THE THE CONCEPT CONCEPT ASAS LAW LAW THE CONCEPTUAL THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH APPROACH AS A STRATEGIC AS A STRATEGIC CHOICE CHOICE FOR LOCATION FOR LOCATION DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT
Saskia Dijkstra, Saskia Dijkstra, Senior Advisor, Senior Advisor, Total Identity Total Identity
this way,this a future way, awork future environment work environment is brought is brought into being into being Globalisation, Globalisation, an economy an economy that is that increasingly is increasingly serviceservicefrom the from very the start. very This start. article This describes article describes the new the approach new approach oriented oriented and a growing and a growing numbernumber of small ofbusinesses small businesses have led have led to realising to realising and organising and organising businessbusiness parks, asparks, well as as the well as the businesspeople businesspeople to set different to set different requirements requirements for their forwork their work method of method concept of concept development development used to come used to to come it. to it. environment. environment. They value Theyavalue business a business location location with the with right the right Factors Underlying Factors Underlying Changing Changing BusinessBusiness Needs Needs partners, partners, competitors competitors and collective and collective profiling profiling opportunities— opportunities— A number A number of economic of economic developments developments have ledhave to a led to a a location a location which which appealsappeals to clients to clients and suppliers. and suppliers. By By change in change businesspeople’s in businesspeople’s requirements requirements for theirfor work their work developing developing a business a business park based park on based a concept, on a concept, which which servesserves environment. environment. The character The character of our work of our activities work activities is is as a basis as afor basis its functions, for its functions, target target group focus groupand focus marketing, and marketing, changing. changing. Globalisation Globalisation and the and increase the increase in the number in the number of of businesses businesses are the two are the most two important most important aspects.aspects. it is possible it is possible to come toto come a common to a common proposition. proposition. The focus Theisfocus is one-manone-man centredcentred on a new on aapproach new approach to the development to the development of business of business From Production From Production to Knowledge to Knowledge Industry Industry parks and parks theand method the method for developing for developing concepts concepts to achieve to achieve this. this. The transformation The transformation of the Netherlands of the Netherlands to a service to a economy service economy A development A development that is that based is on based the on specific the specific cultureculture and and imposesimposes certain requirements certain requirements for the quality for theof quality business of business parks. Service parks. providers Service providers attach considerable attach considerable value to value the to the naturenature of an area, of anfrom area,which from which economic economic dynamism dynamism then then image projected image projected by their by business their business locations, locations, becausebecause they they ensues.ensues. The impact Theofimpact business of business parks onparks town-and-country on town-and-country planningplanning in the Netherlands in the Netherlands has beenhas a subject been a of subject discussion of discussion since since they arrived theyon arrived the scene. on theGovernment scene. Government and advisory and advisory councils,councils, includingincluding that of the that Ministry of the Ministry of SpatialofPlanning, Spatial Planning, have argued have argued for greater for individuality greater individuality and specific and local specific development. local development. This should Thislead should to an lead improvement to an improvement in the quality in theofquality land of land use. The use. success The success of a location, of a location, in the end, in the is inend, the is hands in the hands of businesses, of businesses, which either which doeither or do do notorchoose do notthe choose new the new location.location. Having discovered Having discovered the strategic the strategic asset of asset ‘housing’, of ‘housing’, businesses businesses are setting areasetting growing a growing list of requirements list of requirements for the for the quality ofquality spatialofplanning. spatial planning. They increasingly They increasingly value a business value a business location location with thewith rightthe partners, right partners, competitors competitors and collective and collective profilingprofiling opportunities. opportunities. LocationsLocations that appeal thattoappeal clientstoand clients and supplierssuppliers alike. alike. The conceptual The conceptual approach approach to a business to a business park or location park or location makes itmakes possible it possible to imagine to imagine the future. theThe future. added Thevalue added value of a newofconcept a new concept is revealed is revealed through through making strategic making strategic choices choices in advance in advance for target-group for target-group segmentation, segmentation, urban urban development development and marketing. and marketing. And thisAnd provides this provides abundant abundant opportunities opportunities to local governments, to local governments, provincial provincial authorities authorities and property and property developers developers to maketo land make exploitable. land exploitable. This approach This approach makes amakes case for a case thinking for thinking about the about big idea the big idea behind the behind location, the location, the concept, the concept, in the initial in thephase. initialInphase. In
