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U N I T

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1 Listening A 1790

1542

1539

1600

1800

1910

1810

1705

1899

1804

1066

1997

B Write down the exact year in which these events occurred. French Invasion

Agustín de Iturbide’s empire

Porfirio Díaz’s government

Mexican Independece September 16

Miguel Hidalgo’s execution July

Justo Sierra period

Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards

Benito Juárez’s government

General Miguel Miramón

Marriage epistle by Melchor Ocampo

Railway inauguration

2 Conversation A

Listen to some people talking about their last trip to Mexico. Gus: Ossama: Gus: Ossama: Gus:

B Pair work 78

Hi! How was your vacation? Where did you go finally? Oh, Gus! I went to Mexico on vacation. I spent two weeks there. That sounds interesting. We arrived on Friday and rented a car at the airport. Next, we drove to our hotel and had a busy agenda. We hired a guide and she took us to many different and nice places. How about you? What did you do? I stayed here in the city with my family and had fun.

Ask and answer about your last travel or vacation.

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3 Language Structure

Simple Past Tense Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I wanted You wanted He wanted She wanted It wanted We wanted They wanted

I didn’t want You didn’t want He didn’t want She didn’t want It didn’t want We didn’t want They didn’t want

Did I want...? Did you want...? Did he want...? Did she want...? Did it want...? Did we want? Did they want...?

Short answers Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.

Complete the sentences with the correct verb form. 1. Yesterday, the museum

(open) early.

2. In the last event, the ballet dancers 3. I 4. He 5. The show

(call) Susan last night, but she

(dance) for two hours. (not answer).

(ask) the visitors to leave their bags in/at the check desk. (start) at eight and

(finish) at eleven.

4 Reading A What famous explorers do you know? Read the text below and comment it with your class. Famous explorers Hernán Cortés arrived in America in 1519. He commanded the expedition and moved inland to look for Tenochtitlan. The Spaniards attacked the city. The attack ended with the conquest of Tenochtitlan on August 13th., 1521. Hernán Cortés carried the standard of the Virgin of Remedies during the conquest. The mural named The Fusion of Two Cultures represents this moment. Jorge González Camarena painted this mural in 1963. He showed in it the birth of our nation and the death of the colonial period in our history.

B Class activity Talk about some important historical events. Complete these sentences. 1. The King of Spain _____________________________ (appoint) Antonio de Mendoza as the First Viceroy of New Spain. 2. The church__________ (control) education and _________________ (found) schools for Indians, for creoles and for girls. 3. Miguel Hidalgo _________________________ (start) the Independence movement in 1810. 4. The Iguala Agreement _________________________ (proclaim) the political independence of New Spain. 5. Agriculture and mining _________________________ (improve) during the XIX century. English for museums and tourism

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5 The Cast System A Look at this painting. Do you know the name of the casts in New Spain?

B Pair work

Look at the system of casts. Practice this conversation.

A: What did the union of Español and India give? B: The union/mix of Español and India gave Mestizo. Español + India = Mestizo + Española = Castiza + Español = Española + Negro =

Mestizo Castiza Español Mulata

Lobo + India = Cambujo + Mulata = Barquino + Mulata = Coyote + Mestizo y Mulata =

Español + Mulata = Español + Morisca = Español + Albina = Indio + Tornatras =

Morisca Albina Tornatras Lobo

Sambaloo Alvarazado Coyote Ahí te estás

C Look at the chart and number these sentences from1 to 3, in a logical order. [

]

The society of New Spain after the conquest of Mexico was divided according to the ethnic origin and economic standing, which made up together a complicated system of social casts.

[

]

This painting is called Market Stall and it was made in oil on canvas by unknown artist in 1766. This painting reflects the different social casts.

[

]

These pictures from the eighteenth century show for example, the Mestizo-a mixture of Spanish and Indian blood; Castiza-a mixture of Spanish and Mestizo; Mulata-a mixture of Spanish and African; and Morisca- a mixture of Spanish and Mulata. This painting is guarded by the National History Museum.

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6 Vocabulary

monstrance

cruet set

paten

altar bells

bucket for holy water

cup for wafers

ciborium for wafers

rosary

thurible bowl

incense boat

chalice

Latin cross

Cross of Loraine

Cross botonĂŠe

Ansate cross

Fivefold cross

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U N I T

7 Religious Orders Class activity

Do some research to answer the questions.

