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Appendices & Scripture Index

Foreword to the Web Edition “The Only True God” by Eric H.H. Chang is an important new work on Biblical monotheism. Monotheism—the belief in one and only God—is a cornerstone doctrine of the Christian faith. Yet seldom is this doctrine examined in the light of its Jewish roots and of God’s revelation in the Scriptures. The lack of a precise, Biblically-rooted monotheism in Christianity has far-reaching consequences for our spiritual lives, even hindering our ability to obey—with singleminded totality—a command that Jesus stresses repeatedly: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.” When Jesus calls his Father “the only true God” in John 17:3, is he addressing his Father as one of three Persons in the Godhead, or as one Person who alone is the only true God? What do the apostles teach us about the oneness of God? What do we make of John’s astounding statement that the Word became flesh? “The Only True God” addresses these and other questions with insight and clarity. In the spirit of sola Scriptura—Scripture as sole authority for doctrine— the author surveys the voluminous Biblical data on monotheism in the hope that they may be studied constructively. While the book contains much material for intellectual reflection, its ultimate concern is for what is truly at stake: spiritual life, eternal life, and the faith delivered once for all to the saints.

This fascinating book is available for free viewing at New chapter-length installments will be added every week, giving you the right amount of time to reflect on the weighty issues in each installment. The first installment is online now!

The Only True God by Eric H.H. Chang 668 pages with Scripture Index ISBN 978-1-4363-8947-1 (hardcover and softcover) Library of Congress Control Number 2008911119 Copyright (c) 2009 by Eric H.H. Chang Published by Xlibris Corporation The book is available from and Barnes & Noble


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Appendix 1

The great importance of Psalm 2, and its Messianic promise, for understanding the title of Christ “the Son of God”


he association of “Son of God” with the Davidic, Messianic “King of Israel” was, of course, well-known from the Scriptures, as we have seen, and is rooted in particular with an important Messianic psalm: Psalm 2: 2

The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take

counsel together, against the LORD and against his anointed [Heb: Mashiach, Eng: “Messiah”; Gk: ho Christos, Eng: “Christ”], saying, 6

“As for me (i.e. the Lord, v.4), I have set my King on Zion

[hence “King of Israel”], my holy hill.” 7

I will tell of the decree: The LORD (Yahweh) said to me, “You

are my Son; today I have begotten you. 8

Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the

ends of the earth your possession.

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576 12

Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and you perish in the way,

for his wrath is quickly kindled. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.

Here we see the three terms so important in the NT: “Christ” (God’s anointed one, v.2); the Davidic “King”, the King appointed by God (“my King”, v.6); and God’s “Son” (“my Son”, vv.7,12) or “Son of God” as the more generally used term in the NT, all linked together to refer to the same person. In v.12, “the Son” means safety or salvation for all who take refuge in him. Thus this psalm speaks of God’s Messiah, God’s King, and God’s Son all with reference to the same person. Why this psalm is so important should now be apparent. The proclamations from heaven at Jesus’ baptism, at the commencement of his public ministry, and then also at his transfiguration, are precisely in fulfillment of Psalm 2.7: Mat.3.17: and behold, a voice out of the heavens, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (NASB) Mat.17.5: and suddenly a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Hear Him!” (NKJV)

Note that it is precisely in Matthew (the most Jewish of the gospels and accordingly the most concerned that God’s word in the OT is shown to have been fulfilled in Christ) that God’s well-known declaration in Psalm 2 was literally fulfilled in Christ at these two pivotal points in his ministry. It is of interest to note that in one important Greek manuscript (D) the words spoken at Jesus’ baptism in Luke 3.22 were, “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”. The textual scholar B.D. Ehrman, in his recent work Misquoting Jesus (2005), maintains that this is the original reading which was changed by antiadoptionist (the later trinitarians) scribes in order to remove the verse from its use by the adoptionists who maintained that Jesus became the Son of God at his baptism. Prof. Ehrman points out that the antiadoptionists need not

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have worried about this argument because Jesus was already mentioned as being the Son of God by reason of his virgin birth in Luke 1.35. Luke 3.22 is discussed at length in Misquoting Jesus pp.158-161, where Ehrman gives the reasons for his conviction that “today I have begotten you” was the original reading. One important fact which Ehrman points out as evidence of its authenticity is the fact that many of the early church fathers (including Justin, Origen, and Augustine) quote this verse as reading “today I have begotten you” (see the textual apparatus in The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies). “It is quoted in the second and third centuries (which is before most of our manuscripts were produced) everywhere from Rome, to Alexandria, to North Africa, to Palestine, to Gaul, to Spain” (Misquoting Jesus, p.159). Now when we look again at Nathaniel’s confession in John and Peter’s confession in Matthew, we can clearly see their OT foundation: John 1.49: Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” Matthew 16.16: Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.”

In both these confessions Jesus is spoken of as “the Son of God” as in Psalm 2. Nathanael also confesses Jesus as the promised “King”, while Peter confesses him as the ‘Messiah/Christ’. In Psalm 2 “Son” occurs twice, which suggests that of the three titles, “Son” is the predominant one, a fact which also appears by comparing the two confessions (of Nathanael and Peter) and seeing that it appears in both. Not only are these terms in this psalm important for the NT, but the twice repeated “Son” is of especial importance. Ps.2.7 is quoted in several places in the NT. Even where it is not quoted, God’s declaration in Ps.2 underlies the use of the term “Son” or “Son of God” in the NT and defines its meaning. One cannot, therefore, decide to use the title “Son of God” as though it had no basis in the OT and give it such meaning as our own dogma decides for it, and even go so far as to take

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the liberty to invert it and making it into “God the Son”—something totally foreign to both the OT and the NT. Psalm 2.7 is quoted in the early apostolic preaching in Acts 13; here the apostle Paul declares: We bring you the good news that what God promised to the fathers, this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus, as also it is written in the second Psalm, ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you’ (Ac.13.32.33).

Interestingly, the apostle sees the words in Psalm 2.7 as fulfilled by God’s raising of Jesus from the dead. That is, he sees a connection between “begotten” and “resurrection”. He makes this connection again in Romans 1.4, “declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord.” Ps.2.7 is also quoted in Hebrews 5.5: Hebrews 5.5 “So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him, ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you.’” Matthew 16.16 “Simon Peter replied, ‘You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.’” Hebrews 1.5a: “For to which of the angels did God ever say, ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you’?” Hebrews 1.5b: “Or again, ‘I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son’ [2Sam.7.14; 1Chr.17.13]?”

The first part of this verse (Heb.1.5a) quotes Ps.2.7, as we have just seen. The quotation in the second part of the verse (Heb.1.5b), is historically closely related to Ps.2.7 and, like that verse, its importance for our understanding of the title “son of God” in the NT is that it shows that

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this title is rooted in the OT, and is semantically different from the way the title is used in the Western (Gentile) church in its trinitarian teaching as officially established some 2½ centuries later at the Council of Nicea (AD 325). Hebrews 1.5b is a quotation of God’s promise to David concerning his son Solomon, who would become king of Israel after him and who would build the first temple in Jerusalem. This promise of a Father-son relationship with Solomon is unique in the OT. The promise is repeated no less than 4 times in the OT historical books, once in 2Samuel and three times in 1Chronicles: 2 Samuel 7.13: He (Solomon) shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. 1 Chronicles 17.12: He shall build a house for me, and I will establish his throne forever.


I will be to him a father, and he

shall be to me a son. I will not take my steadfast love from him, as I took it from him (Saul) who was before you. 1 Chronicles 22.10: He shall build a house for my name. He shall be my son, and I will be his father, and I will establish his royal throne in Israel forever. 1 Chronicles 28.6: He said to me, “It is Solomon your son who shall build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him to be my son, and I will be his father.”

What connection is there between the two quotations in Hebrews 1.5? It can be affirmed with considerable certainty that Psalm 2 was a coronation psalm sung at Solomon’s enthronement as king of Israel after David’s death. This conclusion can be drawn on the basis of the fact that it was only concerning Solomon that God made the promise

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quoted in Heb.1.5 above and there applied to Christ, one “greater than Solomon” (Mt.12.42; Lk.11.31), and therefore standing in a closer Father-son relationship than Solomon ever could.

The “only begotten son” John 3.16, “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son [monogenēs] {Or his only begotten Son}, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.” (NIV)

How is the word (monogenēs) in John to be understood? The word is translated variously as “only Son” (RSV), “only begotten Son” (KJV), or “one and only Son” (NIV). This word is used of Jesus only this once in the NT; it is therefore not a common description of him. What then is its significance in John 3.16? There are at least two verses that can help us: (1) The same word appears in Heb.11.17, “By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was in the act of offering up his only son (monogenēs).” (Cf. also Hebrew and LXX) Not only is the sole occurrence of the word in John significant, so also is the comparison and contrast of “gave His monogenēs” in Jo.3.16. For, Abraham eventually did not have to offer Isaac, but God did actually give His Son out of His love for the world and in order to save it. The Jews gave the name “Aqedah” (“binding”) to Abraham’s offering of Isaac—a truly significant spiritual event. In so far as that event was a kind of foreshadowing of God’s giving His Son for the salvation of the world, the parallel between Christ and Isaac should not be overlooked, otherwise an important element in its spiritual significance is missed. The account of the Aqedah in Genesis informs us that Isaac, when he heard from Abraham that his being offered up was the will of Yahweh, willingly offered himself without compulsion from Abraham. He submitted voluntarily and totally to God’s will. This foreshadows Christ’s subordination and total obedience to the Father. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



Abraham’s own complete submission to Yahweh, and his absolute trust in Him, should also not be overlooked. Trust (or faith) and submission are inherently linked, and Paul points to Abraham’s trusting faith, as seen by the fact that he trusted God to raise Isaac from the dead if that was necessary to fulfill His promise to him (cf.Ro.4.17). This means that not only Isaac, but also his father Abraham, in their unquestioning submission and obedience to God, were both types of the life quality of Jesus. It should not be forgotten that Christ’s exaltation to the right hand of the Father was God’s response to Christ’s obedience—something that trinitarianism obscures by suggesting that the exaltation was Christ’s by right as the Son, rather than something which the Father conferred upon him. In this way fundamental Scriptural truths are obscured. (2) The uniqueness of Christ as “only” Son lies also in this: that his sonship is of a kind that was not given even to the most exalted of angelic beings: Hebrews 1.5a, “For to which of the angels did God ever say, ‘You are my Son, today I have begotten you’?” Even Moses, that great servant of God, was never called a “son of God”, even though he had a uniquely intimate relationship with Him: Hebrews 3: 5

Now Moses was faithful in all God’s house as a servant, to

testify to the things that were to be spoken later,


but Christ is

faithful over God’s house as a son.

Solomon was certainly not of Moses’ spiritual stature, so why should God publicly name him His “son”? The reason is not found in Solomon himself, but in that he is a “type” (a foreshadowing) of Christ, “the one who is to come” (Mt.11.3), the Messiah, the Savior of the world. Solomon built the first temple, but Christ is the builder of the temple of God not made with hands; Christ is the true king of the “Israel of God” (Gal.6.16) and God “will establish his throne forever” (1Chr.17.12). Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at

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Appendix 2

On John 8.58 Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.” (John 8.58)


n this verse it is evident that “I am” is in an emphatic position. Could “I am (emphatically) before Abraham” be an equivalent reading? There are two verses which correspond to it: John 1.15 John bore witness about him, and cried out, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me ranks before me, because he was before me.’”

(VIwa,nnhj marturei/ peri. auvtou/ kai. ke,kragen le,gwn\

ou-toj h=n o]n ei=pon\ o` ovpi,sw mou evrco,menoj e;mprosqe,n mou ge,gonen( o[ti prw/to,j mou h=nÅ) These words of John (the Baptizer) are repeated verbatim in 1.30. The explanation as to why he (the Messiah Jesus) “ranks before me” is “because he was before (prw/toj, prōtos) me”. Prōtos here can certainly have reference to time, just as “before” (prin) does in Jo.8.58. John (like Abraham) was born before Jesus, so how could Jesus have been before him in time? This would seem to point to John’s perception of Jesus as the embodiment of the Logos/Memra, the Word of God. We can be certain that John, as a monotheistic Jew, would never have thought or spoken of Jesus as God.

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In any case, what John 1.15,30 certainly means is that the Baptizer acknowledges that Jesus is greater than he. Likewise, what is stated in John 8.58 means, at the least, that Jesus is greater even than Abraham, the father of nations and the “friend of God”. That this understanding is correct is confirmed by the fact that Jo.8.58 is in answer to the question posed in Jo.8:53, “Are you greater than our father Abraham?” It has often been pointed out that there is little similarity of substance between John and the Synoptic gospels, and many scholars doubt or reject the historical validity of John for that very reason, namely, that these gospels cannot readily be reconciled and both cannot be right. But if the basic meaning of John 8.58 is that great though Abraham was, Jesus the Messiah is greater, then this can be readily reconciled with a good number of passages in the Synoptics where Jesus’ greatness in stressed: Greater than the temple, Matthew 12.6; greater than Jonah, Mt.12.41; Lk.11.32; greater than Solomon, Mt.12.42; Lk.11.31.

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Appendix 3

Did Paul reject the Law and its righteousness? 6

But the righteousness that comes from faith says, “Do not say

in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’” (that is, to bring Christ down) 7

or ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’ (that is, to bring Christ

up from the dead). 8

But what does it say? “The word is near you, on your lips and

in your heart” (that is, the word of faith that we proclaim); 9

because if you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and

believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (Romans 10.6-9, NRSV)


oes not our discussion of Rom.10.6-9 (in chapter 7) contradict what Paul said in the previous verse? Romans 10.5:

“Moses describes in this way the righteousness that is by the law: ‘The man who does these things will live by them.’ {Lev. 18:5}” (NIV)

What does it mean to say, “The man who does these things will live by them” (Ro.10.5)? If “doing these things” means “living by these things” then this is a mere tautology, a repetitious statement, because obviously if he is not living by them then he is not doing them. But that is hardly what Moses was saying. What does not come out clearly in the English is that

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the word “will” is not here expressive of intention, as it often is, but here “will live” (zh,setai) is in the future tense. Among English translations, only the New Jerusalem Bible’s (NJB) translation of this verse brings this out more clearly, “Moses writes of the saving justice that comes by the Law and says that whoever complies with it will find life in it.” The translation “will find life in it” also comes closer to the meaning of the Hebrew (~h, _ B ', bahem): will live “in it” or “by it”. The NJB’s translation gives the sense that one will find life though it or because of it. That is, the Law is a means through which one finds life. This accords with the use of the Hebrew beth (B . ) as can be seen in the definitions given in HALOT, “9. (beth) indicates the cause (personal or inanimate) of an effect” and see also item 6: “(beth) introduces the means or the instrument”. Another problem for the reader of the English versions (including NJB) is that the next verse (Rom.10.6 quoted above) begins with “but” which is adversative in meaning, indicating something contrary to what has just been stated. This is indicative of the theological predilection of the translators, because the Greek particle de (de,) is not necessarily adversative in meaning. This is clearly seen in the definitions given, for example, in BDAG:

1. a marker connecting a series of closely related data or lines of narrative, and, as for. Freq. used in lists of similar things, with a slight call of attention to the singularity of each item 2. a marker linking narrative segments, now, then, and, so, that is 3. a marker with an additive relation, with possible suggestion of contrast, at the same time Pau/loj

dou/loj qeou/ avpo,stoloj de. VIhsou/ Cristou/ Paul, God’s slave, and at the same time apostle of Jesus Christ Tit 1:1. 4. marker of contrast, but, on the other hand, 5. marker of heightened emphasis, in combination w. kai, but also (a) . . . so also, similarly, likewise, too

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For the reader’s convenience I have listed all five of the definitions given in BDAG. This makes it clear that only one item (#4) of the five definitions indicates contrast; but those who depend on the English translations would not know this and, consequently, suppose that Ro.10.6 states something contrary to 10.5 though that is not the case. Then there is another objection to seeing Paul’s identification of the Law with Christ. That is the way Ro.10.4 is generally understood. The verse reads, “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.” “The end” generally indicates the conclusion or termination of something, and if that is the case in regard to the Law, then what sense is there to speak of any identification of Christ with the Law? Again, the only translation to put the matter differently is NJB: “But the Law has found its fulfilment in Christ so that all who have faith will be justified.” What accounts for this difference in the translations? The answer is that the word translated as “end” or as “fulfillment” could have either of these meanings; so the choice was, in most cases, determined by the theological inclinations of the translators. The word translated as “end” is telos (te,loj). This is one of the definitions given in BDAG: “3. the goal toward which a movement is being directed, end, goal, outcome.” Under this heading the BDAG makes this observation: “Perh. this is the place for Ro 10:4, in the sense that Christ is the goal and the termination of the law at the same time”. (Italics mine) It seems that NJB’s “fulfillment” is precisely such an attempt to combine the two ideas of telos as goal and as end, thus indicating that in Christ the Law has finally (“end”) reached its goal, attaining its “fulfillment” in him. This expressed the idea that the Law, the “Word” (Dt.30.14 and Ro.10.8), has become embodied or incarnate in Christ, so that to obey Christ is to obey the Law, thereby fulfilling it.