increasingly increasingly serve asserve a typeasofabusiness type of business card. Employees card. Employees are the operating are the operating capital ofcapital service of companies. service companies. These These employees employees are setting aremore setting andmore moreand requirements more requirements for for the amenities the amenities around aaround business a business location location (childcare, (childcare, good good accessibility, accessibility, parking, parking, shops, restaurants, shops, restaurants, and so on). andInsoa on). In a market in market whichingood which personnel good personnel is scarce, is itscarce, is important it is important for for employers employers to be able to to bestress able tothese stress advantages these advantages in order in to order to attract and attract retain andpeople. retain people. Employee Employee Needs asNeeds a Concept as a Concept In England, In England, the Chiswick the Chiswick Park business Park business park profiles park itself profiles itself with a focus withon a focus employee on employee needs: ‘Chiswick needs: ‘Chiswick Park, a place Park, a place where you where can enjoy you can work’ enjoy . This work’ business . This business park offers park a wide offers a wide range of range facilities of facilities to make to working make working there as there pleasant as pleasant as as possible,possible, based onbased the dictum on thethat dictum happy thatemployees happy employees are are more productive. more productive. It also says It also thatsays the that reputation the reputation of the park of the park helps to helps attracttotop attract personnel. top personnel. The property The property developer developer has has made themade strategic the strategic decision decision to profiletothe profile park the in this parkway. in this It way. It is an example is an example of a business of a business park thatpark wasthat developed was developed on the on the basis of abasis conceptual of a conceptual approach. approach. From theFrom perspective the perspective of the of the concept,concept, the park the waspark given was functions, given functions, and marketing, and marketing, and a and a focus oriented focus oriented towards towards target groups. target The groups. parkThe profiles park itself profiles itself on the basis on the of abasis common of a common proposition. proposition. UpsizingUpsizing versus Downsizing versus Downsizing On the one On hand, the one globalisation hand, globalisation leads to leads upsizing to upsizing (mergers(mergers and takeovers). and takeovers). On the other, On the it other, leads to it leads downsizing, to downsizing, in in
which niche which propositions niche propositions and specialisation and specialisation become become more more important. important. In the Dutch In thehorticulture Dutch horticulture sector, for sector, instance, for instance, we see both we see of these both of trends—on these trends—on the one hand, the one at hand, Agriport at Agriport A7, a business A7, a business park specifically park specifically aimed ataimed companies at companies with with large-scale large-scale production production needs, and needs, on the andother, on the atother, Greenat Green Park Aalsmeer, Park Aalsmeer, which iswhich specifically is specifically aimed ataimed small-scale at small-scale specialised specialised production production and services and services brought brought togethertogether in in clusters.clusters. In both cases, In boththere cases, is there an increasing is an increasing interest interest in the in the presencepresence of other of (chain) otherpartners. (chain) partners. Their shared Theirconnection shared connection and the consequent and the consequent enhancement enhancement of their identities of their identities should should contribute contribute to advantages to advantages of scale of that scale helpthat them help compete them compete at the international at the international level. level. The Repositioning The Repositioning of Schiphol of Schiphol Airport Airport Schiphol Schiphol Airport has Airport beenhas transformed been transformed from an airport—a from an airport—a logistical,logistical, faciliatory faciliatory environment—to environment—to Airport City. Airport In the City. area In the area surrounding surrounding Schiphol,Schiphol, there arethere numerous are numerous service and service logistics and logistics companies companies which profit which from profit onefrom another’s one another’s presence.presence. It is an It is an area in which area in knowledge which knowledge circulates circulates and where andthe where competition the competition among the among companies the companies leads to innovation. leads to innovation. The airport Theitself airport hasitself has also become also an become important an important public meeting public meeting place where placeretail where retail businesses businesses have set have up shop. set up Schiphol shop. Schiphol has become has abecome represena representative example tative example of an