,114

3.9%

-3.0%

0.8%

Rest of E. Europe

1,770

1,569

1,219

-11.4%

-22.3%

-31.1%

Ukraine

1,336

1,498

1,201

12.1%

-19.8%

-10.1%

Rest of W. Europe

1,423

1,407

1,177

-1.1%

-16.3%

-17.2%

930

1,084

1,097

16.6%

1.2%

18.0%

Hungary

1,208

1,019

816

-15.6%

-19.9%

-32.4%

Russian Federation

1,085

1,000

736

-7.8%

-26.4%

-32.2%

Poland

784

655

506

-16.5%

-22.7%

-35.4%

Rest of FSU*

411

455

416

10.7%

-8.6%

1.2%

New Zealand

403

415

403

3.0%

-3.0%

-0.1%

Germany

616

489

392

-20.7%

-19.7%

-36.3%

Other

2,293

978

1,229

-57.3%

25.7%

-46.4%

Total

45,576

46,532

46,493

2.1%

-0.1%

2.0%

Place of Birth Australia

USA

* Excludes Not Stated and Supplementary Codes; for FSU see note to Figure 9

It is also the case that overseas-born groups differ in terms of age profile. Overall, 43% of the Jewish population of NSW is aged under 40 but for Australia-born Jews this is the case for 63%, young even when compared with the general population of NSW (52%) (Figure 10). Just 24% of the overseas born Jewish population is aged under 40. Other Jewish groups with young age profiles are American and Israel born (49% and 42% respectively). By contrast, Jews from Poland, Hungary and Germany have the oldest age profiles, with less than 15% being aged under 65. These differences reflect the very different experiences of migration for these different groups. East European Jews primarily arrived in Australia as post-WWII refugees whereas Americans and Israelis are economic migrants living here temporarily or who have come for marriage and/or to raise families.

Place of birth is also related to where you live and we see different groups concentrated in different areas of NSW. For example, Upper North Shore has a high proportion of South Africa-born Jews (37%), albeit down from 43% in 2011. One sixth (16%) of Jews in Sydney Inner City, and the same proportion in Botany, were born in the FSU, both down from about a quarter (25% for Sydney Inner City and 23% for Botany) in 2011 (Table 15).


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    31

Figure 10. Age distribution of Jewish population of NSW by place of birth, 2016 (estimated)* 100% 11%

90%

11%

14%

16%

23%

24%

31%

80%

41%

25%

44%

70%

40%

32%

44%

60%

86%

33%

87%

89%

51%

50%

46%

40%

33%

42% 63%

30%

25%

10%

52%

49%

42%

20%

43%

24%

17%

13%

23% 5%

13%

6%

2%

FSU

UK

USA

Hungary

Poland

New Zealand

Germany

Total Jewish

Total NSW

23,478 9,014

Israel

South Africa

Australia

0%

2,697

2,361

2,108

1,097

813

505

407

374

47,800

7.8m

0-39 years

40-64 years

65+ years

* All sub-groups with at least 350 peopl

Table 15. Place of birth by location, 2016* (estimated) Australia

South Africa

Israel

FSU

Other

Total

N^

Eastern Suburbs – North

51%

21%

5%

4%

20%

100%

22,371

Eastern Suburbs – South

50%

19%

5%

8%

19%

100%

6,547

Upper North Shore

40%

37%

6%

1%

15%

100%

4,097

Lower North Shore

49%

17%

7%

2%

25%

100%

2,576

Sydney Inner City

42%

9%

5%

16%

28%

100%

2,486

Botany

47%

12%

7%

16%

18%

100%

959

Rest of Sydney

49%

10%

7%

4%

30%

100%

6,549

Rest of NSW

55%

7%

9%

1%

27%

100%

2,180

Total

49%

19%

6%

5%

21%

100%

47,765

* Green shading indicates highest and red shading indicates lowest proportions per country; Rows may not to sum to 100% due to rounding. ^ Excludes No Usual Address (NSW) and Migratory – Offshore – Shipping (NSW)


32    The Jewish population of NSW

5.2 Language The census measures whether, and how well, respondents spoke English. More than threequarters (79%) of Jews in NSW spoke no other language in 2016. Of the remainder (10,141a people), most (73%) spoke English ‘very well’, 17% spoke it ‘well’, and 9% did not speak it well or at all.

The languages in decline such as Hungarian, Polish, German and Yiddish are in line with country of birth trends (see Table 14).

The census also asked about languages spoken at home. The majority (79%) of Jews in NSW spoke English at home but that was not the case for many Jews (9,979a people) and of these, the most common non-English language spoken in Jewish homes was Hebrew, spoken by 3,600a people, followed by Russian with 3,277a speakers (Table 16). Between 2006 and 2016 the number of people who spoke English at home increased by 5%. The total number who spoke a non-English language at home increased by 4%. Over the 2006-2016 decade, Hebrew overtook Russian as the main non-English language with the former increasing by 35% and the latter decreasing by 5%.

Important differences can be observed in terms of languages spoken at home by age group (Figure 11). For example, Hebrew speakers (3,606a) are young with 53% being aged under 40, as are Spanish speakers at 55%. By contrast, Polish speakers are all aged 40 or above and German speakers have the highest percentage aged 70 years or above—66%. As discussed (Table 15), immigrant groups are not randomly distributed across NSW and this is also reflected data on language (Table 17). For example, Russian speakers are over-represented in Eastern Suburbs – South (22%) and Sydney Inner City (15%), as are Hungarian speakers in Eastern Suburbs – North (64%).

Table 16. Language spoken at home, estimated number of people, Jewish population, NSW 2006, 2011 and 2016* Totals Language

2016

Change

2006

2011

2016

Proportion

2006-2011

2011-2016

2006-2016

English

35,561

37,147

37,427

78.9%

4%

1%

5%

Hebrew

2,660

3,200

3,600

7.6%

20%

12%

35%

Russian

3,461

3,626

3,277

6.9%

5%

-10%

-5%

Hungarian

974

802

635

1.3%

-18%

-21%

-35%

French

359

449

471

1.0%

25%

5%

31%

Spanish

252

299

361

0.8%

19%

21%

43%

German

447

331

260

0.5%

-26%

-21%

-42%

Afrikaans

125

147

181

0.4%

17%

23%

45%

Yiddish

233

200

150

0.3%

-14%

-25%

-36%

Polish

217

194

139

0.3%

-11%

-29%

-36%

Other

839

816

904

1.9%

-3%

11%

8%

Total

45,129

47,211

47,406

100.0%

5%

0.4%

5%

* Data exclude: ‘Non-verbal, so described’, ‘Inadequately described’, and ‘Not stated’. Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    33

Figure 11. Language spoken at home by age, NSW, 2016 (estimated) 100% 9%

7%

90%

14% 30%

26%

80% 70%

36%

28%

34%

40%

55% 40%

% of population

62%

66%

60% 35%

50%

45% 41%

40% 30%

66% 55%

53%

20%

20%

45% 35%

10%

37% 38%

29%

25% 14%

English

French

Russian

Yiddish

German

Hungarian

Afrikaans

Polish

6%

Hebrew

8%

Spanish

0%

352

3,606

37,420

465

3,285

157

273

627

189

136

Language spoken Under 40

40-69

70+

Table 17. Language spoken at home by location, 2016 (estimated)* English

Hebrew

Russian

Hungarian

French

Spanish

German

Eastern Suburbs – North

48%

44%

40%

64%

43%

29%

47%

36%

47%

Eastern Suburbs – South

13%

11%

22%

9%

14%

15%

12%

15%

14%

Upper North Shore

9%

10%

2%

6%

5%

5%

2%

5%

9%

Lower North Shore

6%

6%

2%

6%

5%

10%

6%

5%

5%

Sydney Inner City

4%

4%

15%

4%

10%

10%

5%

4%

5%

Botany Rest of Sydney Rest of NSW Total N

Other

Total

1%

3%

7%

2%

4%

4%

1%

2%

2%

13%

15%

11%

7%

13%

24%

20%

2%

13%

5%

8%

1%

1%

5%

2%

5%

32%

6%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

37,420

3,606

3,285

627

465

352

273

1,771

47,800

* Columns may not to sum to 100% due to rounding


34 

  The Jewish population of NSW

5.3 Knowledge of Hebrew and Yiddish (Gen17)

(26%) say they can speak it Well (Figure 12). This is in stark contrast to Yiddish which, as the census shows, is a far less prevalent language. Knowledge of Yiddish is greatest in terms of understanding (9%) with 3% being able to speak it at least 'quite well' (note the census indicates just 0.3% speak it at home (Table 16)).

Whilst the census can tell us about the numbers of people who speak Hebrew and Yiddish ‘at home’, it does not tell us about the general knowledge of these languages and how their importance extends well beyond their census status as ‘mother tongues’. For that we must turn to survey data.

The ability to understand these languages is related to age but in opposite directions. Excluding those born in Israel, the younger a person is, the more likely it is they understand Hebrew 'quite well' or 'very well' but the opposite is the case for understanding Yiddish, a language of the old in NSW15 (Figure 13).

The ability to speak Hebrew does not correspond well with the ability to read the language (among Jews living outside Israel). Almost half (46%) of Gen17 respondents in NSW can read Hebrew 'quite well' or 'very well' and half as many

Figure 12. Ability to read, speak and understand Hebrew and Yiddish, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938 per item)

Hebrew

Read

18%

Speak

13%

Yiddish

Understand

Read Speak Understand

28% 14%

14%

46%

26% 17%

31%

1% 4% 5% <1% 3% 3% 2% 0%

8% 5%

9% 10%

15% Very well

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

Quite well

Q: How well can you read, speak and understand Hebrew? Q: How well can you read, speak and understand Yiddish?

15 In places such as Victoria, where there are large Haredi communities, this is not the Case. See Graham with Narunsky 2019 op. cit. p32


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    35

Yiddish

Hebrew*

Figure 13. Ability to understand Hebrew and Yiddish quite well or very well by age group*, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938) 18-39 years

17%

40-59 years

18%

60-79 years

9%

80+ years

8%

18-39 years 40-59 years

43%

25% 33%

15% 20%

12% 13%

5%

<1% 3% 4% <1% 6% 5%

60-79 years

3%

80+ years

3% 0%

16%

13%

21%

17% 5%

10%

15%

20%

Very well

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

Quite well

* Excluding those born in Israel

Figure 14. Ability to speak Hebrew and Yiddish Quite well or Very well by current religious/Jewish identification^, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938 per item) Strictly Orthodox/Haredi*

54%

23%

Modern Orthodox

27%

4%

Traditional

23%

4%

Masorti/Conservative

19%

5%

No denomination – just Jewish

17%

3%

Non-practising (secular/cultural)

14%

3%

Progressive/Reform

13%

1% 0%

10% Hebrew^

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Yiddish

^ Excluding those born in Israel * The sample size for Strictly Orthodox/Haredi is not statistically reliable although the results should be considered indicative

The ability to speak Hebrew is related to current religious/Jewish identification. In general, the more religious a respondent’s position, the more likely it is they can speak Hebrew (Figure 14). But this is not the case for Yiddish. Whilst Strictly Orthodox Jews are by far the most likely to be able to speak

Yiddish, the next group is Masorti/Conservative, with similar levels among Modern Orthodox, Traditional and Secular/cultural Jews.


36 

  The Jewish population of NSW

5.4 Immigration The number of Jewish migrants arriving in NSW in 201516 was estimated to be 391 (Table 18). This was 10% lower than the equivalent figure for 2010 (435). However, such point estimates are susceptible to fluctuations and an alternative approach is to examine average data, mitigating this possibility. These show that migratory inflows were 29% lower in the 2011-2015 period than in the earlier 2006-2010 period (Table 18). (Note these are gross, not net, figures as they do not reflect Jewish emigration from Australia.)

Table 18. Year of arrival* in NSW, Jewish population, various years (estimated) Time period Point estimate

Annual 5 year average

Year/period^

Number of arrivals

2010

435

2015

391

2006-2010

465

2011-2015

331

% change 10%

-29%

* The census question asks, in what year did you ‘first arrive in Australia to live’ for at least one year. ^ Since the census takes place in August and year of arrival data are recorded by the calendar year, data for 2016, 2011 and 2006 are incomplete in each respective census hence the figures for the most recent complete datasets are presented here.

Examining migration in more detail, 1,657 Jews living in NSW in 2016 arrived from overseas from 2011 to 2015 (Table 19). This was 9% lower than the equivalent number arriving from 2006 and 2010 and 30% lower than the equivalent number arriving from 2001 to 2005. Much of this decline has been due to falling migration from South Africa, which declined by 67% over the period. The significance of this can been seen by the fact that almost as many migrants arrived from South Africa in the five years from 2001 to 2005 as arrived in the ten years from 2006 to 2015 (1,303 versus 1,488 respectively). Although migration from Israel and Other countries has picked up, the numbers hardly compensate for the South African decline. Total in-migration to NSW has actually been declining since the late 1990s (Figure 15). South African migration peaked in the 1996-2000 period which itself eclipsed the FSU peak of the early 1990s. NSW entered a new phase of Jewish migration after 2005 where no single country dominated the picture. In fact, Jewish migrants from South Africa, who comprised more than two thirds (71%) of new arrivals in the late nineties, dropped to 55%, 41% and 26% of new arrivals in successive five-year periods to be equal with Israel (26%) in the most recent (2011-2015) period.

Table 19. Estimated number of Jewish overseas arrivals to NSW by place of origin, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015* Wave 1

Wave 2

Wave 3

2001 - 2005

2006 - 2010

2011 - 2015

Number of arrivals in period South Africa

1,303

% of arrivals

Number of arrivals in period

55%

754

% of arrivals 41%

Number of arrivals in period 437

% of arrivals

% change wave1wave2

% change wave2wave3

% change wave1wave3 -67%

26%

-42%

-42%

Israel

461

19%

334

18%

425

26%

-28%

27%

-8%

Other

605

26%

731

40%

795

48%

21%

9%

31%

Total

2,369

100%

1,819

100%

1,657

100%

-23%

-9%

-30%

* Totals show the number of Jewish arrivals who were present on each respective census night (in 2006, 2011 and 2016) and who arrived in the preceding five-year period. Therefore, people who arrived in the period but left prior to census night of that period are not included. As each census takes place in August, the data relate to the five-year period to December of the year preceding the census year to ensure complete years are compared.

16 Since the census took place in August 2016 the most recent full year of data is used, i.e. the calendar year 2015


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    37

Finally, it should be noted that the census ultimately presents an incomplete picture of migration as it does not (and cannot) gather data on outflows such as the number of Jews

leaving NSW for other countries, especially Israel (e.g. due to Aliya). For these figures, international census data and arrival records may be consulted.

Figure 15. Number of Jewish migrants present in NSW in 2016 by period of arrival and place of origin (estimated)* 3,000

Estimated number of Jewsih migrants

2,750

477

619

2,500

189

2,250 2,000

525

526 637

1,750 1,500

404

137

1,250 585

1,000

1,047

1,032

500 4 27 5

69

36 21 17

517

566

36 14 73

70 9 36

681 729

80

545 2,056 1,574

549

250

461

658

80

549

128

334

161

750

0

162

277

1,303

49

995 759

754

696

425 66 437

104 70 85

Period of arrival South Africa

FSU

Israel

Other

* these data include migrants who were present in 2016—i.e. migrants who passed away or otherwise left Australia since their arrival are excluded


38    The Jewish population of NSW

5.5 Reasons for migrating (Gen17) Gen17 respondents who were not born in Australia, were asked to give the two most important reasons they had for leaving their home country, i.e. key push factors. By far the most important reason was family ‘parents brought me to Australia, partner relocated job etc.’ (34%) (Figure 16). The second most important reason was ‘poor political situation’ in their country of origin (22%) closely followed by ‘poor future for my children’ (21%).

But the reasons given differed depending on the country from which immigrants originated. For example, those from Israel, the UK and the USA primarily cited family reasons (UK immigrants also cited lifestyle/climate) (Table 20). And while those from East European countries also cited family reasons, they, together with migrants from South Africa and the Former Soviet Union, also mentioned poor political situation. They were also likely to mention ‘To escape persecution’.

Figure 16. Most important and second most important reason for immigrants leaving their home country to come to Australia, NSW (Gen17 N=2,224) Family reasons (parents brought me to Australia, partner relocated job etc.)

34%

8% 16%

Poor political situation 10%

Poor future for my children

9%

To escape social strife/crime Poor economic/employment prospects

4%

To escape persecution

4% 5% 3%

Poor lifestyle/climate

22% 21%

13%

11%

7%

2% 5%

To escape war/terrorism

1% 2%

Poor educational opportunities Other reason(s) to leave (please specify)

6%

14%

2%

Prefer not to say 0% Most important reason

5%

10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%

Second most important reason

Q: Which, if any, of the following reasons prompted you to leave your country of origin? If you lived in more than one country, please refer to the country you lived in for the longest period of time before coming to Australia.

In terms of reasons given for coming to Australia, or ‘pull factors’, the most important reason was again family related with 31% saying they ‘came with my parents as a child’ (Figure 17). The second most important reason given was that Australia offered ‘a safe environment’.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 39

Table 20. Most important reason cited by immigrants for leaving their home country to come to Australia, by country of origin, NSW (Gen17 N=2,224)**

South Africa

Ukraine + Russian Federation

United Kingdom

Israel

USA

Eastern Europe^

To escape social strife/crime

22%

2%

<1%

6%

4%

1%

To escape persecution

<1%

<1%

<1%

8%

<1%

17%

Poor future for my children

19%

7%

4%

11%

3%

1%

Family reasons*

22%

46%

46%

35%

60%

40%

Poor political situation

27%

3%

1%

15%

1%

19%

Poor lifestyle/climate

1%

5%

14%

1%

2%

2%

Other reason(s) to leave

9%

32%

34%

22%

30%

20%

Prefer not to say

1%

5%

<1%

2%

1%

<1%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Total

** proportions above 10% highlighted * Parents brought me to Australia, partner relocated job etc. ^ Poland, Hungary and Germany

Figure 17. Most important and second most important reason for immigrants to come to Australia, NSW (Gen17 N=2,224) Came with my parents as a child

31%

3%

To join family or partner here

12% 10%

Better future for my children

6%

Australia is similar to my country of origin Employment reasons (e.g. recruited by employer)

2%

24% 17%

5%

Ability to obtain an Australian visa

5%

Better economic prospects

4%

8% 11%

2% 2% 1% 3%

Educational reasons (e.g. to study) The Jewish community here

6%

Other reason(s) to move here (please specify) 1% 0% Most important reason

19%

10%

A safe environment

Prefer not to say

19%

5%

10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

Second most important reason

40%


40    The Jewish population of NSW

In general, NSW Jewish immigrants were just as likely to feel ‘more at ease’ with Australian born people (19%) as they were with people from their own country (21%) (Figure 19). But this level differed depending on country of origin with those from Israel and South Africa being most at ease with their fellow (respective) migrants and least at ease with people born in Australia. By contrast, those born in Eastern Europe were most at ease with those born in Australia.

5.6 Immigrant wellbeing and integration (Gen17) Overall, most (83%) NSW respondents not born in Australia were more satisfied with their lives in Australia than in their countries of origin, but levels of satisfaction varied with the greatest being among those from the Former Soviet Union (95%) and the lowest (but still not absolutely low) among those from the United States (70%) (Figure 18).

As with life satisfaction, levels of ease are closely related to the length of time immigrants have been living in Australia. Those who have been living here the longest were most at ease with people born in Australia (~30%) and those who have been here the shortest were most at ease with people from their own country of origin (~30%).