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Appendix 4

Some observations about the Targums


f the oral and written Targums had originated some time after NT times then, obviously, their relevance for the understanding of John’s Prologue and the NT as a whole would be questionable. The following are selected quotations from Targum and Testament by M. McNamara, in the chapter Origin and Transmission of the Palestinian Targum, which provide a clear understanding on this matter: “In any case, it is generally granted that by the first century BC Aramaic translations of the Torah, and probably of other books of the Bible as well, were being made among the Jews. “Our main concern here is with the Targum to the Pentateuch. This was certainly the first targum to be formed. How it came into being, whether all at once or gradually over a long period, is difficult to determine. It is only natural to see its origin in the synagogue service, as a rendering of those sections of the Torah read in public.” (p.80) “Josephus can boast: ‘For our people, if anyone do but ask any of them about our laws, he will more readily tell them all than he will tell them his own name, and this in consequence of our having learned them immediately as soon as we became sensible of anything, and of our having them as it were engraven on our souls (Contra Apionem II, 17 [18] sec 178).’ Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


The Only True God “This knowledge of the Law of Moses the majority of the Israelites would have got from the synagogue rendering of the targums. It was already Ezra’s mandate and intention to bring them this knowledge of the Law of Moses, and the principle must have led the religious leaders of Judaism long before the Christian era to provide an Aramaic rendering of the entire Law.” (p.81) “The indications, then, are that the synagogue targumic tradition originated at an early date in pre-Christian times.” (p.82) “In conclusion we can say that there is a good likelihood that the present texts of the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch transmit substantially the paraphrase of the Pentateuch formed in pre-Christian times and known to Palestinian Judaism of the early Christian period. Used in accord with strict scientific principles, this paraphrase is of immense importance in reconstructing the beliefs of those to whom Christ and his apostles preached.” (p.85)

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Appendix 5

A few notes on the exegesis of John 12.41 40

“He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, lest they

see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and turn, and I would heal them.”


Isaiah said these things because he

saw his glory and spoke of him. (John 12.40-41)


hat follows can be described as an extended exegetical exercise. The purpose is, on the one hand to bring out in detail the meaning and significance of this important verse and, on the other, to give an example (for the benefit of those not familiar with it) of how exegesis is done. Too often we are told the conclusion of a study without being told exactly how that conclusion was arrived at (if indeed any proper procedure was actually followed to arrive at the stated conclusion). John 12.41: “Isaiah said these things because he saw his glory and spoke of him.” While this is essentially how virtually all translations, rightly following the Greek, have translated it, the NIV takes the liberty to render it, “Isaiah . . . saw Jesus’ glory . . .” It is possible that the “his” in this verse does refer to Jesus; and most trinitarians will immediately conclude that this means that the vision of the Lord in Isaiah 6 was actually a vision of Jesus, and we are therefore justified in equating Jesus with the Lord, i.e. Yahweh, and thereby assume that it is a proof-text for trinitarian doctrine. But scholars (like C.K. Barrett, H.A.W. Meyer, and others) are more cautious, knowing full well that such an equation cannot be justified Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


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from the Scriptures as a whole. Why? Because, whether they like it or not, they are mindful of the fact that the Scriptures are monotheistic and they are, therefore, fully aware that any attempt to suggest that the Lord who was seen by Isaiah was in fact Jesus would be a violation of any proper attempt to interpret what Isaiah himself meant, not to mention that it would fly in the face of the monotheism of both the Old and New Testaments, including John’s Gospel itself (cf. e.g. Jo.17.3, “this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.” Also Jo.5.44) But there is another reason why a simple equation of the Lord and Jesus based on Isaiah’s vision of the Lord cannot be sustained. That is because it is a well known fact that God is invisible to the human eye, that is why “no one has ever seen God” (John 1:18), and anyone who had a direct unmediated spiritual vision of the Lord would not live to talk about it. For example, the Lord said to Moses in Exodus 33.20, “you cannot see my face, for man shall not see me and live.” In the NT this is likewise stated unequivocally, “God, the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see. To him be honor and might for ever. Amen.” (1 Timothy 6:15,16) (Does all this contradict Isaiah 6.1ff? No, precisely because John 12.41 explains that Isaiah “saw His glory”, not His person.) This being the case, what then did John mean by saying that Isaiah saw his (Jesus’?) glory? “The Word” (Logos) is God’s self-revelation. The Logos reveals God’s glory; therefore we see “the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.” (2Co.4.6)—we know God’s glory through Christ. This is precisely because “He is the radiance of the glory of God” (Heb.1.3). “Radiance” (apaugasma) itself speaks of a radiating brightness, so one could say that Jesus is the glory (a shining out) of the glory of God. Thus, what Isaiah saw was not a direct or unmediated vision of God (which, as we have noted above, Scripture declares to be impossible), but “the radiance of the glory of God”—which is Christ as the embodiment of the Word/Memra (cf. Jo.1.14, “we have seen his (the Word’s) glory”). With this exegesis the scholars concur. For example, M. Dods, (The Expositor’s Greek Testament, John 12.41), “the Theophanies of Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



the OT were mediated by the pre-existent Logos [Word].” Similarly, Barrett: “The theophany as described in Isa.6 could well be termed the ‘glory of God’” (St John, p.360). Barrett, like the others quoted above, assumes that John meant that “Isaiah saw the glory of Christ and spoke of him” (italics his). There are however, problems with these notions of the scholars mentioned above which, strangely, they don’t seem to be aware of—or perhaps don’t wish to be aware of: One of these is that they simply assume that Jesus=Logos or Logos=Jesus. But what is the Scriptural justification for this assumption? In John there is no such simple equation but rather, according to John 1.14, in Jesus “the Logos became flesh” (o` lo,goj sa.rx evge,neto). Therefore, it is not “the Logos=Jesus”, but “the Logos was incarnate in Jesus”; this is a fundamental difference. It is true that the Logos and Jesus were united through the incarnation, but it was by way of the incarnation that they became one and not before that, according to John 1.14. Once we have grasped this plain fact, we should see that the interpretative statement made, for example, in the NIV that Isaiah “saw Jesus’ glory” is incorrect. The most that can be said is that he saw the glory of the Logos—but that is something which John himself does not state in 12.41. The Logos had not yet become “enfleshed” in Jesus, how then could Isaiah have seen the glory of Jesus (except in a proleptic or prophetic way)? Is not such a statement as that which Barrett made (see two paragraphs earlier) anachronistic?

An unjustified assumption regarding John 12.41 The reader who is careful in regard to the accurate exegesis of the Word (and there are, alas, probably not many such readers) will have noticed that I took a step a few paragraphs ago which I made no serious attempt to justify. What was that step? It was this: I simply accepted the trinitarian position that the “his” in the words “saw his glory” (John 12.41) referred to Jesus’ pre-incarnation glory (this phrase will be discussed below). This seems plausible in the context, but does its plausibility really require no further proof? Should it not be asked: If John wanted to refer to Jesus by “his”, why did he not Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


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say so specifically, for it does not take much longer in Greek to say or to write “Christ’s glory” as to say or write “his glory” (the Greek word for “his” is autos)? Can a matter of such importance be left to the undefined “his”? The whole trinitarian argument is based on the assumption that this “his” refers to Jesus. I went along with this assumption and was thereby able to see how far the more responsible scholars could take it. As we have seen, they took it as far as Jesus’ being the Logos of God. But for the sake of faithfulness to the word of God, I feel obliged to examine the validity of the assumption. If we are responsible before the Lord, should we not ask: Is this really what John meant? If so, why did he not say so, rather than leave it to his readers to assume that the reference was to the Logos, or to Jesus? Moreover, everyone who has read Isa.6 knows that the “his” in the context of Isaiah refers to the “Lord” (Adon) who is further specified in v.5 as Yahweh. Can we so lightly assume, as trinitarians do, that John the monotheist (and the Jewish believers, who constituted most of the first readers of John) would equally lightly refer to Jesus in Jo.12.41 by an indeterminate “his”? Should we not also ask: What exactly is the connection of the “his” in v.41 to the totally different statement in v.40, in which there is no mention whatever of “glory” (not even in the preceding verses)? Can (and should) we decide on the “his” without even having considered whether there is any internal logic which connects these two verses (i.e. vv.40 and 41)? As for the connection between these verses, can we find any other connection, whether in Isaiah or in John, other than this: Even though Isaiah was granted a supernal vision of God’s glory, and even though he was thereby an eyewitness of that glory, the hearts of people of Israel were so hardened against the truth that they would not listen to Isaiah. Was this not precisely the same point made repeatedly in John in regard to the attitude of the people of Israel to Jesus? Jesus as the Word incarnate is repeatedly spoken of as the one who has seen the Father, who knows the Father, and he reveals to us what he has seen; but just as they rejected Isaiah, so now they reject Jesus in exactly the same way. (Note the frequency of “see” in John.) If so, then the “his” in Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



v.41 would have its normal meaning, namely, that it refers to Yahweh just as Isaiah had declared in Isa.6.1, and since this was known to all John’s (esp. Jewish) readers, he did not need to specify that it referred to Yahweh. Had he intended it to refer to Jesus, is it not obvious that he would have had to specify that to be the case and could not simply assume that his readers would make that assumption? Thus, is not the whole point of vv.40 and 41 (and context) that though Isaiah saw Yahweh’s glory the people rejected his message, so too Jesus as the one who saw the glory of God the Father in ways far beyond what Isaiah could have seen, was none the less rejected by the Jews in the same way (and indeed in a worse way because it ended on the cross) as they rejected Isaiah?

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Appendix 6

On “the Word of God” in Rev.19.13 Revelation 19:11-16


Then I saw heaven opened, and behold,

a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. 12 His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself.


He is clothed

in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God.


And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine

linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses.


From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16

On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of

kings and Lord of lords.


hough trinitarians generally want to assume that Rev.19.13 refers to Christ, a better exegetical case can be made for it as referring to Yahweh Himself as “the Lord of Hosts (armies)”, as seen by His armies in 19.14. Moreover, the full title “King of kings and Lord of lords” (19.16) occurs elsewhere in the NT only in 1Timothy 6.15 where it refers to “our only Sovereign”, God the Father. The context of 19.13 echoes other OT prophesies which have reference to Yahweh. It is true that in Revelation 17.14 the title in the reversed form “lord of lords, and king of kings” is applied to the Lamb who was exalted by God. But the term “the word of God” appears 5 times in Revelation Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



apart from 19.13 (in 17.17 as “the words of God”) and, as in the rest of the NT, it means the message of God as given in the Gospel. It is argued that “the Word of God” in 19.13 refers to Jesus because of his being “clothed in a robe dipped in blood”, it being assumed that the blood is his own blood. But he who “treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty” (19.15) is more likely to have his garments dipped in the blood of God’s enemies. R.H. Charles, in his massive two volume Critical and Exegetical Commentary of the Revelation of St. John, also rejects the notion that the blood on the rider’s robe in Revelation 19.13 is his own blood, and writes: A comparison with Isaiah 63.1-3—which passage is in the mind of our author—confirms this conclusion: ‘Who is this that cometh from Edom, with red garments from Bozrah? . . . 2. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3. I have trodden the winepress alone . . . yea, I trod them in my anger . . . and their lifeblood is sprinkled upon my garments.’

There is no doubt whatever that in this context the subject of this passage is Yahweh. The result of Yahweh’s treading of the “winepress” of judgment is seen in Rev.19.17f: 17

Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and with a loud

voice he called to all the birds that fly directly overhead, “Come, gather for the great supper of God,


to eat the flesh of kings,

the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, both small and great.”

This event is seen in the prophecy of Ezekiel 39.17f: 17

And as for you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD, ‘Speak

to every sort of bird and to every beast of the field: “Assemble yourselves and come; Gather together from all sides to My sacrificial Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at

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meal which I am sacrificing for you, A great sacrificial meal on the mountains of Israel, That you may eat flesh and drink blood. 18

You shall eat the flesh of the mighty . . .’”

And the purpose of all this is set forth in the following verses in Ezekiel 39: 21

I will set My glory among the nations; all the nations shall see

My judgment which I have executed, and My hand which I have laid on them.


So the house of Israel shall know that I am the

LORD (Yahweh) their God from that day forward.

The glory of Yahweh is proclaimed to all nations through His righteous judgments against all evildoers. Even so, Rev.19.13 could refer to Jesus, the Lamb, as Yahweh’s chosen Messianic agent of His actions in the world. But it should be remembered that the trinitarian argument based on the words “the Word was God” can cut both ways: it could mean that “the Word” was actually God or Yahweh Himself, that is, “Logos” could be a title of God as self-revealing (which is what “word” does), as immanent. This self-revealing aspect of God was always an essential aspect of God (as the whole of His Word, the Bible, reveals); it was always “with Him” and, for us, it is undoubtedly the most important aspect of God, for without it we could never know Him. This also means that there is no reason why “the Word of God” as a metonym for Yahweh could not also be used here as a title of Yahweh, that is, as the One who is always revealing Himself whether in His saving mercies in Christ or in Judgment as in 19.11ff. The picture of Yahweh here would then be that of Yahweh as a “man of war” familiar from the OT (Ex.15.3; Isa.42.13). Thus, without being dogmatic or insistent, it can be shown that, on the basis of exegesis, it is very likely that 19.13 refers to Yahweh rather than to Jesus, and that its application to Jesus is based primarily on the trinitarian interpretation of John 1.1. But did we not say that 19.13 could also refer to Jesus? Yes, because 19.15, “he will rule them with a rod of iron” seems clearly to reflect the Messianic verses Isa.11.4 and Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



Psalm 2.9. If so, how is the verse to be understood after all? It would evidently be best to understand it in the same way as the “incarnation” of Yahweh “in Christ” (2Cor.5.19, etc.) is understood in terms, for example, of 1Timothy 3.16, “He (God, mentioned twice in the previous verse) was manifested in the flesh”. That is to say: Just as Yahweh came into the world to save it, so also He will come at the end of this age to deal with all who in the hardness of their hearts reject His saving mercies and defy His sovereignty as our Creator and Lord.

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Appendix 7

The instructive parallel of “the Word was God” with 2Cor.3.17 2 Corinthians 3:17, Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.


he parallel can be seen when the following two sentences are placed side by side:

qeo.j h=n o` lo,goj (theos ēn ho logos) “God was the Word” (Jo.1.1c)

o` ku,rioj to. pneu/ma, evstin

(ho kurios to pneuma estin)

“the Lord is the Spirit” (2Cor.3.17)

A comparison of these two verses shows that: (a) “God” and “the Lord” are in same position in the two sentences. (b) “The Word” and “the Spirit” are integrally related in Scripture. (c) In John 1.1 the past tense “was” occurs because the verse speaks about “the beginning”; 2Corinthians speaks about the present, hence the “is”. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



The very next phrase in 2Corinthians 3.17 makes it clear that “the Spirit” is “the Spirit of the Lord”, who in the Scriptures is not another divine being distinct from the Lord. Here I shall simply quote the Catholic scholar Martin McNamara’s discussion of these words: “‘The Lord is the Spirit.’ Having noted that ‘when a man turns to the Lord the veil is removed’, Paul goes on to state: ‘Now the Lord is the Spirit [ho de kurios to pneuma estin] and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom’. In the tent of meeting, to which the repentant Israelite withdrew, God was enthroned. From between the cherubim he spoke with Moses and Israel. God so speaking with Israel is often referred to as Dibbera, ‘the Word’. We have seen how he could equally well be referred to as ‘the holy spirit’. “For the paraphrase of Pseudo-Jonathan (Num.7:89), in the tent of meeting, the spirit conversed with Moses and the individual Israelite. And the Lord, i.e. Adonai, the God of Israel was the spirit. “In view of this it seems better to take ‘the Lord’ (kurios) of 2Corinthians 3.16f as ‘the God of Israel’, and not as Jesus Christ . . . As L. Cerfaux has put it: ‘The whole context [of 2Cor.3.17] is that of a midrash and Paul means that kurios in Ex.34:34, upon which he is commenting, should be understood as the Spirit, “the Spirit of the Lord”, who has revealed himself in the Christian community’. “We should also compare John 4:24: ‘God is Spirit’ (pneuma ho theos), bearing in mind the manifold ways in which Paul’s teaching parallels that of the Fourth Gospel . . . It may seem strange that Paul should use such Jewish traditions in a letter directed to mainly Gentile Christians. The explanation probably lies in the fact that the Apostle of the Gentiles never succeeded in being anything in his mental make-up but a Hebrew of the Hebrews.” (McNamara, Targum and Testament, p.111ff.) Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


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So just as 2Corinthians 3.17 identifies the “the Lord” as one and the same person who functions as the life-giving Spirit in the church, so the parallel sentence structure with the words “God was the Word” (or “the Word was God”) in John 1.1 indicates that God functioned as the Word in His self-revelation already “in the beginning” of His creation. It is just as the Apostle describes it in Romans 1:20, “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” God speaks to all men through His creation but more fully and perfectly in Christ.

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Appendix 8

On Phil.2.6,7: More evidence from the Hebrew Bible Philippians 2:6-7 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,


but made

himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.


uch as trinitarianism would wish, for obvious reasons, to ignore or even to deny the identification of “the form of God” with “the image of God”, the evidence overwhelmingly endorses it. If we continue examining the use of the word “form” (morphē) to see how it is used in the OT, we find two instances of particular relevance in the Greek Old Testament (LXX) which we can compare with the Hebrew text: (1) Job 4.16, “It stood still, but I could not discern its appearance; A form (morphē) was before my eyes; There was silence, then I heard a voice”. The Hebrew of the word “form” here is tmunah for which BDB gives the following definition, “likeness, representation, form, semblance”, and provides the following information: tmunah is used with the Hebrew word pesel (‘idol, image, as likeness of man or animal’), which is its equivalent in ‘Ex 20:4 = Dt 5:8, cf. 4:16; 4:23; 4:25’; all these verses have to do with the making of

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“carved images” or idols. This again shows the link between “form”, “image”, and “likeness”. (2) Isaiah 44.13, “The carpenter measures with a line and makes an outline with a marker; he roughs it out with chisels and marks it with compasses. He shapes it in the form (morphē) of man, of man in all his glory, that it may dwell in a shrine.” (NIV) Here “form” translates the Hebrew word tabnit meaning ‘figure, image’ (BDB).