1. What were religious beggars (mendicant orders) of New Spain? 2. What famous religious orders existed in New Spain? Who were the foundators of these orders? 3. Look at these pictures and write the correct name of the order under each one. Franciscans Augustinians Dominicans Jesuits Mercedarians Carmelites

8 Outlines A Do you know who was Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz? Read the text below. If you are lucky enough to have a two-hundred peso note, you may notice the image which is printed on it. This picture is in oil by Miguel Cabrera. This woman is Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz, a poet, intellectual and nun of the seventeenth century. Having chosen religious life to avoid marrying a man she didn’t love, Juana de Asbaje became famous and genuinly appreciated even by the viceroy himself, for the quality of her sonnets which she could write as easily in Latin as she could in Spanish.

B Class activity Ask questions about this famous character. Then, make a map of her history and write down a short biography. See the list of irregular verbs at the back of the book.

WAS BORN IN

GREW UP

STUDIED AT

BECAME

DID

DIED IN

C Speaking

Look at the examples below. Practice with your own information. A: A: A: A: A: A: A: A:

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When were you born? Where were you born? Where did you grow up? When did you come to Mexico? What did you study? Why did you become a historian? How old were you? What was your major?

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B: I was born on May 15th., 1962 / I was born in 1962. B: I was born in Jamaica. What about you? B: I grew up in Costa Rica. B: A couple of years ago, in 2003. I went to school. B: I studied arts. B: Because I needed a job. I attended courses here. B: Twenty-eight. B: Journalism for radio.


U N I T 9 Chronology A Pair work

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Cultures in Mesoamerica

Look at the lines below. Practice with your partner. A: When was the Preclassic (period)? B: Between 2500 BC and 200 AD.

BC 2500

B Reading

2250

Early Preclassic

1200 400 Middle

0 Late

200

AD 650 900 1250 1521 Early Late Early Late Classic Postclassic

Similar characteristics.

The cultures in Mesoamerica had similar characteristics: a complex pantheon of gods headed by a dual deity, the use of a calendar as a means of divination, human sacrifice, temples with the shape of stepped pyramids, the ball game, rituals, buildings for the ball game, a world vision based on four directions and a center, 13 celestial and 9 underworld levels, a cyclical concept of creation of worlds and suns that the gods destroyed. How many superareas were there in pre-hispanic cultures? There were three superareas: Mesoamerica, Arid and Oasis.

10 Language Structure

Verb “to be”, simple past The singular takes was while the plural takes were. Affirmative I You We They He, she, it

Negative

Interrogative

were

were not / weren’t

Were you at the bar yesterday?

was

was not / wasn’t

Was she your partner?

Fill in the spaces with was or were. 1. Hernán Cortés __________ the conqueror of Mexico. 2. The firearms used in the conquest __________ “bombardas”. 3. Hernan Cortes’ standard __________ The Standard of the Virgin of Remedies. 4. Viceroys __________ representatives of the King of Spain.

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11 Reading Reading

Read the text below and write a summary of 5 lines about it.

The Profession of the Crowned Nuns. Only in two occasions the nuns carried delightful ornaments of flowers: when they professed and when they died. In the profession day, the novice was dressed up with splendid clothes, carried graceful and complicated crowns of flowers, images of Child Jesus, crucifixes, bunches of flowers and candles lit and profusely decorated. The future nun walked about the city and visited places where she was given gold coins which would help for her dower. The ceremony of vocation was solemn and spectacular and it symbolized for the young applicant her mystical marriage to Jesus. Once the monastic votes were made like: obedience, poverty, chastity and retirement, the woman took a new name, she despoiled herself of her galas and wore the gown of the order, becoming part of the community. Convents for women belonged to female orders, like the Hieronymites, Augustinians, Dominicans, the Carmelites, the Saint Erigid Nuns. In this painting we can see a nun who is wearing jewelry and a beautifully embroidered dress.

12 Language Structure

These are some structures we use to describe a painting. Verbs it depicts it shows it displays it portrays

Prepositions It means it represents it stands for it symbolizes

on her left hand / on the right wall next to it

Fill in the space with the correct verb form or preposition. The picture __________________ Saint Therese Pilgrim who is holding a quiver of arrows, which _______________ the seven wax tapers or candles, that _________________ the ecstasies or levitations that she had. The picture _______________________ Saint Therese who visited all the convents in Spain wearing a hat.