Levels of satisfaction tend to increase the longer a person has been living in Australia. For example, of those respondents who arrived here relatively recently, from 2015-2017, 26% said they were much more satisfied with their lives in Australia whereas this was the case for 44% of those who arrived here from 2005-2009 and for 62% of those who arrived in the early 1990s.

Figure 18. Levels of immigrant’s satisfaction with life in Australia compared with the country you previously lived in, by country of birth, NSW (Gen17 N=2,224)

Total

Ukraine + Russian Federation

83.2%

24%

59%

17%

78%

Eastern Europe

13%

73%

South Africa

27%

59%

United Kingdom Israel

45%

USA

38% 0%

27% 32%

86.0% 85.5% 84.8%

34%

51%

94.6%

72.0% 69.9%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Much more satisfied

More satisfied

Q: Compared to life in the country you lived in permanently before coming to Australia, how satisfied are you with your life in Australia?


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    41

Figure 19. Extent to which immigrants feel at ease with people born in Australia, by country of birth, NSW (Gen17 N=2,224) 40% 35%

35%

32%

30%

29%

30% 25%

21%

20% 15%

14%

11%

21%

19%

17%

16%

19%

12% 9%

10% 5% 0% Israel

South Africa

USA

Ukraine + Russian Federation

United Kingdom

Eastern Europe

Total

More at ease with people from my country of origin More at ease with people born in Australia Q: Do you currently feel more at ease among people born in Australia or people from your country of origin?

Figure 20. Sense of belonging to Australia by country of birth, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938)

Total

12% 2%

31%

53%

1% 1%

1% <1% Australia born

7%

26%

65%

2% 1% Immigrant 0%

10%

20%

15%

33%

46% 30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Very strong

Quite strong

Neutral (neither strong nor weak)

Quite weak

Very weak

Don’t know/Prefer not to say

90%

3% 100%

Q: To what extent do you have a sense of belonging in Australia?

Similar results were seen in terms of sense of belonging to Australia. Overall, just over half (53%) said they had a very strong sense of belonging but among those born in Australia, this is 65%; among those born overseas it is

lower at 46% (Figure 20). Even so, 79% of immigrants have a quite or very strong sense of belonging to Australia.


6 Jewish households

In the following section, the census data are enumerated (i.e. unadjusted) unless otherwise stated17 . Also, in this section, the words ‘household’ and ‘dwelling’ are used interchangeably.

6.1 Jewish household type A Jewish household refers to any dwelling in which at least one occupant reported Jewish by religion in the 2016 Census, regardless of the religion responses of other household members. By this definition there were 17,452u Jewish households in NSW in 2016 (41% of the 42,953u Jewish households in Australia). Jewish households comprise 0.52% of the total of 2.6 million households in NSW. Of these, 3,811u were lone persons, 12,926u were families (i.e. dwellings containing more than one related person, including 1,174u Jewish lone parent households) and 715u were ‘group households’ (which comprise unrelated people over the age of 15 who share a home). In addition to these Jewish households, a further 1,122u Jewish people were living in ‘non-private dwellings’, i.e. primarily care homes and retirement homes. Comparisons with 2011 are complicated by the fact that the adjustment factor applied in this report only relates to individuals, not households or families (see Appendix 6) and a less detailed definition of Jewish household was used in 2011. However, in Appendix 5 some experimental comparisons using different approaches are made alongside a more detailed explanation of the technical issues.

There are various other ways in which a Jewish household might be defined and, in this analysis, we identify Jewish household in terms of the following three types: •  All-Jewish – all members reported Jewish (this includes lone persons) •  Jewish and No religion/Not stated – at least one person reported Jewish and at least one other person reported No religion or Not stated but no one reported an Other (non-Jewish) religion •  Jewish and Other religion – at least one person reported Jewish and at least one person reported a different religion (e.g. Christian) Just over two out of three (69%) NSW Jewish households are All-Jewish (i.e. all members are Jewish), although almost one in three (31%) of these is a lone person household (Figure 21). A further 14% comprise at least one Jewish person living with at least one person who reported No religion or did not state a religion (but not with anyone stating a different religion) and around one in six (17%) comprise at least one Jewish person living with a person who had an Other religion (mainly Christian). By contrast, a higher proportion, 74%, of Victorian Jewish households are All-Jewish and 12% comprised at least one Jewish person living with a person who had an Other religion.

17 For a full description of the adjustment methodology applied, please see Appendix 3 of Graham D with Narunsky L 2019 op. cit.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    43

Figure 21. Jewish households by type, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) N=17,452

Jewish and No Religion/ Not Stated 2,465 14% Jewish and Other religion 3,043 17%

All Jewish 8,133 47%

Lone Person 3,811 22%

Whilst two out of five (42%) Jewish households in NSW are located in Eastern Suburbs – North (where 15% of all households in the area are Jewish) (Table 21), 17% of households are found in Rest of Sydney. This is a notably high proportion given that this region accounts for 13% of the Jewish population (see Table 2). Eastern Suburbs – North has the highest proportion of All-Jewish households (82%) which tends to correlate with Jewish population size and density –the lowest proportions of All-Jewish are in Rest of Sydney and Rest of NSW where the Jewish population is small and spread out.

Table 21. Jewish households by location (SA3) and Jewish household type, 2016**

Total Jewish households*

Location

All-Jewish

Jewish + No Religion or Not Stated

Jewish + Other Religion

Total^

% of total Jewish households in NSW^

% of households in each locality that are Jewish

7,393

Eastern Suburbs - North

82%

9%

9%

100%

42%

15.3%

2,055

Eastern Suburbs - South

72%

14%

14%

100%

12%

4.1%

1,284

Sydney Inner City

57%

24%

19%

100%

7%

1.5%

1,182

Upper North Shore

78%

9%

13%

100%

7%

3.1%

1,119

Lower North Shore

58%

17%

25%

100%

6%

1.4%

Botany

64%

11%

26%

100%

2%

2.1%

3,001

Rest of Sydney

39%

22%

38%

100%

17%

0.2%

1,087

Rest of NSW

40%

23%

37%

100%

6%

0.1%

Total

67%

14%

19%

100%

100%

0.8%

337

17,458

* total does not sum to 17,452 households due to confidentiality controls employed by ABS ** Green shading indicates highest and orange shading indicates lowest proportions per household type ^ totals may not add to 100% due to rounding


44 

  The Jewish population of NSW

6.2 Average household size

6.3 Household tenure

NSW households with at least one Jewish person had an average size of 2.7 persons per household, slightly smaller than for the general population at 2.9 (Table 22). Excluding lone person households, this increases to 3.1. The average size of Jewish households where all members are Jewish was 2.4 and smaller than the average household size of households containing at least one Jew with at least one other member who is not Jewish, or No religion or religion Not stated which are similar at 3.0 and 3.1 respectively.

Almost two out of five (38%) Jewish households in NSW are owned outright, a somewhat higher proportion than in the state generally (32%) (Figure 22). This is because the Jewish age structure is older and older people are more likely to have paid off their mortgages. A total of 4,576u Jewish households are rented and Jews are less likely to rent their home than is generally the case (26% compared with 31% respectively).

Table 22. Average household size (persons per household) by household type, NSW, 2016

All households

All households excluding lone persons

Jewish population

2.7

3.1

General population

2.9

3.2

All-Jewish

2.4

3.1

Jewish and No religion/ Not stated

3.0

N/A

Jewish and Other religion

3.1

N/A

Jewish household type

Jewish home ownership varies considerably by location. For example, almost half (47%) of Jewish households in Lower North Shore are owned outright (closely followed by Eastern Suburbs – North and Upper North Shore, both on 46%) whereas in Botany, this is the case for only one in five (20%) Jewish homes and is probably reflective of a younger age structure in that area (Table 23) (see section 5.2). By contrast, renting is very common (54%) in Sydney Inner City and Botany (39%) but far less common elsewhere. More than a third of Jewish homes in Botany (40%), Eastern Suburbs–South (39%) and Ku-ringgai (36%) are owned with a mortgage. Average household size is also quite variable by location. It is largest in Eastern Suburbs – South at 3.2 persons per household and Sydney Inner City (also 3.2) and smallest in rest of Sydney (2.0). This will be reflective of differing age structures and levels of religiosity in different areas.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 45

Figure 22. Tenure: Jewish households compared with the rest of the population, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) 38%

40% 35%

32%

32% 32%

30%

31% 26%

25% 20% 15% 10% 5%

2%

2%

2%

3%

0% Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Rented

Jewish Households (N = 17,452)

Other tenure

Not stated

All Other Households (N = 2.6m)

Table 23 Jewish household^ tenure and household size by location, 2016 (enumerated)* Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Rented

Other tenure

Total

N

Average household size**

Eastern Suburbs - North

46%

29%

22%

3%

100%

7,386

3.0

Eastern Suburbs - South

29%

39%

30%

2%

100%

2,044

3.2

Sydney Inner City

21%

24%

54%

1%

100%

1,286

3.2

Upper North Shore

46%

36%

17%

1%

100%

1,174

2.2

Lower North Shore

47%

29%

23%

1%

100%

1,097

2.3

Botany

20%

40%

39%

1%

100%

323

3.0

Rest of Sydney

32%

37%

28%

3%

100%

3,054

2.0

Rest of NSW

36%

33%

29%

3%

100%

1,072

2.5

NSW

39%

32%

27%

2%

100%

17,434

2.7

Location

* Green shading indicates highest and orange shading indicates lowest proportions per tenure type; Rows may not to sum to 100% due to rounding. ^ any dwelling in which at least one person is Jewish. Excluding ownership type not stated ** persons per household


46    The Jewish population of NSW

6.4 Household composition Compared with the NSW general population, Jews are more likely to live in couple families (66% compared with 60%) but they are just as likely to live alone (22% compared with 23%) (Figure 23). On the other hand, Jews are notably less likely to live in one parent households (7% compared with 12%). There were 1,174u one parent Jewish households in NSW. There is significant variation in Jewish household composition at the local level (Table 24). For example, over half (51%) of households in Upper North Shore consist of couples with children, compared with 14% in Sydney Inner City. Jewish lone person households make up 10% of Upper North Shore households but a third (33%) in Sydney Inner City. Some of these differences occur because there is high variation in household stock across the city with apartments in Sydney Inner City and family homes further out.

6.5 Lone persons It was seen above that Jews are as likely to live alone as those in the general population (Figure 23). In 2016, 4,141i Jewish people (aged 20 years

and above) lived alone in NSW, a figure which has increased by 3% over the last decade, although it is lower than in 2011 (Table 25). However, there has been far greater variation by age group. For example, the number of Jewish people aged 60-74 living alone increased by 63% over the decade whereas the number aged 75-84 years decreased by 18% yet the number aged 85 years and above increased by 22%. These changes are mainly structural, i.e. due to the shape of the underlying age structure of the population, rather than a result of preference for living alone. As such, we can expect the number of Jews aged 75 and above and living alone to increase in the coming years. The proportion of people in any particular age group living alone increases with age. Among young adults in 2016, 7% lived alone compared with a third (33%) of people aged 85 and above. It is also instructive to examine whether the likelihood of living alone has changed. This is shown in the final three columns of Table 25. In 2016, 7% of people aged 20-39 lived alone, compared with 9% a decade earlier. This suggests that the propensity to live alone has declined in younger age groups. Moreover, although slightly more people lived alone in 2016 than they did in 2006, the likelihood of living alone has declined across the board.

Figure 23. Household composition – Jewish and general population, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) 100% 90% 80% 70%

4%

4%

22%

23%

7%

1%

60% 50%

30%

Group household Lone person household 1%

12%

Other family

27%

One parent family

40% Couple family with no children

30% 20%

36%

33%

Jewish Households (N = 17,452)

Other Households (N = 2.7m)

10% 0%

Couple family with children


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    47

Table 24. Jewish household type by location, 2016 (enumerated)*

Location

Couple family with children

Couple family with no children

One parent family

Lone person household

Other family

Group household

Total

N

Eastern Suburbs - North

36%

30%

6%

1%

24%

3%

100%

7,440

Eastern Suburbs - South

45%

24%

8%

0%

19%

4%

100%

2,060

Sydney Inner City

14%

35%

4%

1%

33%

12%

100%

1,279

Upper North Shore

51%

31%

7%

0%

10%

1%

100%

1,198

Lower North Shore

33%

37%

4%

0%

22%

3%

100%

1,108

Botany

42%

23%

12%

0%

21%

2%

100%

322

Rest of Sydney

37%

31%

7%

1%

19%

5%

100%

2,985

Rest of NSW

29%

33%

9%

0%

22%

7%

100%

1,090

Total NSW

36%

30%

7%

1%

22%

4%

100%

17,482

* Orange shading indicates lowest and green indicates highest proportions per column; rows may not sum to 100% due to rounding

Table 25. Jewish people who live alone by age, NSW, 2006 and 2011 enumerated, 2016 interpolated* Total number of lone persons 2006

2011

2016

% change in number of lone persons 2006-16

20-39

835

765

582

40-59

992

954

60-74

823

75-84 85 and above

Age group

Total (age 20+)

Lone persons as a percentage of all persons in each age group 2006

2011

2016

-30%

9%

8%

7%

876

-12%

9%

9%

8%

1,169

1,342

63%

18%

17%

17%

876

721

722

-18%

32%

29%

27%

506

590

619

22%

37%

32%

33%

4,033

4,199

4,141

3%

14%

14%

12%

* Although data for households have not generally been adjusted (see Appendix 6), data for lone persons in 2016 have been interpolated


7 Jewish partnerships and families

A ‘Jewish family’ comprises any dwelling with at least two or more related people, of which at least one person reported Jewish. In other words, ‘Jewish families’ exclude lone person households and group households (where unrelated people share a dwelling). As with data on households, data on Jewish families are unadjusted unless otherwise stated.

Jewish families (80%) (Table 26). By contrast, this is the case for only 25% of Jewish families in Rest of NSW where Jewish families with non-Jewish members are most likely to be located (45%). As with Jewish households, the likelihood of all family members being Jewish inversely correlates with Jewish population size and density. Most (77% or 10,007u) Jewish families consisted of married couples alongside 1,640u (13%) de facto couple families and 1,174u (9%) one parent families. Compared with the rest of the NSW population, Jews are more likely to live as married couples with children (45% versus 40% respectively) and almost half as likely to live in one parent families (9% versus 16% respectively) (Table 27).

7.1 Jewish families A total of 12,926u Jewish families were enumerated in NSW in 2016 and 62% of these are All-Jewish (all family members are Jewish). The location with the largest number of Jewish families is Eastern Suburbs – North which also has the highest proportion of All-

Table 26. Jewish families, by Jewish family type and location, 2016 (enumerated)* Total Jewish families

Location

All-Jewish

Jewish + No religion or Not stated

Jewish + Other religion

Total

5,453

Eastern Suburbs - North

80%

10%

10%

100%

1,597

Eastern Suburbs - South

69%

16%

15%

100%

1,053

Upper North Shore

77%

10%

13%

100%

822

Lower North Shore

49%

21%

30%

100%

702

Sydney Inner City

42%

34%

24%

100%

258

Botany

60%

14%

26%

100%

Rest of Sydney

28%

27%

44%

100%

Rest of NSW

25%

30%

45%

100%

Total NSW

62%

17%

21%

100%

2,266 776 12,927

* Green shading indicates highest and orange shading indicates lowest proportions per household type.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 49

Table 27. Couple type by family composition, Jewish families and all other families, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) Marital Status* Married De facto Not married

Total Jewish families N=12,926

All Other Families N=1.9m

Couple family with children

45%

40%

Couple family with no children

32%

29%

4%

5%

Family composition

Couple family with children Couple family with no children

9%

8%

One parent family

9%

16%

Other family

Total

1%

2%

100%

100%

* Social marital status of family reference person

Table 28. Social marital status by family composition and Jewish family type, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) Marital status* Married

De facto

Not married

All-Jewish

Jewish + No religion or Not stated

Jewish + Other religion

Total

N

Couple family with children

63%

16%

21%

100%

5,811

Couple family with no children

70%

11%

19%

100%

4,196

Couple family with children

22%

38%

40%

100%

505

Couple family with no children

28%

37%

35%

100%

1,135

One parent family

74%

16%

10%

100%

1,174

Other family

68%

21%

11%

100%

120

62%

17%

21%

100%

12,941

Family composition

Total

* Social marital status of family reference person ^ This does not sum to 12,926 due to confidentiality controls employed by ABS

Married couple families, whether with or without children, are far more likely to be All-Jewish than de facto couple families, for example, 63% of married couples with children are All-Jewish families compared with 22% of de facto couples with children (Table 28). In terms of registered marital status, Jewish families in NSW are more likely to consist of a married couple (with or without children) than other families in the state (78% versus 70% respectively) (Table 29). They are slightly less likely to be divorced and widowed and far less likely to be Never married (9% versus 15% respectively), mainly a reflection of the older Jewish age structure.

Table 29. Registered marital status of family reference person, by Jewish household type, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) All-Jewish families

All other families

Married

78%

70%

Divorced

8%

8%

Separated

2%

4%

Widowed

2%

3%

Marital Status

Never married Total N

9%

15%

100%

100%

12,926

1.9m


50â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Jewish families in NSW are more likely to have no children at home than other families (42% versus 38%) (Table 30). On the other hand, they are slightly more likely to have dependent children (48% versus 47%).

When dependent children are present, those who are All-Jewish are more likely than other Jewish families to have three or more children (24%). Overall, they have an average of 2.0 dependent children at home, compared with 1.8 when at least one person has No religion or Not stated (Table 31).

Table 30. Count of dependent children, by Jewish family type, NSW, 2016 (enumerated)* All-Jewish

Jewish + No religion or Not stated

Jewish + Other religion

Total Jewish families

All other families

No children

42%

40%

44%

42%

38%

No dependent children^

11%

11%

9%

10%

15%

At least one dependent child

47%

49%

47%

48%

47%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

N

7,986

2,210

2,730

12,926

1.9m

* A dependent child/ren comprises all children aged 0-14 years and all dependent students aged 15-24 years ^ this refers to families who have children present but who are not dependent

Table 31. Families with Dependent Children, by Jewish family type, NSW, 2016 (enumerated)* All-Jewish

Jewish + No religion or Not stated

Jewish + Other religion

Total Jewish families

All other families

One dependent child

31%

38%

36%

33%

39%

Two dependent children

44%

48%

45%

45%

41%

Three dependent children

20%

12%

16%

18%

15%

Four or more dependent children

4.3%

2.8%

2.4%

3.6%

4.7%

Total

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

N

3,782

1,080

1,291

6,153

0.9m

2.0

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.9

Average number of dependent children

* A dependent child/ren comprises all children aged 0-14 years and all dependent students aged 15-24 years


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    51

7.2 Marital status

Jews in NSW are far more likely to live in apartments and semi-detached homes than is generally the case. As a result, they are far less likely to live in separate (detached) houses (48% versus 74% generally) (Table 32).

In addition to formalised, ‘Registered Marriages’, the census also records ‘Social Marital Status’.18 Jews are more likely to be married (registered) than the general population of NSW (59% compared with 50% respectively) (Figure 24). And Jews are slightly less likely to be in de facto partnerships than is generally the case (7% versus 9%). They are also less likely to be ‘Never married’ (21% versus 27%), which is at least partly due to their older Jewish age structure.

Table 32. Type of dwelling, Jewish families and all other families, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) Total Jewish families (N=12,296)

All other families (N=1.9m)

Separate house

48%

74%

Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc.