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Appendix 9

On Psalm 107.19,20 Psalm 107:19-20 19 Then they cried to the LORD in their trouble, and he delivered them from their distress. 20 He sent out his word and healed them, and delivered them from their destruction.


he Hebrew (in verse 20), translated literally, has “delivered them from the pit”, and the LXX has “rescued them from corruption (diaphthora, i.e. of death and the grave).” The word “corruption” (diaphthora) also occurs in Psalm 30:9, “What profit is there in my death (lit. “blood”, referring to a violent death, cf. Col.1.20; Lk.22.20, etc), if I go down to the pit (LXX diaphthora, ‘corruption’)? Will the dust praise you? Will it tell of your faithfulness?” Here “death” and “corruption” are used synonymously. “Corruption” appears in another important verse: “For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol, or let your holy one see corruption” (Psalm 16.10). The importance of this verse lies in the fact that it is twice quoted with reference to Jesus’ resurrection: Peter, preaching to the multitudes on the day of Pentecost, quotes this verse and then goes on to say, “He (the Psalmist) foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades (the Greek for Sheol), nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses” (Acts 2.31,32). Paul quotes this same verse and for the same reason (Acts 13. 35ff). It is striking that in the very next verse, Ps.16.11, there is reference to God’s “right hand”, which is precisely where Jesus was granted to sit after God had raised him from the dead: “You make known to me

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the path of life; in your presence there is fullness of joy; at your right hand are pleasures forevermore.” Yahweh’s “right hand” is referred to twice in Peter’s message in Acts 2 immediately following the verses quoted above about Christ’s resurrection: “Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing” (Acts 2.33; also v.34).

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Appendix 10

Some thoughts on the Virgin Birth of Jesus


he accounts of the Virgin Birth appear in Matthew and Luke. What is its spiritual significance? This is not explicitly expounded in the gospels or in the NT letters; but there is enough information for us to draw some preliminary (non-dogmatic) conclusions: The exclusion of Joseph from the birth process means, of course, that contrary to the normal process of human birth, no human sperm was involved. To argue that the human sperm was replaced by the preexistent Word would mean that the result of such a union would be neither truly human (since no true human being can result from such a union) nor fully God (since he is at least partially man). It seems that the proper Scriptural understanding is that the “overshadowing” of Mary by the Spirit was like the “hovering” of the Spirit over the waters prior to creation in Genesis 1.2. The parallel serves to indicate that God was bringing into being a new creation through Mary’s womb. This means that the new creation would have required the creation of a sperm within Mary’s womb. No human being is born without sperm; but since, in this case, it was not derived from any male descendent of Adam then, consequently, a new Adam (a new man, cf.Eph.2.15) came into being in Christ. This was for the purpose of bringing a new creation into existence (2Cor.5.17). The new Adam was not, however, to be totally disconnected from the old Adam because as “the seed of the woman (Eve)” (Gen.3.15), he had to undo, through his obedience, the consequences of sin and death brought into the world through Adam’s disobedience (Ro.5.17-19). Moreover, in order to fulfill the promise of God by being the coming Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


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Messianic king descended from the Davidic line of kings, Jesus had to be of David’s “seed” (spe, r ma sperma, whence “sperm”; Jo.7.42; Ro.1.3; 2Ti.2.8), which indeed he was via his mother Mary. The whole matter of Jesus’ birth as the point in time when the Word “became flesh” is beautifully and appropriately stated in Hebrews 10.5: “Consequently, when he came into the world, he said, ‘ . . . a body have you prepared for me’”. His body was specially “prepared” for him; it was, so to speak, “made-to-order” or “custom-made” for him. He could thus be connected to the old creation yet, at the same time, be the beginning of a new creation. In this can be seen the wonder of divine wisdom. Hebrew 10.5 speaks in the context of Christ being the sacrifice for sin, “the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world” as described in John 1.29. It is by this means that “if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come” (2Cor.5.17). The virgin birth was not something that originated in the NT; it was a sign first given in the OT: “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel [which means ‘God with us’]” (Isaiah 7.14). There is also a remarkable prophecy in Jeremiah 31.22: “How long will you waver, O faithless daughter? For the LORD (Yahweh) has created a new thing on the earth: a woman encircles (or encompasses, surrounds) a man.”

The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge provides this interesting commentary: “A female (‘one who is only a woman, not a wife, namely a virgin,’) shall encompass a man,” or a male child: which together with the addition of a new creation, may well be understood to denote the miraculous conception. Hence the Jews have applied it determinately to the Messiah. In Berashith Rabba it is said, that as God punished Israel in a virgin, so would he also heal; and in Midrash Tillim, on Ps 2, R. Huna, in the name of R. Idi, speaking of the sufferings of the Messiah, says, that when his hour is come, God shall say, “I must create him with a new creation; and so he saith, This day I have begotten thee.” Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



Appendix 11

Christological conflict among trinitarians


he mutually irreconcilable christological views of the Antiochenes and the Alexandrians resulted in bitter conflict among the trinitarians in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. Eventually the Alexandrians, having gained the position of becoming the politically dominant party, ousted the Antiochenes. One part of the church drove out the other by labeling them heretics. The matter was not resolved through careful exegesis of the Scriptures and through good will, but went from conflict to schism. Yet both sides (Alexandrians and Antiochenes) based their views on the same basic assumption: that Jesus was both God and man in one person because he possessed both divine and human “natures”. They simply assumed that we can talk about God and man in terms of “natures”. If we start from the wrong presuppositions, how can we reach the right conclusions? The debate was basically about whether Christ had a human spirit. The Antiochene party said ‘yes’, because without it Christ would not be truly human; the Alexandrian party said ‘no’, because otherwise Christ would really be two persons: God the Son joined to a human being; this would call into question the unity of his person. The Alexandrians preferred the view that, in the person of Christ, God the Son replaced the spirit of the man. This established the deity of Christ, but at the cost of sacrificing his humanity, because this would unavoidably mean that Christ was God with a human body—but, again, man is more than just his body. Clearly, neither position was satisfactory. But with the triumph of the Alexandrian view, man’s salvation was placed in serious doubt Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


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because Jesus was not truly the counterpart of Adam; he was constituted differently from Adam and from us. And even if it be acknowledged that man’s spirit also derived from God, that is quite different from saying that in Christ’s case God the Son has taken the place of man’s God-given spirit. And if Jesus is not really human in the same sense that we are human, then how can he legitimately be the representative man who died for all men? But the problem for the Antiochene School, in the opinion of its adversaries, was that it could not satisfactorily explain how “the two natures” could constitute one functional person. The Alexandrian school established a functional unity, in their view, of Christology by “denaturing” his human nature, so that his human nature had a body but excluded the human spirit which would threaten that unity. If Christ’s human “nature” had included both human spirit and body, then the Alexandrian christological position would have been no different from that of the Antiochenes. What all this indicates is that the trinitarian doctrine of the two natures created problems that could not be resolved in the light of the Scriptures because of its being essentially unscriptural in its foundational ideas. For those wishing to study the trinitarian problem in greater detail, studies such as that by J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, are helpful.

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Appendix 12

The Memra in the Targums


he following is an abridgment of a study by Agnes S.T. Lim and Lee Sen Siow that examines how “Memra” (Aramaic for “Word”, cf. John 1.1) in the Aramaic Targums is used as a metonym for Yahweh in the Hebrew Scriptures. By placing two English translations conveniently side by side—one being a translation of the Aramaic Targums, the other of the Hebrew Scriptures—the study enables the reader to quickly see how often “Memra” is used as a metonym for God (Yahweh). The value of the study, for which I express my deep gratitude to the authors, lies in the important fact, unknown to most Christians, that Aramaic was the main language of Jesus, of the people in the land of Israel of his day, and of the early Jewish church. Whereas the original study covered the whole of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible), the present abridgment covers only Genesis and Exodus. The research methodology in the original study was, however, applied uniformly to all five books and led to near identical results for each; therefore the results obtained from Genesis and Exodus by this procedure are representative of those obtained from the Pentateuch as a whole. The original study is exhaustive in that every occurrence of “Memra” in the Aramaic Pentateuch was examined and taken into account. The results are shown in the interlinear tables below. The text in the second column is taken from an English translation of the well known “Targum Pseudo-Jonathan”. The text in the third column is taken from the New Jerusalem Bible.

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In these two columns, the words in boldface connect “Memra” in the second column to its Hebrew parallel in the third column. (This allows us to see, for example, that in the majority of cases, “Memra” is linked directly to “Yahweh” or its pronouns.) The following explanatory symbols are used in the first column: ● “Memra” is used as a metonym of Yahweh ” “Memra” points to something other than Yahweh Å Textual note An Example: In the interlinear tables below, Exodus 4.15 is marked with ●””, which means that Exodus 4.15 in the Aramaic Targums has three occurrences of the word “Memra”. The first of these occurrences is denoted by symbol ●, which means that it is used as a metonym of Yahweh. By contrast, the second and the third occurrences of “Memra” in this verse, indicated by a different symbol ”, refer to someone or something other than Yahweh (in this case, Moses and Aaron, respectively). Conclusion of Study: A quick look through the interlinear tables shows that the symbol ● outnumbers the symbol ” by a wide margin, indicating that “Memra” is indeed used in the Aramaic Pentateuch predominantly as a metonym for Yahweh. For Further Study: The original study by Agnes Lim and Lee Sen Siow, which covers the whole Pentateuch, is available for downloading from (A statistical survey of the study is also available for downloading.) The original study includes a special column that displays the Aramaic text of the Targums, but it is not included in the present abridgment due to space limitations and because few people today read Aramaic. To give the reader a sample of what has been omitted here (but retained in the original study), here is the Aramaic text for the first entry of the table (with rmym “Memra” highlighted): Gen 2:8 ‫ואיתנציב במימרא דייי אלקים גינוניתא מעדן‬

‫לצדיקייא קדם בריית עלם ואשרי תמן ית אדם כד ברייה‬

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(ENGLISH) And a garden from the Eden

Yahweh God planted

of the just was planted by

a garden in Eden,

the Word of the Lord God

which is in the east,

before the creation of the

and there he put the

world, and He made there to

man he had fashioned.

dwell the man when He had created him.

Genesis 3:8

And they heard the voice of

The man and his wife

the word of the Lord God

heard the sound of

walking in the garden in the

Yahweh God walking

repose of the day; and Adam

in the garden in the

and his wife hid themselves

cool of the day, and

from before the Lord God

they hid from Yahweh

among the trees of the garden. God among the trees of the garden.

Genesis 3:10

And he said, The voice of Thy

“I heard the sound of

Word heard I in the garden,

you in the garden,” he

and I was afraid, because I am replied. “I was afraid naked; and the commandment because I was naked, which Thou didst teach me, I

so I hid.”

have transgressed; therefore I hid myself from shame.

Genesis 3:24

And He drave out the man from He banished the thence where He had made to

man, and in front of

dwell the glory of His Shekina

the garden of Eden

at the first between the two

he posted the great

Kerubaia. Before He had created winged creatures the world, He created the law;

and the fiery flashing

He prepared the garden of Eden sword, to guard the for the righteous,

way to the tree of life.

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(ENGLISH) that they might eat and delight themselves with the fruit of the tree; because they would have practised in their lives the doctrine of the law in this world, and have maintained the commandments: (but) he prepared Gehinnam for the wicked, which is like the sharp, consuming sword of two edges; in the midst of it He hath prepared flakes of fire and burning coals for the judgment of the wicked who rebelled in their life against the doctrine of the law. To serve the law is better than (to eat of) the fruit of the tree of life, (the law) which the Word of the Lord prepared, that man in keeping it might continue, and walk in the paths of the way of life in the world to come.

Genesis 4:23


And Lemek said to his wives

Lamech said to his

Ada and Zillah, Hear my

wives: Adah and

voice, wives of Lemek, hearken Zillah, hear my voice, to my words: for I have not

wives of Lamech,

killed a man, that I should be

listen to what I say:

slain for him; neither have I

I killed a man for

destroyed a young man, on

wounding me, a boy

whose account my children

for striking me.

should perish.

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613 REFERENCE AND NOTES Genesis 4:26



(ENGLISH) And to Sheth also was born a

A son was also born

son, and he called his name

to Seth, and he named

Enosh. That was the generation him Enosh. This man in whose days they began to

was the first to invoke

err, and to make themselves

the name Yahweh.

idols, and surnamed their idols by the name of the Word of the Lord.

Genesis 5:2

Male and female He created

Male and female he

them, and blessed them in

created them. He

the name of His Word; and blessed them and He called their name Man in

gave them the name

the day they were created.

Man, when they were created.

Genesis 5:24

And Hanok served in the truth Enoch walked with before the Lord; and, behold,

God, then was no

he was not with the sojourners more, because God of the earth; for he was

took him.

withdrawn, and he ascended to the firmament by the Word before the Lord, and his name was called Metatron the Great Saphra.

Genesis 6:3

And the Lord said by His

Yahweh said, “My

Word, All the generations of

spirit cannot be

the wicked which are to arise

indefinitely responsible

shall not be purged after the

for human beings, who

order of the judgments of

are only flesh; let the

the generation of the deluge,

time allowed each be

which shall be destroyed and

a hundred and twenty

exterminated from the midst of years.” the world. Have I not imparted My Holy Spirit to them,

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(ENGLISH) (or, placed My Holy Spirit in them,) that they may work good works? And, behold, their works are wicked. Behold, I will give them a prolongment of a hundred and twenty years, that they may work repentance, and not perish.

Genesis 6:6


And it repented the Lord in

Yahweh regretted

His Word that He had made having made human man upon the earth; and He

beings on earth and

passed judgment upon them

was grieved at heart.

by His Word.

Genesis 6:7

Å “by My Word” in the English PJT is not in the Aramaic PJT

And the Lord said, I will

And Yahweh said, “I

abolish by My Word Å man,

shall rid the surface

whom I have created upon the of the earth of the face of the earth, from man

human beings whom

to cattle, to the reptile, and

I created—human and

to the fowl of the heavens;

animal, the creeping

because I have repented in

things and the birds

My Word that I have made

of heaven—for I


regret having made them.”

Genesis 7:16

And they coming entered,

and those that went

male and female, of all flesh

aboard were a male

unto him, as the Lord had

and female of all that

instructed him; and the Word was alive, as God of the Lord covered over the had commanded him. door of the ark upon the face

Then Yahweh shut


him in.

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(ENGLISH) And the Lord in His Word

But God had Noah in

remembered Noah, and all the mind, and all the wild animals and the cattle which

animals and all the

were with him in the ark; and cattle that were with the Lord caused the wind of

him in the ark. God

mercies to pass over the earth, sent a wind across the and the waters were dried.

earth and the waters began to subside.

Genesis 8:21

And the Lord accepted his

Yahweh smelt the

oblation with favour: and the

pleasing smell and

Lord said in His Word, I

said to himself, “Never

will not add again to curse

again will I curse the

the earth on account of the

earth because of human

sin of the children of men; for beings, because their the imagination of the heart

heart contrives evil

of man is evil from his youth;

from their infancy.

neither will I add to destroy

Never again will I

whatever liveth as I have done. strike down every living thing as I have done.

Genesis 9:12

Genesis 9:13

And the Lord said, This is the “And this”, God said, sign of the covenant which I

“is the sign of the

establish between My Word

covenant which I now

and between you and every

make between myself

living soul that is with you,

and you and every

unto the generations of the

living creature with you


for all ages to come:

I have set My Bow in the

I now set my bow in

cloud, and it shall be for a

the clouds and it will

token of the covenant between be the sign of the My Word and the earth.

covenant between me and the earth.

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616 REFERENCE AND NOTES Genesis 9:15



(ENGLISH) And I will remember My

I shall recall the

covenant which is between

covenant between

My Word and between you

myself and you and

and every living soul of all

every living creature,

flesh, that there shall not

in a word all living

be the waters of a flood to

things, and never

destroy all flesh.

again will the waters become a flood to destroy all living things.

Genesis 9:16

And the bow shall be in the

When the bow is in

cloud, and I will look upon it, the clouds I shall see to remember the everlasting

it and call to mind

covenant between the Word

the eternal covenant

of the Lord and every living

between God and

soul of all flesh that is upon

every living creature

the earth.

on earth, that is, all

And the Lord said to Noah,

“That”, God told

living things.”

Genesis 9:17


This is the sign of the covenant Noah, “is the sign of that I have covenanted between the covenant I have

Genesis 11:8

My Word and between the

established between

word for all flesh that is

myself and all living

upon the earth.

things on earth.”

And the Word of the Lord

Yahweh scattered them

was revealed against the

thence all over the

city, and with Him seventy

world, and they stopped

angels, having reference to

building the city.

seventy nations, each having its own language, and thence the writing of its own hand: and He dispersed them from thence upon the face of all the earth into seventy languages. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at




(ENGLISH) And one knew not what his neighbour would say: but one slew the other; and they

ceased from building the city. Genesis 12:17 And the Word of the Lord ● sent great plagues against Pharoh and the men of his house, on account of Sara, Abram’s wife. Genesis 15:1 Thereupon was the word of ● the Lord with Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not; for if these men should gather together in legions and come against thee, My Word will be thy shield: and also if these fall before thee in this world, the reward of thy good works shall be kept, and be prepared before Me in the world to come, great exceedingly. Genesis 15:6 And he believed in the Lord, ● and had faith in the Word of the Lord, and He reckoned it to him for righteousness, because he parleyed not before him with words. Genesis 16:1 But Sara, the wife of Abram, ● had not borne to him. But he had a handmaid, a Mizreitha, and her name was Hagar, a daughter of Pharoh, whom he gave to him as a handmaid at the time that he received her,

But Yahweh inflicted severe plagues on Pharaoh and his household because of Abram’s wife Sarai. Some time later, the word of Yahweh came to Abram in a vision: Do not be afraid, Abram! I am your shield and shall give you a very great reward.

Abram put his faith in Yahweh and this was reckoned to him as uprightness.

Abram’s wife Sarai had borne him no child, but she had an Egyptian slave-girl called Hagar.

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(ENGLISH) being struck by the word from before the Lord.

Genesis 16:13 And she gave thanks before ● the Lord whose Word spake to her, and thus said, Thou art He who livest and art eternal; who seest, but art not seen! · for she said, For, behold, here is revealed the glory of the Shekina of the Lord after a vision. Genesis 17:2 And I will set My covenant ● between My Word and thee, and will multiply thee very greatly.

Hagar gave a name to Yahweh who had spoken to her, “You are El Roi,” by which she meant, “Did I not go on seeing here, after him who sees me?” and I shall grant a covenant between myself and you, and make you very numerous.”

Genesis 17:7

And I have established My

And I shall maintain

covenant between My Word

my covenant between

and thee, and thy sons after

myself and you, and

thee in their generations, for

your descendants

an everlasting covenant, to be

after you, generation

a God to thee and to thy sons

after generation, as a

after thee.

covenant in perpetuity, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.