airport of ancity airport and is city seen andinisthe seen world in the asworld as a way forward a way for forward airport fordevelopment. airport development. Schiphol Schiphol Airport City Airport City shows that shows this that concept this can concept be translated can be translated into target-group into target-group segmentation segmentation that works. thatThe works. termThe Airport termCity Airport appeals City to appeals to the images thethe images target the groups targethave groups of ‘City’ haveand of ‘City’ ‘Airport’ and. The ‘Airport’. The combination combination of these of two these words twopossesses words possesses a powerful a powerful appeal appeal to people’s to people’s imaginations. imaginations. It has ensured It has ensured that the translation that the translation of the concept of the into concept an urban into an development urban development design, and design, into and into marketing marketing and communication, and communication, has withstood has withstood the test of thetime. test of time. One-ManOne-Man Businesses Businesses Within the Within brutal theworld brutal ofworld mergers of mergers and takeovers, and takeovers, the the lack of job lack security of job security and the ambition and the ambition to decidetothings decidefor things for themselves themselves are leading are many leading employees many employees to start their to start own their own businesses. businesses. The needThe to work need to in an work environment in an environment close close to other to chain other partners—which chain partners—which can leadcan to contacts lead to contacts for for later business later business transactions—is transactions—is great among greatthis among group. this group. So they look So they for alook location for a location that meets thatthis meets requirement. this requirement. In In the creative the creative industry,industry, for example, for example, people seek people a creative seek a creative breedingbreeding ground. A ground. place that A place serves thatthe serves shared theinterests shared interests of of independent independent businesspeople businesspeople and, when and, the when occasion the occasion arises, arises, leads to leads a network to a network organisation. organisation. The concept The concept can be based can be based on the view on the that view the that location the location should provide should aprovide network a network environment. environment. The Wester The Gas Wester Works GasinWorks Amsterdam, in Amsterdam, Van Van Nelle design Nelleplant design in Rotterdam plant in Rotterdam and the Pudding and the Pudding Factory Factory in Groningen in Groningen are all examples are all examples of such successful of such successful breedingbreeding grounds.grounds. Recently,Recently, the Binckhorst the Binckhorst in The Hague in Theand Hague the and the former Caballero former Caballero Plant were Plant transformed were transformed from hopelessly from hopelessly outdatedoutdated terrains terrains to successful, to successful, innovative innovative breedingbreeding grounds.grounds. The former Thecigarette former cigarette plant (i.e., plant the (i.e., cigarette the cigarette brand) isbrand) leading is the leading communication the communication efforts to efforts attract tothe attract the desired target desiredgroups targetto groups the location—a to the location—a strategicstrategic choice choice that is bearing that is fruit. bearing fruit. As a result As aofresult past economic of past economic developments, developments, price andprice and location location play a less play important a less important role in the role decisions in the decisions of of
many businesses. many businesses. The possibility The possibility of locating of locating a business a business in the right in the environment right environment close to close related tobusinesses related businesses and and thus of presenting thus of presenting themselves themselves togethertogether has become has become more more important. important. This gives This a business gives a business advantages advantages that in athat in a stand-alone stand-alone situationsituation are muchare more much difficult more difficult to realisetoand realise and require much require greater much investments. greater investments. The business The business park of the park of the future should futurebe should aboutbe something about something and stand and forstand something for something Supply and Supply Demand and Demand Nonetheless, Nonetheless, in the Netherlands in the Netherlands we still often we still approach often approach the development the development of a business of a business park in the park way in the it was waydone it was done during its during genesis its genesis in the 1970s in theand 1970s 80s:and allocation 80s: allocation occurs occurs lot by lot.lotThe by attractiveness lot. The attractiveness of the land of the is communicated land is communicated through through functional functional advantages advantages such as such accessibility, as accessibility, sustai- sustainability and nability price. and This price. places Thisthe places focusthe onfocus the potential on the potential individual individual buyer, instead buyer, of instead on theofadded on thevalue added of value collective of collective profiling.profiling. But the successful But the successful profilingprofiling of a location of a location for for this buyer this lies buyer in making lies in the making added thevalue added of value the collective of the collective