18%

10%

Flat or apartment

33%

15%

Other/Not stated

1%

1%

100%

100%

Total

Figure 24. Current marital status – Jewish population and general population, (all people aged 15 and above, estimated) NSW, 2016 70% 59%

60%

50%

50% 40% 30%

27% 21%

20% 7%

10%

9% 2%

2%

7%

6%

6%

5%

0% Never married*

Married

Married de facto

Jewish (N = 36,793)

Separated*

Divorced*

Widowed*

General Population (N = 5.6m)

* These people were currently unpartnered (no de facto relationship) at the time of the census

18 Social Marital Status indicates a person’s relationship status based on current living arrangements of couples. Where a couple relationship exists in the household, the type of relationship is identified (ABS 2016 Census Dictionary page 107).


52 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Between 2006 and 2016, there was an 5% increase (1,003a) in the number of Jewish adults living in registered marriages in NSW (though not all married Jews were married to other Jews) (Table 33). However, the largest proportionate increase was in the number of de facto partnerships (up by 29% in the decade, an increase of 581a). The number who were ‘Never married’ was down slightly (by 2.6%).

variables. Not all people who are ‘Married’ are in a marriage and similarly, not all people who are ‘Never married’ are unpartnered. Thus, 17% of people whose status is Never married were in de facto marriages as were 21% of people whose status is currently Divorced. Marital status is shown geographically in Table 34. Sydney Inner City has the highest proportion of adults who have never been married (40%) due to its relatively large young-adult population (see Table 9). On the other hand, Sydney Inner City has the lowest proportion of married Jews (39%) compared with Upper North Shore which has the highest proportion (67%).

Because 'registered marriage' and ‘social marital status’ measure different things—the former being about ceremony, the latter about partnership status—we can cross tabulate these

Table 33. Current partnership status (persons aged 15 and above), NSW Jewish population, 2006 and 2016 (estimated)* Total Current partnership status

Percent

2006

2016

2006

2006 to 2016 2016

Total change

% change

Never married (no partner)

7,783

7,581

20.6%

19.4%

-201

-2.6%

Married (living with spouse)

20,153

21,156

53.4%

54.0%

1,003

5.0%

Living in de facto marriage

1,979

2,560

5.2%

6.5%

581

29.4%

586

619

1.6%

1.6%

33

5.7%

Currently divorced (no partner)

2,037

2,443

5.4%

6.2%

406

19.9%

Widowed (no partner)

2,394

2,084

6.3%

5.3%

-310

-13.0%

Other

2,831

2,729

7.5%

7.0%

-102

-3.6%

Total

37,763

39,173

100.0%

100.0%

1,512

3.7%

Separated (no partner)

* Columns may not to sum due to rounding

Table 34. Marital status by area (persons aged 15 and above), NSW Jewish population, 2016 (estimated)* Never married

Married

Separated

Eastern Suburbs - North

24%

60%

2%

Eastern Suburbs - South

24%

58%

3%

Divorced

Widowed

Total

N

7%

7%

100%

18,079

8%

8%

100%

5,075

Upper North Shore

23%

67%

<1%

4%

5%

100%

3,302

Sydney Inner City

40%

39%

4%

11%

7%

100%

2,293

Lower North Shore

20%

62%

1%

9%

8%

100%

2,155

Botany

24%

53%

4%

12%

7%

100%

746

Rest of Sydney

25%

51%

2%

13%

9%

100%

5,650

Rest of NSW

27%

48%

4%

16%

6%

100%

1,850

Total

25%

57%

2%

9%

7%

100%

39,150

* Rows may not to sum due to rounding. Green shading indicates highest and orange indicates lowest proportions per partnership status.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    53

7.3 Marital status and age

Gen17 survey data provide some additional information on Jewish divorce in NSW. Unlike the census, it asked whether respondents had ever been (rather than if they are currently) divorced and found that this was the case for almost one in five people (19%) aged 18 and above. Most had been divorced once, but 17% of this group had been divorced more than once.

Marital status changes over a person’s life course. Among Jews in NSW, three quarters (75%) remain single ‘Never married’ in their late twenties but by their late thirties this is the case for just 22% (Figure 25). Marriage is the predominant status until people reach their late eighties when widowhood takes over. Meanwhile, divorce and separation are the statuses for more than one in ten people aged in their late forties rising to almost one in five in their sixties.

Respondents who had been divorced were asked whether a ‘get’ (Jewish divorce document) had been granted. For one in three (35%) respondents, this was not relevant as they had not had ‘a Jewish religious marriage’, but of those who had experienced a Jewish religious marriage, most (79%) said a get had been granted.

In 2016, 75% of people aged 25-29 were Never married compared to 70% in 2011 suggesting that the age at which Jews are first marrying is increasing or that fewer are choosing to marry.

Figure 25. Marital status as a proportion of each age group, Jewish population, NSW, 2016

Age group

Never married 90+

2%

85-89

2%

80-84

3%

75-79

3%

70-74

4%

65-69

4%

60-64

7%

Divorced / Separated

5%

22%

6% 11%

31% 15%

63%

19% 18%

68%

16%

72%

22%

73% 36%

5% 61%

25-29

3%

75%

24%

20-24

98%

15-19

100%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

1%

9% <1%

76%

15%

2%

13% 1%

75%

30-34

4%

17%

72%

11%

7%

19%

70%

12%

11%

19%

70%

50-54

35-39

52%

55%

9%

40-44

Widowed

71%

39%

55-59

45-49

Married

1% 2%

60%

70%

Proportion of each age group by marital status

80%

90%

100%


54â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Gender is also an important factor. The longer life expectancy of Jewish women than Jewish men, combined with a higher rate of remarriage for men, inevitably leads to more women remaining widowed than men (60% of Jewish women in their eighties are widowed compared with 17% of Jewish men). From their midforties onwards, men are more likely to be married than women, and women are more likely to be divorced than men (until both sexes reach their mid-eighties). For example, 17% of Jewish women in their sixties are divorced compared with 13% of men of that age.

However, 18% are in a partnership and live in a de facto partnership and a further 19% are in a partnership but do not live with their partner (Figure 26). As noted, the experiences of Jewish men and women differ in this regard. Among those who have never been married, women are more likely to be unpartnered than men (71% versus 61% respectively). But the difference is greatest in terms of those who are currently divorced or widowed, for example, 55% of men who are currently divorced have a new partner compared with 22% of women.

Gen17 data indicate that among those in NSW (aged 18 and above) who are not currently married and living with their spouse, a majority (62%) is not in a permanent partnership.

Total

18%

Widowed

Female

6% 7%

Single, that is never married Divorced

Figure 26. Partnership status for all those not currently married and living with their spouse NSW (Gen17 N=1,096)

Female

Male 9%

13%

9%

78% 37%

10%

45%

20%

15% 0%

65%

13%

17%

Male

62%

86%

22%

Male Female

19%

71% 24%

20%

30%

61% 40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Currently living with your de facto partner In a long-term partnership but not living together Not in any kind of long-term partnership

90% 100%


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    55

7.4 De facto and same-sex couples Of the 2,374a Jews in de facto (or social) marriages, most (2,115a or 89%) were in oppositesex partnerships (Table 35). Of these, a majority (61%) had never been previously married, although 29% were divorced, 3% were separated from a marriage, and 4% were widowed from a marriage.

In terms of same-sex de facto couples, there were 114a Jewish women and 145a Jewish men in such unions. (Same-sex marriage was not sanctioned in Australia until December 2017). This is about 1.2% of all Jews in partnerships (including married couples), similar to the proportion in NSW generally (1.0%).

Table 35. Type of de facto marriage, Jewish population by sex, (persons aged 15 and above) NSW, 2016 (estimated)*

Persons in opposite-sex couple Female in same-sex couple Male in same-sex couple Total

Male

Female

Total

% of total

1,036

1,079

2,115

89%

-

114

114

5%

145

145

6%

1,181

1,193

2,374

100%

* Excludes not stated. Rows and columns may not sum due to rounding


8 Intermarriage

a partner who reported No religion and one in seven (14%) had a partner with an Other religion (Table 36)21. Thus, almost one in four (25%) Jews living in a couple in NSW had a partner who did not report Jewish by religion or by ancestry in the 2016 Census.

In the following section, for comparative purposes, data on Jewish intermarriage for 2016 use interpolated19 figures. In all other cases data are based on enumerated figures. Also in this section, unless otherwise stated, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Jewishâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; also includes people who reported their religion as No religion/Not stated but who reported their ancestry as Jewish.

The proportion of partnered Jews in NSW who have a Jewish partner has declined since 2001, from 79.5% to 75.2% in 2016, in line with an increase in the number of those with a partner reporting No religion. The proportion with a partner with an Other religion has remained largely unchanged.

8.1 Intermarriage by religion of partner There were 19,853i20 Jewish people in NSW living with a partner (married or de facto) in 2016. Of these, three quarters (75%) had a Jewish partner, more than one in ten (11%) had

Table 36. Religion of partner (married or de facto) for Jewish individuals living in a couple, NSW, 2001 to 2011 (enumerated) and 2016 (interpolated)^ Religion of partner

2001

2006

2011

2016

79.5%

79.0%

77.3%

75.2%

5.5%

6.2%

7.8%

10.8%

14.9%

14.8%

14.9%

14.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

N (Jewish individuals)

16,763

17,466

19,389

19,853

No religion + other religion

20.4%

21.0%

22.7%

24.8%

Jewish No religion Other religion* Total

* the majority (90%) of these partners are Christian ^ Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding

19 This is an estimate of the enumerated census figure had the religion question format and circumstances of the 2016 Census matched those of the immediately preceding censuses. The interpolated figure can be directly compared with enumerated data from earlier censuses. It is denoted by a subscript i (interpolated) after the number. 20 Note this figure excludes those whose partner did not report a religion (N=227i). A note of caution is however warranted. For completeness, data on Jews in this section also incorporate people who identified as Jewish in the ancestry question but who reported their religion as No religion or Not stated religion (800 i partnered individuals in 2016). Strictly speaking, such individuals are not part of the interpolated adjustment. Moreover, a unique adjustment pertaining to such individuals has not been attempted. But for the purposes of this section and for expediency, we have treated them in the same way as Jews by religion. 21 Unless otherwise stated, these data are based on Jewish individuals who live with their partner (as opposed to couples in which at least one person is Jewish). The data exclude Jewish people in a partnership whose partner was temporarily away from home on census night. They also exclude Jews in same-sex couples in NSW (N=200 u).


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    57

Table 37. Religion of partner for couples (married or de facto) in which at least one partner is Jewish, NSW, 2001 to 2011 (enumerated) and 2016 (interpolated) Religion of partner

2001

2006

2011

2016

66.0%

65.2%

63.0%

60.3%

9.2%

10.2%

12.7%

17.3%

24.8%

24.5%

24.3%

22.5%

Total

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

N (Couples in which at least one partner is Jewish)

10,096

10,570

11,897

12,386

No religion + Other religion

34.0%

34.8%

37.0%

39.7%

Jewish No religion Other religion*

* the majority (90%) of these partners are Christian

Data on intermarriage can either be expressed as a proportion of all Jewish individuals marrying (as above) or as a proportion of all couples marrying (i.e. all marriages involving at least one Jew). The advantage of the couples’ approach is that it is more intuitive since marriage, after all, is based on couples. On the other hand, couples-based intermarriage figures tend to be higher than those based on individuals and some may feel they give an exaggerated indication of the state of intermarriage. Although neither approach is more accurate than the other, it is important that the base upon which the statistics are calculated is clearly understood. Thus, examining the same data in terms of couples (in which at least one partner is Jewish) (12,386i couples excluding couples where the partner did not respond to the religion question), in 60% of cases both partners were Jewish, in 17% one partner was Jewish and one is No religion and in 23% one partner is Jewish and one has an Other religion. Between 2011 and 2016, the total number of partnered Jewish individuals (married or de facto) increased by 2.4%, alongside a slight decrease (3.7%) in the number of Jews with a partner who reported an Other religion and essentially no change in the number with a Jewish partner (-0.4%) (Table 38). On the other hand, there was a dramatic proportionate increase in the number of Jews whose partner reported No religion, rising by 41.3% from 2011 to 2016.

Table 38. Number of Jewish individuals by religion of partner (married or de facto) and change from 2011 (enumerated) to 2016 (interpolated), NSW

Religion of partner Jewish

2011

2016

% change 2011 to 2016

14,988

14,935

-0.4%

No religion

1,512

2,137

41.3%

Not Jewish

2,889

2,781

-3.7%

19,389

19,853

2.4%

Total


58â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

8.2 Intermarriage by partnership type and sex Multiple factors impact the likelihood of intermarriage occurring, with certain Jewish subgroups tending to exhibit higher levels than others. The key census variables of interest are type of partnership, sex, age and location.22 The vast majority (90%) of partnered Jews in NSW are married with the remainder (10%) being in de facto (or cohabiting) partnerships.

Table 39. Religion of partner for Jewish individuals by partnership type*, NSW, 2016 (interpolated)

Religion of partner Jewish No religion Other religion** Total N (Jews living in couples)

Married

All partnered Jewish individuals

De facto

79.3%

38.7%

75.2%

8.5%

31.5%

10.8%

12.3%

29.8%

14.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

17,900

1,948

19,853

Compared with married Jews, those in de facto partnerships are more than twice as likely to have a partner with an Other religion (30% versus 12% respectively) and almost four times as likely to have a partner with No religion (32% versus 9% respectively) (Table 39). Jewish women are slightly more likely to have a Jewish partner than Jewish men but the main difference between the sexes is that Jewish women are more likely to have a partner with No religion and Jewish men are more likely to have a partner with an Other religion (i.e. Christian) (Table 40). This is less a result of preference on the part of Jews and more to do with preference on the part of non-Jews, especially non-Jewish males, who are more likely to identify as No religion than non-Jewish females which means the pool of such men is larger.

* excluding Jews with partners who did not state a religion ** the majority (90%) of these partners are Christian

Table 40. Religion of partner for married Jewish individuals by sex and partnership type, NSW, 2016 (interpolated) Married

Religion of partner Jewish No religion Other religion* Total** N^

Jewish males: religion of wife

Jewish females: religion of husband

Religion of partner

Total

Jewish males: religion of female partner

Jewish females: religion of male partner

Total

78.5%

80.1%

79.3%

38.3%

39.1%

38.7%

7.6%

9.3%

8.5%

30.6%

32.3%

31.5%

13.9%

10.6%

12.3%

31.0%

28.6%

29.8%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

9,042

8,858

17,900

983

965

1,948

* the majority (90%) of these are Christian partners ** Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding ^ Excluding Jews whose partners who did not state a religion

22 Jewish denomination is also an important determinant of intermarriage however the census does not capture this information but can be analysed using survey data.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    59

8.3 Children of intermarried Jews Gender is also relevant in terms of the religion of upbringing of children. The likelihood of a child being raised Jewish is highest when both parents are Jewish. Taking the religion reported for the youngest dependent child as a proxy for the religion all the children in a family are being raised, when both parents are Jewish, 97% of couples in NSW raise their children Jewish (Table 41). When the parents are not both Jewish, the sex of the Jewish parent becomes an important factor in the likelihood of a child being raised Jewish. That is, when the child’s mother is Jewish and the father has an Other religion, 50% of couples raise their children Jewish. By contrast, when the father is Jewish, and the mother is Other religion, the proportion is just 15%.

8.4 Intermarriage by age Jews who marry at a very young age (under 25) tend to be more religious than those who marry at older ages, so are more likely to marry Jews. Almost all (88%) married Jews aged 1524 in NSW are married to other Jews23 (Figure 27). However, it is also true that Jews who marry today are more likely than their parents to marry a non-Jewish person, in other words, the younger a person is the more likely they are to marry someone who is not Jewish. Almost three out of ten (28%) married Jews in NSW aged in their early thirties have a spouse who did not report Jewish.

8.5 The intermarriage rate (Gen17) In contrast to the prevalence measure of intermarriage, which is a snapshot of intermarriage at one moment in time (and as such, is the only kind of intermarriage data available from the census), the intermarriage rate refers to the proportion of all marriages taking place in a particular time period that involved Jews marrying non-Jews. This can only be obtained with survey data. Gen17 indicates that the intermarriage rate in NSW for Jews marrying between 2010 and 2017 was 23%24. In other words, almost a quarter of Jews who married in this period married a non-Jew. Figure 28 shows how intermarriage in NSW has changed over time25. Between the 1960s and 1990s, it rose steadily, followed by a notable increase in the most recent period, almost doubling from 13% to 23%.

Table 41. Religion of youngest dependent child by religion of married parents, NSW, 2016 (interpolated)

Religion of parents Both mother and father Jewish

% Youngest child reported as Jewish

Number of married couples

97%

3,344

Mother Jewish

Father No religion

57%

465

Father Other religion

50%

487

Father Jewish

Mother No religion

17%

362

Mother Other religion

15%

599

23 This percentage relates to a group of less than 40 individuals. 24 The equivalent statistic in terms of couples is 38% – i.e. almost two out of five weddings taking place in that period and involving at least one Jew was an intermarriage. 25 Note this is an approximation of intermarriage over time since it only includes marriages that were extant in 2017. In other words, anyone marrying in earlier years who is no longer alive, has assimilated or who left the state is not included in these data.


60 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 27. Married Jews by age by religion of spouse (N=3,502, interpolated) Other religion

No religion

Other + No religion

30% Proportion of age group

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% <25

2529

3034

3539

4044

4549

5054

5559

6064

6569

7075+ 74

Other religion

12% 9% 14% 12% 14% 14% 14% 9% 11% 10% 11% 8%

No religion

0% 12% 14% 13% 11% 10% 7% 8% 6% 6% 5% 3%

Other + No religion 12% 21% 28% 26% 24% 24% 21% 17% 17% 16% 16% 11% Age group

Figure 28. Intermarriage rate by period marriage took place, NSW (Gen17 N=2,452)*

Proportion of Jewish individuals currently living with their spouse who is not Jewish

25%

23%

20%

15%

13%

10%

5%

13%

8% 5% 3%

0% 1960-1969

1970-1979

1980-1989

1990-1999

2000-2009

2010-2017

Period marriage took place

* All Jewish individuals who are married and currently living with their spouse. Status is established based on the following question: Was your current, or most recent, marriage held under Jewish religious auspices?


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    61

8.6 Intermarriage: Jewish attitudes and behaviours (Gen17)

related to a person’s religious position. Thus, one in three (33%) non-practising Jews are concerned about intermarriage compared with 84% of Orthodox Jews (figure 32).

Most (79%) intermarried Jews in NSW say they feel somewhat or very well accepted by the Jewish community but 17% do not feel very well accepted and a small minority (4%) do not feel accepted at all (Figure 29).

Figure 29. Feelings of acceptance by intermarried Jews, NSW (Gen17 N=256)

Intermarried Jews in NSW are far less likely to observe Jewish practices than in-married Jews. For example, 46% of in-married Jews attend Friday night meals every week compared with 15% of intermarried Jews (Figure 30). And 59% of in-married Jews fast on Yom Kippur every year compared with 18% of intermarried Jews.

Not accepted at all, 4%

Not very well accepted, 17% Very well accepted, 36%

Similarly, in-married Jews are far more likely than intermarried Jews to eat kosher meat both inside and outside the home. Indeed two out of five (40%) intermarried Jews eat pork products at home and more than half (57%) do so outside the home (Figure 31).

Somewhat accepted, 43%

Q: Thinking about yourself as one of an intermarried couple, how accepted do you feel by the Jewish community? Do you feel you are...