Genesis 17:10 This is My covenant, that you ● shall observe between My Word and you, and your sons after you:—Every male of you being circumcised, though he have not a father to circumcise him.

This is my covenant which you must keep between myself and you, and your descendants after you: every one of your males must be circumcised.

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619 REFERENCE AND NOTES Genesis 17:11



(ENGLISH) And you shall circumcise the

You must circumcise

flesh of your foreskin, as a

the flesh of your

sign of the covenant between

foreskin, and that

My Word and you.

will be the sign of the covenant between myself and you.

Genesis 18:5

And I will bring food of bread, Let me fetch a little that you may strengthen your

bread and you can

hearts, and give thanks in the

refresh yourselves

Name of the Word of the

before going further,

Lord, and afterwards pass on. now that you have For therefore at the time of

come in your servant’s

repast are you come, and have direction.” They turned aside to your servant to replied, “Do as you take food. And they said, Thou say.” hast spoken well; do according to thy word.

Genesis 18:17 And the Lord said, with His ● Word, I cannot hide from Abraham that which I am about to do; and it is right that before I do it, I should make it known to him. Genesis 19:24 And the Word of the Lord ●● had caused showers of favour to descend upon Sedom and Amorah, to the intent that they might work repentance, but they did it not: so that they said, Wickedness is not manifest before the Lord. Behold, then, there are now sent down upon them sulphur

Now Yahweh had wondered, ‘shall I conceal from Abraham what I am going to do,

Then Yahweh rained down on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire of his own sending.

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(ENGLISH) and fire from before the Word of the Lord from Heaven.

Genesis 20:3

And a word came from

But God visited

before the Lord unto

Abimelech in a dream

Abimelek, in a dream of

one night. “You are

the night, and said to him,

to die,” he told him,

Behold, thou diest, because of “because of the woman the woman whom thou hast

you have taken, for

carried away, and she a man’s she is a married

Genesis 20:6



And the Word of the Lord

“Yes, I know,” God

said to him in a dream, Before replied in the dream, Me also it is manifest that

“that you did this with

in the truthfulness of thy

a clear conscience and

heart thou didst this, and so

I myself prevented you

restrained I thee from sinning from sinning against before Me; therefore I would

me. That was why I

not permit thee to come near

did not let you touch



Genesis 20:18 For the Word of the ● Lord shutting had shut in displeasure the wombs of all the women of Abimelek’s house on account of Sarah the wife of Abraham. Genesis 21:20 And the Word of the Lord ● was the helper of the youth, and he grew and dwelt in the wilderness, and became a skilful master of the bow. Genesis 21:22 And it was at that time that ● Abimelek and Phikol, chief of his host, spake to Abraham,

for Yahweh had made all the women of Abimelech’s household barren on account of Sarah, Abraham’s wife. God was with the boy. He grew up and made his home in the desert, and he became an archer. About then, Abimelech and Phicol, the commander of

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(ENGLISH) saying, The Word of the

his army, said to

Lord is in thine aid in all

Abraham, ‘since

whatsoever thou doest.

God is with you in everything you do,

Genesis 21:23 And now, swear to me here, ● by the Word of the Lord, that thou wilt not be false with me, nor with my son, nor with the son of my son: according to the kindness which I have done with thee, thou shalt do with me, and with the land in which thou dwellest.

swear to me by God, here and now, that you will not act treacherously towards me or my kith and kin, but behave with the same faithful love to me and the land of which you are a guest as I have behaved to you.”

Genesis 21:33 And he planted a garden, ● (lit., “a paradise,”) at the Well of the Seven Lambs, and prepared in the midst of it food and drink for them who passed by and who returned; and he preached to them there, Confess ye, and believe in the Name of the Word of the Lord, the everlasting God. Genesis 22:1 And it was after these things ● that Izhak and Ishmael contended; and Ishmael said, It is right that I should inherit what is the father’s because I am his firstborn son. And Izhak said, It is right that I should inherit what is the father’s,

And Abraham planted a tamarisk at Beersheba and there he invoked the name of Yahweh.

It happened some time later that God put Abraham to the test. “Abraham, Abraham!” he called. “Here I am,” he replied.

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(ENGLISH) Behold now, to-day I am thirty and six years old; and if the Holy One, blessed be He, were to require all my members, I would not delay. These words were heard before the Lord of the world, and the Word of the Lord at once tried Abraham, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Behold me.

Genesis 22:16 and said, By My Word ● have I sworn, saith the Lord, forasmuch as thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thy only begotten, Genesis 22:18 And all the peoples of the ● earth shall be blessed through the righteousness of thy son, because thou hast obeyed My word.

“I swear by my own self, Yahweh declares, that because you have done this, because you have not refused me your own beloved son, All nations on earth will bless themselves by your descendants, because you have obeyed my command.”

Genesis 24:1

And Abraham was old with

By now Abraham was

days, and the Word of the

an old man, well on

Lord had blessed Abraham

in years, and Yahweh

with every kind of blessing.

had blessed Abraham in every way.

Genesis 24:3

And swear to me in the

I am going to make

name of the Word of the

you swear by Yahweh,

Lord God, whose habitation

God of heaven and

is in heaven on high, the God

God of earth, that you

whose dominion is over the

will not choose a wife

earth, that thou wilt not take

for my son from

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Genesis 26:3



(ENGLISH) a wife for my son from the

the daughters of the

daughters of the Kenaanites

Canaanites among

among whom I dwell;

whom I live

sojourn in the land, and My

Remain for the

Word shall be for thy help,

present in that

and I will bless thee; for to

country; I shall be

the end to thy sons will I

with you and bless

give all these lands, and I

you, for I shall give all

will establish the covenant

these countries to you

which I have covenanted with

and your descendants

Abraham thy father.

in fulfilment of the oath I swore to your father Abraham.

Genesis 26:5


on account that Abraham

in return for

obeyed My word, and kept

Abraham’s obedience;

the keeping of My word, My

for he kept my

statutes, My covenants, and

charge, my

My laws.

commandments, my statutes and my laws.”

Genesis 26:24 And the Lord appeared to him ● that night, and said, I am the God of Abraham thy father: fear not; for My Word is for thy help, and I will bless thee, and multiply thy sons for the righteousness’ sake of Abraham My servant.

Yahweh appeared to him the same night and said: I am the God of your father Abraham. Do not be afraid, for I am with you. I shall bless you and multiply your offspring for my servant Abraham’s sake.

Genesis 26:28 And they answered, Seeing, we ● have seen, that the Word of the Lord is for thy help, and for thy righteousness’

“It became clear to us that Yahweh was with you,” they replied, “and so we

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(ENGLISH) sake all good hath been to

thought, “It is time to

us; but when thou wentest

have a treaty sworn

forth from our land the wells

between us, between

dried up, and our trees made

us and you.” So let us

no fruit; then we said, We

make a covenant with

will cause him to return to


us. And now let there be an oath established between us, and kindness between us and thee, and we will enter into a covenant with thee,

Genesis 27:28 Therefore the Word of the ● Lord give thee of the good dews which descend from the heavens, and of the good fountains that spring up, and make the herbage of the earth to grow from beneath, and plenty of provision and wine. Genesis 27:31 And the Word of the Lord ● had impeded him from taking clean venison; but he had found a certain dog, and killed him, and made food of him, and brought to his father, and said to his father, Arise, my father, and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me. Genesis 28:7 and that Jakob obeyed the ”” word of his father, and the word of his mother, and was gone to Padan Aram:

May God give you dew from heaven, and the richness of the earth, abundance of grain and wine!

He too made an appetising dish and brought it to his father, “Father, please eat some of your son’s game and then give me your special blessing.” and that, in obedience to his father and mother, Jacob had gone to Paddan-Aram,

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625 REFERENCE TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN AND NOTES (ENGLISH) Genesis 28:15 And, behold, My Word is for ● thy help, and will keep thee in every place where thou shalt go, and will bring thee (again) to this land; for I will not leave thee until the time when I have performed all that I have told thee. Genesis 28:20 And Jakob vowed a vow, saying, ● If the Word of the Lord will be my Helper, and will keep me from shedding innocent blood, and from strange worship, and from impure converse, in this way that I am going; and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to wear, Genesis 29:12 And Jakob told unto Rahel, ● that he was come to be with her father to take one of his daughters. And Rahel answered him Thou canst not dwell with him, for he is a man of cunning. And Jakob said to her, I am more cunning and wiser than he; nor can he do me evil, because the Word of the Lord is my Helper. And when she knew that he was the son of Rivekah, she ran and made it known to her father.

NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE Be sure, I am with you; I shall keep you safe wherever you go, and bring you back to this country, for I shall never desert you until I have done what I have promised you.” Jacob then made this vow, “If God remains with me and keeps me safe on this journey I am making, if he gives me food to eat and clothes to wear,

He told Rachel he was her father’s kinsman and Rebekah’s son, and she ran to tell her father.

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626 REFERENCE TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN AND NOTES (ENGLISH) Genesis 29:31 And it was revealed before the ● Lord that Leah was not loved in the sight of Jakob; and He said in His Word that sons should be given her, and that Rahel should be barren. Genesis 30:22 And the remembrance of ● Rahel came before the Lord, and the voice of her prayer was heard before Him; and He said in his Word that He would give her sons. Genesis 31:3 And the Lord said to Jakob, ● Return to the land of thy fathers, and to thy native place; and My Word shall be for thy help.

NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE When Yahweh saw that Leah was unloved, he opened her womb, while Rachel remained barren. Then God remembered Rachel; he heard her and opened her womb.

Yahweh said to Jacob, “Go back to the land of your ancestors, where you were born, and I shall be with you.”

Genesis 31:5

Å “Memra” in the Aramaic PJT is untranslated in the English PJT

And he said to them, I

and he said to them,

consider the looks of your

“I can see that your

father, and, behold, they

father’s manner

are not peaceful with me as

towards me is not as

yesterday and as before it; but it was in the past, but the God of my father hath

the God of my father

been [the word] to my aid.

has been with me.

Genesis 31:24 And there came an angel with a word from before the ● Lord; and he drew the sword against Laban the deceitful in a dream of the night,

But God appeared to Laban the Aramaean in a dream that night and said to him, “On no account say

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(ENGLISH) and said to him, Beware lest

anything whatever to

thou speak with Jakob from


good to evil.

Genesis 31:50 If thou shalt afflict my ● daughters, doing them injury, and if thou take upon my daughters, there is no man to judge us, the Word of the Lord seeing is the witness between me and thee. Genesis 35:3 And we will arise and go up ● to Bethel, and I will make there an altar unto Eloha, who heard my prayer in the day when I was afflicted, and whose Word was my helper in the way that I went.

If you ill-treat my daughters or marry other women besides my daughters, even though no one be with us, remember: God is witness between us.” We must move on and go to Bethel. There I shall make an altar for the God who heard me when I was in distress, and gave me his help on the journey I made.”

Genesis 35:9

And the Lord revealed Himself God again appeared to Jakob again on his return

to Jacob on his return

from Padan of Aram, and the from Paddan-Aram, Lord blessed him by the

and blessed him.

name of His Word, after the death of his mother.

Genesis 39:2

And the Word of the Lord

Yahweh was with

was Joseph’s Helper, and he

Joseph, and everything

became a prosperous man

he undertook was

in the house of his Mizraite

successful. He lodged


in the house of his Egyptian master,

Genesis 39:3

And his master saw that the

and when his master

Word of the Lord was his

saw how Yahweh was

Helper, and that the Lord

with him and

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(ENGLISH) prospered in his hand all that

how Yahweh made

he did;

everything he undertook successful,

Genesis 39:21 And the Word of the Lord ● was Joseph’s Helper, and extended mercy to him, and gave him favour in the eyes of the captain of the prison. Genesis 39:23 It was not needful for the ● captain of the prison to watch Joseph, after the custom of all prisoners, because he saw that there was no fault in his hands; for the Word of the Lord was his Helper, and that which he did the Lord made it to prosper. Genesis 41:1 It was at the end of two years, ● that the remembrance of Joseph came before the Word of the Lord. And Pharoh dreamed, and, behold, he stood by the river, Genesis 41:40 Thou shalt be superintendent ” over my house, and by the Å “Memra” decree [of the word] of thy in the mouth shall all my people be Aramaic armed only in the throne of PJT is the kingdom will I be greater untransthan thou. lated in the English PJT

But Yahweh was with Joseph. He showed him faithful love and made him popular with the chief gaoler. The chief gaoler did not bother about anything put in his charge, since Yahweh was with him, and Yahweh made everything he undertook successful. Two years later it happened that Pharaoh had a dream: there he was, standing by the Nile, You shall be my chancellor, and all my people shall respect your orders; only this throne shall set me above you.”

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629 REFERENCE TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN AND NOTES (ENGLISH) Genesis 41:44 And Pharoh said to Joseph, I ” am Pharoh the king, and thou art viceregent, and without thy word a man shall not lift up his hand to gird on arms, or his foot to mount a horse in all the land of Mizraim. Genesis 43:7 And they said, The man ” demanding demanded (to know) about us, and about our family, saying Is your father yet living? Have you a brother? And we informed him according to the word of these things. Could we know that he would say, Bring your brother down?

NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Although I am Pharaoh, no one is to move hand or foot without your permission throughout Egypt.” They replied, “He kept questioning us about ourselves and our family, asking, “Is your father still alive?” and, “Have you another brother?” That is why we told him. How could we know he was going to say, “Bring your brother down here”?”

Genesis 45:21 And Joseph gave them ” waggons according to the word of Pharoh, and he furnished them with provision for the way.

Israel’s sons did as they were told. Joseph gave them waggons as Pharaoh had ordered, and he gave them provisions for the journey.

Genesis 46:4


I am He who in My Word

I shall go down to

will go down with thee into

Egypt with you and

Mizraim; I will regard the

I myself shall bring

affliction of thy children, and

you back again, and

My Word shall bring thee up Joseph’s hand will from thence, and cause

close your eyes.”

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(ENGLISH) thy children to come up; but Joseph shall lay his hand upon thine eyes.

Genesis 48:9

And Joseph answered his

“They are my sons,

father, They are my sons which whom God has given the Word of the Lord gave

me here,” Joseph told

me according to this writing,

his father. “Then bring

according to which I took

them to me”, he said,

Asenath the daughter of Dinah ‘so that I may bless thy daughter to be my wife.


And he said, Bring them now near to me, and I will bless them.

Genesis 48:21 And Israel said to Joseph, ● Behold, my end cometh to die. But the Word of the Lord shall be your Helper, and restore you to the land of your fathers; Genesis 49:25 From the Word of the Lord ● shall be thy help; and He who is called the All-Sufficient shall bless thee with the blessings which descend with the dew of heaven from above, and with the good blessing of the fountains of the deep which ascend and clothe the herbage from beneath. The breasts are blessed at which thou wast suckled, and the womb in which thou didst lie,

Then Israel said to Joseph, “Now I am about to die. But God will be with you and take you back to the land of your ancestors. the God of your father who assists you, El Shaddai who blesses you: blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep lying below, blessings of the breasts and womb,

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631 REFERENCE TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN AND NOTES (ENGLISH) Genesis 50:20 You indeed imagined against ● me evil thoughts, that when I did not recline with you to eat it was because I retained enmity against you. But the Word of the Lord thought on me for good; for my father hath caused me to sit at the head, and on account of his honour I received; but now not for the sake of my (own) righteousness or merit was it given me to work out for you deliverance this day for the preservation of much people of the house of Jakob,

NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE The evil you planned to do me has by God’s design been turned to good, to bring about the present result: the survival of a numerous people.

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and since the

midwives feared before

midwives feared God,

the Lord, they obtained

he gave them families

for themselves a good

of their own.

name unto the ages; and the Word of the Lord up-builded for them a royal house, even the house of the high priesthood.

Exodus 2:5

And the Word of the

Now Pharaoh’s

Lord sent forth a burning

daughter went down

sore and inflammation of

to bathe in the river,

the flesh upon the land of

while her maids

Mizraim; and the daughter

walked along the

of Pharoh came down to

riverside. Among the

refresh herself at the river.

reeds she noticed the

And her handmaids, walking basket, and she sent upon the bank of the river,

her maid to fetch it.

saw the ark among the reeds, and put forth the arm and took it, and were immediately healed of the burning and inflammation.

Exodus 2:23

And it was after many of

During this long period

those days that the king of

the king of Egypt died.

Mizraim was struck (with

The Israelites, groaning

disease), and he commanded in their slavery, cried to kill the firstborn of the

out for help and from

sons of Israel, that he might the depths of their bathe himself in their blood. slavery their cry came And the sons

up to God.

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TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) of Israel groaned with the labour that was hard upon them; and they cried, and their cry ascended to the high heavens of the Lord. And He spake in His Word to deliver them from the travail.

Exodus 3:8

And I have revealed Myself

And I have come

to thee this day, that by

down to rescue

My Word they may be

them from the

delivered from the hand of

clutches of the

the Mizraee, to bring them

Egyptians and bring

up out of the unclean land,

them up out of that

unto a good land, and large

country, to a country

in its boundaries, a land

rich and broad, to

yielding milk and honey,

a country flowing

unto the place where dwell

with milk and honey,

the Kenaanaee, and the

to the home of the

Hittaee, and the Amoraee,

Canaanites, the

and the Pherizaee, and the

Hittites, the Amorites,

Hivaee, and the Jebusaee.

the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites.

Exodus 3:12

But He said, Therefore My

“I shall be with you,”

Word shall be for thy help; God said, “and this is and this shall be the sign to the sign by which you thee that I have sent thee:

will know that I was

when thou hast, brought the the one who sent you. people forth from Mizraim,

After you have led the

ye shall worship before the

people out of Egypt,

Lord, because ye shall have

you will worship God

received the Law upon this

on this mountain.”

mountain. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at



and has said: I shall

Word, I will bring you up

bring you out of the

out from the oppression

misery of Egypt to

of the Mizraee into the

the country of the

land of the Kenaanaee, and

Canaanites, the Hittites,

Hittaee, and Amoraee, and

the Amorites, the

Pherizaee, and Hivaee, and

Perizzites, the Hivites

Jebusaee, to the land that

and the Jebusites, to

yieldeth milk and honey.

a country flowing with milk and honey.”