profilingprofiling imaginable imaginable beforehand, beforehand, by demonstrating by demonstrating that that collective collective success success can be achieved can be achieved with a chance with a for chance for individual individual success.success. Demonstrating Demonstrating the Collective the Collective Nature Nature Hilversum Hilversum Mediapark Mediapark makes use makes of collective use of collective profiling profiling and and does so successfully. does so successfully. Companies Companies that set up thatbusiness set up business in the in the park become park part become of a part larger of whole. a largerCompanies whole. Companies with a suitable with a suitable profile seek profile to profit seek to from profit thefrom collective the collective benefits benefits that the that the park offers. parkIt offers. attracts It both attracts clients bothand clients the public. and theThus public. theThus the park serves parkboth serves business both business and public and interests. public interests. Hilversum Hilversum Mediapark Mediapark is takingisadvantage taking advantage of the opportunities of the opportunities that that collectivecollective profiling profiling provides provides by expanding. by expanding. This expansion This expansion is is meant tomeant provide tobetter provide services better services to the individual to the individual companies companies established established there andthere to continue and to continue attracting attracting the public the in public in the future. theThe future. new The Netherlands new Netherlands InstituteInstitute for Soundfor and Sound and Vision, located Vision,inlocated the Mediapark, in the Mediapark, will contribute will contribute to creating to creating a a positive image. positiveThis image. will This help will the help park the establish park establish its authority its authority as a regional as a regional location in location the media in the world. mediaAtworld. the same At the time, same time, all the separate all the separate businessbusiness activitiesactivities will benefit willfrom benefit thefrom the allure of allure a museum of a museum in their midst. in their Such midst. an approach Such an approach requires requires the park the to renovate park to renovate and look and for new look ways for new to maintain ways to maintain the the proposition. proposition. This will This keepwill thekeep park the vitalpark andvital attractive and attractive to to future businesses, future businesses, which will which safeguard will safeguard propertyproperty values and values and the inherent the inherent quality ofquality the park. of the park. The newThe economy new economy is focused is focused on interdependent on interdependent rela- relationships, tionships, shared facilities shared facilities and cooperation. and cooperation. Local and Local and provincial provincial authorities, authorities, and developers and developers of business of business parks parks can profit can from profit thisfrom by including this by including in their strategy in their strategy a a conceptual conceptual approach approach to the development to the development of locations, of locations, and and preferably preferably as early as in early the process in the process as possible as possible so that the so that the locationlocation is furbished is furbished in line with in line thewith concept the concept in its in its urban-development urban-development structure, structure, functions, functions, target-group target-group segmentation segmentation and marketing. and marketing. So the question So the question is: how do is: how do you come you upcome with up a concept? with a concept? Conceptual Conceptual Approach: Approach: BringingBringing the Future theto Future the Present to the Present Within the Within context the context of location of location development, development, a concept a concept is essentially is essentially a connecting a connecting pattern pattern that inspires that inspires and and
guides future guidesstrategic future strategic decisions. decisions. The concept The concept introduces introduces a pattern a pattern that brings thatthe brings future thetofuture the present. to the present. The The view that view a city’s that airport a city’s can airport alsocan be an also airport be an city airport is a city is a proposition proposition that, at that, the moment at the moment the decision the decision is taken,ishas taken, has not yet been not yet realised—but been realised—but it does offer it does theoffer promise the promise that that it will be. it It will is be. a pattern It is a pattern in the sense in theofsense beingof a commonly being a commonly felt, truth-based felt, truth-based essenceessence about the about future theoffuture the airport. of the airport. A location A location conceptconcept therefore therefore has a certain has a inherent certain inherent truth truth about it.about It represents it. It represents the inspiration the inspiration and the and strength the strength needed to needed realise tothe realise future theinfuture such ainmanner such a manner that thethat the conceptconcept is actually is actually broughtbrought to life. Such to life. anSuch approach an approach requiresrequires the competency the competency to createtoacreate potentially a potentially workable workable future. This future. future, This after future, all,after can never all, canbenever predicted. be predicted. However,However, it can beitimagined. can be imagined. In an interview, In an interview, Rudolf Arnheim, Rudolf Arnheim, Professor Professor of Psychology of Psychology and Art at andHarvard, Art at Harvard, says thesays following the following about the about waythe way in whichinwe which develop we develop a view of a view the world: of the‘My world: essential ‘My essential assertionassertion [...] is that [...]language is that language is not theis formal not theprototype formal prototype of knowledge of knowledge [...]