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U N I T 13 Reading

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Altar-piece

An altarpiece is a painting, more rarely a sculpture placed on, behind or above an altar in a church. Altarpieces vary in size, construction and number of images. Some altarpieces are portable and some are fixed. Some are called retable or reredos, there’s no clear distinction. A typical Italian altarpiece has a large central panel, flanked by subsidiary panels, with a predella or a strip of scenes across the bottom. Spanish altarpieces tend to be architecturally elaborate retables. From a pictorial point of view, the altar-piece became important during the Gothic period as an alternative to wall-painting, due to the small space that the Gothic church offered for large-scale decoration and also because it was the result of a realistic representation.

What’s an altarpiece? Are all altarpieces the same size? What other names are there for altarpiece? What does a typical Italian altarpiece have? Where can we find or see retables? Mention the museums you know.

B Vocabulary

Match the word in Spanish to the meaning in English.

A. B. C. D. E. F.

Dote Clausura Pasear Ser paseado Matrimonio Ser vestido de gala

[ [ [ [ [ [

] ] ] ] ] ]

G. H. I.

Tejer Desear En fe

[ ] [ ] [ ]

J. K. L.

Aspirante Desposorio Despojar

[ ] [ ] [ ]

applicant to weave, weaved to dress someone up in faith to despoil; to strip one of his property dower, dowry, the fortune or portion given with a wife; the choicest gifts of the blessed. Gifts, blessings, talents received from nature; endowments to be brought out to walk betrothal cloister, the inner recess of a convent; clausure, confinement, retirement; to lead a monastic or retired life marriage, wedding to desire to walk about English for museums and tourism

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14 Vocabulary A Group work

Look at the chart and practice.

ON the left-hand side of the corner

ON the left (hand, section, part)

AT the TOP

IN the Middle

ON the right-hand side of the corner

ON the right (hand,part)

AT the BOTTOM

B Pair work

Read and match the words to the meanings.

This interesting painting is [dates] from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It’s a painting by Cristobal de Villalpando. This scene depicts the tradition about the election of the man to marry the virgin Mary. Joseph and Mary appear on a carpet. The carpet is full of flowers. A priest is joining Joseph and Mary. At the top, two hands are coming out from the clouds. They are symbolizing the sacred acceptance of this union. Four archangels are flanking Joseph and Mary [them]. Two archangels are carrying a tick of flowers and a dove is hovering above. Both actions are attributes. These attributes stand for [represent] the divine election of Joseph to join Mary. On the other side next to Mary, there’s another angel. This angel is carrying a tray with jewels. This tray represents the dowry [endowment, dower] of Mary. Marriage To depict Betrothals To come out Scene To marry To flank To symbolize To endow

C Group work

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to stand on both sides of someone or something to show union between a man and a woman the place where something happens to come together in love weddings to represent, to stand for, to mean, to signify to give attributes to appear

Look at this painting from the National Viceroyal Museum. Write down the elements you see on it. Describe it to your partner. Example: On the right, there’s a mitre or hat. In the middle, we can see a friar. He’s writing. This means that he was a writer. At the bottom....

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15 Language Structure

We use “a, an” when we mention something for the first time. We use “the” when we know what we are talking about or it was mentioned before.

Fill in the spaces with “a, an,the”

a)

There’s _________ museum in the South of __________ city. _________ name of _______

museum is El Carmen, and it has _____________ important collection of paintings. ___________ collection includes master works by very acknowledged painters from ___________sixteenth century, such as Cristobal de Villalpando, Juan Correa and Miguel Cabrera. b)

____________ paintings are hanging on ____________ walls of __________ museum, and

some of them are on stands. ___________ stand is ___________ type of lectern in which art custodians put the art pieces so that people and visitors can see them. c)

____________ El Carmen museum exhibits and displays some of _________ objects which

were used during __________ important period of our history, that period is called ____________ Spiritual Conquest of New Spain also named the Conversion of Indians by religious orders. d)

_____________ religious order has the purpose of teaching Christianity to pagans so that

they can save their souls. ___________

first order to come to New Spain was _______________

Franciscan Order. _____________ Dominicans arrived in 1524 and at last, __________________ Augustinians, who arrived in 1533. e)

Although we don’t know _______________ exact date for these events, ____________ first

religious men who landed in Vera Cruz (Veracruz) in 1512, were _____________ group of friars called ____________ Twelve Minors. f)

After ___________ twelve friars arrived, _________ very important dominican friar came

to New Spain. ____________ friar’s name was Pedro de Gante.

Source: Extract from “The Foundation of the Church” in Mexico, Robert Ricard, Mexico’s Spiritual Conquest.

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LanguageTour Unit 10