Exodus 3:19

But it is manifest before Me I am well aware that that the king of Mizraim

the king of Egypt will

will not let you go, (no,)

not let you go unless

not from fear of Him who

he is compelled by a

is Mighty, until that by My

mighty hand;

Word he shall have been punished with evil plagues.

Exodus 4:12

And now go, and I by My

Now go, I shall help

Word will be with the

you speak and instruct

speaking of thy mouth, and

you what to say.”

will teach thee what thou shalt say.

Exodus 4:15


And thou shalt speak with

You will speak to him

him, and put the matter in

and tell him what

his mouth, and My Word

message to give. I

shall be with the word of

shall help you speak,

thy mouth, and with the

and him too, and

word of his mouth, and

instruct you what to

I will instruct you what you


are to do.

Exodus 5:2

And Pharoh said, The name “Who is Yahweh,” of the Lord is not made

Pharaoh replied, “for

known to me, that I should

me to obey what he

receive His word

says and let Israel go?

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I know nothing of

found written in the Book

Yahweh, and I will not

of the Angels the name of

let Israel go.

the Lord. Of Him I am not afraid, neither will I release Israel.

Exodus 6:8

And I will bring you into

Then I shall lead you

the land which I covenanted into the country which by My Word to give unto

I swore I would give

Abraham, to Izhak, and to

to Abraham, Isaac

Jakob; and I will give it to

and Jacob, and shall

you for an inheritance. I Am give it to you as your

Exodus 7:25

the Lord.

heritage, I, Yahweh.” “

And seven days were

After Yahweh struck

completed after the Lord

the River, seven days

had smitten the river, and

went by.

the Word of the Lord had afterward healed the river.

Exodus 10:10

And he said to them, So

Pharaoh said, ‘so

may the Word of the

I must let you go

Lord be a help to you: (but) with your wives how can I release (both)

and children! May

you and your children? The

Yahweh preserve

evil offence is in the look

you! Plainly, you are

of your faces: (you think to

up to no good!

go onward) in the way that you would walk, till the time that you shall have come to the house of the place of your habitation.

Exodus 10:29

Mosheh said, Thou hast

Moses then said, “You

spoken fairly. While I was

yourself have said it.

dwelling in Midian, it was

I shall never see your

told me in a word from

face again.”

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TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) before the Lord, that the men who had sought to kill me had fallen from their means, and were reckoned with the dead. At the end there will be no mercy upon thee; but I will pray, and the plague shall be restrained from thee. And now I will see thy face no more.

Exodus 12:23

For the Glory of the Lord

Then, when Yahweh

will be manifested in

goes through Egypt to

striking the Mizraee, and

strike it, and sees the

He will see the blood upon

blood on the lintel and

the lintel and upon the two

on both door-posts,

posts, and the Word of

he will pass over the

the Lord will spread His

door and not allow

protection over the door,

the Destroyer to enter

and the destroying angel will your homes and strike. not be permitted to enter your houses to smite.

Exodus 12:27

you shall say, It is the

you will tell them,

sacrifice of mercy before

“It is the Passover

the Lord, who had mercy in sacrifice in honour of His Word upon the houses Yahweh who passed of the sons of Israel in

over the houses of the

Mizraim, when He destroyed Israelites in Egypt, the Mizraee, and spared our and struck Egypt but houses. And when the house spared our houses.” of Israel heard this word

“And the people

from the mouth of Mosheh,

bowed in worship.

they bowed and worshipped.

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637 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 12:29


And at midnight

of the night of the fifteenth, Yahweh struck down that the Word of the Lord all the first-born slew all the firstborn in the

in Egypt from the

land of Mizraim, from the

first-born of Pharaoh,

firstborn son of Pharoh,

heir to his throne,

who would have sat upon

to the first-born of

the throne of his kingdom,

the prisoner in the

unto the firstborn sons of

dungeon, and the

the kings who were captives first-born of all the in the dungeon as hostages


under Pharoh’s hand; and who, for having rejoiced at the servitude of Israel, were punished as (the Mizraee): and all the firstborn of the cattle that did the work of the Mizraee died also.

Exodus 13:5

And it shall be, when the

and when Yahweh

Lord your God shall have

has brought you

brought you into the land of into the country of the Kenaanaee, and Hittaee, the Canaanites, the and Amoraee, and Hivaee,

Hittites, the Amorites,

and Jebusaee, which He

the Hivites and the

sware by His Word unto

Jebusites, flowing

Abraham to give thee, a

with milk and honey,

land producing milk and

which he swore to

honey, that thou shalt keep

your ancestors that

this service in this month.

he would give you, then you must observe this rite in the same month.

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And on that day you

son on that day, saying,

will explain to your

This precept is on account

son, “This is because

of what the Word of the

of what Yahweh did

Lord did for me in miracles for me when I came and wonders, in bringing me out of Egypt.” forth from Mizraim.

Exodus 13:15

And when the Word of

When Pharaoh

the Lord had hardened

stubbornly refused

the heart of Pharoh (that

to let us go, Yahweh

he would) not deliver us,

killed all the first-born

he killed all the firstborn

in Egypt, of man and

in the land of Mizraim,

beast alike. This is

from the firstborn of man

why I sacrifice every

to the firstborn of cattle;

male first issuing from

therefore do I sacrifice

the womb to Yahweh

before the Lord every male

and redeem every

that openeth the womb, and first-born of my sons.” every firstborn of my sons I redeem with silver.

Exodus 13:17


AND it was when Pharoh

When Pharaoh had let

had released the people, that the people go, God did the Lord did not conduct,

not let them take the

them by the way of the land

road to the Philistines’

of the Phelishtaee though

territory, although that

that was the near one; for

was the shortest, “in

the Lord said, Lest the

case”, God thought,

people be affrighted in seeing “the prospect of their brethren who were

fighting makes the

killed in war, two hundred

people change their

thousand men of strength of minds and turn back the tribe of Ephraim, who

to Egypt.”

took shields, and lances, and weapons of war, Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) and went down to Gath to carry off the flocks of the Phelishtaee; and because they transgressed against the statute of the Word of the Lord, and went forth from Mizraim three years before the (appointed) end of their servitude, they were delivered into the hand of the Phelishtaee, who slew them. These are the dry bones which the Word of the Lord restored to life by the ministry (hand) of Yechezekel the prophet, in the vale of Dura; but which, if they (now) saw them, they would be afraid, and return into Mizraim.

Exodus 14:25

and He brake (or, made

He so clogged their

rough) the wheels of

chariot wheels that

Pharoh’s carriages, so

they drove on only

that they drave them with

with difficulty, which

hardship, and that they went made the Egyptians on and left them behind.

say, “Let us flee from

And the Mizraee said one

Israel, for Yahweh is

to another, Let us flee from

fighting on their side

the people of the house of

against the Egyptians!”

Israel; for this is the Word of the Lord who fought for them in Mizraim. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at

640 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 14:31

TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) And Israel saw the power of When Israel saw the mighty hand by which

the mighty deed

the Lord had wrought the

that Yahweh had

miracles in Mizraim; and

performed against the

the people feared before the Egyptians, the people Lord, and believed in the

revered Yahweh

Name of the Word of the and put their faith Lord, and in the prophecies in Yahweh and in

Exodus 15:1

of Mosheh His servant.

Moses, his servant.

Behold: then sang, Mosheh

It was then that Moses

and the sons of Israel this

and the Israelites sang

song of praise before the

this song in Yahweh’s

Lord and saying they said:

honour: I shall sing

Thanksgiving and praise we

to Yahweh, for he has

bring before the Lord Most

covered himself in

High, who is glorified above glory, horse and rider the glorious, and exalted

he has thrown into the

above the exalted; who


punisheth by His Word whomsoever glorifieth himself before Him. Therefore when Pharoh the wicked bare himself proudly before the Lord, and, being uplifted in his heart, followed after the people of the sons of Israel, their horses and their chariots He threw and buried in the sea of Suph.

Exodus 15:2

The Lord is Mighty, and

Yah is my strength

greatly to be feared over all

and my song, to him I

the world. He spake in His owe my deliverance. Please do not copy without permission, this book can be read at


TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) Word, and became to me a He is my God and I God of salvation.

shall praise him, my father’s God and I

From their mothers’ breasts shall extol him. even the children have given signs with their fingers to their fathers, and said This is our God, who nourished us with honey from the rock, and with oil from the stone of clay, at the time when our mothers went forth upon the face of the field to give us birth, and leave us there; and He sent an angel who washed us and enwrapped us; and now will we praise Him: He is the God of our fathers, and we will exalt Him.

Exodus 15:8

For by the Word from

A blast from your

before Thee the waters

nostrils and the

became heaps; they stood,

waters piled high;

as if bound like skins that

the waves stood firm

confine flowing water, and

as a dyke; the bed of

the depths were congealed

the sea became firm

in the flood of the great sea. ground.

Exodus 15:25

And he prayed before

Moses appealed to

the Lord, and the Lord

Yahweh for help, and

showed him the bitter

Yahweh showed him a

tree of Ardiphne; and he

piece of wood. When

wrote upon it the great and

Moses threw it into

glorious Name, and cast it

the water, the water

into the midst of

became sweet.

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There he laid down

were rendered sweet. And

a statute and law for

there did the Word of the

them and there he put

Lord appoint to him the

them to the test. Then

ordinance of the Sabbath,

he said,

and the statute of honouring father and mother, the judgments concerning wounds and bruises, and the punishments wherewith offenders are punished; and there he tried (them) with the tenth trial,

Exodus 16:3

And the sons of Israel said

and said to them,

to them, Would that we

“Why did we not die

had died by the Word of

at Yahweh’s hand in

the Lord in the land of

Egypt, where we used

Mizraim, when we sat by

to sit round the flesh

the cisterns of meat, and ate pots and could eat to bread and had enough! Why our heart’s content!

Exodus 16:8

hast thou brought us out

As it is, you have led

into this wilderness to kill

us into this desert

all this congregation with

to starve this entire


assembly to death!”

And Mosheh said, By this

Moses then said,

you shall know, when the

“This evening Yahweh

Lord prepareth you at

will give you meat to

evening flesh to eat, and in

eat, and tomorrow

the morning bread to satisfy, morning bread to that your complainings

your heart’s content,

wherewith you complain

for Yahweh has heard

against Him are heard

your complaints about

before the Lord. And we,

him. What do we

what are we accounted?

count for?

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Exodus 17:1


Your complaints are

against us, but against the

not against us, but

Word of the Lord.

against Yahweh.”

And all the congregation of

The whole community

the sons of Israel journeyed of Israelites left from the desert of Sin by

the desert of Sin,

their journeyings according

travelling by stages as

to the word of the Lord,

Yahweh ordered.

and they encamped in

They pitched camp at

Rephidim, a place where

Rephidim where there

their hands were idle in the was no water for the commandments of the law,

people to drink.

and the fountains were dry, and there was no water for the people to drink.

Exodus 17:13

And Jehoshua shattered

and Joshua defeated

Amalek, and cut off the

Amalek, putting their

heads, of the strong men of

people to the sword.

his people, by the mouth of the Word of the Lord, with the slaughter of the sword.

Exodus 17:15

And Mosheh builded an

Moses then built an

altar, and called the name

altar and named it

of it, The Word of the


Lord is my banner; for the sign which He hath wrought (in this) place was on my behalf.

Exodus 17:16


And he said, Because the

meaning, “Lay hold

Word of the Lord hath

of Yahweh’s banner!

sworn by the throne of

Yahweh will be at

His glory, that He by His

war with Amalek

Word will fight against

generation after

those of the house of


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TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) Amalek, and destroy them unto three generations; from the generation of this world, from the generation of the Meshiha, and from the generation of the world to come.

Exodus 18:19

Now hearken to me and I

Now listen to the

will advise thee; and may

advice I am going to

the Word of the Lord be

give you, and God be

thy helper! When thou art

with you! Your task

with the people who seek

is to represent the

instruction from before the

people to God, to lay

Lord, thou shouldst take

their cases before God,

their affair before the Lord,

Exodus 19:5

And now, if you will truly

So now, if you are

hearken to My Word and

really prepared to

keep My covenant, you shall obey me and keep be more beloved before Me

my covenant, you,

than all the peoples on the

out of all peoples,

face of the earth.

shall be my personal possession, for the whole world is mine.

Exodus 20:7

My people of the house of

“You shall not

Israel, Let no one of you

misuse the name of

swear by the name of the

Yahweh your God,

Word of the Lord your

for Yahweh will not

God in vain; for in the day

leave unpunished

of the great judgment the

anyone who misuses

Lord will not hold guiltless

his name.

any one who sweareth by His name in vain.

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645 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 21:22


“If people, when


a woman with child, and

brawling, hurt a

Å “Memra” in the Aramaic PJT is translated as “sentence” in the English PJT

cause her to miscarry, but

pregnant woman

not to lose her life, the fine

and she suffers a

on account of the infant

miscarriage but no

which the husband of the

further harm is done,

woman shall lay upon him,

the person responsible

he shall pay according to the will pay compensation sentence of the judges.

as fixed by the woman’s master, paying as much as the judges decide.

Exodus 23:21


Be circumspect before Him,

Revere him and obey

and obey His word, and

what he says. Do

be not rebellious against

not defy him: he

His words; for He will not

will not forgive any

forgive your sins, because

wrong-doing on your

His word is in My Name.

part, for my name is

For if thou wilt indeed

If, however, you obey

hearken to His word, and

what he says and

do all that I speak by Him,

do whatever I order, I

I will be the enemy of thy

shall be an enemy to

enemy, and will trouble

your enemies and a

them who trouble thee.

foe to your foes.

And I will appoint My

There I shall come

Word with thee there,

to meet you; from

and will speak with thee

above the mercy-seat,

from above the mercy-seat,

from between the two

between the two kerubaia

winged creatures which

that are over the ark of the

are on the ark of the

testament, concerning all

Testimony, I shall give

that I may command thee

you all my orders for

for the sons of Israel.

the Israelites.

in him.

Exodus 23:22


Exodus 25:22

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646 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 26:28



The middle bar must

midst of the boards passing

join the frames from

from end to end shall be

one end to the other,

from the tree which Abraham halfway up. planted in Beara of Sheba: for when Israel had crossed the sea, the angels cut down the tree and cast it into the sea, and it floated on the face of the waters. And an angel proclaimed, and said, This is the tree which Abraham planted in Beara of Sheba, and prayed there in the name of the Word of the Lord. And the sons of Israel shall take and make thereof the middle bar, seventy cubits in length, and with it shall wondrous things be done: for when they have reared up the tabernacle, it shall go round it like a serpent among the boards of the tabernacle and when they take it down, it shall become straight as a rod.

Exodus 29:42


a perpetual holocaust for

a perpetual burnt

your generations at the

offering for all your

door of the tabernacle of

generations to come,

ordinance before the Lord;

at the entrance to the

where I will appoint My

Tent of Meeting before

Word to (meet) thee there, Yahweh, where I shall to speak with thee there.

meet you and speak to you.

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647 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 29:43

TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) And there I will appoint My “There I shall meet Word (to meet) with the

the Israelites in the

sons of Israel, and I will be

place consecrated by

sanctified in their rulers for

my glory.

My glory.

Exodus 30:6

And thou shalt place it

“You will put it in

before the veil which is over front of the curtain by the ark of the testimony,

the ark of Testimony,

before the mercy seat that is in front of the mercy-

Exodus 30:36

upon the testimony, where

seat which is on the

I will appoint My Word to

Testimony, where I

be with thee.

shall meet you.

And beat, and make it small, You will grind some of and of it some shalt thou

this up very fine and

put before the testimony in

put it in front of the

the tabernacle of ordinance, Testimony in the Tent where I will appoint My

of Meeting, where

Word to be with thee. Most I shall meet you. sacred shall it be to you.

You will regard it as especially holy.

Exodus 31:13

Also, speak thou with the

‘speak to the Israelites

sons of Israel, saying, Ye

and say, “You will

shall keep the day of My

keep my Sabbaths

Sabbaths indeed; for it is a

properly, for this is a

sign between My Word

sign between myself

and you, that you may

and you for all your

know that I am the Lord

generations to come,

who sanctify you.

so that you will know that it is I, Yahweh, who sanctify you.

Exodus 31:17

between My Word and the Between myself and sons of Israel it is a sign

the Israelites, this is

for ever. For in six days the a sign for ever, for in Lord created and perfected

six days Yahweh made

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heaven and earth, but

and in the seventh day He

on the seventh day

rested and refreshed.

he rested and drew breath.”

Exodus 32:13

Remember Abraham, and

Remember your

Izhak, and Israel, Thy

servants Abraham,

servants, to whom Thou

Isaac and Jacob, to

didst swear in Thy Word

whom you swore by

and didst say to them, I will your very self and multiply your children as

made this promise:

the stars of the heavens, and “I shall make your all this land of which I have offspring as numerous told you will I give to your

as the stars of heaven,

sons, and they shall inherit

and this whole country

for ever.

of which I have spoken, I shall give to your descendants, and it will be their heritage for ever.”

Exodus 32:35

Exodus 33:9

And the Word of the Lord And Yahweh plagued the people, because punished the people they had bowed themselves

for having made the

to the calf that Aharon had

calf, the one Aaron


had made.

And it came to pass when

And whenever Moses

Mosheh had gone into the

went into the Tent,

tabernacle, the column

the pillar of cloud

of the glorious Cloud

would come down and

descended and stood at the

station itself at the

door of the tabernacle; and

entrance to the Tent,

the Word of the Lord

while Yahweh spoke

spake with Mosheh.

with Moses.