26% of respondents are very concerned about intermarriage in Australia and 38% are somewhat concerned. Levels of concern however are closely

Fast on Yom Kippur

Attend a Friday night Shabbat meal with family/close friends

Figure 30. Attendance at Friday night meals and fasting on Yom Kippur by religion of spouse, NSW (Gen17 N=2,451)*

Jewish spouse

46%

Non-Jewish spouse

15%

23%

32%

13%

Jewish spouse

59%

Non-Jewish spouse

18%

23%

11%

8%

40%

11% 9%

15%

21%

57%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Always

Usually

Sometimes

* excluding those who prefer not to say and those who do not fast for health reasons.

Never


62 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Type of meast consumed Type of meat outside the bought for the home home

Figure 31. Kosher meat consumption by religion of spouse, NSW (Gen17 N=2,451)*

Jewish spouse Non-Jewish spouse

61%

35%

3%

Jewish spouse

30%

55%

14%

Non-Jewish spouse

18%

56%

25%

65%

32%

2%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Only kosher meat Ordinary (non-kosher) meat, but not pork products Ordinary (non-kosher) meat including pork products * excluding prefer not to say

Figure 32. Level of concern felt about intermarriage by current religious/Jewish identification, NSW (Gen17 N=3,784) Modern Orthodox Traditional

11%

38%

Non-practising (secular/cultural)

25% 0%

8%

58%

49%

33%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

Somewhat concerned

12%

45%

No denomination – just Jewish

68%

29%

39%

Progressive/Reform

78%

34%

44%

Masorti/Conservative

84%

49%

35%

Very concerned


9 Income, wealth and poverty

9.1 Personal income Income is a key determinant of economic wellbeing, albeit, not the only one. It is also subject to a relatively high level of non-response in the census, despite being a compulsory question. However, Jews were far less likely to not respond to the income question as the general NSW population (9% generally versus 4% for Jews). Setting these non-responses aside, Figure 33 shows that, in terms of personal income, Jews were four times as likely as the rest of the NSW

population to earn $156,000 per year or more, the highest income bracket measured by the census (14.7% versus 3.5% respectively). And whilst 75% of the general population earned under $65,000, this was the case for 56% of Jews. These figures are also reflected in the estimated median26 personal annual incomes with Jews at $55,400, compared with $34,400 for the rest of the NSW population27, a difference of 61%.

Figure 33. Personal income, NSW Jewish population versus rest of NSW, 2016* 4%

>$156,000

15% 6%

$104,000-$156,000

10% 15%

$65,000-$104,000 $41,600-$65,000

14%

$20,800-$41,600

18% 18% 25%

17%

<$20,800

21%

15%

Nil/Negative

9% 0%

5%

10%

Rest of NSW (N=6.3m)

11% 15%

20%

25%

30%

Jewish (N=39,182, estimated)

* All people aged 15 and above, excluding non-response

26 The mean and median are both measures of the average. The advantage of the median over the more familiar mean is that very large values (outliers) are less distorting. 27 Excluding persons under 15 and those who did not respond to the income question


64    The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 33 also indicates that not all Jewish adults have high personal incomes. 24% earned less than $20,800 per year ($400 per week). That said, this does not necessarily mean these people are at risk of poverty. Some may live in households with other income earners: for example, those caring for young children (usually mothers) who perhaps earn part-time incomes alongside their spouse’s full-time income. Others may be young adults living with their parents or living alone but with relatively low outgoings.

9.2 Personal income (Gen17) Gen17 provides an alternative source of information on personal income, but it is important to note it is not directly comparable28. Two key advantages of survey data over the census are that the upper income bracket is far greater than the census’s ($500,000 per annum compared with $156,000 in the census), important because the Jewish population has much higher average earnings than the general population, and, because it is part of a survey dataset, so the possibilities for analysis are greater. On the other hand, the level of non-response was considerably higher (28% compared with 4% in the compulsory census). That said, additional analysis indicates this nonresponse does not appear to be biased towards any particular income group or band29. Of greater interest is the fact that the survey data indicate far higher incomes than the census.

In terms of personal income, the modal30 band was $100,000-$149,999 (18%) (Figure 34). However, 27% of respondents reported personal incomes of $150,000 or more and we can (approximately) compare this with the census where 15% earned $156,000 or more. Clearly these are very different results, so which is more accurate? Unfortunately it is not possible to answer this question within the confines of a report of this nature, however, a second set of Gen17 data are presented in Figure 34 which are from a small but arguably, more representative sub-sample*. This referral sub-sample had a Jewish median personal income of $74,000 as opposed to $91,500 (the latter being more representative of JCA’s database). And whilst this sub-sample median was also far higher than the census median of $55,000, it is probably the more accurate of the figures available.

28 In addition to the issues discussed in the text the question wording and presentation is rather different too: in Gen17 the question asked: “Which of the following best represents your current PERSONAL annual gross income, from all sources, BEFORE taxes and other deductions?”. In the 2016 Census it asked: “What is the total of all income the person usually receives?” followed by a detailed set of instructions about what to include. Separately, Gen17 took place one year later than the 2016 Census which may also have impacted comparability, the age cut off for the census was 15 compared with 18 in the survey, and the census includes a Nil/Negative income, category not included in the survey. 29 This level of income non-response is typical in optional sample surveys of the Jewish community. Those who choose prefer not to say (PNTS) are simply more likely to choose that option for all questions, presumably due to a higher than average sense of privacy. But otherwise there does not seem to be a different relationship between income and reporting PNTS. For example, cross tabulations of income with a question on perceived wealth (Prosperous through to Poor) shows that once income PNTS is set aside, the distributions are statistically the same. 30 Mode is a measure of central tendency meaning the most common value


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    65

Figure 34. Personal pre-tax annual income, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938, N=259*)^ $500,000 or more

5%

2%

5% 4%

$300,000 to $499,999 $200,000 to $299,999

5%

$150,000 to $199,999

7% 10%

4%

$100,000 to $149,999

15%

$75,000 to $99,999

15%

18% 19%

16%

$50,000 to $74,999 11%

$25,000 to $49,999 8%

$10,000 to $24,999

18%

14% 13%

6% 7%

Less than $10,000 0%

2%

4%

6%

8%

Gen17 total NSW sample

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

JCA referals* NSW

^ all those aged 18 and above, excluding non-response * JCA referrals are an online snowball sub-sample that was created off the back of the main Gen17 sample, that in NSW was generated using JCA database (see Graham and Markus, 2018 Op. cit. p79

9.3 Personal income by location Census data indicate that personal income is highly variable by location across NSW (Table 42). Overall, it was highest among Jews living in the Lower North Shore (median $77,400 per year) and lowest for Jews outside Sydney (median $40,400 per year). Personal incomes were more than $10,000 lower in Eastern Suburbs – South than in Eastern Suburbs – North. Of the areas analysed within Sydney, median personal income was lowest in Botany ($40,400 per year). With the exception of unrelated people living in the same home (e.g. flatmates), income tends to be shared among household members. Thus, personal income is a limited indicator of wealth and poverty; household income is a more accurate indicator for understanding such issues.

Table 42. Personal income by area, Jewish population age 15 and above, NSW, 2016 Census Median annual income

Estimated number of people

Lower North Shore

$77,400

2,186

Eastern Suburbs – North

$61,700

18,059

Sydney Inner City

$59,600

2,272

Upper North Shore

$55,500

3,295

Eastern Suburbs – South

$50,600

5,075

Rest of Sydney

$46,400

5,670

Botany

$40,400

736

Rest of NSW

$31,900

1,834

Total

$55,500

39,128


66 

  The Jewish population of NSW

9.4 Personal income in ACT

In NSW, Jewish household income was notably higher than household income generally. For example, 15% of Jewish households had annual incomes of $260,000 or above compared with 4% for all other households (Figure 36).

The median personal annual income for Jews in ACT in 2016 was $69,700, compared with $51,900 for the rest of the ACT population31 , a difference of 34%. It was also 26% higher than the median for Jews in NSW ($55,400).

The median annual Jewish household income was $127,200, 65% higher than the rest of NSW households ($77,200) (Table 43). But household income is related to household composition and Jewish couples with children at home had much higher average incomes of $197,600, 2.5 times higher than Jewish one parent households ($78,600).

This difference is visually evident in Figure 35 which shows that, in terms of personal income, Jews were more than twice as likely as the rest of the ACT population to earn $156,000 per year or more (10.4% versus 4.6% respectively), this being the highest income bracket measured by the census. They were also 1.6 times as likely to earn in the $104,000-$156,000 range (17% versus 11%).

Nevertheless, in all cases, including for lone parents, Jewish household incomes in NSW were higher than the equivalent incomes in the general population. For example, Jewish lone persons had median incomes of $49,100, 43% higher than lone persons in the rest of NSW ($34,300). Note however, the median annual income for Jewish lone persons aged under 50 was almost double that of those aged 50 years or above ($77,600 (aged under 50), compared with $39,200 (aged 50 and over)).

9.5 Household income A ‘Jewish household’ refers to any dwelling in which at least one occupant reported Jewish by religion in the 2016 Census, regardless of the religion responses of other household members.

Figure 35. Personal income in ACT, Jewish versus rest of ACT population, 2016* Not stated

7%

1% 4.6%

>$156,000

10.4% 11%

$104,000-$156,000

17% 22%

$65,000-$104,000 $41,600-$65,000

15%

$20,800-$41,600

15%

24%

17% 17%

14% 13%

<$20,800 Nil/negative

5% 0%

5% Rest of ACT (N=0.3m)

8% 10%

15%

20%

Jewish (N=672, estimated)

* All people aged 15 and above

31 Excluding persons under 15 and those who did not respond to the income question

25%


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 67

Figure 36. Household annual income* for Jewish households and all other households, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) $416,000 or more $312,000-$415,999 $260,000-$311,999

0% 1% 2%

7%

2%

7% 5%

$208,000-$259,999

10% 10%

$156,000-$207,999

15% 19% 18%

$104,000-$155,999 $78,000-$103,999

10%

$52,000-$77,999

$1-$25,999

0%

16%

11%

$26,000-$51,999

Negative income / Nil income

12%

8%

19%

12% 13%

2% 2% 5%

All other households N=2.3m)

10%

15%

20%

25%

Jewish households (N=15,684)

* data exclude families where all incomes are not stated or some are but not all incomes are stated

9.6 Household income (Gen17) As discussed above (section 10.2), direct comparisons between census and survey data on income are problematic. Gen17 indicates that almost one out of five Jewish households (19%) in NSW had incomes of $100,000-$149,999. The data also suggest that 9% of households have incomes of $500,000 or more. Gen17 gives a median Jewish household income for NSW of $150,000 compared with $127,000 in the census. Whilst it is likely this Gen17 figure is an overstatement, in this case, we cannot examine the referral sub-sample because it is too small.

Table 43. Median annual household income for Jewish households by household composition, NSW, 2016 Jewish population

Rest of NSW

Couple family with children present

$197,600

$127,300

Couple family with no children present

$133,000

$79,700

One parent family

$78,600

$60,000

Other family

$80,800

$72,700

Lone person household

$49,100

$34,300

Group household

$116,000

$85,800

Total

$127,200

$77,200

15,684

2.3m

N (enumerated)

* Figures exclude those who did not respond to the income question or households where not all incomes were stated.


68    The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 37. Median annual pre-tax household income, NSW (Gen17 N=2,072)* $500,000 or more

8.6%

$300,000 to $499,999

9.6%

$200,000 to $299,999

15%

$150,000 to $199,999

17%

$100,000 to $149,999

19%

$75,000 to $99,999

10%

$50,000 to $74,999

9%

$25,000 to $49,999

6%

$10,000 to $24,999

5%

Less than $10,000

1% 0%

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

14%

16%

18%

20%

* unique households

9.7 Household income by location The census shows household incomes also to be highly variable by location across NSW (Table 44). Overall, they are highest among Jews living in Upper North Shore (median $168,000) and Lower North Shore (median $163,600 per year) and lowest for Jews outside Sydney (median $70,900 per year). Household annual incomes are $18,000 lower in Eastern Suburbs – South than in Eastern Suburbs – North. Of the SA3 areas analysed within Sydney, median household annual incomes are lowest in Botany ($101,600 per year).

9.8 Family income ‘Jewish families’ are Jewish households excluding

lone persons and group households (i.e. where unrelated people share a dwelling). And as with household incomes, the family incomes of Jewish families in NSW are substantially higher than family incomes generally. For example, 20% of Jewish families have incomes of $260,000 or above compared with 5% generally.

With median annual family incomes of $152,100, Jewish families had incomes on average 65% higher than the rest of NSW families ($92,200).

Table 44. Median annual Jewish household income by area, NSW, 2016* Median annual income Upper North Shore

$168,000

Estimated number of people 1,011

Lower North Shore

$163,600

957

Eastern Suburbs – North

$141,800

6,548

Eastern Suburbs – South

$123,600

1,841

Sydney Inner City

$117,200

1,167

Rest of Sydney

$111,600

2,900

Botany

$101,600

288

$70,900

972

$127,200

15,684

Rest of NSW NSW total

* Figures exclude households where any eligible members did not respond to the income question


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    69

9.9 Wealth and poverty (Gen17) While most (78%) Gen17 respondents in NSW felt they were at least reasonably financially comfortable, almost one in five (19%) said they were Just getting along or else Poor (Figure 39). However, this was highest among those who were ‘Married, but separated’ (49%) or Divorced (34%)32.

Given the very high levels of income reported in Gen17, few people (under 5%) in NSW reported experiencing serious levels of deprivation to the extent they had to reduce the size of their meals and could not afford prescription medicines (Table 45).

Unsurprisingly, perceptions of financial circumstance are closely related to actual income (Figure 40). Thus, 62% of households with incomes of under $25,000 considered themselves to be Just getting along or worse, compared with none in the highest bracket ($500,000 or above)33. Perceptions of financial circumstance also vary with age. 17% of those in their twenties said they were 'jst getting along' or worse, rising to 22% of those aged in their fifties and declining thereafter (Figure 41).

Gen17 respondents aged 50 and above in NSW were asked whether they felt they had enough money to live comfortably throughout their retirement. A majority (76%) said they did but one in five (20%) said they were not confident (Table 46). This, however, varied with age with respondents age 80 and above being most confident. It also varied by country of origin with those born in Australia being most confident and those being born overseas being least confident.

Figure 38. Family annual income*, Jewish families and all other families, NSW, 2016 (enumerated) $416,000 or more

0% 1% 2%

$312,000-$415,999

10%

3%

$260,000-$311,999

9% 6%

$208,000-$259,999

13% 11%

$156,000-$207,999

16%

$104,000-$155,999

20%

$78,000-$103,999

13%

9%

$52,000-$77,999

17%

10%

$26,000-$51,999

18%

9%

$1-$25,999

22%

6%

3% 2% 1%

Negative income / Nil income 0%

5%

10%

All other families (N=1.7m)

15%

20%

25%

Jewish families (N=11,465)

* data exclude families where all incomes are not stated or some by not all income are stated

32 Gen17 data N=2063 excluding non-response 33 Whilst the prosperity question was directed at all individuals, the data have been compared with household income since some respondents report very low personal incomes but high estimates of personal prosperity – these individuals may be benefiting from higher incomes earned by other family members. Indeed, further analysis indicates that 75% of these respondents are female and 56% are aged under 30.


70    The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 39. Perception of current financial circumstances, households, NSW (Gen17 N=2,072) Nearly poor 1%

Table 45. Levels of deprivation*, in the previous 12 months, NSW (Gen17, N=3,896, N=1,618)

Prefer not to say 4% Prosperous Poor 7% 1%

Just getting along 16%

Living very comfortably 27%

Individuals

Households

Meals only*

2.1%

0.2%

Medicine only*

0.5%

1.4%

Meals and medicine*

1.8%

0.9%

Total

4.4%

2.6%

*Q: In the last 12 months did you personally: Ever reduce the size of your meals because there wasn’t enough money to buy food? Need prescription medicine but didn’t get it because you couldn’t afford to buy it?

Living reasonably comfortably 44%

Q: Which of the following terms best describes your current financial circumstances?

Figure 40. Perception of current financial circumstances by household income, households, NSW (Gen17 N=2,072) $500,000 or more

52%

$300,000 to $499,999

14%

$200,000 to $299,999

5% 2%

$150,000 to $199,999

1%

$100,000 to $149,999

1%

$75,000 to $99,999

5%

53%

30%

14%

58%

20%

18%

49%

21%

25%

41%

35% 30%

2%

34%

46%

20%

2% 1% 3% 1%

40%

52%

10%

3%

52%

39%

4% 0%

23%

59%

1% $50,000 to $74,999 5% 3% $25,000 to $49,999 3% Less than $25,000

3%

45%

40%

50%

60%

12% 6%

70%

80%

1%

14% 90%

Prosperous

Living very comfortably

Living reasonably comfortably

Just getting along

Nearly poor

Poor

100%


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    71

Figure 41. Perception of current financial circumstances, individuals reporting ‘Just getting along or worse’ by age group, NSW (Gen17 N=2,287) 25%

22% 20%

20%

20%

18%

17%

14%

15%

11% 10% 5% 0% 20-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60-69

70-79

80+

Age group

Table 46. “Overall, how confident are you that you will have enough money to live comfortably throughout your retirement years?” NSW, age 50 years and above (Gen17 N=743 per category) Very confident

Fairly confident

Not confident

Don’t know

Total

25%

51%

20%

4%

100%

50-59

16%

51%

28%

5%

100%

80+

36%

46%

13%

5%

100%

Australia

27%

52%

16%

6%

100%

South Africa

26%

45%

25%

3%

100%

Israel

13%

54%

24%

9%

100%

FSU

0%

66%

24%

11%

100%

Total Age

Country of birth


10 Education and schooling

10.1 Educational institutions There were an estimated 7,317a Jewish children in schools in NSW in 2016, a 9% increase since 2011 (6,703a) and 10% increase since 2006 (6,663a). In 2016, Jews were 1.7 times more likely than the rest of the NSW population to send their children to non-government (private) schools (62% compared with 36% generally) (Table 47). The proportion of Jewish children in non-government (private) schools has been declining since 2006. It was 62% in 2016 but 67% in 2011 and 68% in 2006.

Compared with the NSW general population, Jews were more likely to send their children to pre-schools and to attend university but less likely to attend TAFE.

Table 47. Type of educational institution attended, 2016, Jewish population and rest of NSW population (estimated)* Jewish N=11,869

All others N=1.8m

9%

7%

Government

18%

23%

Catholic

<1%

7%

Other non-government

18%

4%

Government

6%

15%

Catholic

1%

7%

19%

4%

Technical or Further Educational Institution (including TAFE Colleges)

3%

8%

University or other Tertiary Institution

24%

21%

Other

2%

4%

Total

100%

100%

Pre-school

Infants/Primary

Secondary

Other non-government

* Data exclude Not stated (5% Jewish, 23% general); Columns may not to sum to 100% due to rounding


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    73

While the total number of Jewish children in schools in NSW increased by 10% between 2006 and 2016 overall (since the size of the schoolaged population increased), the rise was unevenly distributed across sectors. While the primary sector grew by 26% (up from 3,405a to 4,296a), the secondary sector contracted by 7% (down from 3,258a to 3,029a) (Table 48). These changes are primarily a result of population dynamics: a result of the baby boom ‘echo’ noted above (see Figure 6, page 24).