. Our [...]. onlyOur access onlytoaccess realitytoisreality sensory is sensory experience, experience, that is, sight that is, or hearing sight or or hearing touch.orAnd touch. sensory And sensory experience experience is alwaysismore always than more mere than seeing mereorseeing touching. or touching. It also includes It also includes mental images mentaland images knowledge and knowledge based onbased on experience. experience. All of that Allmakes of thatupmakes our view up our of the viewworld. of theInworld. In my opinion, my opinion, ‘visual thinking’ ‘visual thinking’ means that means visual thatperception visual perception consistsconsists above allabove in theall development in the development of forms,ofofforms, of ‘perceptual ‘perceptual terms‘, and terms‘, thereby and fulfils thereby the fulfils conditions the conditions of of the intellectual the intellectual formation formation of concepts; of concepts; it has theit ability, has the ability, by meansbyofmeans these of forms, thesetoforms, give atovalid giveinterpretation a valid interpretation of of experience.’ experience.’ Our notion Ourofnotion the world of theisworld composed is composed from ourfrom senses, our senses, our mental our images mental and images knowledge and knowledge based onbased experiences. on experiences. They feed They thefeed creation the creation of concepts. of concepts. The concept The concept of a of a locationlocation is comparable is comparable to this. Ittoisthis. an idea, It is an a scenario idea, a scenario that hasthat not has yet taken not yetshape takenand shape thatand reflects that reflects a notiona notion that appeals that appeals to our senses, to our senses, thoughtsthoughts and experiences. and experiences. It is imaginable It is imaginable and conceivable. and conceivable. It represents It represents a valid a valid interpretation interpretation of reality. ofIfreality. the concept If the concept is not understood, is not understood, is not conceivable, is not conceivable, then it isthen too it distant is too from distant reality from reality and it has andtoitbe has explained to be explained with difficulty with difficulty by means byofmeans a of a considerable considerable amount amount of imagery of imagery and text.and It istext. not Ita is valid not a valid interpretation. interpretation. A good location A good location conceptconcept has the has ability thetoability be convincing to be convincing and believable and believable in a short in span a short of time, span of and—just time, and—just as as important—can important—can remain tenable remain tenable during its during development. its development. The method The method used to used cometo upcome with up a concept with a concept requiresrequires rational rational analyticanalytic skills and skills creative, and creative, intuitiveintuitive skills. skills. Identifying Identifying and systematising and systematising the geography, the geography, the culture the culture and nature, and and nature, the and economic the economic situationsituation of an area of an area providesprovides insight into insight possible into possible strategicstrategic directions directions for the for the development development of a location. of a location. Creative,Creative, intuitiveintuitive thinkingthinking then makes thenthe makes mostthe significant most significant leap to bring leap to usbring to anus to an imaginedimagined concept.concept.
DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT OF THEOFCONCEPT: THE CONCEPT: METHOD METHOD Analytic Analytic Phase Phase 1. Geography 1. Geography The physical The physical locationlocation and infrastructure and infrastructure providesprovides considerable considerable insight into insight the into waythe in which way inthe which region thehas region has developed. developed. This literally This literally means the means subterranean the subterranean structure structure of the area. of the Thearea. ground The can ground often can reveal oftenhow reveal a region how a region was created was created and a lotand of information a lot of information about the about natural the natural behaviour behaviour patternspatterns of its inhabitants. of its inhabitants. What (regional) What (regional) functionfunction does thedoes areathe fulfil area or has fulfilitor fulfilled? has it fulfilled? An example An example of this isofthe this newly is thedeveloping newly developing BusinessBusiness Park in Zierikzee, Park in Zierikzee, which will which givewill newgive lifenew to itslife original to its original functionfunction as an as an entryway entryway to Zeeland to Zeeland on the West on the coast West ofcoast the Netherlands. of the Netherlands. The geography The geography of a particular of a particular area largely areadetermines largely determines the the way of life waythere, of lifefor there, bothfor nature bothand nature culture. and culture. 