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649 REFERENCE AND NOTES Exodus 33:12

TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) And Mosheh said before the Moses said to Yahweh, Lord, Lo, what hast Thou

“Look, you say to me,

said to me, Take this people “Make the people move up? but Thou hast not made on,” but you have not me to know whom Thou

told me whom you are

wilt send with me. By Thy

going to send with me,

Word Thou hast said, I

although you have

have ordained thee with a

said, “I know you by

goodly name, and thou hast name and you enjoy

Exodus 33:19

found favour before Me.

my favour.”

but He said, Behold, I will

Yahweh said, “I shall

make all the measure of My make all my goodness goodness pass before thee,

pass before you, and

and I will give utterance in

before you I shall

the good name of the Word pronounce the name of the Lord before thee;

Yahweh; and I am

and I will have compassion

gracious to those to

upon whom I see it right to

whom I am gracious

have compassion, and will

and I take pity on

be merciful to whom I see it those on whom I take right to have mercy.

Exodus 33:22


And it shall be that when the and when my glory glory of My Shekinah passeth passes by, I shall put before thee, I will put thee in you in a cleft of the a cavern of the rock, and will rock and shield you overshadow thee with My

with my hand until I

Word until the time that I

have gone past.

have passed by.

Exodus 34:5

And the Lord revealed

And Yahweh

Himself in the cloud of the

descended in a cloud

glory of His Shekinah, and

and stood with him

Mosheh stood with Him

there and

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TARGUM PSEUDO-JONATHAN NEW JERUSALEM BIBLE (ENGLISH) there; and Mosheh called on pronounced the name the Name of the Word of


the Lord.

Exodus 34:27

And the Lord said to

Yahweh then said to


Mosheh, Write thou

Moses, “Put these

Å “Memra” in the Aramaic PJT is translated as “expression” in the English PJT

these words; for upon the

words in writing, for

expression of these

they are the terms of

words have I stricken My

the covenant which I

Exodus 36:33

And he made the middle bar He made the middle

covenant with thee and with have made with you the people of Israel.

to mortise in the midst of

and with Israel.”

bar, to join the frames

the boards from end to end, from one end to the of the tree which our father

other, halfway up.

Abraham planted in Beara of Sheba, praying there in the Name of the Word of the Lord, the everlasting, God.

Exodus 38:21


These are the sums,

These are the accounts

weights, and numbers

for the Dwelling—the

of the Tabernacle of the

Dwelling of the

Testimony, which were

Testimony—drawn up

counted by the word of

by order of Moses,

the mouth of Mosheh. But the work of Levites, the service of the Levites

produced by Ithamar

was by the hand of Ithamar son of Aaron, the bar Aharon the priest.


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Scripture Index Gen.1 257, 270, 289, 429 Gen.1.1 415, 491, 534 Gen.1.2 605 Gen.1.3 401 Gen.1.1-4 479-480 Gen.1.5 47 Gen.1.16, 17, 27, 28 458 Gen.1.20, 26 464 Gen.1.26 180, 211, 247, 438, 439 Gen.1.26, 27 206, 208, 209, 212, 218, 223, 226, 480 Gen.1.27 241, 242, 346, 471, 487 Gen.1.28 180, 238, 347 Gen.1.29 347 Gen.2.2, 3 458, 331 Gen.2.4, 7 347 Gen.2.4-25 331 Gen.2.7, 8 204, 206, 207, 348 Gen.2.8 29, 348, 351, 352, 488, 567, 610, 611 Gen.2.16 350 Gen.2.17 242 Gen.2.18 269, 350 Gen.2.19, 21, 22 207 Gen.2.24 47, 153 Gen.3.1 270 Gen.3.5 225, 238, 241, 244 Gen.3.5, 6 228 Gen.3.7, 21 29 Gen.3.8 29, 350, 352, 460, 488, 611 Gen.3.9 488 Gen.3.10 351, 611 Gen.3.15 180, 605 Gen.3.21 355 Gen.3.22 488 Gen.3.22-24 242 Gen.3.24 484, 611

Gen.4.6 353 Gen.4.9-10 353 Gen.4.15 354 Gen.4.23 612 Gen.4.26 489, 613 Gen.5.1 212 Gen.5.2, 24 613 Gen.5.3 208 Gen.6.3 489, 613 Gen.6.6, 7 614 Gen.6.8 357 Gen.7.16 357, 614 Gen.8.1, 21 615 Gen.9.2 180 Gen.9.6 208, 209, 210, 212 Gen.9.12-17 615, 616 Gen.11.5 544 Gen.11.8 616 Gen.12.17 617 Gen.13.16 373 Gen.15.1 617 Gen.15.6 471, 617 Gen.16.1 617 Gen.16.7-11 373 Gen.16.13 485, 618 Gen.17.1 323 Gen.17.2, 7, 10 618 Gen.17.11 619 Gen.18.1 339 Gen.18.5, 17 619 Gen.19.24 619 Gen.20.3, 6, 18 620 Gen.21.20, 22 620 Gen.21.23, 33 621 Gen.22.1 621 Gen.22.8 158 Gen.22.11 373

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652 Gen.22.16 469, 622 Gen.22.18 622 Gen.24.1, 3 622 Gen.26.3, 5, 24, 28 623 Gen.27.28, 31 624 Gen.27.38 48 Gen.28.3 323 Gen.28.7 624 Gen.28.15, 20 625 Gen.28.16 346 Gen.29.12 625 Gen.29.31 626 Gen.30.22 626 Gen.31.3, 5, 24 626 Gen.31.50 627 Gen.32.24-30 373, 374 Gen.32.30 341 Gen.35.3 627 Gen.35.9 627 Gen.39.2, 3 627 Gen.39.21, 23 628 Gen.40.5 48 Gen.41.1, 40 628 Gen.41.42 205 Gen.41.44 629 Gen.43.7 629 Gen.45.21 629 Gen.45.26 205 Gen.46.4 629 Gen.47.31 485 Gen.48.9 630 Gen.48.21 630 Gen.49.17, 18 485 Gen.49.25 630 Gen.50.20 631 Exod.1.21 632 Exod.2.5, 23 632 Exod.3 336, 558 Exod.3.1-6 372 Exod.3.5 374 Exod.3.7 372, 547 Exod.3.8 547, 548, 633 Exod.3.12 633 Exod.3.17, 19 634 Exod.3.12-15 335 Exod.3.14 16, 37, 85, 94, 98, 322, 334-338, 372 Exod.3.14, 16 92

Exod.4.12 634 Exod.4.15 610, 634 Exod.4.16 325 Exod.4.22 79 Exod.4.22, 23 71, 73 Exod.4.31 93 Exod.5.2 634 Exod.6.2, 4, 7 335 Exod.6.8 635 Exod.7.1 324, 325 Exod.7.25 635 Exod.8.10 52 Exod.9.14 52 Exod.10.10, 29 635 Exod.10.19 48 Exod.12.13, 21 547 Exod.12.23, 27 636 Exod.12.29 637 Exod.12.42 480 Exod.12.49 42 Exod.13.5 637 Exod.13.8, 15, 17 638 Exod.14.25 639 Exod.14.31 640 Exod.14.28 48 Exod.15.1 640 Exod.15.1-18 316 Exod.15.2 329, 640 Exod.15.3 344, 596 Exod.15.8 641 Exod.15.13 377 Exod.15.25 641 Exod.16.3 642 Exod.16.8 470, 642 Exod.16.10 236, 485 Exod.16.14 552 Exod.17.1, 13, 15, 16 643 Exod.18.19 644 Exod.19.5 644 Exod.19.10, 11 547, 548 Exod.19.11, 20 544 Exod.20.1 55 Exod.20.3 54, 118 Exod.20.4 246, 601 Exod.20.7 331, 644 Exod.21.22 645 Exod.22.20 132 Exod.23.21, 22 375, 326, 375, 645

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653 Exod.23.25 326 Exod.24.10-11 341, 363 Exod.24.16, 17 363 Exod.25.8 487, 496 Exod.25.22 496, 645 Exod.25.36 48 Exod.26.28 646 Exod.29.42 646 Exod.29.43 647 Exod.30.6, 36 647 Exod.31.13, 17 647 Exod.31.18 418 Exod.32.10 138 Exod.32.13, 35 648 Exod.32.26 119, 573 Exod.33.7-11 497 Exod.33.9 648 Exod.33.11 360 Exod.33.12, 19, 22 649 Exod.33.20 283, 402, 590 Exod.34.5 649 Exod.34.27 650 Exod.34.6, 7 337 Exod.34.14 131 Exod.34.34 599 Exod.36.18 47 Exod.36.33 650 Exod.38.21 650 Exod.40.34 483, 485, 538 Exod.40.35 538, 559 Lev.4.3, 5, 16 237 Lev.6.22 237 Lev.9.23 236 Lev.18.5 584 Lev.20.26 565 Lev.24.11 331, 335 Lev.26.11, 12 494, 495 Num.3.25 496 Num.4.4 496 Num.6.14 141 Num.6.25 297 Num.7.1 496 Num.7.89 599 Num.11.25 494, 544 Num.12.5 545 Num.14.10 236 Num.14.18 337 Num.15.16 42

Num.16.19, 42 236 Num.16.35 553 Num.20.6 236 Num.21.7-9 173, 265, 546 Num.22.17, 22-35 375 Num.33.52 209 Num.35.34 497 Deut.1.30 469 Deut.4.7 475 Deut.4.15-19 217 Deut.4.16, 23, 25 601 Deut.4.16-18 244 Deut.4.24 109 Deut.4.35 33, 51, 131 Deut.4.39 131 Deut.5.6-10 217, 218 Deut.5.7 118 Deut.5.8 601 Deut.5.9 42, 44, 46 Deut.6.4 2, 32, 33, 54, 161, 218, 385 Deut.6.4, 5 3, 43-46, 49-51 Deut.6.13 69, 133, 134, 135, 392 Deut.7.6 397 Deut.7.7 382 Deut.7.9 44, 335 Deut.7.14 550 Deut.9.3 109 Deut.9.10 418 Deut.10.14, 20 44 Deut.10.15 550 Deut.10.17 102, 170, 384 Deut.13.6 44 Deut.14.1 71 Deut.14.1, 2 160 Deut.18.13 565 Deut.19.15 48 Deut.20.3 53 Deut.26.18 160 Deut.26.19 550 Deut.28.1 550 Deut.28.58 331, 332, 335 Deut.30.11-14 424 Deut.30.14 586 Deut.30.20 44 Deut.32.12 44, 132 Deut.32.39 480, 481 Deut.32.41 475 Deut.33.12 112

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654 Deut.33.27 102 Deut.34.6, 7 362 Deut.34.10 360, 364, 541 Josh.5.13-15 374 Josh.5.14 215 Josh.22.22 102 Josh.23.10 48 Josh.24.15 330 Judg.5.3-5 547 Judg.6.20 373 Judg.6.34 492 Judg.13.2 48 Judg.13.6-11, 13-22 373 Judg.13.18 215, 399 Judg.13.22 215 Judg.15.14 492 Judg.20.8 49 Ruth 1.16 105 1Sam.2.2 52, 532 1Sam.3.1 412 1Sam.4.21, 22 403 1Sam.6.5 244 1Sam.8.7 167 1Sam.15.29 281, 403 1Sam.24.6, 10 237 1Sam.26.20 48 2Sam.5.11 239 2Sam.6.21 550 2Sam.7.13 579 2Sam.7.14 79, 82, 578 2Sam.19.21 237 2Sam.22.10 546 2Sam.22.29 419 2Sam.23.1 237 1Ki.4.22 48 1Ki.5.1 239 1Ki.8.10-11 538 1Ki.8.27 366, 565 1Ki.8.60 131 1Ki.17.17 91 1Ki.18.21 330 2Ki.6.12 307 2Ki.11.18 209 2Ki.19.15 132, 385 2Ki.19.19 132 2Ki.19.34 470 2Ki.19.35 375 1Chr.4.23 207

1Chr.13.6 385 1Chr.17.12-13 578, 579, 581 1Chr.21.16 375 1Chr.22.10 579 1Chr.28.6 579 1Chr.29.1 48 1Chr.29.11 550 2Chr.2.6 565 2Chr.5.13, 14 538 2Chr.6.2 305, 497 2Chr.6.18 565 2Chr.6.21-30 304-305 2Chr.7.1-3 538 2Chr.13.20, 21 367 2Chr.23.17 209 Ezra 7.12 170 Neh.9.5 550 Neh.9.6 133 Neh.9.17 337 Neh.9.27 161 Job 2.1 79 Job 4.16 223, 247, 601 Job 5.16 473 Job 5.17 323 Job 7.17, 18 203 Job 9.8 546 Job 9.32 281 Job 11.14, 17 473 Job 23.12 549 Job 33.4 437, 438 Job 35.10 212 Psalm 2 577, 579 Psalm 2.2-8 391, 575 Psalm 2.2-12 6, 575, 576 Psalm 2.7 76, 77, 79, 82, 91, 157, 214, 577, 578 Psalm 2.9 76, 597 Psalm 4.8 133 Psalm 8 182, 193, 203 Psalm 8.1-9 178-181 Psalm 8.4, 5, 6 179-181, 205, 242 Psalm 8.5 202, 492 Psalm 16.10 388, 603 Psalm 16.11 603 Psalm 18.9 546 Psalm 19.14 158 Psalm 22 451 Psalm 22.1 104, 274

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655 Psalm 23.1 94, 360 Psalm 24.8 295 Psalm 30.9 603 Psalm 33.6 9, 212, 408, 412, 420, 428, 432, 437, 478, 506, 532, 537, 553, 555 Psalm 35.23, 24 306 Psalm 36.9 150, 508 Psalm 37.4 143 Psalm 40.8 143 Psalm 45 312 Psalm 45.1, 6, 7 214, 312, 313, 325 Psalm 46.1 371 Psalm 46.7, 8, 11, 12 370, 416 Psalm 50.1 215 Psalm 51.11 440 Psalm 65.3 568 Psalm 68.5 329 Psalm 68.7, 8 547 Psalm 69.9 565 Psalm 72.18 133 Psalm 77.17 410 Psalm 78.35, 56 325 Psalm 82.1, 6, 7 312, 204, 214 Psalm 82.6 72, 325, 492 Psalm 83.18 133, 416 Psalm 85.10-13 472 Psalm 86.11 392 Psalm 86.15 337 Psalm 89.6, 7 550 Psalm 90.2 102, 289, 322 Psalm 91.13 180 Psalm 95.3 550 Psalm 96.4 550 Psalm 97.9 550 Psalm 100.3 212 Psalm 102.1 313 Psalm 102.15 59 Psalm 102.16 236 Psalm 102.25-27 102, 313, 322 Psalm 102.26 523 Psalm 103.8 337 Psalm 103.19 324 Psalm 103.20 270 Psalm 104.4 521 Psalm 107 176, 411 Psalm 107.17-21 467 Psalm 107.19-20 411, 603

Psalm 107.23-31 176 Psalm 107.29, 30 546 Psalm 107.42 473 Psalm 110.1 76, 127, 180, 182-184 Psalm 110.4 282 Psalm 113.4 550 Psalm 118.25 452 Psalm 119.43 508 Psalm 119.89 418, 523 Psalm 119.105 419, 480 Psalm 119.115 128 Psalm 135.1-3 170, 171 Psalm 136.2 102 Psalm 139.7-8 352 Psalm 139.14 349 Psalm 144.3 203 Psalm 145.5 485, 545, 546 Psalm 145.8 337 Psalm 147.15 472 Psalm 148.13 133 Psalm 149.2 212 Prov.6.23 419 Prov.8 260 Prov.8.1-9.6 433 Prov.8.20 212 Prov.8.22 461 Prov.8.22-31 289 Prov.8.30 9, 213, 289, 510, 512, 514, 522 Prov.8.35 433 Prov.20.27 34, 110 Eccl.3.21 34, 110 Eccl.12.7 204 Song 6.8 44, 46 Isa.1.2 71, 73 Isa.2.11, 17 133 Isa.4.2 486 Isa.5.1-7 394 Isa.6.1 402, 593 Isa.6.1-3 324, 341 Isa.6.1, 5 285 Isa.6.3 211 Isa.6.3, 4 539 Isa.6.5 303, 592 Isa.7.14 365, 370, 521, 540, 606 Isa.8.8, 10 370 Isa.9.6 12, 167, 213-216, 332, 365, 390

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656 Isa.9.7 214 Isa.11.2 492 Isa.11.4 596 Isa.11.6-9 215 Isa.14.13, 14 230 Isa.26.4 335 Isa.28.29 215, 399 Isa.29.16 207 Isa.29.18-19 175 Isa.30.30 427 Isa.31.4 545 Isa.32.15 434 Isa.33.14 109 Isa.34.16 48 Isa.35.2 306 Isa.35.8 189 Isa.37.16 132, 385 Isa.37.20 132 Isa.40 37 Isa.40.1-5 12 Isa.40.3-5 364, 365, 369, 371 Isa.40.5 370, 493, 545 Isa.40.6 110 Isa.40.10 427 Isa.40.11 95 Isa.40.13 439 Isa.40.18 218 Isa.40.25 52, 218 Isa.41.4 319 Isa.41.25 207 Isa.42.8 59 Isa.42.9 571 Isa.42.13 596 Isa.43.1 159 Isa.43.3-4 158 Isa.43.7 59 Isa.43.10, 11 94, 320 Isa.43.19 570 Isa.44.6 171, 172, 319, 325 Isa.44.13 209, 602 Isa.44.13-17 224 Isa.44.24 133, 260, 261 Isa.45.1, 2 469 Isa.45.3, 9 66 Isa.45.5 51, 131 Isa.45.6, 21 532 Isa.45.14 51, 66 Isa.45.15 66, 344, 567