Meanwhile, in the secondary sector between 2006 and 2016, there was overall contraction in the smaller government school sector of 20% and a more modest decline of 3% in the nongovernment (private) sector. But the data also indicate the non-government secondary sector grew (by 2%) in the latter part of the decade. In summary, the big shift away from nongovernment (private) primary schools continued after 2011 and even accelerated, against a backdrop of a large rise in the number of primaryaged children. Meanwhile, the modest shift into non-government (private) secondary schools also continued after 2011 but at a reduced rate, and against a backdrop of overall decline in secondary school-aged cohort.

Although these shifts are largely ‘locked in’ (i.e. a result of a change in the total number of children per age group), there is clear evidence that school preferences have also been changing. The overall increase in the primary sector from 2006 to 2016 was almost exclusively focused on a rise in enrolments to government schools (up 64%) whilst the non-government (private) schools only experienced a rise of 3% (Table 48). The data indicate this switch in preferences accelerated during the decade.

Table 48. Type of educational institution attended, Jewish population, NSW, 2006, 2011 and 2016, (estimated) 2006

Secondary

2016

2011 2016

2006 2016

9%

35%

-10%

22%

2,135

17%

18%

39%

64%

17%

2,161

17%

2%

1%

3%

696

5%

666

5%

-16%

-4%

-20%

19%

2,318

18%

2,363

19%

-5%

2%

-3%

3,279

26%

3,405

27%

3,206

26%

4%

-6%

-2%

326

3%

275

2%

264

2%

-16%

-4%

-19%

1,634

13%

1,220

10%

672

5%

-25%

-45%

-59%

12,789

100%

12,800

100%

12,548

100%

0%

-2%

-2%

%

886

7%

1,198

9%

1,082

Government

1,301

10%

1,541

12%

Non-government*

2,104

16%

2,146

828

6%

2,430

Government Non-government*

University/TAFE Other Not stated Total * including non-government Catholic schools

% change 2006 2011

N Pre-school Infants / Primary

2011

N

%

N

%


74    The Jewish population of NSW

10.2 Educational institutions by location

size of the government sector (594 a additional pupils, Table 50) but almost no change in the size of the non-government sector (Table 49). By area at the primary level, Eastern Suburbs – North experienced growth of 69% in the primary government sector but a slight contraction in the non-government sector (2%).

Data on type of school attended by sector and suburb are shown in Table 49 (percentages) and Table 50 (totals). Between 2011 and 2016, the proportion of Jewish pupils in NSW attending non-government (private) schools at the primary level declined from 58% to 50% in 2016 but increased slightly at the secondary level (from 77% to 78%)34 (Table 49). The shift away from non-government primary schools was especially pronounced in Eastern Suburbs – North (from 73% to 61%).

The secondary level experienced a modest contraction in its overall size (by -4%) in the government sector and a slight growth in the size of the non-government sector (+2%). But again, there were local variations with Eastern Suburbs – North growing by 14% in the government sector compared with a contraction of 14% in that sector in the Upper North Shore. By contrast, the non-government sector grew by 36% in Eastern Suburbs – South.

In terms of sectoral change, between 2011 and 2016 at the primary level, as noted, there was significant variation with 39% growth in the

Table 49. Type of school attended by location and sector, Jewish population, 2011 and 2016 – percentages Proportion attending non-government (private) sector Location

2011

% change in size of sector

2016

Primary

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Gov’t

Non-Gov’t^

Gov’t

Non-Gov’t^

Eastern Suburbs - North

73%

91%

61%

90%

69%

-2%

14%

-2%

Eastern Suburbs - South

61%

81%

61%

84%

13%

12%

8%

36%

Upper North Shore

48%

74%

49%

74%

5%

6%

-14%

-13%

Lower North Shore

24%

49%

18%

54%

61%

12%

-26%

-10%

Sydney Inner City*

26%

31%

28%

56%

64%

84%

-41%

66%

Botany*

52%

56%

41%

65%

57%

-1%

19%

77%

Rest of Sydney

26%

38%

13%

35%

31%

-44%

-13%

-23%

Rest of NSW

38%

53%

40%

45%

13%

23%

30%

-8%

Total

58%

77%

50%

78%

39%

1%

-4%

2%

* Percentages are based on small numbers of children (see Table 50) ^ Non-government (private) sector

34 Taking the sector as a whole, there was a shift away from non-government schools between 2011 (67%) and 2016 (62%)


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    75

Table 50. Type of school attended by location and sector, Jewish population, 2011 and 2016 (estimated)* – totals 2011 Location

2016

Primary

Secondary

Primary

Gov't

Non-Gov't

Gov't

Eastern Suburbs - North

475

1,275

134

1,377

803

Eastern Suburbs - South

268

419

79

328

Upper North Shore

216

201

125

Lower North Shore

116

36

Sydney Inner City

35

Botany Rest of Sydney Rest of NSW Total

Non-Gov't

Gov’t

Secondary

Non-Gov’t^

Gov’t

Non-Gov’t^

1,254

153

1,343

304

468

85

446

352

225

214

108

306

53

50

187

40

39

45

12

40

18

57

22

23

30

37

41

24

30

58

40

28

53

308

107

200

121

403

60

175

93

86

53

42

48

97

65

54

44

1,541

2,144

696

2,324

2,135

2,162

666

2,360

^ Non-government (private) sector

10.3 Type of school attended (Gen17) Gen17 data showed that one third (33%) of respondents in NSW have attended both a Jewish primary and a Jewish secondary school while 37% have attended both a government primary and government secondary school (Table 51). They

also showed that two out of five (42%) people attended a Jewish primary school, regardless of their secondary path, and 39% attended a Jewish secondary school, regardless of their primary path.

Table 51. Types of school attended for all those educated in Australia, NSW, Gen17 (N=1,970) Secondary level Jewish school

Government school

Independent school

Total

33%

5%

3%

42%

Government school

5%

37%

7%

49%

Independent school

1%

1%

8%

9%

Total

39%

43%

18%

100%

Jewish school Primary level


76â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 42. Type of school attended for all those educated in Australia, by age, NSW Gen17 (N=1,970) 80% 70%

68%

66%

60% 50%

47%

40% 30% 20% 10%

26%

24% 9%

28%

8%

0% Both a Jewish primary and schondary school Both a Government primary and schondary school 18-29

30-39

However, this picture disguises considerable variation by age. For example, more than two thirds (68%) of those aged 18 to 29 years attended a Jewish school at both primary and secondary levels compared with a quarter (26%) of those aged in their forties and less than 10% of those age 50 and above (Figure 42). Almost the mirror of this picture is observed in terms of those who attended government schools at both the primary and secondary levels. In other words, there has been an increasing tendency to be educated in the private Jewish sector at both levels over time.

10.4 Take-up at Jewish schools What proportion of Jewish school-aged children attend (private) Jewish schools in NSW? Since the census does not disaggregate the nongovernment sector by Jewish and non-Jewish school status, JCA data on Jewish school numbers in NSW have been collected and are examined in the context of the census data.

40-49

50+

Overall, 46% of Jewish school-aged children in NSW attended Jewish schools in 2016 (Table 52). Jewish school take-up overall has declined since 2011 when it was 50%, however, most of that decline was focused on the primary level (down from 47% to 40%), continuing a previous trend. The proportion of take-up at the secondary level increased very lightly (up from 54% to 55%) again continuing a trend. The size of the Jewish school-aged population increased by 9.3% (up 620a children) between 2011 and 2016, compared with almost no change (0.4%) over the previous five years (Table 52). However, this growth was concentrated almost entirely in the non-Jewish primary sector (+32.1%). The overall pattern in the decade from 2006 to 2016 was of strong growth in the size of the primary sector cohort (almost all of which was focused on the nonJewish sector) alongside contraction in the size of the secondary level cohort. Nevertheless, the Jewish school sector actually increased slightly at this level.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    77

Table 52. Jewish school take-up* by level, 2006 to 2011 Number of Jewish children per category by year

School level

Primary

School sector

2006

2011

2016

2006 2011

2011 2016

Jewish school

1,703

1,727

1,709

1.4%

-1.0%

0.4%

Non-Jewish school

1,706

1,949

2,576

14.3%

32.1%

51.0%

Total

3,409

3,676

4,285

7.9%

16.6%

25.7%

50%

47%

40%

-

-

-

Jewish school

1,628

1,644

1,656

1.0%

0.7%

1.7%

Non-Jewish school

1,632

1,376

1,376

-15.7%

0.0%

-15.6%

Total

3,260

3,020

3,032

-7.3%

0.4%

-7.0%

50%

54%

55%

-

-

-

Jewish school

3,331

3,371

3,365

1.2%

-0.2%

1.0%

Non-Jewish school

3,337

3,326

3,952

-0.3%

18.8%

18.4%

Total

6,668

6,697

7,317

0.4%

9.3%

9.7%

50%

50%

46%

-

-

-

Percent in Jewish schools (take-up)

Secondary

Percent in Jewish schools (take-up)

Total

Percentage change in sector size by period

Percent in Jewish schools (take-up)

-

2006 2016

* Census data in this table are based on type of institution (i.e. the figures have not been broken down by age). This is the same approach used in the NSW 2011 Census report (Table 29, page 43). Note however that figures may differ from that report due to the implementation of revised adjustment factors. Source: Data for Jewish schools—all of which are private (‘non-government’) schools—are from JCA records; data on ‘non-Jewish’ schools (public and private) are from the census and are estimated

10.5 School choice for Jewish families (Gen17) Survey data can also be used to give an indication of the proportion of Jewish households that send their children to Jewish schools. Unlike the census, survey data allow for the disaggregation of the non-government sector by Jewish and non-Jewish school types. However, these data are not directly comparable with those shown above, not least because they are based on households with school-aged children as opposed to individual children. Gen17 data also show that Jewish school takeup is higher at secondary level than at primary level. Among Jewish families with children of primary school age (i.e. 5 to 12 years old), on average, 46% send at least one child to a Jewish school, 49% send at least one child to a government school and 5% send at least one

child to independent primary school (Table 53). Among Jewish families with children of secondary school age (i.e. 13 to 18 years old), on average, 67% send at least one child to a Jewish school, and 17% send at least one child to a government secondary school. In summary, Jewish families are 1.5 times as likely to send their children to Jewish secondary schools as they are to send them to Jewish primary schools, and more than three times as likely to send them to non-Jewish independent secondary schools as they are to send them to non-Jewish independent primary schools. Almost half of families with primary aged children send them to non-Jewish public schools.


78â&#x20AC;&#x192;

â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Table 53. Proportion of households with school-aged children by school type NSW (Gen17 N=570 household for primary level, N=300 household for secondary level) Level Sector

Primary

Secondary

Jewish

46%

67%

Government

49%

17%

Independent

5%

17%

100%

100%

Total

But when asked whether it is preferable for Jewish children to attend a Jewish school at primary or secondary level, the difference is small with 57% indicating preference a primary and 60% indicating preference at secondary level (Figure 43). Opinion, it seems, does not match behaviour.

Why is there dissonance between school preference and actual choice? One factor might be affordability and Gen17 data on income allow for further examination of this. Household income distributions for families with children in primary school (some of whom may also have children in secondary school) are shown in Figure 44 by school type. Those with at least one child in a Jewish primary school are 1.7 times as likely to have household incomes of $300,000 or above compared to families with at least one child in a government primary school (37% versus 22%). (Note it is possible that some families have more than one primary-aged child and we cannot assume that families choose one type of school for each of their children.)

Figure 43. Preference for Jewish schooling by level, NSW Gen17 (N=628 per level)* Secondary School

33%

Primary School

34%

0%

10%

20%

27%

21%

23%

30%

40%

50%

21%

60%

70%

8%

9%

80%

11%

14%

90% 100%

Strong preference for a Jewish school Some preference for a Jewish school No preference either way for Jewish or non-Jewish school Some preference for a non-Jewish school Strong preference for a non-Jewish school Q Whether or not you have children, do you feel it is preferable for Jewish children to attend a school that is Jewish OR non-Jewish OR do you have no preference either way? * all unique households with at least one child aged under 19


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 79

Type of primary school

Figure 44. School type by pre-tax annual household income for households with children in primary school, NSW (Gen17 N=570 households)*

Jewish

24%

Independent

39%

31%

Government

37%

31%

37%

0%

10%

20%

38%

40%

30%

40%

50%

60%

22%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Proportion in household income bracket Under $150,000

$150,000-$299,999

$300,000 and above

* excludes income non-response (26% overall)

Type of secondary school

Figure 45. School type by pre-tax annual household income for households with children in secondary school, NSW (Gen17 N=300 households)*

Jewish

Independent

24%

42%

22%

35%

Government

0%

34%

43%

60%

10%

20%

30%

33%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

7%

90%

100%

Proportion in household income bracket Under $150,000

$150,000-$299,999

$300,000 and above

* excludes income non-response (30% overall)

But a different pattern is exhibited by families with children of secondary school age (some of whom may also have children in primary school) (Figure 45). Families with at least one child in a Jewish secondary school are almost five times as likely to have household incomes of $300,000 or more compared to families with at least one child in a government secondary school (34%

versus 7%). Conversely, families with at least one child in a government secondary school are 2.5 times as likely to have a household income of under $150,000 compared with families who have at least one child in a Jewish secondary school (60% versus 24%).


80 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Type of primary school

Figure 46. Type of primary school children attend by current religious/Jewish identification of householder, NSW (Gen17 N=570 households)*^ 27%

Non-Orthodox

62%

11%

51%

Traditional

47%

1%

72%

Orthodox 0%

10%

20%

30%

28%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Proportion of identity group in each school type Jewish

Government

Independent

* Orthodox = Strictly Orthodox/Haredi, Modern Orthodox, Chabad; Non-Orthodox = Masorti/Conservative, Progressive/Reform, No denomination – just Jewish, Non-practising (secular/cultural), Humanist (Secular), Atheist ^ one family may have more than one child at a primary school

Type of secondary school

Figure 47. Type of secondary school children attend by current religious/Jewish identification of householder, NSW (Gen17 N=300 households)*^

Non-Orthodox

52%

Traditional

26%

22%

78%

Orthodox

14%

85%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

8%

5% 11%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Proportion of identity group in each school type Jewish

Government

Independent

* Orthodox = Strictly Orthodox/Haredi, Modern Orthodox, Chabad; Non-Orthodox = Masorti/Conservative, Progressive/Reform, No denomination – just Jewish, Non-practising (secular/cultural), Humanist (Secular), Atheist ^ one family may have more than one child at a secondary school


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    81

In summary, there is a clear difference in terms of preference and choice between secondary and primary schooling decisions. At the primary level, parents are choosing the public option even though many could probably afford the private option. But at the secondary level, families that can afford the private option are choosing this path, the implication being that those who cannot afford it may feel they are being left out. Another factor worth exploring in terms of school choice in NSW is Jewish identity. This can be modelled using a variable called current selfidentified Jewish/religious position. In Figure 46, the relationship between Jewish position and

primary school choice is shown. As expected, at the primary level, Orthodox families are most likely to choose Jewish schools (72%), by contrast, non-Orthodox families are most likely to choose government schools (62%)35. (Note some families may have more than one primaryaged child and it cannot be assumed that families choose one school type for all their children.) But at the secondary level (Figure 47), important shifts are observed. Whilst all groups increase their presence in Jewish schools, this is especially so among traditional and non-Orthodox groups. Indeed, non-Orthodox almost doubled its proportion from 27% to 52%.

Type of primary school

Figure 48. Type of primary school children attend by country of birth of householder, NSW (Gen17 N=570 households) Australia

48%

South Africa

44%

52%

Other

46%

31%

0%

10%

20%

7%

63%

30%

40%

50%

60%

1%

6%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Proportion of CoB group in each school type Jewish

Government

Finally, we examine the data in terms of country of birth of householder. Again there are important differences based on level. For families with at least one child in primary school and where the householder is born in either Australia or South Africa, around half send their child to a Jewish primary school (Figure 48). But this is rather lower (31%) families with householders born elsewhere.

Independent

At the secondary level we again see the shift into Jewish schools but householder’s country of birth is a key factor (Figure 49). The increase is modest for families with Australian born householders but striking among the two other groups. Families with South African born householders increase their presence at secondary Jewish schools by such an extent that they are almost exclusively at these institutions (85%). No less striking is the near doubling of the proportion of householders born in other countries, increasing from 31% to 59%.

35 Although it should also be born in mind that Emanuel School is not a specifically Orthodox school.


82 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Type of secondary school

Figure 49. Type of secondary school children attend by country of birth of householder, NSW (Gen17 N=300 households)

Australia

58%

20%

South Africa

23%

85%

Other

11% 4%

59%

0%

10%

20%

22%

30%

40%

50%

60%

19%

70%

80%

90% 100%

Proportion of CoB group in each school type Jewish

Government

Independent

Figure 50. First main advantage of full-time Jewish day schools, NSW (Gen17, N=3,938) Strengthen Jewish identity

23%

Provide a sense of belonging to the Jewish community

21%

Develop Jewish friendships and networks

13%

Provide strong Jewish education

11%

Strong secular academic education (outstanding results for university entry)

7%

Education takes place in a Jewish environment

5%

Other

10%

No advantages

5%

Don’t know/Prefer not to say

5% 0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Q: Whether or not you have attended one, what do you consider to be the main advantages of full-time JEWISH DAY SCHOOLS, if any?

10.6 Attitudes towards Jewish schooling (Gen17) Whether or not Gen17 respondents in NSW had attended a Jewish school themselves or whether they had any children, they were asked what they thought were the three main advantages of Jewish schools (from a list of 16 items plus an option to add other reasons).

In terms of the first main advantage, 23% mentioned ‘strengthening Jewish identity’ as and a further 21% mentioned ‘provide a sense of belonging to the Jewish community’ (Figure 50).


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    83

Figure 51. Top ten advantages of Jewish schools mentioned*, NSW (Gen17, N=3,938 per item) Provide a sense of belonging to the Jewish community

49.0%

Strengthen Jewish identity

48.8%

Develop Jewish friendships and networks

48.1%

Provide strong Jewish education Strong secular academic education (outstanding results for university entry)

26% 23%

Education takes place in a Jewish environment

13%

Provide Hebrew literacy

13%

High quality of resources/technology/library etc

8%

Reduce likelihood of intermarriage

7%

Increase Jewish observance

6%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Q: Whether or not you have attended one, what do you consider to be the main advantages of full-time JEWISH DAY SCHOOLS, if any? * Respondents were asked to mention the first, second and third most important advantages. This graph amalgamates the responses to these three options

When all three responses are taken into account (i.e. summing all three responses together), it is interesting to see that three items are statistically indistinguishable, each being considered important by just under half of NSW respondents (Figure 51). Two of these were mentioned above (sense of belonging and strengthening Jewish identity) but a third item, ‘Developing Jewish friendships and networks’ also appears. Note these items are social and ethnocentric in nature; they are not educational or religious. And perhaps here lies an indication of at least some of the driving force behind the notable recent movement at the primary level, away from Jewish schools and into government schools with high proportions of Jewish pupils.

10.7 Cost of Jewish schooling (Gen17) All NSW respondents with children (including adult children who had left home), were asked whether the cost of school fees had ever

prevented them from sending one or more of their children to a Jewish school36. Overall, 37% said that it had, but the percentage was higher among younger cohorts who are more likely to have school-aged children: among those aged under 45 years, an average of 55% said the cost had prevented them from doing so. Parents with children attending Jewish schools were asked whether or not the cost of doing so was within their household’s financial capacity. More than half (55%) said that the cost entailed either significant or major financial sacrifices (Figure 52). However, there are notable differences when household income is factored in. For families with annual pre-tax incomes of $300,000 or more, 24% say the cost is a significant or major sacrifice, itself a sizable proportion given this income level, but this pales in comparison to 60% among families with incomes of between $150,000 and $299,999, and 84% for families with incomes below $150,000 (Figure 52).