2. Culture 2. and Culture Nature and Nature Nature and Nature culture and form culture theform basisthe forbasis a region’s for a region’s mentality mentality and the and personality the personality of the region. of theWhat region. story What lies story hidden lies hidden in the area? in the It is area? imaginable, It is imaginable, for instance, for instance, that a creative that a creative breedingbreeding ground in ground the country in the country does notdoes havenot much have much appeal for appeal the creative for the creative industryindustry becausebecause the mentality the mentality of of the creative the creative industryindustry does notdoes fit innot with fit the in with mentality the mentality of the introverted of the introverted native inhabitants native inhabitants of the countryside. of the countryside. Of course Ofwe course are dealing we are here dealing with here stereotypes. with stereotypes. But it But it is not surprising is not surprising that many that creative many creative breedingbreeding groundsgrounds take roottake in large root in cities. largeIncities. line with In line this, with it isthis, alsoitnot is also not surprising surprising that Chiswick that Chiswick Park, which Park,iswhich positioned is positioned to meet to meet the employee the employee need to need ‘enjoytowork’, ‘enjoyiswork’, located is in located a large in a large city suchcity as such London. as London. An economic An economic dynamism dynamism has arisen has arisen from thefrom culture the and culture nature andofnature a certain of a region, certainand region, thisand this should not should be left notout be of leftthe outanalytic of the analytic phase ofphase concept of concept development. development. 3. Economic 3. Economic SituationSituation In analysing In analysing the economic the economic situation, situation, it is important it is important to to gain insight gain into insight theinto business the business activity activity and employment and employment in a region. in a Itregion. is alsoItimportant is also important to knowto the know current the current demographics demographics and the and general the general level of level education. of education. What What is the current is the current picture, picture, and what and economic what economic shifts are shifts are taking place? takingWhat place? are What the driving are the economic driving economic forces inforces in the region? the Green region?Park Green Aalsmeer, Park Aalsmeer, for instance, for instance, is aimedisataimed at one of the onemost of the important most important economic economic forces inforces Aalsmeer: in Aalsmeer: the ornamental-horticulture the ornamental-horticulture sector. The sector. Mediapark The Mediapark in in Hilversum, Hilversum, as the centre as theof centre the media of theworld, mediaisworld, another is another example.example. This forms Thisa forms pyramid: a pyramid: the geography the geography determines determines the culture the and culture nature andof nature a region, of a from region, which fromthe which the economic economic dynamism dynamism arises. Taken arises.together, Taken together, these three these three aspects aspects are a determining are a determining factor infactor the analysis in the analysis that is that is carried out carried for the out development for the development of the concept. of the concept. Creative Creative Phase Phase During the During creative the creative phase that phase follows that the follows analysis, the analysis, creativecreative intuitiveintuitive thinkingthinking starts. Through starts. Through combinations combinations of the three of the most three important most important individual individual insightsinsights for eachfor each variablevariable (key insights), (key insights), scenarios scenarios are formed. are formed. StartingStarting as as rough drafts, roughadrafts, new concept a new concept is born through is born through a creative a creative
Key insights Key insights
Key insights Key insights LocationLocation conceptconcept
Culture Culture and nature Key insights Key insights and nature
process process based onbased intuition, on intuition, thinkingthinking and observation—a and observation—a conceptconcept scenarioscenario that represents that represents a connecting a connecting pattern.pattern. This concept This concept reflects reflects a truth and a truth appeals and appeals to existing to existing images that images arethat combined are combined anew. This anew. wasThis thewas casethe forcase for Airport City Airport Schiphol. City Schiphol. ‘All perceiving ‘All perceiving is also thinking, is also thinking, all reasoning all reasoning is also intuition, is also intuition, all observation all observation is also invention.’ is also invention.’ (Rudolf Arnheim). (Rudolf Arnheim). The Concept The Concept Guides Guides The concept The concept arose from arose thefrom awareness the awareness of targetofgroups, target groups, interaction interaction and necessary and necessary functions. functions. Now that Now thethat concept the concept exists, itexists, servesitas serves a guide as for a guide choosing for choosing a target agroup, target group, functions functions and a programme, and a programme, the urban thedevelopment/ urban development/ landscape landscape architectural architectural design and design the and marketing. the marketing. These These are the most are the important most important constituent constituent parts needed parts to needed to bring thebring concept the concept to life, totobe life, able to to bemake able to themake strategic the strategic decisions decisions for collective for collective profiling.profiling. ChoosingChoosing