Isa.45.18 52, 132 Isa.45.19 392 Isa.45.21-24 33, 52, 65, 132, 162, 222, 250, 536 Isa.45.22, 23 66, 248-250, 280, 573 Isa.45.25 470 Isa.46.5, 9 52 Isa.48.6-7 571 Isa.48.11 59, 221, 470 Isa.48.12 171, 319 Isa.48.13 428 Isa.48.14 427 Isa.49.26 158 Isa.51.9 427, 440 Isa.53.1 428 Isa.55.8 287 Isa.55.10, 11 313, 406, 407, 409, 410, 420, 544 Isa.58.14 143 Isa.59.2 274 Isa.59.19 59 Isa.59.20 394 Isa.63.1-3 595 Isa.63.12 428 Isa.64.1 542, 545 Isa.64.1-3 543 Isa.64.4 295, 399 Isa.64.4, 5, 6, 7 202 Isa.64.8 71, 212 Isa.65.2 521 Isa.65.16 27 Isa.66.1 367 Isa.66.13 476 Jer.10.6 52 Jer.13.11 59 Jer.15.16 549 Jer.17.12 483 Jer.18.4, 6 207 Jer.31.3 337, 377, 568 Jer.31.9 71, 73 Jer.31.22 606 Lam.3.40 35 Lam.4.2 207 Lam.4.20 237 Lam.5.19 324 Ezek.1.1, 3, 28 403 Ezek.1.22, 26, 28 324, 364, 402 Ezek.1.28 236

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657 Ezek.3.1-3 549 Ezek.3.23 236 Ezek.7.20 209 Ezek.8.4 236 Ezek.9.3 486 Ezek.10.3-4 539 Ezek.16.17 209, 216 Ezek.23.14 209 Ezek.26.7 170 Ezek.28.12-19 239 Ezek.37.15-22 47 Ezek.37.27 494, 495 Ezek.39.17-18 595, 596 Ezek.39.21-22 596 Dan.2.37 170 Dan.2.47 102 Dan.6.3 550 Dan.7 182 Dan.7.9-10 341 Dan.7.13 75, 214, 317 Dan.7.13, 14 182, 183, 184 Dan.7.14 214 Dan.8.11 215 Dan.8.25 215 Dan.10.4-6 318, 319 Dan.10.8, 9 319 Dan.11.36 102 Hos.1.9 335 Hos.11.1 73 Hos.11.9 281 Hos.11.10 476 Joel 2.13 337, 399 Joel 2.23, 28, 29 410 Joel 2.31, 32 281, 332, 388 Amos 5.26 209 Obad.1.21 162 Jonah 4.2 337 Micah 1.3 545 Micah 3.8 494 Micah 7.18 361 Nahum 1.3 337 Hab.3.17-18 299 Zeph.3.15 325 Hag.1.13 371 Zech.1.3 323 Zech.1.12 371 Zech.11.13 207 Zech.12.1 34, 110

Zech.14.9 44 Mal.1.6 71 Mal.2.7 371 Mal.3.1 365, 542 Mal.3.6 322 Mal.3.17 397 Mal.4.5 542 Matt.1.21-23 6, 12, 248, 370, 521, 540 Matt.2.15 73 Matt.3.1-3 370 Matt.3.11 61 Matt.3.16 548 Matt.3.17 159, 223, 576 Matt.4.3, 6 63 Matt.4.10 69, 133, 219, 302 Matt.4.15 446 Matt.5.9 63 Matt.5.10-12 164, 287 Matt.5.14 151, 236, 319 Matt.5.18 423, 451 Matt.5.22 155, 449 Matt.5.34-37 152-155, 324, 367 Matt.5.48 142, 565 Matt.6.9 61, 85 Matt.6.9-13 106, 367 Matt.6.11 426 Matt.6.12 262 Matt.6.13 262 Matt.6.24 449, 527 Matt.6.28, 29 268 Matt.7.9, 10 367 Matt.7.21-23 2, 34, 51, 124, 128 Matt.8.8, 16 467 Matt.8.24-27 176, 546 Matt.8.29 63 Matt.10.3 452 Matt.10.29-31 348, 366, 430 Matt.10.38 106 Matt.11.3 581 Matt.11.9-11 366 Matt.11.14 542 Matt.11.19 232, 285, 354, 420, 520 Matt.11.27 85, 181 Matt.11.28 106, 573 Matt.12.6, 41, 42 583 Matt.12.42 580 Matt.12.48, 49 104

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658 Matt.13.15, 16 175 Matt.13.19 409 Matt.13.19, 20, 22 437 Matt.13.46 194 Matt.13.56 510, 515 Matt.14.33 64 Matt.16.16 64, 79-82, 577, 578 Matt.16.17 314, 452 Matt.16.27 188 Matt.17.2 484 Matt.17.5 159, 223, 576 Matt.18.20 297 Matt.19.5 153 Matt.19.21 106 Matt.19.30 271 Matt.20.25 168 Matt.20.28 159, 169, 224, 314 Matt.21.9 61 Matt.21.25 251 Matt.21.37 144 Matt.21.42 10 Matt.22.20 216 Matt.22.29 160 Matt.22.37 50, 327 Matt.22.40 50 Matt.23 135 Matt.23.9 117, 365 Matt.23.11 238 Matt.23.15 398 Matt.23.34, 35 119 Matt.23.39 61 Matt.24.3 19 Matt.24.14 19-21 Matt.24.24 116, 220, 440 Matt.24.30 182 Matt.24.36-38 307 Matt.25.31-46 118, 169 Matt.25.34 290, 292 Matt.25.36, 43 92 Matt.26.18, 55 510 Matt.26.25, 49 450 Matt.26.36 454 Matt.26.52 211 Matt.26.59-66 74 Matt.26.61 304, 556 Matt.26.63 64, 79, 82 Matt.26.63, 64 64 Matt.26.64 75, 183, 184

Matt.26.65, 66 73, 74 Matt.27.6 453 Matt.27.14 521 Matt.27.16 452 Matt.27.40, 43, 54 64 Matt.27.41-43 78 Matt.27.46 104, 128, 274, 450 Matt.27.51, 52 545 Matt.27.54 64 Matt.28.18 85, 99, 170, 181, 270, 315 Matt.28.18-20 20, 55, 62 Matt.28.19 56-59, 61-64, 389, 391 Matt.28.20 408, 440 Mark 1.1 79 Mark 1.2-5 370 Mark 1.10 545, 548 Mark 1.11 279 Mark 1.24 565 Mark 2.27 267 Mark 3.17 453 Mark 3.33 104 Mark 4.26 409 Mark 5.41 8, 448 Mark 6.3 510, 515 Mark 7.11 451 Mark 7.13 517 Mark 7.34 448 Mark 8.29 80 Mark 8.34 106 Mark 8.38 188 Mark 9.2, 3 484 Mark 9.5 450 Mark 9.19 515 Mark 10.18 118 Mark 10.42-44 168 Mark 10.45 167, 169, 224, 314 Mark 10.46 452 Mark 10.51 450 Mark 11.9 452 Mark 11.21 450 Mark 11.30 251 Mark 12.6 144 Mark 12.10 10 Mark 12.28 53 Mark 12.28-30 34 Mark 12.29 32, 39, 43, 51, 53, 93, 161, 481, 570

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659 Mark 12.29-31 3, 118, 135 Mark 12.30 50, 327, 399 Mark 12.32, 34 51 Mark 12.36 180 Mark 13.22 440 Mark 13.26 183, 184 Mark 14.24 410 Mark 14.32 455 Mark 14.36 97, 106, 327, 448 Mark 14.45 450 Mark 14.58 304, 556, 559, 569 Mark 14.62 180 Mark 14.64 73 Mark 15.22 455 Mark 15.32 78 Mark 15.34 104, 274, 450 Mark 16.12 242, 243 Luke 1.15 451 Luke 1.31 12 Luke 1.35 278, 577 Luke 1.51 428 Luke 2.9 297 Luke 2.11 140 Luke 2.14 527 Luke 2.29 191 Luke 3.2-6 370 Luke 3.22 548, 576, 577 Luke 3.38 79, 203, 209, 278 Luke 4.8 133, 134, 219, 302 Luke 4.16 331 Luke 4.34 565 Luke 4.41 79 Luke 5.37 410 Luke 6.46 2, 34, 51, 124, 168 Luke 7.7 467 Luke 7.11-17 92 Luke 7.12 278 Luke 7.26-28 365 Luke 7.34 354 Luke 7.35 232, 285, 420, 520 Luke 8.11 409 Luke 8.21 104 Luke 8.42 278 Luke 9.20 64, 80 Luke 9.35 326, 382 Luke 9.38 277 Luke 10.22 181 Luke 10.27 50, 327

Luke 11.3 426 Luke 11.4 262 Luke 11.31, 32 580, 583 Luke 11.47-51 567 Luke 11.49 232, 285, 420, 520, 522 Luke 12.7 366 Luke 12.48 117 Luke 14.6 521 Luke 16.9-13 449, 450 Luke 16.19-31 386 Luke 18.19 118 Luke 18.22 106 Luke 20.4 251 Luke 20.17, 18 117 Luke 20.38 527 Luke 21.5 481 Luke 22.20 410, 603 Luke 22.25 168 Luke 22.26 238 Luke 22.42 247 Luke 23.35 326 Luke 23.47 64 John 1.1 5, 9, 23, 30, 36, 39, 66, 153, 197, 234, 280, 289, 380, 384, 401, 403-405, 408, 413, 415, 416, 428, 429, 431-433, 438, 459, 462-464, 467, 488, 491, 492, 499-501, 504, 506512, 514, 524, 528, 529, 531537, 544, 554, 555, 564, 596, 598, 600, 609 John 1.1, 2 415, 491, 501, 509, 511, 516-522 John 1.1, 14 403, 408, 500, 530 John 1.1-18 5, 345, 403, 430, 518, 543 John 1.2-3 438 John 1.3 412, 432, 474, 488, 492 John 1.3, 10 426, 466, 470, 475 John 1.4 419, 509 John 1.6 534, 542 John 1.10 345 John 1.12 80 John 1.14 5, 13, 15, 75, 89, 90, 110, 142, 177, 193, 197, 216, 232, 277, 279, 281, 283, 284, 304, 403, 404, 408, 425, 429, 430, 437, 482-484, 486, 490-494,

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660 496, 498, 500, 508, 509, 518, 536, 537, 540-542, 544, 552, 553, 555, 556, 590, 591 John 1.15, 30 582, 583 John 1.16 437, 491, 498 John 1.16, 17 438 John 1.17 5, 157, 284, 418, 509, 555 John 1.18 77, 112, 216, 277, 279, 280, 517, 526, 527, 590 John 1.23 370 John 1.29 99, 606 John 1.29, 36 158, 311 John 1.32, 33 548 John 1.34 77, 82 John 1.39 106 John 1.41 77 John 1.42 452, 453 John 1.49 77, 82, 450, 577 John 1.51 553 John 2.17 565 John 2.19 95, 196, 197, 304, 305, 345, 483, 494, 556, 558, 559 John 2.19-22 494, 556, 558 John 2.21 95, 281, 544, 559, 568, 569 John 2.22 10, 95, 304, 556, 557 John 3.5, 6, 8 408 John 3.8 437 John 3.13, 14 423, 549, 553 John 3.14, 15 173, 265, 287, 546 John 3.16 77, 147, 298, 327, 337, 561, 580 John 3.16-18 13, 142, 278, 345 John 3.19 150 John 3.31 423, 550 John 3.32 284 John 3.34 143, 144, 437, 549 John 3.35 85, 86, 181 John 4.10, 14 361 John 4.13, 14 7, 266, 410 John 4.21-23 97, 98, 393 John 4.24 35, 226, 235, 236, 368, 402, 528, 529, 599 John 4.31 450 John 4.34 143, 148, 149 John 4.42 6, 7, 76, 99, 140, 225 John 5.15-19 70

John 5.19 93, 148, 162, 177, 284, 285 John 5.19-30 147, 248 John 5.21 146 John 5.21-27 85 John 5.22 282 John 5.22, 27, 36 86 John 5.24-29 99 John 5.26 146, 423 John 5.30 93, 99, 148, 150, 177 John 5.36 177 John 5.40 106 John 5.41 165 John 5.42 135 John 5.43 58, 62 John 5.44 3, 53, 93, 118, 134, 135, 153, 165, 212, 386, 481, 532, 573, 590 John 6.14, 15 166 John 6.15 34, 165, 166, 168 John 6.25 450 John 6.27 98, 100 John 6.31-33 251, 252 John 6.33, 35 410 John 6.33, 38, 41, 42, 50, 51, 58 548 John 6.37 368 John 6.38 149, 423 John 6.39 86, 148 John 6.39, 40 558 John 6.44, 65 106 John 6.46 284 John 6.51, 58 361 John 6.53, 54-56, 63 410 John 6.54, 56, 57, 58 561 John 6.57 146 John 6.62 549 John 6.63 393, 437, 552 John 6.69 565 John 7.16 143 John 7.17 150 John 7.18 165 John 7.38, 39 441 John 7.39 288 John 7.42 606 John 8.12 236, 319, 423 John 8.23 406, 550 John 8.24 87

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661 John 8.24-28 87, 88, 91 John 8.28 88, 89, 93, 287 John 8.29 60, 143, 223 John 8.34 493 John 8.38 284, 285 John 8.42 147, 148, 551 John 8.50, 54 165 John 8.53 583 John 8.58 93, 94, 558, 582, 583 John 9.2 450 John 9.5 236, 319, 423 John 9.9 86, 90 John 10.7, 9 90 John 10.11, 14 94 John 10.15 85 John 10.17, 18 557 John 10.18 128, 149 John 10.24, 25 87, 177 John 10.25 58, 62 John 10.25, 37, 38 194 John 10.27 106 John 10.27-38 71, 72 John 10.30 142, 561 John 10.32 177 John 10.33, 36, 38 72 John 10.34 214, 492 John 10.34-36 204, 312, 325, 530 John 10.36 73, 406 John 11.8 450 John 11.16 454 John 11.25-27 79, 82, 91, 93, 406 John 12.13, 28 59 John 12.23, 24 287 John 12.24 409 John 12.32-33 287, 288 John 12.38 428 John 12.40, 41 589, 592, 593 John 12.41 283, 284, 402, 589-593 John 12.43 165 John 12.45 216 John 12.49 86, 94, 128, 143, 148 John 13.1 168 John 13.3 85, 86, 181, 511, 551 John 13.16 145, 146 John 13.23 112, 279 John 13.31 288 John 13.33, 36 407 John 14.1, 10, 11 96

John 14.2, 3 293 John 14.3, 4, 18, 19, 28 407 John 14.6 65, 89-91, 406 John 14.8-11 303 John 14.9 85, 99, 209, 216, 225 John 14.9-10 216 John 14.10 13, 93, 94, 143, 148, 154, 162, 177, 281, 491, 549, 556, 560 John 14.10, 11 303 John 14.11 196, 197 John 14.13 223 John 14.16, 17 407, 442 John 14.18 407 John 14.20 75 John 14.24 94, 143, 558 John 14.26 61 John 14.28 66, 72, 96, 145 John 14.31 128, 149 John 15.1 73, 394 John 15.5, 6 394, 560 John 15.10 128, 149 John 15.16 60, 223 John 15.22 407 John 15.24 216 John 15.26 62 John 16.5, 7, 10, 16, 17, 22, 28 407 John 16.7 439 John 16.10 293, 407 John 16.15 285, 286 John 16.23 223 John 16.23-26 60 John 16.27, 28, 30 551, 552 John 17.1-5 486 John 17.2 85 John 17.2, 7, 8 86 John 17.3 2, 11, 12, 30, 53, 55, 87, 93, 99, 106, 134, 153, 250, 277, 302, 392, 481, 491, 503, 536, 570, 573, 590 John 17.3, 8, 11, 13, 18, 23 407 John 17.4 294, 406 John 17.5 286, 288, 289, 290, 292, 294, 295 John 17.6, 11 59 John 17.7 286 John 17.8 143, 552 John 17.10, 22 285

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662 John 17.11, 12, 26 60 John 17.11, 21-23 562 John 17.11, 22 68 John 17.17 89 John 17.21-23 75, 560 John 17.22 59, 298 John 17.23 125, 298, 368, 369 John 19.6, 7, 15 73 John 19.13, 17 455 John 19.28 156 John 19.30 406 John 20.16 450 John 20.17 102, 104, 105, 128, 293, 406 John 20.21 145, 146, 307 John 20.22 66, 105, 226 John 20.24 454 John 20.28 39, 66, 302, 306, 380, 500 John 20.31 6, 51, 79, 84, 86-88, 311, 420 John 21.2 454 John 21.9, 12, 13 358 John 21.17 306 John 21.19 288 Acts 1.9-11 549 Acts 1.23 453 Acts 2.2-4 539 Acts 2.20 281, 387, 388 Acts 2.20, 36 282 Acts 2.20-21 387 Acts 2.21 332 Acts 2.22 177 Acts 2.24, 32 95, 557 Acts 2.27 388 Acts 2.27, 31 565 Acts 2.31-32 127, 603 Acts 2.33 410 Acts 2.33, 34 604 Acts 2.34-36 127 Acts 2.36 66, 100, 130, 221, 248, 321, 385, 386 Acts 2.38 61, 441 Acts 3.6 61 Acts 3.13, 15, 26 95, 385, 557 Acts 3.18 500 Acts 4.10 95, 280 Acts 4.12 60, 65, 198

Acts 4.24 191, 511, 520 Acts 4.25, 27, 30 385 Acts 4.36 453 Acts 5.30 95 Acts 5.32 441 Acts 7.2 297 Acts 7.2, 55 236 Acts 7.44-47 497 Acts 7.48 569 Acts 7.49 367 Acts 7.56 386 Acts 7.59 386, 387 Acts 8.15, 17 441 Acts 8.16 61 Acts 9.3-7 387 Acts 9.27, 28 61 Acts 9.36 454 Acts 10.36 551 Acts 10.40 95 Acts 10.45 410, 441 Acts 10.48 61 Acts 12.5 511, 520 Acts 12.21 238 Acts 13.5 524 Acts 13.6 453 Acts 13.30 557 Acts 13.30, 37 95 Acts 13.32.33 578 Acts 13.33 77 Acts 13.35 603 Acts 13.35, 37 565 Acts 14.3 510 Acts 15.5 390 Acts 15.8 441 Acts 16.7 408 Acts 16.18 61 Acts 17.13 524 Acts 17.23 137 Acts 17.24 212 Acts 17.28 366, 430 Acts 18.9, 10 387 Acts 19.2 226 Acts 19.5 61 Acts 19.28 188 Acts 20.24 234, 274 Acts 20.26 84 Acts 20.28 191 Acts 20.32 508