36 People who had never considered a Jewish day school for their child/ren are excluded


84 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 52. Affordability of Jewish schooling by household income* NSW Gen17 (N=411) 13%

All Prefer not to say

10%

Under $150,000 $150,000-$299,999

32% 35%

16% 7%

10%

32%

24%

40% 40%

40% 0%

22%

44% 33%

$300,000 or above

33%

20%

20%

37% 30%

40%

50%

60%

17% 70%

80%

7%

90%

100%

Well within household’s financial capacity Entails some financial sacrifices for the household Entails significant financial sacrifices for the household Entails major financial sacrifices for the household Q: Earlier you indicated that at least one of your children attends a Jewish Day School. Would you say the cost of sending your child/ children to a Jewish day school… * All households with at least one child currently attending a Jewish school

Figure 53. Methods of financing Jewish day school fees* NSW (Gen17 N=411 per item) Personal/household income

58%

Personal/household savings

17%

Financial support from other family members (e.g. grandparents)

16%

Means-tested subsidies from the school

11%

Bank loan/use of home loan

11%

Other financial arrangement(s)

4%

Prefer not to say

14% 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

Q: In what way or ways are you currently financing your child’s/children’s Jewish Day School fees? * All households with at least one child currently attending a Jewish school

50%

60%

70%


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 85

Parents with children in Jewish schools in NSW were asked a multi-select question about how they are financing the cost of this schooling. The most common response, 58%, was through personal household income followed by personal or household savings (17%) (Figure 53).

seen here with 42% saying that they probably or definitely would do so compared with 40% who said they probably or definitely would not do so. Again, we see some evidence that suggests parents view secondary Jewish schooling to be more important than primary Jewish schooling.

Respondents with young children (aged under 5) at home were asked how likely it was they would send their child to a Jewish primary school. One in three (33%) indicated that they would probably or definitely do so but over half (55%) said they probably or definitely would not do so (Figure 54). A similar question was asked with respect to a Jewish high school, this time to anyone who had a child aged under 12. A different pattern can be

When these data are analysed in terms of income, there is a general relationship suggesting lower incomes are associated with a higher likelihood of not choosing a Jewish school either at primary or high school level (figure 55). The data suggest that whilst the relationship is generally apparent there is a notable difference between those with household incomes below $150,000 a year and those above this amount.

Figure 54. Likelihood of sending a child to a Jewish primary or secondary school, NSW, (Gen17, N=246^, N=477*)

Planning to send child to a Jewish primary school^

19%

Planning to send child to a Jewish secondary school*

20%

14%

27%

22%

24%

28%

16%

12%

18%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100% Yes, definitely

Yes, probably

No, probably not

No, definitely not

Undecided

Q: Earlier you indicated at least one of your children is aged under five years old. Are you currently planning to send this child to a Jewish primary school? (If you have more than one child aged under five, please relate your answer to the eldest child.) Q: Earlier you indicated at least one of your children is aged under 12 years old. Are you currently planning to send this child to a Jewish high school? (If you have more than one child aged under 12, please relate your answer to the eldest child.)


86â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 55. Likelihood of sending a child to a Jewish primary or high school by household income, NSW Gen17 (primary N=246, high N=477)

Primary

Under $150,000

6% 11%

$150,000-$299,999

21%

High

$300,000 or above

Under $150,000

8%

32% 0%

28%

7%

29%

32% 27% 19%

13%

23%

25%

21% 23%

$300,000 or above

34%

16%

29%

$150,000-$299,999

Yes, definitely

36%

24% 25% 14%

10% 13%

12% 11%

15% 15% 23%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Yes, probably

No, probably not

No, definitely not

Undecided

Q: Earlier you indicated at least one of your children is aged under 12 years old. Are you currently planning to send this child to a Jewish High School? (If you have more than one child aged under 12, please relate your answer to the eldest child.)


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 87

11 Volunteering

The census captures data on volunteering by recording whether a person spent any time engaged in unpaid voluntary work through an organisation or group, in the twelve months prior to the 2016 Census for every person aged 15 and above. In total, 30% of Jews in NSW said they had volunteered, a somewhat higher proportion than for the remainder of the NSW population (20%). Although this is also higher than the proportion of Jews who volunteered in 2011 (27%), changes to this question in 2016 (which provided additional examples of different types of volunteering) may have contributed towards increased positive responses and complicate direct comparisons between 2011 and 2016.

11.1 Volunteering by various indicators Volunteering is sensitive to age and sex. Jewish teenagers (aged 15 to 19) in NSW are most likely to have volunteered (42%) but the propensity to do so declines with age (Figure 56). It takes a steep dip around the early thirties (25%), presumably due to childcare responsibilities, but rises and peaks in the late forties (37%) mainly declining thereafter.

Proportion of age group that volunteers

Figure 56. Proportion who have volunteered* by age group, Jewish population, NSW, 2016^ 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Age group * Records people (aged 15 and above) who spent time doing unpaid voluntary work through an organisation or group, in the twelve months prior to 2016 Census. Excludes work done as part of paid employment, to qualify for government benefit; obtain a qualification or for a family business. ^ Excludes not stated


88â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 57. Proportion who volunteer, by age and sex, Jewish population, NSW, 2016 6%

90+

12% 17% 18%

Age group

80-89 70-79

29% 27%

60-69

27%

50-59

31% 36%

31%

40-49

40%

31% 27% 26%

30-39 20-29

31%

35%

u20

38% 0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45% 45%

50%

% of age group that volunteers Female

Jewish women in NSW are more likely to volunteer than Jewish men (32% for women compared with 28% for men). And this is the case at almost all ages with the exception of those aged 80 years and over (Figure 57). The gap is greatest in the teen years and the forties. Different groups exhibit different propensities towards volunteering (although these will also likely be influenced by age and sex). Table 54 shows the highest proportion who volunteer by labour force status is among the unemployed (37%) followed by those who work part-time (34%). In terms of marital status, the Never married group is most likely to have volunteered (33%) and the widowed group (mostly older people) the least likely (20%). In terms of

Male

country of birth, Australia-born Jews (36%) were more likely to have volunteered than any other group with the lowest likelihood being those born in Israel (22%) and the FSU (10%). Although it is only possible to speculate, these differences may be related to feelings of connection to the Jewish community and/or society at large.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    89

Table 54. Proportion of group that volunteers* (age 15 and above) by labour force status, marital status and country of birth, Jewish population, NSW, 2016^ % of sub-group who volunteer All Jews in NSW

Labour force status

Marital status

Country of birth

30%

Unemployed

37%

Employed, worked part-time

34%

Employed, worked full-time

30%

Not in the labour force

28%

Employed, away from work

26%

Never married

33%

Married

32%

Divorced

26%

Separated

21%

Widowed

20%

Australia

36%

South Africa

31%

Other country

27%

Israel

22%

Former Soviet Union (FSU)

10%

* Records people (aged 15 and above) who spent time doing unpaid voluntary work through an organisation or group, in the twelve months prior to the 2016 Census. Excludes work done as part of paid employment, to qualify for government benefit; obtain a qualification or for a family business. ^ Excludes not stated

11.2 Volunteering by type of organisation and Jewish identity (Gen17) In contrast to the census, Gen17 survey data indicate that more than half (54%) of respondents in NSW age 18 above had volunteered the previous 12 months (Figure 58). This is a considerably higher proportion than was recorded in the census (30%) but it must be recognised that the questions on volunteering were different in each case37. 30% of respondents had volunteered for Jewish organisations only, a further 15% volunteered for non-Jewish organisations only, and 9% volunteered for Jewish and non-Jewish organisations38. Not only are Jews in NSW more likely to volunteer for Jewish than non-Jewish organisations but they are also more likely to volunteer more frequently for them too, hence 35% had volunteered at least once a week for Jewish organisations compared with 24% for non-Jewish organisations (Figure 59)

Figure 58. Volunteering by respondents aged 18 and above by organisation type, NSW (Gen17, N=3,938) For Jewish and Non-Jewish organisations 9%

For Non-Jewish organisation only 15%

None 46%

For Jewish organisation only 30%

Q: In the last 12 months, have you done any unpaid voluntary work to support an organisation(s)?

37 Gen17 asked: “In the last 12 months, have you done any unpaid voluntary work to support an organisation(s)?”. The 2016 Census asked: “In the last twelve months did the person spend any time doing voluntary work through an organisation or group?” followed by a detailed list of inclusions and exclusions. 38 An assessment of the Gen17 referral sub-dataset (N=294 i.e. smaller but arguably more representative) indicates similar overall levels of volunteering (46%). However, interestingly, this also showed that volunteering for Jewish organisations only was slightly lower than for non-Jewish organisations only (21% versus 24% respectively).


90 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 59. Frequency of unpaid voluntary work done in the last 12 months by organisation type, NSW (Gen17: N=1,859 Jewish organisation; N=933 non-Jewish organisation)

Jewish organisation

35%

Non-Jewish organisation

27%

24%

0%

38%

28%

48%

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

At least once a week Less than once a week but at least once a month Less often than once a month

Figure 60. Frequency of unpaid voluntary work done in the last 12 months by current self-defined Jewish/religious position, NSW (Gen17 N=3,781) 13%

21%

Masorti/Conservative 7% Modern Orthodox

34% 33%

11% 36% 12%

22%

Progressive/Reform

27%

9% 8%

Traditional

10% 12%

0%

10%

50%

26%

15%

No denomination – just Jewish

39%

33%

7% Non-practising (secular/cultural)

47%

52%

22% 20%

56% 30%

40%

Jewish and Non-Jewish organisations

Non-Jewish organisation only

Jewish organisation only

None

50%

60%


Regarding self-defined Jewish position, the group most likely to volunteer is Masorti (66%) followed by Modern Orthodox (63%). The group least likely to volunteer is â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Just Jewishâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (44%) (Figure 60). However, in terms of the type of organisations respondents volunteered for, Modern Orthodox were most likely to only volunteer for Jewish organisations (47%)39 . Masorti were most likely to volunteer for both Jewish and non-Jewish organisations.

Respondents in NSW who had volunteered for a Jewish organization in the previous year were asked what kind of organisation(s) this was. The most commonly mentioned category was a synagogue (23%) followed by Jewish school (19%). This highlights the role these two types of communal institution play not just in terms of service delivery but also for galvanizing other forms of Jewish communal engagement. Important differences are seen in terms of gender with men being more likely to volunteer for a synagogue, a school and especially CSG and Maccabi (Figure 61).

Figure 61. Jewish organisations that respondents had volunteered for in the previous 12 months among those who had volunteered for a Jewish organisation*, NSW (Gen17 N=1859 per category) 21%

A synagogue

26%

17% 20%

A Jewish school 13% 12%

JCA 5%

Community Security Group (CSG)

12% 10% 9%

JewishCare

9% 8% 8% 7%

JNF Sir Moses Montefiore Jewish Home 3%

Maccabi

7%

NSW Jewish Board of Deputies

5% 6%

UIA

7% 6% 6% 4% 4% 2%

Sydney Jewish Museum B'nai b'rith Other Jewish organisation(s) 0%

47% 36% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Female

Male

Q: Which JEWISH organisation(s) have you volunteered your time to support in the last 12 months? * Many organisations were mentioned and items are not independent. This list is cut-off at 2%

39 It is even higher among the Strictly Orthodox (71%) but this figure is not statistically reliable.


92    The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 62. Reasons given for not volunteering, NSW (Gen17 N=1496 per item) 45%

Do not have the time Prefer to give financial support rather than your time

13%

Don’t know what opportunities are available

12% 11%

Have never been asked/It has never occurred to you

8%

Are not interested

7%

Have health problems Don’t have enough money

6%

Do not have transport

2%

Don’t have enough experience

1%

Everything that interests is inaccessible

1%

Something else

8% 0%

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Q: There are many reasons why some people do voluntary work and others do not. You said that you have not done any voluntary work in the past 12 months. Is this because:

11.3 Reasons for not volunteering (Gen17) The 46% of respondents in NSW who had not volunteered in the previous 12 months were asked why this was the case. Just under half (45%) said this was because they did not have enough time, by far the most common reason given (Figure 62).


12 Care and welfare

12.1 General health and limiting conditions (Gen17)

In addition to their self-assessed general health, NSW survey respondents were also asked whether their daily activities were limited because of a long-term health problem. Whilst overall levels were low, with 19% reporting this was the case, again, the likelihood of people experiencing limitations to their daily activities increased with age. With more than half of those in their eighties and above reporting a long-term health problem or disability (Figure 64). Moreover, the severity of this limitation(s) also increases with age.

Respondents to the Gen17 survey were asked to describe their general state of health. Overall, in NSW, most people (86%) have good health but 14% do not. However, health is sensitive to age and, as can be seen in Figure 63, general health deteriorates as people get older so for those aged under 50, 10% or less had fair to bad general health but by the time they reached their late eighties, this was the case for almost half (48%) the cohort.

Figure 63. Self-assessed general health by age, NSW, (Gen17, N=3,938) 90+ 85-89

43%

80-84

30%

75-79

7%

16%

65-69

7%

14%

60-64 Age

5%

25%

70-74

7%

45-49

48%

45%

50%

35%

33%

22%

2% 15% 1% 13%

12%

50-54

5%

3% 17%

13%

55-59

40-44

2% 48%

46%

4% 11% 1% 10%

9% 3% 2% 5%

35-39

7%

30-34 25-29 u25

1% 8%

4%

2% 6%

4%

2% 6%

4% <1% 4% 0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25% Fair

Q: How is your health in general?

30% Bad

35%

40%

55%


94 

  The Jewish population of NSW

Figure 64. Whether day-to-day activities are limited because of a health problem or disability which has lasted, or is expected to last for at least 12 months, NSW (Gen17 N=3,938) 90+

32%

85-89

36%

80-84

65-69

8%

23%

60-64 Age

10%

22%

5%

15%

50-54

9% 5% 6%

30-34

7%

u25

19%

2% 15% 1% 10%

1% 6%

35-39

25-29

37%

30%

2% 17%

13%

45-49

53%

4% 27%

14%

55-59

55%

12%

28%

70-74

60%

19%

41%

75-79

40-44

28%

2% 9%

11% 9%

0%

5%

2% 10% 3% 14% 9% 10%

15%

20%

25%

Yes, limited a little

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%

55%

60%

65%

Yes, limited a lot

Q: Are your day-to-day activities limited because of a health problem or disability which has lasted, or is expected to last, at least 12 months? Please include problems related to old age.

Table 55. Proportion of respondents with moderate or extreme impairment in five categories of ill-health, NSW, Gen17 (N=3,938 per item) Type of impairment Mobility

Self-care Usual activities (e.g. work, study, housework, family or leisure activities) Pain / discomfort

Anxiety / depression

Level of impairment I have some problems walking about

11%

I am confined to bed

<1%

I have some problems washing/dressing myself

<1%

I am unable to wash or dress myself

<1%

I have some problems with performing my usual activities

8%

I am unable to perform my usual activities

<1%

I have moderate pain or discomfort

28%

I have extreme pain or discomfort

<1%

I am moderately anxious or depressed

22%

I am extremely anxious or depressed

Q: Please indicate which statements best describe your own state of health today.

1%


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    95

12.2 Need for care assistance by age

The survey also asked whether respondents in NSW had specific impairments due to health conditions. The most common impairment was pain or discomfort at a moderate level (28%) followed by anxiety or depression also at a moderate level (22%) (Table 55). Few respondents reported severe impairment in any of the categories examined.

The 2016 Census recorded 2,793a Jewish people in NSW in need of assistance with ‘core activities’40. Need, however, is often closely related to age and over half (52%) of those in need, or 1,461a people, are aged 80 and above. The data shown in Figure 65 indicate that in terms of absolute size, the number of people needing assistance is greatest among those aged 85-89 (columns and left-hand axis). But the graph also shows the proportion of each cohort in need; this is 1.6% for people under 50 years and 3.6% for people aged 50 to 69 but it rises steeply—beyond 50% in the late eighties—thereafter (line and right-hand axis).

90% 80%

500

70%

400

60% 50%

300

40% 30%

200

20%

100

10% 95+

90-94

85-89

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

15-19

10-14

0% 5-9

0

% of each age group in need of assistance (line)

600

0-4

Number of Jews in need of assistance (columns)

Figure 65. Need for assistance with core activities by age – estimated number of Jewish people and percent of each age group, NSW, 2016

Age group Total in need of assistance with core activities % of age group in need of assistance with core activities

40 Need is defined in the census as “People with a profound or severe disability… needing help or assistance in one or more of the three core activity areas of self-care, mobility and communication, because of a disability, long term health condition (lasting six months or more) or old age.” ABS 2016 Census Dictionary p180


96    The Jewish population of NSW

12.3 Need for care assistance by location

Among those aged 50 and above in need of assistance in NSW in 2016, 59% (1,655a) lived in their own home, a rise of 18% since 2006. Of these, 630a lived alone and 1,025a lived with a spouse or someone else (Table 57). Overall, between 2006 and 2016, the number of people in need of assistance and living alone increased by 11%, whilst among those living with their spouse or others, the increase was 23%. The increase among those in their nineties was considerably higher, whether living alone (48%) or living with someone else (60%).

Of the 2,793a people in need of assistance in NSW, 25% lived in ‘non-private dwellings’ (almost all of whom (90%) were living in nursing homes or 'accommodation for the retired'). Of the remainder, 2,036a Jewish people lived in their own homes of which one in five 41% lived in Eastern Suburbs – North (Table 56).

Table 56. Need for assistance with core activities for all those living in their own homes by location, Jewish population, 2016 (estimated)* Total in need of assistance

Percent

Eastern Suburbs - North

848

41%

Eastern Suburbs - South

267

13%

66

3%

Sydney Inner City

179

9%

Upper North Shore

110

5%

Lower North Shore

83

4%

Botany

Rest of NSW Total

510

25%

2,063

100%

* Excludes those in non-private dwellings such as nursing and retirement homes

Table 57. Need for assistance with core activities by age and household type, Jewish population, NSW, 2006, 2011 and 2016 (estimated)*

Lone person

Living with spouse or others

% change 2006-2011

% change 2011-2016

% change 2006-2016

115

27%

14%

45%

86

127

18%

47%

74%

306

254

225

-17%

-11%

-26%

90+

110

113

162

3%

43%

48%

Total

568

555

630

-2%

14%

11%

50-69

208

259

302

25%

16%

45%

70-79

229

222

240

-3%

8%

5%

80-89

303

352

338

17%

-4%

12%

90+

91

88

145

-2%

64%

60%

Total

830

921

1,025

11%

11%

23%

Age

2006

2011

2016

50-69

79

101

70-79

73

80-89

* Excludes those in non-private dwellings such as nursing and retirement homes


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    97

12.4 Jews living in care facilities

The average age of people living in nursing homes or accommodation for the retired in NSW has steadily increased over the decade—34% were aged 90 and above in 2006 compared with 39% in 2011 and 48% in 2016.

The census distinguishes between people who live at home and those who live in ‘non-private dwellings,’ within which, nursing homes and accommodation for the retired,41 fall. In 2016, there were 893a Jewish people living in such facilities in NSW, a rise of 18% since 2006.

In 2016, 23% of Jewish people aged 90 and above lived in a nursing home and a further 20% lived in accommodation for the retired (Table 58). Therefore 43% of the very old lived in these types of accommodation, similar to the proportion in 2006 (42%) and 2011 (45%). However, between 2006 and 2016, the number of Jews aged 90 and above living in nursing homes increased by 44% and the number living in accommodation for the retired doubled (up 103%).