Target Groups Target Groups BecauseBecause the concept the concept providesprovides a framework, a framework, it differenit differentiates between tiates between target groups. target That groups. is to That say,isbusinesses to say, businesses from heavy fromindustry heavy industry will probably will probably not be attracted not be attracted to to ChiswickChiswick Park or Green Park orPark Green Aalsmeer. Park Aalsmeer. So the concept So the concept providesprovides guidanceguidance to targettogroups targetthat groups fit perfectly that fit perfectly in in the concept the concept (primary(primary target groups), target groups), fit sufficiently fit sufficiently in the in the conceptconcept (secondary (secondary target groups), target groups), just barely justfitbarely (tertiary fit (tertiary target groups) target groups) and do not andfitdoatnot all fit (‘no-go’ at all target (‘no-go’groups). target groups). This produces This produces a clear picture a clear and picture getsand thegets ball the rolling ballfor rolling for future marketing future marketing activities. activities. Functions Functions and Programme and Programme Depending Depending on the concept on the concept and the and insights the insights produced produced by by the analytic the analytic phase, the phase, nature theofnature the intended of the intended businessbusiness activity activity is determined, is determined, as well as as what well as functions what functions should should be coupled be coupled to it. How to do it. these How do functions these functions reinforcereinforce one one another another and doesand it produce does it produce collective collective profiling? profiling? Is there Is a there a need forneed a regional for a regional function,function, for example? for example? Such decisions Such decisions can be made can be based madeonbased the concept on the concept and provide and provide directiondirection for the design for theofdesign the location. of the location. Where will Where the will respective the respective
companies companies be placed? be Are placed? grounds Are grounds necessary? necessary? Do people Do people live in the livearea? in the Is area? there Is a public there ameeting public meeting place orplace a or a market? market? Urban Development Urban Development and Landscape and Landscape Design Design BecauseBecause the concept the concept has not yet has taken not yet shape takenbut shape is but is an abstract an abstract scenarioscenario for the future, for theitfuture, helps guide it helps the guide the structure structure of the area of the in conjunction area in conjunction with thewith programme the programme and functions. and functions. The ambition The ambition that underlies that underlies the concept the concept should be should reflected be reflected in the manner in the manner in whichinthe which parkthe is park is designed. designed. The urban Thedevelopment urban development design reinforces, design reinforces, and is and is a concrete a concrete expression expression of the concept. of the concept. The same The is same true for is true for the landscape the landscape design. design. Marketing Marketing One thing One that thing makes thatlocations makes locations that arethat based areonbased a on a conceptconcept so attractive so attractive is that they is that sellthey themselves sell themselves to some to some degree. The degree. marketing The marketing does notdoes neednot to need focusto onfocus square on square metres, metres, facilitiesfacilities or accessibility; or accessibility; these are these functional are functional aspects aspects that have that gradually have gradually become become a given and a given are and no are no longer distinctive. longer distinctive. The concept The concept providesprovides the prospect the prospect of of profilingprofiling the business the business park in light park of in its light new of its content new content or or future function. future function. This is highlighted This is highlighted in the communication in the communication and thusand presents thus presents itself asitself a promise as a promise for the future. for the future. The SpanThe of Span Time of Time PerhapsPerhaps the biggest the benefit biggest of benefit a conceptual of a conceptual approach approach to to businessbusiness parks is parks that itisbridges that it the bridges spanthe of time span involved. of time involved. Launching Launching a projecta today project often today means oftenactually means actually delivering delivering it fifteenityears fifteen from years now. from In those now. In fifteen thoseyears fifteen economic years economic circumstances circumstances change, change, as do politics, as do politics, the market the and market and the waythe in which way inpeople whichwant people to want live and to live work. and Inwork. other In other words, what words, wewhat knowwe today know can today change can tomorrow. change tomorrow. The The concept,concept, on the other on the hand, other provides hand, provides a solid footing, a solid footing, and is and is less time-dependent less time-dependent and therefore and therefore less subject less to subject change. to change. What does What change does with change time with is the time design is theindesign urban-devein urban-developmentlopment planningplanning for a region—changes for a region—changes prompted prompted by such by such things asthings new procedures as new procedures and changes and changes in technology. in technology.