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What are modal verbs? They are: • • • • • • • • •
Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Will Would
• Ought to They are Auxiliary verbs that provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence Modal verbs are sometimes referred to as Modal Auxiliary verbs because they help other verbs
How do we use modals? S
Example: Mary could play the piano They do not accept conjugation They do not need other auxiliary verbs
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Form There is no “s” in singular There is no “do / does” in the question There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative
He can ski He cans ski or He can skis Would you like to come with me? Do you would like to come with me? They can’t be serious They don’t can be serious © Creative commons
Form Modal verbs do not have infinitives or â€“ing forms to can / caning
to must /musting
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to She must study We should have gone the other way He could play football in his youth (general ability)
Form Modal verbs do not have all the tenses
Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses Can is completed with be able to Must is completed with have to You Theymust can come play the early piano They You will hadbetoable come toearly play the yesterday piano in the future
What do they express? They can have different meanings depending on the situations they are used To understand it better we are going to divide them into 3 categories 1. Single Concept Modal: they have one meaning 2. Double Concept Modal: they have two meanings 3. Modals in past: They are used to express a situation in the past
Categories Single concept Modals
Double Concept Modals
Modals in Past
Will Might Should Ought to Had better
May Must Would Shall Could Can
Would have Could have Might have Should have May have Must have
Single Concept Modal Modal
Joe will travel to NY next week
I might move to Canada some day
You should go to the doctor
We ought to know about first aids
I had better study or I will fail the test
Double Concept Modal Modal
May I come in?
We may visit Mexico this summer
Everyone must pay taxes
She didnâ€™t arrive. She must be sick
Past (used to)
When I was young, I would play soccer
I would buy the car but I canâ€™t afford it
Double Concept Modal Modal
Educated expression Offer
Excuse me, I shall go now Shall I clean it?
The company shall pay on January 1st
I could go if I had time
She could play the piano, not anymore
We can speak English
Can I have a sweet?
Modals in the Past They are modals referred to actions that happened in the past MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle
It must have been a difficult decision They should have invited her to their wedding
Modals in Past : Modal + have + past participle
A last tip There are few verbs which often serve as modals too. These are modal-like verbs They need to be conjugated
Modals-like verbs Modal
I like to watch TV
John wants to buy a car
We really needed to talk to you
Susan had to pay the rent
Have got to
Iâ€™ve got to go now
Look forward to
I look forward to seeing you again
Practise 1. My son ___ be home by now. Where can he be?
a. Have to
2. I think your thumb is broken. You ___ go to the emergency room.
b. could c. ought to
3. If you are interested in losing weight, you ______ try this new diet.
c. don’t have to d. had to
4. Johnnie’s fallen down the stairs! I ________ call an ambulance!
b. might c. may d. ought to
5. You _______ come too early. We won’t leave until 9 o’clock.
a. Has to
b. must c. needn’t
Children ________ be accompanied by an adult at the zoo. a. Ought to b. must c. would d. mustn’t
You _________ talk during tests. It’s forbidden! a. don’t have to
d. ought to
I can feel the heat. We _________ be near the fire. a. Can
b. wouldc. must d. have to
They ________ hear him because he was whispering. a. Wouldn’t b. mustn’t
10. You’ve never heard of Britney Spears! You ________ be serious!
b. had to
c. can’t d. shouldn’t
Practise 11. __________ you like to have dinner with me tonight?
b. may c. should
12. You _________ let him hear about the party tomorrow. It’s a
13. __________ I speak to the Chief of Police, please?
b. May c. Would
14. He has arrived late. He _______ missed the bus
a. Must have b. Should have
c. Could have
More practise Re-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning. 1. I suggest that you get a good lawyer!
should get a lawyer You ___________________________________________ 2. A university degree isn’t necessary for that job. needn’t have a university degree for that job
You ___________________________________________ don’t have to have a university…
3. Perhaps my father will pick you up.
may / might pick you up My father _______________________________________ 4. 4. Eating is forbidden in class!
mustn’t eat in class You ___________________________________________
More practise Re-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning. 5. Look at his dirty clothes! I’m sure he is a poor person.
must be a poor person He ____________________________________________ 6. I don’t believe that the legend of Hercules is true because there’re
can’t be true The legend of Hercules ____________________________
Use your imagination Think about these situations and create a sentence using modals. 1. We are going to Paris for a weekend. (Make suggestions about things
2. We start school in September. (Talk about necessity) 3. Margaret is a very talented sportswoman. (Talk about ability) 4. You have just won the lottery! (Talk about possibility) 5. Peter has got a headache and a congested nose. (Give him some
6. You want to borrow your uncleâ€™s Mercedes Benz. (Ask for permission
Possible answers 1. We could visit the Louvre / We should go up the Eiffel Tower 2. We have to buy a new notebook 3. She can speak 3 languages! / She is able to play the piano and the violin 4. I might stop working / I may buy a new car / I can travel to New York 5. You should see a doctor / You ought to drink hot tea 6. Can I borrow your car, please? or May I borrow your car, please?