Of these, most (517a) were living in nursing homes and a further 376a were living in accommodation for the retired. However, a word of caution is warranted here. JCA records indicate that there were about 640 Jews in nursing homes in 2016 and we suspect that the difference may be due to the way administrators who complete the census forms in such institutions are defining their facilities since the total of 893a in both accommodation types is similar to the number we understand from community records can be accommodated in such institutions in NSW. See Definitional note~ below.

Table 58. Jewish residents of nursing homes and accommodation for the retired* by age, 2006, 2011 and 2016, NSW (estimated) Percentage of total Jewish population in age group

Facility

Nursing homes

Accommo-dation for the retired

Age group

% change

2006

2011

2016

2006

2011

2016

20062011

20112016

20062016

Under 80

87

80

75

0.6%

0.5%

0.4%

-8%

-6%

-14%

80-89

233

354

215

8%

13%

9%

52%

-39%

-8%

90+

158

297

227

26%

38%

23%

88%

-24%

44%

Total

478

732

517

2.7%

3.7%

2.5%

53%

-29%

8%

Under 80

25

17

40

0.2%

0.1%

0.2%

-32%

140%

62%

80-89

151

97

133

5%

3%

6%

-36%

38%

-12%

90+

99

53

202

16%

7%

20%

-47%

284%

103%

Total

276

166

376

1.6%

0.8%

1.8%

-40%

126%

36%

* See footnote 41

41 ‘Accommodation for the retired or aged (not self-contained) … refers to hostel type accommodation (with common living and eating facilities) provided for retired or aged people who are generally in good health and capable of looking after themselves.’ (2016 Census dictionary p158). Note homes for the retired such as B’nai B’rith Retirement Villages and Lifestyle Manor are not included in these figures since residents have private addresses and live independently.


98 

  The Jewish population of NSW

In addition to those living in care homes and retirement homes in 2016, 148a Jewish people in NSW were living in other care facilities (but also defined as non-private dwellings) such as hospitals and respite facilities.42 These will have been temporary residences for most people. Definitional note ~ In the census, a private dwelling includes mainly houses and flats but also caravans and tents for example. A Non-Private Dwellings (NPD) is one that provides “a communal or transitory type of accommodation.” They vary by function and include hotels, guest houses, prisons, boarding schools, hospitals, nursing homes and so on. According to ABS, people in NPDs are enumerated on personal forms, not household forms, so information on their family structure is not collected but data on metrics like religion are collected. “In the case of accommodation for the retired or aged, where one establishment contains both self-contained units and units that are not self-contained [i.e. with common living and eating facilities provided for retired or aged people who are generally in good health and capable of looking after themselves], then both household forms (self-contained) and personal forms (not selfcontained) are used as appropriate".43

Figure 66. Preferred type of care facility, NSW, Gen17 (N=3,938) Prefer not to say, 2%

Don’t know which option I prefer, 7%

An environment that is not specifically Jewish, 6%

No preference, 9%

Jewish environment with kosher facilities, 18%

An environment with a Jewish ethos but not necessarily with kosher facilities 58%

Q: If you needed to be looked after in a care home or supported living environment, which type of facility, if any, would you would prefer?

Not surprisingly, preference is strongly related to religious position. Hence we see that just over half (53%) of Modern Orthodox respondents in NSW said that they would prefer a facility with kosher facilities but for most other groups, an environment that had a Jewish ethos but not necessarily with kosher facilities, was most likely to be preferred (Figure 67)

12.5 Care and consumer choice (Gen17) Whilst most people will not require residential care until they are very elderly, if at all, Gen17 respondents were asked what kind of care home or supported living environment they would choose, should it ever become necessary. Most (58%) respondents in NSW said that they would prefer an environment with a Jewish ethos but not necessarily one that has kosher facilities (Figure 66).

42 Specifically, these are: Public hospital (not psychiatric); private hospital (not psychiatric); psychiatric hospital or institution; hostel for the disabled; other welfare institution. 43 Source: ABS 2016 Census Dictionary p189-190, p158


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    99

Figure 67. Preferred type of care facility by current Jewish/religious position, NSW, Gen17 (N=3,938) Modern Orthodox

53%

Traditional

20%

Masorti/Conservative Progressive/Reform

40% 71%

17%

69%

5%

1% 4% 9%

73%

No denomination – just Jewish 4%

63%

Non-practising (secular/cultural) 2% 0%

3%4% 1% 3%5%

10%

50% 20%

17% 40%

6% 7%

9%

14%

10%

20%

60%

11%

80%

100%

Prefer care in a Jewish environment with kosher facilities Prefer care in an environment with a Jewish ethos but not necessarily with kosher facilities Prefer care in an environment that is not specifically Jewish No preference Don’t know which option I prefer Q: If you needed to be looked after in a care home or supported living environment, which type of facility, if any, would you would prefer?

Figure 68. Preferences for how personal care and support for people to continue living at home should be financed, NSW, Gen17 (N=3,938) Personal income, savings, investments

56%

Government

25%

Jewish community

4%

Other sources

2%

Don’t know

12%

Prefer not to say

1% 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Q: Most people would prefer to live in their own home when they reach old age. If you will require personal care and support to continue living at home, should this be mainly financed by:

When asked about who should finance the cost of supporting someone in their own home, if they preferred to be cared for this way when they reached old age, most respondents (56%) said they would expect this to be financed with personal income, savings and

investments, with a further 25% saying it should be financed by the government (Figure 68). Few (4%) felt it should be financed by the Jewish community.


100    The Jewish population of NSW

Respondents aged 50 and above were asked whether they felt they had sufficient financial provisions to pay for their care needs into old age. Overall, just over half (54%) said they did but just under a third (32%) said they did not and a further 14% were unsure (Table 59). This varied by age, with older respondents being more confident than younger respondents. Nevertheless, 32% of those age 80 and above said they did not have sufficient financial provisions. There is also variation in terms of country of birth with a quarter of South African respondents (25%) aged 50 and above being unsure whether they had sufficient financial provisions and more than half (53%) of those born in FSU countries saying they did not have sufficient financial provisions.

Table 59. Do you have sufficient financial provisions to cover the cost of your care needs in old age? by age and country of birth, NSW, Gen17 (N=743) No

54%

32%

14%

100%

50-59

42%

32%

26%

100%

80+

65%

32%

4%

100%

Australia

58%

28%

14%

100%

South Africa

55%

19%

25%

100%

Israel

45%

38%

16%

100%

FSU

28%

53%

19%

100%

TOTAL Age

Country of birth

Don’t know

Yes

Total

12.6 Provision of unpaid care assistance Unpaid care assistance44 is also reported in the census and this shows that 5,421a Jews aged 15 and above provided such assistance to others (who were not necessarily Jewish) in NSW. (This compares with 5,227a in 2011). Care providers are more likely to be female than male—61% of unpaid care givers are women (this percentage is unchanged from 2011). The proportion of people providing care assistance increases steadily with age until it peaks in the late fifties when over a quarter (28%) of women provide care, and proportions decline thereafter as people begin to require care themselves and/or the person(s) they are caring for requires professional help (Figure 69).

44 ABS defines unpaid assistance to a person with a disability as “unpaid help or supervision given in the previous two weeks to another person to assist them with daily activities because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age. A longterm illness is one that has lasted or is likely to last for six months or more. The care could have been provided to family members or other people, but excludes care given through an organisation or club.” ABS 2016, Census Dictionary p241


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 101

Figure 69. Provision of unpaid care assistance, by age and sex, NSW, 2016 2%

90+

7% 7% 9%

85-89

11%

80-84 75-79

14% 16%

9%

70-74

19%

12%

Age group

65-69

21%

16%

60-64

27%

17%

55-59

28%

20%

50-54

27%

18%

45-49

10%

40-44

10% 11%

35-39

20% 15%

8% 9% 7% 8% 9% 8% 6% 6% 4%

30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

Proportion providing unpaid care assistance Female

Gen17 respondents in NSW were asked whether they provided regular assistance to close relatives suffering from physical or mental ill-health or disability. Overall, 20% said this was the case and 10% of respondents reported giving regular help to an elderly family member suffering physical illhealth/disability (Table 60).

Male

Table 60. Proportion who give regular help or support to a close relative by type of disability, NSW, Gen17 (N=3,938 per item) Type of relative

Type of disability Physical ill-health/disability

10%

Mental ill-health/disability

3%

Child under 18 in my family

Physical ill-health/disability

<1%

Mental ill-health/disability

<1%

Another close family member

Physical ill-health/disability

4%

Mental ill-health/disability

4%

Elderly family member

Q: Do you look after, or give any regular help or support to, a close relative (parent, child, spouse, or sibling), either inside or outside your home, who is suffering from long-term ill-health or a long-term disability? Please do not count anything you do as part of your paid employment.


13 Appendices

Appendix 1. Construction of ‘broad’ geographical areas using the ASGS boundary system The broad areas used for geographical analysis in this report are based on seven SA3 boundaries plus Rest of Sydney and Rest of NSW. Table 61 shows the relationship between these SA3s and their constituent SA2 neighbourhoods (areas smaller than SA2 are SA1s and Mesh Blocks but these are only identified by numerical codes

in the ABS system). However, as discussed in the report, SA2 boundaries are not particularly intuitive for the localised analysis of the Jewish population. For example, the SA2 boundary called ‘Bondi – Tamarama – Bronte’ merges three distinct areas and is separate from ‘Bondi Beach – North Bondi’ which confuses things further still, hence the use of alternative and more intuitive SSC (State Suburb Code) boundaries in the detailed analyses.

Table 61. Relationship between SA2 and SA3 areas for the construction of the broad geographies used in this report Broad geography SA3 boundaries

SA2 – constituent areas

Eastern Suburbs – North

Bondi – Tamarama – Bronte Bondi Beach – North Bondi Bondi Junction – Waverly Centennial Park Double Bay – Bellevue Hill Dover Heights Paddington – Moore Park Rose Bay – Vaucluse – Watsons Bay Woollahra

Eastern Suburbs – South

Coogee – Clovelly Kensington (NSW) Kingsford Malabar – La Perouse – Chifley Maroubra – North Maroubra – South Maroubra – West Randwick – North Randwick – South

Continued on next page


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    103

Broad geography SA3 boundaries

SA2 – constituent areas

Sydney Inner City

Darlinghurst Erskineville – Alexandria Glebe – Forest Lodge Newtown – Camperdown – Darlington Potts Point – Woolloomooloo Pyrmont – Ultimo Redfern – Chippendale Surry Hills Sydney – Haymarket – The Rocks Waterloo – Beaconsfield

Botany

Banksmeadow Botany Mascot – Eastlakes Pagewood – Hillsdale – Daceyville Port Botany Industrial Sydney Airport

Ku-ring-gai*

Gordon – Killara Lindfield – Roseville Pymble St Ives Turramurra Wahroonga (East) – Warrawee

Chatswood – Lane Cove^

Chatswood (East) – Artarmon Chatswood (West) – Lane Cove North Lane Cove – Greenwich St Leonards – Naremburn Willoughby – Castle Cove – Northbridge

North Sydney – Mosman^

Cremorne – Cammeray Crows Nest – Waverton Mosman Neutral Bay – Kirribilli North Sydney – Lavender Bay

* Upper North Shore ^ Lower North Shore


104    The Jewish population of NSW

Appendix 2. Jewish population change from 2011 to 2016 based on SA2 area boundaries Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) boundaries are part of ABS’s ASGS boundary system. They “are designed to reflect functional areas that represent a community that interacts together socially and economically.” Whole SA2s aggregate directly to SA3s in the Main Structure. (ABS 2016 Census Dictionary page 167). The SA2 is the smallest area for the release of many ABS statistics, however, these boundaries are not necessarily commensurate with suburb boundaries people are familiar with, hence the use of SSC boundaries in the main report.

Dover Heights is the most populous SA2 with 5,505a Jews, a slight increase from 2011 (up 1.2%) (Table 62). In percentage terms, the largest increases were in Botany (46%), ‘Manly – Fairlight’ (44%), ‘Pagewood – Hillsdale – Daceyville’ (44%), Marrickville (35%) and ‘Malabar – La Perouse – Chifley’ (31%). The largest decrease in the top 50 most populous SA2 areas was St Ives (down 11%). Other areas with large percentage decreases were Lindfield – Roseville (-21%), Surry Hills (-18%), ‘Willoughby – Castle Cove – Northbridge’ (-14%) and Turramurra (-12%).

Table 62. The biggest 50 SA2 areas by Jewish population size, 2011 and 2016 (estimated)

SA2

2011

2016

N change

Percentage Change

Dover Heights

5,439

5,505

66

1.2%

Double Bay – Bellevue Hill

4,723

4,894

171

3.6%

Bondi Beach – North Bondi

3,504

3,544

40

1.1%

Rose Bay – Vaucluse – Watsons Bay

3,055

3,140

85

2.8%

St Ives

2,773

2,460

-314

-11.3%

Bondi – Tamarama – Bronte

2,153

2,061

-92

-4.3%

Bondi Junction – Waverly

1,928

1,948

20

1.0%

Maroubra*

1,936

1,914

-22

-1.1%

Randwick*

1,863

1,749

-115

-6.2%

998

1,080

83

8.3%

1,023

1,006

-16

-1.6%

Malabar – La Perouse – Chifley

612

802

190

31.0%

Woollahra

772

795

23

3.0%

Waterloo – Beaconsfield

707

639

-68

-9.6%

Gordon – Killara

550

544

-6

-1.0%

Paddington – Moore Park

473

490

17

3.5%

Lindfield – Roseville

593

470

-123

-20.7%

Willoughby – Castle Cove – Northbridge

529

456

-73

-13.9%

Coogee – Clovelly Kensington – Kingsford

Continued on next page


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    105

SA2

2011

2016

N change

Percentage Change

Potts Point – Woolloomooloo

378

409

31

8.2%

Hunters Hill – Woolwich

386

385

-1

-0.2%

Pagewood – Hillsdale – Daceyville

260

374

114

44.1%

Lane Cove – Greenwich

388

352

-36

-9.2%

Chatswood (West) – Lane Cove North

327

328

1

0.2%

Cremorne – Cammeray

321

306

-15

-4.7%

Mosman

305

306

0

0.1%

Pymble

314

293

-21

-6.7%

Mascot – Eastlakes

274

290

16

5.8%

Botany

198

288

90

45.5%

Redfern – Chippendale

266

268

2

0.9%

Darlinghurst

208

240

31

15.0%

Chatswood (East) – Artarmon

237

228

-9

-3.9%

Turramurra

248

218

-30

-12.2%

Newtown – Camperdown – Darlington

172

207

35

20.2%

Crows Nest – Waverton

201

198

-3

-1.5%

Neutral Bay – Kirribilli

183

193

10

5.3%

Surry Hills

230

188

-42

-18.3%

Erskineville – Alexandria

141

183

41

29.2%

Leichhardt – Annandale

178

168

-10

-5.6%

Macquarie Park – Marsfield

178

162

-17

-9.3%

Mullumbimby

134

154

20

14.9%

Balmain

132

152

20

15.0%

Frenchs Forest – Belrose

147

144

-4

-2.4%

Sydney – Haymarket – The Rocks

127

133

6

5.1%

97

131

34

34.9%

Glebe – Forest Lodge

109

128

19

17.7%

Forestville – Killarney Heights

107

123

16

15.5%

Manly – Fairlight

83

119

37

44.2%

North Sydney – Lavender Bay

96

118

22

23.0%

123

115

-8

-6.5%

84

102

19

22.1%

Marrickville

Wahroonga (East) – Warrawee* Ryde

*Notes: The 2016 Maroubra SA2 is the combination of three separate 2016 SA2s: North Maroubra, South Maroubra and West Maroubra as it was a single SA2 in 2011. The 2016 Randwick SA2 is the combination of North and South Randwick as it was a single SA2 in 2011. The Wahroonga (East) – Warrawee SA2 was slightly larger (Wahroonga – Warrawee) in 2011 but the numbers in the above table have been left unchanged for these areas in 2016 as they follow the general trend in those areas. The total in 2011 for Hornsby – Waitara and Wahroonga – Warrawee was 344 a. These two areas were split into four in 2016 (Wahroonga (East) – Warrawee, Waitara – Wahroonga (West), Hornsby – West and Hornsby – East) and totalled 299 a, a decrease of -12.9%.


106â&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; The Jewish population of NSW

Appendix 3. Long term population change

data show that over the 30-year period from 1986 to 2016, NSWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Jewish population increased by 42%, from 28,197u to 40,099i which equates to an annual growth rate of 1.2% (Figure 70). However, the decadal rate of growth has been steadily decreasing over time, almost halving from a 17% increase between 1986 and 1996 to a 9% increase from 2006 to 2016 46.

Long term data on Jewish population change are available but must be assessed using unadjusted (enumerated) figures as there is no consistent approach to adjustment over time (albeit with an interpolated number for the 2016 data45 ). The

Figure 70. Jewish population change 1986 to 2016 with percentage change per decade in parenthesis, NSW (enumerated, 2016 interpolated*) 45,000

40,099*

40,000

36,718 32,850

Jewish Population

35,000 30,000

28,197

(+9%)

25,000

(+12%)

20,000

(+17%)

15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1986

1996

2006

2016

* The interpolated number has been used in 2016 for consistency of comparison with earlier enumerated numbers. This accommodates a change in presentation of the religion question in the 2016 Census.

45 The interpolated number has been used in the analysis of 2016 Census data for consistency of comparison with enumerated figures from earlier censuses. This adjusts for the change in the presentation of the religion question in 2016. 46 As these percentages are based on unadjusted (enumerated) data (and interpolated data for 2016) they show a greater change than was recorded using adjusted data. The increase based on adjusted data for 2006 to 2016 is lower at 4.9% (see Table 3).


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    107 To examine long term change at more localised levels, it is necessary to use postcode boundaries as these have remained fairly stable over the long term. (ABS’s introduction in 2011 of a new boundary system (ASGS) renders localised comparisons before then untenable). Data are available from 1991 and show that although Eastern Suburbs – North has consistently had the largest Jewish sub-population by a large margin, the rate of growth has been far stronger in Eastern Suburbs – South (Table 63). That, however, noticeably changed in the most recent period where the growth rates were almost the same (2% in the north, 3% in the south). The Jewish population in the Upper North Shore and Lower North Shore reached their peak sizes in around 2006 declining by 17% and 10% respectively, since then. At a more detailed level, Table 64 shows that Maroubra tripled in size (up 196%) in the 25-year period between 1991 and 2016 and all other Eastern Suburbs – South areas grew by over 75% (Botany is not included as historic data are unavailable). No areas within Eastern Suburbs – North grew by quite this much, although Rose Bay grew by 57% (and by 13% since 2006) and

Vaucluse, Waverley and Bellevue Hill grew by more than a third. By contrast, Bondi’s Jewish population has not grown over this period and is 10% smaller than in the mid-1990s (and has declined by 5% since 2006). Indeed, the 2016 Census showed that the Jewish population of Vaucluse is now on par with that of Bondi, having been 30% smaller in the 1990s. St Ives’ growth of 60% over the 25-year period and driven by South African migration in the 1990s, peaked in 2006, declining by 14% since then. The biggest changes that took place between 2011 and 2016, were in Upper North Shore (down 12%) with Lindfield declining by 21% and St Ives declining by 11% and Ryde down 8% (Table 64). Growth, on the other hand, was greatest outside Sydney, in Rest of NSW (increasing by 28%) but inside Sydney, Maroubra grew by 9% and Edgecliff and Paddington both grew by 7%.