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663 Acts 21.39 245 Acts 24.16 511, 520 Acts 26.7 302 Rom.1.1 96 Rom.1.2 10 Rom.1.3 606 Rom.1.4 79, 569, 578 Rom.1.16 245, 420 Rom.1.18-25 241 Rom.1.20 534, 541, 600 Rom.1.21 12, 106 Rom.1.22, 23 217 Rom.1.23 244 Rom.1.25 310 Rom.2.9, 10 420 Rom.2.28, 29 54, 395, 396, 397 Rom.3.10 141 Rom.3.10-18 164 Rom.3.21-22 419 Rom.3.21-26 173-175 Rom.3.23 156 Rom.3.28 38 Rom.3.30 45, 65, 380, 396 Rom.3.31 424 Rom.4.3 10 Rom.4.9 396 Rom.4.11 158 Rom.4.12 396 Rom.4.17 291-293, 581 Rom.4.19-22 294 Rom.4.24 557 Rom.5.1 38, 511, 517, 520 Rom.5.2 188 Rom.5.5-8 60, 141, 157-159, 442 Rom.5.9, 10 265 Rom.5.12-21 242 Rom.5.15-19 182, 265, 280, 493, 605 Rom.5.19 13, 111, 139, 148, 192, 193, 225, 247 Rom.5.20-21 419 Rom.6.3 61 Rom.6.4 294, 303, 557 Rom.6.5 562 Rom.6.16 493 Rom.7.4 409, 496 Rom.7.4, 25 419 Rom.7.6 437

Rom.7.7-13 241, 242 Rom.7.14 493 Rom.8.2 437 Rom.8.3 419 Rom.8.3, 18-21 241 Rom.8.8, 33 527 Rom.8.9 389, 408 Rom.8.10 437 Rom.8.11 495, 557 Rom.8.14, 15 327 Rom.8.15 106, 441, 449 Rom.8.16 301 Rom.8.17 267, 285, 301 Rom.8.28 375, 573 Rom.8.29, 30 267, 271, 289, 292 Rom.8.32 158, 159, 161, 267, 327, 356, 373 Rom.8.32, 34 157 Rom.9.1-3 245 Rom.9.4 297, 398 Rom.9.5 39, 72, 102, 129, 308-310, 380 Rom.9.6-8 396, 398 Rom.9.20 66 Rom.10.1 511, 520 Rom.10.2 206 Rom.10.4 419, 586 Rom.10.5, 6 584-586 Rom.10.6-9 423, 424, 584 Rom.10.8 438, 586 Rom.10.9 95, 127 Rom.10.13 332, 387, 388 Rom.10.21 521 Rom.11.1, 2, 11, 16-18 393, 394 Rom.11.5, 7 394 Rom.11.13 379 Rom.11.19-24 394, 395 Rom.11.25 35 Rom.11.26 394 Rom.11.33 66, 293, 495 Rom.11.33, 36 310 Rom.11.34 255, 439 Rom.11.36 129, 255 Rom.12.1 40, 316 Rom.12.2 40, 198, 252, 500 Rom.12.4, 5 560 Rom.13.8, 10 424 Rom.14.11 66

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664 Rom.15.6 14, 100, 102 Rom.15.17 511 Rom.15.30 511, 520 Rom.15.33 310 Rom.16.20 180 Rom.16.27 3, 65, 310, 380 1Cor.1.9 79, 81 1Cor.1.12 453 1Cor.1.17-2.13 122 1Cor.1.26 234 1Cor.1.27 382 1Cor.2.7-9 295 1Cor.2.8 295, 296, 298, 484 1Cor.2.9 269, 399 1Cor.2.10, 11 34, 439, 440, 441 1Cor.2.12 441 1Cor.2.12, 13 437 1Cor.2.16 166, 439 1Cor.3.16 193, 442, 496, 497, 560 1Cor.3.16, 17 345 1Cor.3.21 268, 286, 399 1Cor.3.21-23 268, 285 1Cor.3.23 160, 300 1Cor.5.3, 4 440 1Cor.5.5 281 1Cor.6.3 179, 270 1Cor.6.14 95, 569 1Cor.6.16, 17 47, 298 1Cor.6.17 112, 114, 115, 442, 562 1Cor.6.19 193, 345, 442, 496, 497, 556, 558 1Cor.6.19, 20 159, 496 1Cor.7.23 159 1Cor.8.4 65, 380 1Cor.8.5 31, 121, 491, 536 1Cor.8.5, 6 16, 43, 44, 171 1Cor.8.6 45, 64, 65, 249, 250, 257, 309, 380 1Cor.10.3, 4 266 1Cor.10.11 570 1Cor.10.16 409 1Cor.11.1 233, 274 1Cor.11.3 268 1Cor.11.7 164, 179, 181, 201, 211, 218, 235, 236, 242, 263, 264, 340 1Cor.11.12 474 1Cor.11.28 150, 439 1Cor.12.7-11 409

1Cor.12.13 61 1Cor.12.27 496 1Cor.13.12 195 1Cor.14.25 66 1Cor.15.3 66 1Cor.15.4, 12 557 1Cor.15.9 417 1Cor.15.9, 24, 28 300 1Cor.15.20 172 1Cor.15.21-22 242 1Cor.15.23 162 1Cor.15.24 302 1Cor.15.24-28 76, 180, 184, 302, 315 1Cor.15.25 183 1Cor.15.27 205 1Cor.15.27, 28 130 1Cor.15.27, 45 242 1Cor.15.28 28, 206, 301, 302, 390 1Cor.15.35-57 184 1Cor.15.40-43 287 1Cor.15.42, 47-49 241 1Cor.15.45 162, 172, 180, 209, 225, 235 1Cor.15.45-49 251, 252 1Cor.15.47 142, 182-184, 235, 238, 244 1Cor.15.49 218 1Cor.15.50 314 1Cor.16.22 387, 446, 450 2Cor.1.3 14, 100, 102 2Cor.1.14 281 2Cor.1.17, 19 152 2Cor.1.19 79, 81 2Cor.1.20 398 2Cor.1.21 527 2Cor.1.22 442 2Cor.2.15, 16 117 2Cor.3.4 511, 520 2Cor.3.6 437 2Cor.3.13, 14 419 2Cor.3.16 599 2Cor.3.17 598-600 2Cor.3.18 218 2Cor.4.2 246 2Cor.4.3 491

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665 2Cor.4.4 210, 216, 224, 242, 244, 249, 263, 358 2Cor.4.6 242, 590 2Cor.4.18 227 2Cor.5.1, 4 497 2Cor.5.2 251 2Cor.5.4 540 2Cor.5.5 442 2Cor.5.17 110, 271, 605, 606 2Cor.5.17-21 274, 562, 571 2Cor.5.19 12, 15, 90, 153, 154, 161, 172, 177, 184, 185, 259, 281, 307, 345, 527, 553, 568, 597 2Cor.6.16 442, 494, 495, 560 2Cor.6.18 323 2Cor.7.15 124 2Cor.8.1, 2 273 2Cor.8.2 234, 274 2Cor.8.9 273, 274 2Cor.9.15 117, 147 2Cor.11.23-30 245, 563 2Cor.11.31 100, 102, 309, 310 2Cor.12.2, 3 439 2Cor.12.9 178 2Cor.13.7 511, 520 2Cor.13.14 65, 66 Gal.1.1 95, 557 Gal.1.4 103 Gal.1.10 96 Gal.1.13 417 Gal.1.14 379 Gal.1.18 453, 515 Gal.2.5 524 Gal.2.16 38 Gal.2.16, 19, 21 419 Gal.2.19 527 Gal.2.20 79, 159, 192, 337 Gal.3.1 62, 119, 459 Gal.3.2 441 Gal.3.7, 29 395 Gal.3.13, 24 419 Gal.3.19-22 157 Gal.3.20 45, 161 Gal.3.24 38 Gal.3.27 61 Gal.3.28 390, 397 Gal.3.29 54, 396, 397 Gal.3.29-4.7 267

Gal.4.1 267 Gal.4.3-4 241 Gal.4.6 106, 327, 449 Gal.4.8 527 Gal.4.9 106 Gal.4.19 224 Gal.5.2-4 7 Gal.5.4 419 Gal.5.6 118 Gal.5.14 424 Gal.5.22 110 Gal.6.16 54, 380, 395, 399, 581 Eph.1.3 65, 100, 103, 380 Eph.1.4 256-259, 271 Eph.1.6 299 Eph.1.7-10 272 Eph.1.10 562 Eph.1.10, 16 256 Eph.1.13 89, 508 Eph.1.19-23 130, 551 Eph.1.20 557 Eph.1.20, 22 180 Eph.2.10 252, 255 Eph.2.11-13 396, 398 Eph.2.12 380 Eph.2.15 390, 605 Eph.2.16 562 Eph.2.21 559 Eph.2.22 442 Eph.3.4 116, 430 Eph.3.5 88 Eph.3.14 65, 100, 380 Eph.3.19 438, 539 Eph.3.21 299 Eph.4.3 408 Eph.4.6 65, 103, 128-130, 380 Eph.4.10 130 Eph.4.12 496 Eph.4.13 79, 81, 162, 163 Eph.4.18 35, 508 Eph.4.24 252 Eph.5.20 62, 223 Eph.5.23 409 Eph.5.32 269 Eph.6.12 314 Eph.6.17 119 Phil.1.6 252 Phil.1.19 389, 408

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666 Phil.1.23 520 Phil.2.5-11 4, 5, 13, 14, 26, 27, 34, 66, 130, 145, 148, 168, 193, 198, 205, 206, 209-211, 214, 221-249, 253, 271, 273, 274, 295, 301, 320, 321, 404, 601 Phil.2.12 124 Phil.2.16 507 Phil.2.17 233 Phil.3.1 299 Phil.3.3 302, 396-398 Phil.3.4-6 379 Phil.3.5 246, 297 Phil.3.8 274 Phil.3.11-13 563 Phil.3.12 111, 196, 301 Phil.4.4 299 Phil.4.6 511, 520 Phil.4.20 103 Col.1.5 438, 508 Col.1.9, 13-22 263 Col.1.12-22 5, 254, 256-259, 262264, 267, 270, 399 Col.1.15 210, 216, 224, 242, 244, 249, 253, 263, 267, 270 Col.1.16 258, 268, 269 Col.1.17 271, 272 Col.1.18 409 Col.1.19 29, 142, 264, 281, 438, 490, 498, 541, 552, 565 Col.1.19, 20 256 Col.1.20 196, 307, 495, 562, 603 Col.2.3 66 Col.2.9 29, 142, 193, 215, 263, 281, 304, 438, 483, 491, 496, 498, 540, 541, 549, 552, 558, 565 Col.2.12 95, 557 Col.2.13-15 568, 569 Col.2.15 163 Col.2.18, 19 317, 559, 560 Col.3.2 328 Col.3.9, 10 252 Col.3.10, 11 389, 390, 397 Col.3.16 410 Col.3.17 62 Col.4.3 116, 430 Col.4.11 396

1Thess.1.3 103 1Thess.1.8 511, 520 1Thess.3.11, 13 103 1Thess.4.8 441 1Thess.4.15 412 1Thess.5.2 281 1Thess.5.3 69 2Thess.1.8 527 2Thess.1.12 190 2Thess.2.3, 4 68, 69 2Thess.2.8 370 2Thess.2.9 69 1Tim.1.1 158, 188, 357 1Tim.1.9, 10 509 1Tim.1.17 3, 65, 188, 220, 236, 249, 309, 328, 380 1Tim.2.3 158 1Tim.2.3, 5 189 1Tim.2.5 15, 45, 65, 156, 172, 182, 197, 219, 249, 280, 301, 380, 493, 549, 553 1Tim.2.5, 6 141 1Tim.3.16 15, 275, 284, 597 1Tim.4.10 188 1Tim.6.14-16 188, 309, 590 1Tim.6.15 170, 413, 594 1Tim.6.16 102 1Tim.6.17 269 2Tim.1.9 12, 15 2Tim.1.9, 10 291, 292, 509 2Tim.1.10 186, 509 2Tim.1.14 495 2Tim.2.8 606 2Tim.2.15 438, 524 2Tim.3.1 573 2Tim.4.6 233, 234, 274 Titus 1.1 585 Titus 1.3 250, 357 Titus 1.4 186, 250 Titus 1.16 527 Titus 2.10 250 Titus 2.13 39, 186-189, 380 Titus 2.14 495 Titus 3.4 250 Titus 3.6 186, 250, 410 Titus 3.8 527 Heb.1.1-3 297, 313 Heb.1.2 267, 311

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667 Heb.1.3 181, 216, 250, 281, 403, 484, 566, 590 Heb.1.5 578-581 Heb.1.7, 8 521 Heb.1.8 39, 311, 312, 381 Heb.1.8-12 312, 313 Heb.2.7 492 Heb.2.7, 8, 9, 15 241 Heb.2.8-9 180 Heb.2.9 170 Heb.2.10 129, 139, 140, 247, 255, 563 Heb.2.14 314 Heb.2.17 511, 520 Heb.3.4 527 Heb.3.5, 6 419, 581 Heb.4.12 119, 501, 507 Heb.4.15 193, 493 Heb.4.16 385 Heb.5.1 511, 520, 521, 522 Heb.5.1, 4, 5 157 Heb.5.5 77, 158, 578 Heb.5.7 275 Heb.5.8 139, 143, 247, 563 Heb.5.9 90, 196, 244 Heb.5.13 438 Heb.7.1 77 Heb.7.3 282 Heb.7.24, 25 128, 301 Heb.7.28 139, 196, 244 Heb.8.1 403 Heb.8.5, 6 419 Heb.9.5 297, 385 Heb.9.9 302 Heb.9.11 569 Heb.9.13, 14 141 Heb.9.15 172 Heb.9.24 157 Heb.9.26 570 Heb.10.2 302 Heb.10.5 606 Heb.11.17 278, 580 Heb.11.24-29 419, 424 Heb.11.40 196 Heb.12.1, 2 173 Heb.12.2 163, 172 Heb.12.23 196 Heb.12.24 172

Heb.12.29 109, 363 James 1.13 111, 152, 493 James 1.17 266 James 1.18 90, 408 James 2.1 295-297, 484 James 2.19 43-45 James 2.26 437 James 3.2 144 James 5.12 152 1Pet.1.3 100, 103 1Pet.1.11 408 1Pet.1.12 410 1Pet.1.16 565 1Pet.1.17-19 141, 159 1Pet.1.19 138, 356 1Pet.1.20 291 1Pet.1.21 95, 557 1Pet.1.23 408, 409, 437 1Pet.2.5 442 1Pet.2.6 10 1Pet.2.9 59, 397 1Pet.2.9, 10 160 1Pet.3.18 89, 106, 198 1Pet.4.17 116 2Pet.1.1 189, 190 2Pet.1.4 109, 110, 114, 525, 533 2Pet.1.17 159 2Pet.2.1 191 2Pet.3.10 281 1John 1.1 90, 415, 437, 508, 509 1John 1.1, 2 506, 507, 536 1John 1.2 509, 518 1John 1.3 125 1John 1.5 529 1John 2.1 301 1John 2.24 277 1John 2.27-29 369, 370 1John 3.1 327, 370 1John 3.2 211, 252, 301, 369, 370 1John 3.4 524 1John 3.9 193, 369 1John 3.21 511, 520 1John 4.2 504 1John 4.8, 16 268, 529 1John 4.9 142, 278 1John 4.10 293 1John 4.14 76, 140, 162, 225 1John 4.16, 19 327

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668 1John 5.7, 8 276 1John 5.16, 17 119 1John 5.20 39, 66, 79, 276, 277, 380 1John 5.21 119, 208, 220 2John 1.3, 9 79 2John 1.7 504 2John 1.12 515, 516 Jude 1.4 190, 191 Jude 1.25 3, 186 Rev.1.4 338 Rev.1.4, 8 323 Rev.1.5 267, 314 Rev.1.6 103, 321 Rev.1.7 317 Rev.1.8 323, 338 Rev.1.12 128 Rev.1.13-26 317-319 Rev.1.17 162, 171, 271, 324 Rev.2.8 162, 171, 271, 319 Rev.2.10 234 Rev.2.13 321 Rev.3.2 104 Rev.3.2, 12 128 Rev.3.9 180 Rev.3.12 104 Rev.3.21 316, 321, 327 Rev.4.2, 8, 10, 13 316 Rev.4.8 323, 324, 338 Rev.4.9, 10 171, 317 Rev.5.5 163 Rev.5.8, 13, 14 315, 316 Rev.5.12 294 Rev.5.13 316 Rev.6.2 506 Rev.6.10 191 Rev.6.16 138 Rev.7.9-17 315, 316, 317 Rev.10.1 319 Rev.10.6 255 Rev.10.9 549 Rev.11.15 125, 500 Rev.11.16 317 Rev.11.17 323 Rev.12.5 511 Rev.12.9 270 Rev.12.10 500 Rev.13.6 511

Rev.13.8 257-259, 290-292 Rev.13.11 314 Rev.13.14, 15 218, 219 Rev.14.1 56 Rev.14.7 317 Rev.14.9, 11 218 Rev.14.10 138 Rev.14.14 317 Rev.15.1, 3, 4 316 Rev.15.2 218 Rev.15.3 323 Rev.15.4 317 Rev.16.2 218 Rev.16.7, 14 323 Rev.17.14 169, 170, 237, 594 Rev.17.17 595 Rev.19.4, 10 317 Rev.19.6, 15 323 Rev.19.11-18 594-596 Rev.19.13 413, 506, 533 Rev.19.16 169, 413 Rev.19.20 218 Rev.20.4 218, 219 Rev.21.3 540 Rev.21.22 323 Rev.22.1 321 Rev.22.3 315, 316 Rev.22.6, 8, 9, 16 316, 317 Rev.22.9 322 Rev.22.13 171, 172, 319 Rev.22.16 322 Rev.22.20 387

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