Table 63. Jewish population size by year and percentage change, based on postcode subdivisions – Broad areas (estimated) Percentage change

1991*

1996*

2001*

2006

2011

2016

25 years 1991 -2016

Eastern Suburbs – North

18,256

20,686

20,388

22,160

22,549

22,915

26%

11%

12%

3%

2%

Eastern Suburbs – South

3,190

4,079

4,751

5,800

7,040

7,245

127%

78%

52%

25%

3%

Lower North Shore

2,755

2,914

2,873

2,950

2,773

2,667

-3%

-8%

-7%

-10%

-4%

Upper North Shore

4,260

5,072

5,099

5,390

5,042

4,456

5%

-12%

-13%

-17%

-12%

Rest of Sydney

5,841

6,663

6,915

7,504

8,111

7,883

35%

18%

14%

5%

-3%

Rest of NSW

1,327

1,440

1,535

1,702

2,055

2,633

98%

83%

72%

55%

28%

35,629

40,854

41,561

45,505

47,570

47,800

34%

17%

15%

5%

0%

Broad areas

Total

20 years 1996 -2016

15 years 2001 -2016

10 years 2006 -2016

5 years 2011 -2016

* 2001 data are from Eckstein G, 2003 Demography of the Sydney Jewish Community 2001, Jewish Communal Appeal, Sydney, Australia, p27; 1996 data from Eckstein G, 1999 Demography of the Sydney Jewish Community 1996, Jewish Communal Appeal, Sydney, Australia, p22; 1991 data from JCA/Monash University ACJC files and have been adjusted by 20%


108    The Jewish population of NSW

Table 64. Jewish population size by year and percentage change, based on postcode subdivisions – Narrow areas (estimated for 2006 to 2016) Percentage change

Broad areas

Narrow areas

Postcode area (POA)

1991§

1996‡

2001*

2006

2011

2016

25 yrs 19912016

20 yrs 19962016

15 yrs 20012016

10 yrs 20062016

5 yrs 20112016

Bondi

2026

5,329

5,958

5,312

5,619

5,338

5,334

<1%

-10%

<1%

-5%

<1%

Bellevue Hill

2023

2,206

2,501

2,501

2,712

2,972

2,979

35%

19%

19%

10%

<1%

Waverley

2022 2024

1,645

1,949

2,125

2,302

2,247

2,254

37%

16%

6%

-2%

<1%

Edgecliff

2025 2027 2028

2,131

2,316

2,233

2,479

2,287

2,443

15%

5%

9%

-1%

7%

Rose Bay

2029

2,256

2,678

2,753

3,134

3,349

3,534

57%

32%

28%

13%

6%

Vaucluse

2030

3,751

4,282

4,606

4,926

5,379

5,324

42%

24%

16%

8%

-1%

Paddington

2000 2011 2021

937

1,002

858

988

976

1,048

12%

5%

22%

6%

7%

Randwick

2031

1,108

1,330

1,498

1,742

2,095

2,003

81%

51%

34%

15%

-4%

Kingsford

2018 2032-34

1,052

1,492

1,703

1,976

2,161

2,196

109%

47%

29%

11%

2%

Maroubra

20352036

1,030

1,257

1,550

2,082

2,785

3,047

196%

142%

97%

46%

9%

Waterloo

Waterloo

2010 2016 2017

602

1,030

1,102

1,149

1,173

1,102

83%

7%

<1%

-4%

-6%

Lower North Shore

Lower North Shore

2060-68 2088-90 209296

2,755

2,914

2,873

2,950

2,773

2,667

-3%

-8%

-7%

-10%

-4%

Lindfield

2069 2070

1,001

1,001

870

805

740

583

-42%

-42%

-33%

-28%

-21%

St Ives

2075

1,538

2,214

2,543

2,875

2,774

2,460

60%

11%

-3%

-14%

-11%

Gordon

2071-74 2076-77

1,721

1,857

1,686

1,711

1,527

1,413

-18%

-24%

-16%

-17%

-7%

21102122

1,086

1,095

1,188

1,162

1,135

1,045

-4%

-5%

-12%

-10%

-8%

St George

2205-14 2216-34

1,086

1,013

936

950

1,023

957

-12%

-6%

2%

1%

-6%

Rest of Sydney^

Rest of Sydney

Various

3,067

3,525

3,689

4,240

4,780

4,778

56%

36%

30%

13%

<1%

Rest of NSW

Rest of NSW

Various

1,327

1,440

1,535

1,702

2,055

2,633

98%

83%

72%

55%

28%

35,629

40,854

41,561

45,505

47,570

34.2%

17.0%

15.0%

5.0%

0.5%

Eastern Suburbs – North

Eastern Suburbs – South

Upper North Shore

Ryde/St George

TOTAL

Ryde

47,800

* 2001 data are from Eckstein G, 2003 Demography of the Sydney Jewish Community 2001, Jewish Communal Appeal, Sydney, Australia, p27; 1996 data from Eckstein G, 1999 Demography of the Sydney Jewish Community 1996, Jewish Communal Appeal, Sydney, Australia, p22; 1991 data from JCA/Monash University ACJC files and have been adjusted by 20% ^ Including Botany (postcode 2019)


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Reportâ&#x20AC;&#x192; â&#x20AC;&#x192; 109

Appendix 4. Age and sex in single years, Jewish population, NSW

Table 65. Age in single year cohorts by sex, Jewish population, NSW, 2016 (estimated) Age

Male

Female

0

232

241

1

249

220

2

304

251

3

284

263

Total

Age

Male

Female

Total

Age

Male

Female

Total

473

33

228

295

523

66

313

321

635

469

34

246

285

531

67

338

350

688

556

35

295

271

566

68

370

417

788

547

36

256

262

518

69

403

422

825

4

289

286

575

37

275

290

565

70

321

354

675

5

288

250

538

38

267

315

582

71

259

276

535

6

304

334

639

39

276

356

632

72

210

250

460

7

363

312

675

40

301

319

619

73

198

185

383

8

324

286

610

41

342

324

666

74

179

216

395

9

355

325

680

42

342

325

667

75

171

209

380

10

320

282

602

43

330

351

681

76

165

211

376

11

343

284

627

44

333

352

685

77

162

181

343

12

304

294

598

45

350

363

712

78

170

193

363

13

264

273

538

46

294

332

626

79

152

168

320

14

249

245

494

47

282

312

595

80

144

157

301

15

276

253

528

48

260

269

530

81

110

158

268

16

262

263

525

49

284

312

596

82

108

132

240

17

253

232

484

50

234

272

506

83

131

149

280

18

199

193

392

51

271

281

552

84

127

123

250

19

196

223

418

52

282

294

576

85

124

139

263

20

199

219

418

53

273

329

602

86

106

142

249

21

205

192

396

54

297

328

624

87

114

130

244

22

227

220

447

55

275

341

615

88

84

122

206

23

224

225

449

56

278

361

640

89

75

131

206

24

193

245

438

57

317

339

657

90

70

98

168

25

197

233

430

58

312

321

633

91

62

145

207

26

202

205

407

59

304

312

617

92

69

93

162

27

198

194

392

60

299

346

645

93

47

89

136

28

209

277

486

61

316

328

644

94

38

79

117

29

212

256

469

62

295

358

653

95

40

58

98

30

236

267

503

63

359

335

694

96

19

36

56

31

194

281

475

64

339

307

646

97+

36

53

89

32

262

269

531

65

321

347

668

Total

23,055

24,745

47,800


110    The Jewish population of NSW

Appendix 5. Change in total Jewish households, 2011 to 2016 In our 2011 Census report47, a Jewish household was defined as “any household with at least one Jewish person but where all other people either reported Jewish or No Religion or their religion was Not stated (14,900u Jewish households).” In other words, this was a slightly narrower definition than has been applied in this report since it excludes households where Jews live with nonJews. (Such information could be largely inferred from intermarriage data.) This, however, limits the possibility of making temporal companions. In order to overcome this, we apply the more limited 2011 definition to the 2016 data and apply the interpolation factor to the 2016 data. In doing so, we see that the number of Jewish households in NSW increased by 1.9% from 14,900u to 15,178i from 2011 to 2016 (Table 66). Regionally, the largest increase occurred in the Rest of NSW (12.8%), followed by Eastern Suburbs – South (5.4%) and Eastern Suburbs – North (3.4%). The largest decreases were on the North Shore (-9.2% in Chatswood – Lane Cove and -7.4% in Ku-ring-gai).

Table 66. Jewish households* by location, 2011 (enumerated) and 2016 (interpolated) 2011

2016

Eastern Suburbs – North

7,097

7,338

3.4%

Eastern Suburbs – South

1,819

1,918

5.4%

Sydney Inner City

1,102

1,136

3.0%

Chatswood – Lane Cove

1,208

1,118

-7.4%

Ku-ring-gai

524

476

-9.2%

431

438

1.6%

Ryde – Hunters Hill

193

189

-2.0%

1,867

1,822

-2.4%

659

743

12.8%

14,900

15,178

1.9%

Rest of NSW Total

Using this ‘HRP approach’ we find slightly fewer (2%) Jewish households in NSW in 2016 (14,890u). However, this is an unadjusted figure and if we apply the adjustment factor it suggests there were 19,287a Jewish households in NSW in 2016. Applying the relevant factors to 2011 and 2006 data indicates little change in the total number of Jewish households since 2011 but a 4.3% increase since 2006 (Table 67).

Table 67. Jewish households in NSW, HRP method (see text), 2006 to 2016 Unadjusted

Estimated (adjusted)

5 year change*

2006

14,902

18,498

-

-

2011

16,076

19,251

4.1%

-

2016

14,890

19,287

0.2%

4.3%

% Change

North Sydney – Mosman Rest of Greater Sydney

But an alternative approach is to use the household reference person (HRP) to identify Jewish households. The HRP is “the person who is used as the basis for determining the familial and non-familial relationships within a household. It is usually the person who has identified himself/herself as Person 1 on the Household form.”48 The disadvantage of this approach is that it misses out any households where Person 1 did not state their religion as Jewish when other people in the household did do so, but the advantage is that it simplifies the definition of Jewish household, and, because it is based on an individual, the relevant adjustment factors can be applied, potentially allowing for more reliable temporal comparisons.

* based on adjusted data

* Jewish household defined as any dwelling with at least one Jewish person but where all other people either reported Jewish or No religion or their religion was Not Stated

47 Graham D 2014 The Jewish Population of Australia: Key findings from the 2011 Census, JCA and Monash University 48 ABS 2016 Census Dictionary, p148

10 year change*


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    111

Applying the HRP approach, it can be seen that whilst the number of households has remained stable overall between 2011 to 2016 (increasing by 0.2%), there were increases in Eastern Suburbs – South (1.7%), Rest of NSW (8.4%) and Rest of sydney (5.2%) (Table 68). The largest decreases were on the North Shore (-9.3% in Ku-ring-gai, -6.6% in Chatswood – Lane Cove and -6.5% in North Sydney – Mosman).

Table 68. Jewish households by location, 2011 and 2016, HRP method (see text) (estimated) 2011

2016

Change

Eastern Suburbs – North

8,863

8,925

0.7%

Eastern Suburbs – South

2,306

2,346

1.7%

Sydney Inner City

1,358

1,308

-3.7%

Chatswood – Lane Cove Ku-ring-gai North Sydney – Mosman Ryde – Hunters Hill Rest of Greater Sydney Rest of NSW Total

686

641

-6.6%

1,538

1,395

-9.3%

582

544

-6.5%

253

250

-1.1%

2,734

2,876

5.2%

924

1,003

8.4%

19,244

19,287

0.2%

Appendix 6. 2016 Census adjustment methodology A full and detailed description of the approach taken to adjusting the 2016 Census data can be found in our report on the 2016 Census for Australia49. The following is a brief summary of the steps taken to derive the adjustment factor of 29.5% for 2016. This adjustment has been jointly agreed by JCA in Sydney and The Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation (ACJC) at Monash University in Melbourne. Finally, the incorporation of an additional ‘ERP’* step necessitates the revision of adjustment procedures and factors implemented for 2006 and 2011 since these did not take ERP data into account. The adjustment methodology applied to enumerated 2016 Census data for Jews incorporates a 3-stage procedure which jointly adjusts for: Stage 1 – the unique circumstances of the 2016 Census: 1) negative media attention relating to privacy in the run to the census; 2) the introduction of an online first approach to the census; 3) a change in the presentation of the religion question giving high prominence to the category No religion; 4) a denial of service attack on census night; Stage 2 – undercount due to the religion question being voluntary and some Jews reporting their identity through census questions other than religion; Stage 3 – the ERP estimate, an estimate of the population that did not take part in the census due for example to being away on census night The census adjustment factor is derived using Australia wide data and is not itself adjusted for any differences that may occur at state level.

49 Graham and Narunsky 2019 op. cit.


112    The Jewish population of NSW

Table 69. The three-stage 2016 Census adjustment procedure for the Jewish population* Row Stage 1 (ACLD)

1

Jewish population enumerated in the 2016 Census

2

Estimated net Jewish loss to No religion (4,532) and religion Not stated (4,848) based on ACLD analysis

3

Interpolated Jewish population (row 1 + row 2)

98,910

4

Interpolated inflation factor (row 3 / row 1)

1.0866 8.66%

5

Interpolated inflation factor (row 4) as a percentage ((row 3 – row 1) / (row 1)

Stage 2 (2011 Stage 1)

6

2011 Census Stage 1 inflation factor^

7

Interim adjusted Jewish population (row 3 x row 6)

Stage 3 (ERP)

8

ERP adjustment (3.57%)

9

ERP adjustment (row 7 x row 8)

10

Difference between enumerated and adjusted (row 9 – row 1)

11

Stage 2 Adjustment factor – direct inflation (row10 / row 1)

12

Direct Stage 2 inflation multiplier (row 11 + 1)

Deriving the inflation factor

91,023 7,887

1.15 113,837 1.036 117,903 26,880 29.53% 1.30

Source: Graham D with Narunsky L 2019 op. cit. p70 ^ see Graham D 2014 The Jewish Population of Australia: Key findings from the 2011 Census, JCA and Monash University p41. * Notes: ACLD = The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD) is produced by ABS and tracks an anonymised 5% random sample of respondents directly from one census to the next. Interpolated = An estimate of the enumerated census number had the religion question format and circumstances of the 2016 Census matched those of the immediately preceding censuses. 2011 Census Stage 1 inflation factor = factor that was applied to 2011 census data in 2011. ERP = Estimated Resident Population – an adjustment made by ABS to rebase the enumerated census figure to account for people who were missed by the census, for example those who were overseas on census night. It is applied here following a suggestion from Emmanuel Gruzman, PhD candidate at the Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation (ACJC) at Monash University

The incorporation for the first time of the ERP factor into the 2016 adjustment procedure necessitates a retroactive change or rebase of the 2006 and 2011 factors for comparability as this did not form part of these procedures. This derives an inflation factor of 1.24 for enumerated 2006 Census data on Jews and 1.20 for 2011 data. The rebased population sizes are 110,264 for 2006 and 116,563 for 2011 having previously been estimated at 105,578 and 112,025 respectively. An important implication of the inclusion of the ERP adjustment into this methodology is that the general population must also be adjusted because the ERP is applicable to all residents regardless of religion. Therefore, any comparisons that are made between the estimated Jewish population and the general population (or remainder) must take this into account by multiplying the population total by the relevant ERP inflation

50 Graham and Narunsky 2019 op. cit.

factor (2006 = 1.044; 2011 = 1.041; 2016 = 1.036) and subtracting the adjusted Jewish remainder. Note an ERP adjustment is not required when the comparison is with enumerated Jewish data. Census data on Jewish families and households have not been adjusted. That is because the adjustment procedure is based on individuals and is not applicable to households since an inflation factor for households requires knowledge of the distribution of Jewish non-respondents among all households and this is not known. A full explanation is provided in our previous report on Australia50.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    113

Appendix 7. Glossary ABS

Australian Bureau of Statistics

ACLD

Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset. This is a randomly selected 5% sample produced by ABS that links individual anonymised responses from the 2006 Census to the 2011 Census and then to the 2016 Census. This facilitates a direct assessment of change.

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

ASGC

Australian Standard Geographical Classification (boundary system used by ABS from 1984 to 2006)

ASGS

Australian Statistical Geography Standard (boundary system used by ABS from 2011)

De facto

A de facto marriage exists when the relationship between two people (of the same or opposite sex, who live together in the same household), is reported as either: de facto, partner, common law husband/wife/spouse, lover, boyfriend, or girlfriend (ABS).

Dependent child

A dependent child is a person who is either a child under 15 years of age, or a dependent student. To be regarded as a child the person can have no identified partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household (ABS).

Enumerated

The number, or count, as reported by ABS (after perturbation for small cells). It is denoted by a subscript u (unadjusted) in this report.

ERP

Estimated Resident Population – an adjustment made by ABS to rebase the enumerated census figure to account for people who were missed by the census, for example those who were overseas on census night.

Estimated

An estimated census figure is an enumerated figure that has been adjusted to account of the likely effects of non-response as well as changes to the wording of the religion question in 2016. It is denoted by a subscript a (adjusted) after the number.

FSU

Former Soviet Union. This consists of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan


114    The Jewish population of NSW

Interpolated

An estimate of the enumerated census number had the religion question format and circumstances of the 2016 Census matched those of the immediately preceding censuses. The interpolated figure can be directly compared with enumerated data from earlier censuses. It is denoted by a subscript i (interpolated) after the number.

Jewish family

A Jewish family comprises any Jewish household in which at least one occupant reported Jewish and in which at least two or more people are related. It excludes Jewish lone persons and Jewish group households.

Jewish group household

Any household in which at least one occupant reported Jewish and with two or more unrelated people where all persons are aged 15 years and over. This excludes couple relationships, parent-child relationships or other blood relationships.

Jewish household Any household in which at least one occupant reported Jewish regardless of the religion responses of other household members. LGA

Local Government Area

Married

ABS distinguishes between Registered and Social Marital Status. The former is based on the question ‘What is the person’s present marital status?’, whereas the latter is derived from both this question and a question on household relationships. The counts of people in marriages differ depending on which variable is used.

No religion

In 2016 the full label for No religion was: ‘Secular Beliefs and Other Spiritual Beliefs and No Religious Affiliation’.

Non-Private Dwelling (NPD)

Any establishment which provides a communal type of accommodation

NSW

New South Wales

SA2, SA3, SA4

Statistical Area Levels within the ASGS system. These are a set of hierarchical functional areas that directly integrate with each other. The smallest area (for which data are published) is the SA1 and there are 17,895 such areas in NSW but they are only identifiable by numerical code. These SA1s ‘mesh’ into 540 SA2s, which then mesh into 93 SA3s and finally these mesh into 30 SA4s.

SSC

State Suburb Code – a boundary system used by ABS to more closely match neighbourhood boundaries that most people are familiar with. In particular they are more intuitive than the equivalent SA2 boundaries but they do not mesh with the SA hierarchical system.


NSW 2016 Census and Gen17 Report    115


116    The Jewish population of NSW


All rights reserved Š JCA 2020 This work is copyright. Apart from any use permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part of it may be reproduced by any process without written permission from the publisher. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction rights should be directed to the publisher.

JCA 140-146 Darlinghurst Rd Darlinghurst NSW 2023 Australia www.jca.org.au ISBN: 978-0-646-82535-9


Profile for tpg26

JCA 2016 Census  

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded