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Women of Graphic Design

Tori Hinn Degree Project RISD 2013


Table of Contents

Introduction & Abstract

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Phase 1: The Very Beginning

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Phase 2: Gender Limitations

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Phase 3: Married/Hired

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Phase 4: Women of Graphic Design

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Conclusion

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Introduction My degree project is a research process that took me on a difficult ride. It was a confusing, at times maddening, journey. But it was important. It taught me more about myself and my field than I had ever expected to learn. I am forever grateful for the time I was able to spend thinking, seeing, making, and learning.

Abstract I aimed to investigate the role and visibility of women in today’s graphic design field. I began to explore the disconnect between the amount of female graphic designers and artists that we foster at RISD and the visibility of women in the graphic design world. Additionally, I researched the “Glass Slipper Effect” theory as a means to better understand this disconnect. The Glass Slipper Effect, written by social psychologists ­Laurie Rudman and Jessica Heppen, theorizes that the desire for personal power in today’s woman is directly tied to her implicit (not explicit) romantic ideals of a man. An implicit preference is one that is not accessible to a person’s self-awareness; it’s a preference that a person carries subconsciously. This feminist theory states that women being overly exposed to ideals of superheroes, male saviors, being tied to a strong man, etc. might negatively effect women’s desire to advance in their careers and succeed past men financially. I wondered if the Glass Slipper Effect could be a theory for why the amount of highly visible female graphic designers is so few. Ultimately, I want to make this problem highly visible, in order to encourage my peers to pursue their goals without hesitation.


phase 1 the very beginning


The Very beginni ng

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On our first day in degree project, I walked into class not knowing what to expect. I had never met Lucy Hitchcock before, only seen her lecture. I knew that this semester would be difficult—it would challenge me in ways I hadn’t been challenged previously. I would need to work very hard and be really dedicated. But I was excited to finally commit to a project and make a whole body of work about it. My first idea was so far from what my degree project became. Originally, I wanted to build a line of backpacks built to be passed around family members with ease and versatility. I abandoned that idea when I decided I wasn’t interested in just creating another product. I wanted to learn something that would change my mind. Lucy made it very clear that this was a time to explore your interests and become surrounded by your work. We were told to bring a list of various things into class— things you love, things that frustrate you, things you’re afraid of in the world, etc. I brought in a very diverse group of “things” which didn’t really have an over-arching theme. I felt lost after the first day. What was I going to do? Nobody really knew what to make of my cards— they were simply all over the place and disjointed. But there were some that stood out to me. I kept the cards about misrepresentation of women in media, quietness, lack of questioning, and education.

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It’s funny to look back now and see how my final degree project was sort of there all a long, even when it didn’t seem like anything I was doing was making sense. Throughout the entire process, I thought I couldn’t find any links between my projects. They seemed to change from week to week. My degree project shifted so often. But in retrospect, they were all coming from the same place. It was always about some limitation based on gender. In the beginning, that meant normalized sexist language. It ended up about being a woman in graphic design and how that can affect our work. The first few weeks were important for thinking. I did a lot of research. My degree project became more about research and process— less about creating one final end product. My process was important to me. I never would’ve gotten to the end without it.

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things I love

iridescence

menswear

thunderstorms

blogging

history of my locations

things that frustrate me

misrepresentation of women

higher edu = not worth it

competition vs collab

lack of humility

not questioning

cockroaches

making lists

the quiet

making the wrong choice

heights

make art important

more people would laugh

things I’m afraid of

disappointment

the dark

tornadoes

nighttime city dangers

change in my neighborhood

bike lanes

better parking options

night-time dangers

loud noise

slow peoples’ pace

my own work process

personal org.

how people brainstorm

RISD Portfolio Review

less focus on ourselves

peoples’ hearts

endangered animals

3D printers

color theory

winged victory (sculpture)

glitter

jenny holzer

apparel line

soft goods

bakery business

holiday cards

a teaching career

things to improve

a daily task

change in the world

more naps

prejudices

art/design that blows my mind

concrete books

processing

I want to make:

house in the forest

poetry

education

help people be aware


iridescence

the quiet

education

not questioning

misrepresentation of women

slow peoples’ pace

help people be aware

prejudices

concrete books

Some things stuck with me.


thinking‌


thinking‌


thinking‌


thinking‌


thinking‌


The Very beginni ng

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5 core words After the first week, Lucy asked us to come back with a few core words for our degree project. At this point, I hadn’t really started making yet. I was trying to find a topic that I felt strongly about— one I could spend the entire semester working with. That idea alone scared me the most.

1 Quiet 2 Subtlety 3 Meditative 4 Thought-provoking 5 Suppression I started to become interested in the idea of “quiet” design, which to me, meant design that did not visually scream at the viewer. I thought that I wanted to speak about a subtle problem, rather than just using a subtle aesthetic. But it was important for me to process through these ideas and projects. The following images are a series of explorations surrounding sexist language, sparked by my viewing of the 2013 Annual Academy Awards. We were asked to fill out a questionnaire that would explain our degree project (next page). When I did that, I wasn’t even sure what context my DP would have and if it would be something of substance. At that point, I only knew I wanted to make “quiet” design. I didn’t know what I wanted to say just yet.

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The Very beginni ng

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ThE VE Ry bEGI nnI nG

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This exploration stemmed from jokes made by male TV commentators about the actress Salma Hayek, who speaks with a heavy accent. Two pieces of 9” x 12” vellum overlayed.

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The Very beginni ng

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BaBy, it’s The neighbors might think Bad o ut th e r e

What’s the sense in hurting my pride?

Baby don’t hold out

N o caB s Say, what’s in this drink? to B e had o ut th e r e

yo u r eye s I wish I knew ar e how l i ke star l i g ht N ow I ought to say no, no, no, sir.

These two explorations dealt with normalized sexist language found in the Christmas song “Baby, It’s Cold Outside” which has gained immense popularity in the last 5 years yet carries a highly sexist and misogynistic tone.

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phase 2 gender limitations


Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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Thinking about gender limitations From my ideas of feminism and sexism, I started to grow interested in the idea of gender limitations. At first, I was only concerned with gendered and sexist language that I was absorbing in media. The more I explored, the more interested I became in the source of sexist and gendered language. It begins early, in children. For my next few projects, I focused upon the gender stereotyping and limitations that surround children in media. I wanted to create both tools and toys for children, objects that would be interactive, playful, but informative. The first project was a color-analysis book. It reduced a variety of toy brands at Toys R Us into simple lines of color (using the brand and packaging color schemes). This was an exploration in how gendered language can manifest not only in words, but in colors and imagery as well. I walked through Toys R Us, went to the “girls” and “boys” aisles, and documented the colors. The color palettes for girls were generally pink, purple, and other soft colors. The palettes for boys were stronger colors— dark blue, black, red, and grey. From this project came a series of gradient explorations to find any common color ground. The second project was the He/She/They blocks. I designed magnetic blocks that focused purely on mixing up gendered word associations. Simple in form and easy to hold, they were first brightly

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colored. I used adjectives that are typically not radically gendered — brave, kind, gentle, smart, strong, etc. I wanted to make a way for children to understand that “he” may not necessarily always need to be strong or brave, but that “she” or “they” can also be strong and brave. Using they was also a way for me to introduce gender-neutral pronouns into a child’s vocabulary. During the feedback for these blocks, people were very confused by the colors that I had painted the blocks and I realized that adding color might only add more stereotyping and confusion. I decided the blocks would ultimately just be wooden and painted in black ink. The last project in this exploration was a book built off the He/She/They Blocks. Divided into three parts, it explored verbs and adverbs associated with gender. Choosing words like “breaks” and “gently” together might illicit a certain image in the book. If the user changes the image, the wording will also change and take on new meaning. Although I was really interested in the limitations that we give to children, I started to realize how that had affected me growing up. This paved the path for new discoveries, and as it had done all semester, my degree project shifted once more.

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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HE IS KIND

IS SHE

THEY ACT BRAVE

STRONG

KIND

ARE IS

SMART

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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He/She/They Blocks Prototype

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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Toys R Us Color Analysis

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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GE nDE R L I m I TaTI O nS

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Ge nder lim itatio ns

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Ge nder L i m itatio ns

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phase 3 married/hired


m arried/ hired

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Where I come from, you get married. As I worked with ideas of limitations based on gender, I realized that I had been affected by these limitations in my upbringing. I grew up in the south, where I was brought up to believe that as a woman, I had one goal in life. That goal is to find a really good man, marry him, and have children. There really isn’t another option. I could “go to college” but once I get married, it wouldn’t really matter. The projects I made in this portion of the semester reflected the notion of choosing between marriage and a career— one that isn’t as prevalent in the north. As a young woman working towards a long career, I feel “other” when visiting my home again and being around some of the southern women I grew up with. The projects in this section started when I was talking with one of my friends from high school— a girl who still resides in the south and maintains those ideals. Somehow, our conversation came to the marriage of our high school classmates. She began to list all the people we knew who had gotten or were getting married. While we chatted, I started typing what she was saying. I had more of these conversations with other women from my past. I put all of them into poster (and soon, book) form. Aftewards, I couldn’t believe the ridiculousness of them and how often the word “married” popped up. Rarely were these conversations ever about

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men getting married. I altered the posters— changing any instance of “married” to “hired” and ultimately, creating a new series of posters that spoke to the stereotype for men in the south (breadwinners). I also created another altered poster where I mixed she, he, married, and hired. Part of what was most powerful for me about these statements was the way they were spoken. I created a website to display all of the posters, clickable with their respective audio. In an additional exploration, I created small pamphlets with the “stories” to make them feel more like a narrative. Essentially, these are ideals and standards that will be passed down through generations. I wanted these pamphlets to reflect storytelling and highlight the ridiculous nature of the passages.

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Oh yeah, Rachel just got married. She married Todd. And it’s weird that her name is Mrs. Walsh now. Jenn got married before her, but Erin and Megan got married before everyone! Megan and Erin were still in college when they did. The other Rachel is also getting married in May. Who else? Oh yeah, Katie just got engaged, but I don’t know when they’re getting married. Ricky proposed to Brittany at I-Bar a few weeks ago— they’re so cute.

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m arried/ hired

It would’ve been awesome to get married before I graduate, because then my life could be sort of set up, you know? Not like, in a restricting way, just like, it would be nice. Rachel just got married, and I think Katie is getting married next month. I’m so jealous. I’ve never even had a boyfriend, isn’t that crazy? So sad. 61


RIS D D EGR E E P ROJ ECT 2 01 3

Oh yeah, Ricky just got a job. Todd hired him. And it’s weird that his title is Project Manager now. James got hired before him, but Jordan and Matt got hired before everyone! They were still in college when they got jobs. The other Matt is also getting hired in May. Who else? Oh yeah, Jared just got hired, but I don’t know when he’s getting the job. Ricky offered a job to Brett at I-Bar a few weeks ago— they’re so cool.

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m arried/ hired

It would’ve been awesome to get married before I graduate, because then my life could be sort of set up, you know? Not like, in a restricting way, just like, it would be nice. Ricky just got married, and I think James is getting married next month. I’m so jealous. I’ve never even had a girlfriend, isn’t that crazy? So sad. 63


RIS D D EGR E E P ROJ ECT 2 01 3

It would’ve been awesome to get a job before I graduate, because then my life could be sort of set up, you know? Not like, in a restricting way, just like, it would be nice. Ricky just got hired, and I think James is getting a job next month. I’m so jealous. I’ve never even had a job, isn’t that crazy? So sad. 64

m arried/ hired

Oh yeah, Ricky just got hired. Jenn hired him. And it’s weird that her title is Project Manager now. Rachel got hired before James, but Erin and Matt got married before everyone! Jordan and Erin were still in college when they got hired. The other Ricky is also getting married in May. Who else? Oh yeah, Rachel just got hired, but I don’t know when she’s getting married. Megan offered a job to Brett at I-Bar a few weeks ago— they’re so great. 65


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m arried/ hired

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m aR R I E D/ hI R E D

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Website displaying the Married/Hired posters. When clicked, each poster plays the audio of a male or female voice.

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phase 4 women of graphic design


Wo m e n o f gr ap hic desig n

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How does this all apply to graphic design? After exploring gender limitations on women in the south, I started to wonder if any limitations existed on the women around me, in my field of graphic design. All semester long, Lucy had been telling me how she had faced some difficult times being a woman in the graphic design department. At first, I didn’t fully understand what she meant. I thought, “I’ve never felt discriminated against because of my gender.” But I realized, it wasn’t necessarily about discrimination for being a woman. It was about underrepresentation. For a school that fosters so many female designers and artists, we don’t necessarily see that manifested in the graphic design world. I was interested in exploring this disconnect and finding different lenses of viewing it. At the time, I was reading an article by Laurie Rudman and Jessica Heppen, two social psychologists who developed the “Glass Slipper Effect” as a theory. The Glass Slipper Effect theorizes that the desire for personal power in today’s woman is directly tied to her implicit (not explicit) romantic ideals of a man. An implicit preference is one that is not accessible to a person’s self-awareness; it’s a preference that a person carries subconsciously. This feminist theory states that women being overly exposed to ideals of superheroes, male saviors, being tied to a strong man, etc. might negatively effect women’s desire to advance in their careers and succeed past men financially. I wondered if the Glass Slipper Effect could be a theory

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for why the amount of highly visible female graphic designers is so few. I started by taking a look at our curriculum. How many independent, sole female graphic designers were being talked about in our classes? I inspected the History of Graphic Design syllabus, a required class taught to all graphic design students. I was surprised by how few women were even mentioned. I became really influenced by “Women in Graphic Design,” a book by Gerda Breuer and Julia Meer. It is essentially one-of-a-kind source for learning about different female graphic designers, both dead and alive. The women who created this book did so because no quality source material existed about these other women. I wanted to create projects that would show the problem and make my peers question a normalized, but severely imbalanced, system in place. I also wanted to create tools for them to use to seek out female designers. I first created a series of explorations about the women in our department, and their connection to female designers out in the world. This began with just basic exericses of looking at class rosters and class syllabi.

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The first exploration was a study of the History of Graphic Design syllabus. I removed every name and title that was not a sole, independent female to see what would be left of the class. This number of women came to just twenty two. The amount of male names was in the hundreds. This specific study paved the way for other projects towards the end of my degree project. A small exploration dealt with all the students currently enrolled in the RISD Graphic Design department. I cut out all the male names, leaving only the women. This ended up not working so well, as it ended up focusing on the names lost rather than the names left. From this point, I moved on to thinking about how I could create an outlet for people to learn about women in graphic design and to also learn more about the Glass Slipper Effect. I designed a website where the user can quickly learn about the Glass Slipper Effect in two ways: the academic approach, with a link to the original article, or the “designed” approach which is a little more interactive. In doing this, I hoped to make an academic theory more digestable. Ultimately, I created a web presence centered around a blog, Women of Graphic Design. The URL is www.womenofgraphicdesign.tumblr. com and runs off my own postings as well as submissions from readers. When creating the blog, I was surprised that not very many of its kind exist. I was able to reserve all the similar domain names, as they were all available. I mostly focus on current graphic designers, but also feature

women from the history of graphic design. When someone first views the blog, it appears as “Men in Graphic Design,” reflecting the male dominance over the field. However, the title soon shifts to become the correct title. To add commentary on the issue, I have included fairly ridiculous tags on the blog through which users can filter the posts they see. So often, women are forced to choose between having a family or a career. The filtering/tagging system represents these unfair, gendered limitations. You can tag designers as #careerwithoutkids, #careerwithkids, and #hasitall. The tags are ridiculous, but making women choose between these paths is also a ridiculous and dated notion. Most all of the last projects I did during my degree project point towards this blog in order to generate a larger database of designers. I created a series of posters to be hung in the Graphic Design department which deal the names of male graphic designers we learn about in our department, female designers we learn about, and female designers we aren’t learning about. The difference in quantity between the genders is dramatic, but the posters state, “Something’s a little off,” as a call for attention. I hope to continue this project post-RISD, as I think its relevance extends beyond our campus.

History of Graphic Design syllabus, original and altered.

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wo m e n o f gr ap hic desig n

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Roster Scroll

29% male

Graphic Design Department breakdown

71% female

My Degree Project Bible

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Wo m e n o f Gr ap hic desig n

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name as many graphic designers as you can think of

Stefan Sagmeister

J e ss i c a W a l s h

MAss i m o V i g n e l l i

Irma Boom

erik spiekermann

J e ss i c a H i sc h e

Brent Couchman

Natasha Jen

Paul Rand S a u l B a ss Iv a n C h e r m a y e f f Tom Geismar Jan Van Toorn B r a d b u r y TH o m p s o n J a n Tsc h i c h o l d Ben Fry

“Uhm…” I wanted to explore the visibility of female graphic designers through the eyes of my peers and other students in graphic design. I asked them to name as many graphic designers that they could off the top of their heads. Most of them were pretty quick to rattle off male names. I then asked them to specifically name female designers for me.The pauses were long and very drawn own. Most people I surveyed could only name a couple, ten at the very most. Although I filmed video, I used only the audio and designed a list that would alter as names were said. This was a project that served mainly just for my own research, because I think its purpose is better expressed through projects that followed soon after this one.

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wo m e n o f gr ap hic desig n

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The eFFeCT TheGlass Glass slipper Slipper Effect

You’re smart You’re strong Read often Ask questions ERROR Hey girl, he won because he’s a boy! Stay honest Be open Work hard You don’t have to like Barbie You can play with race cars It’s okay to be smarter than boys

( e x p l a ine d )

The Glass Slipper Effect

IT’S A GIRL!

ERROR Let’s play wedding!

girl

ERROR Learn how to be skinny!

ERROR

Hey girl, you can’t hang out with us because we like to play rough! Boys will be boys!

piCk your qualiTies

You’re smart You’re strong Read often

kind savior

kniGhT super hero

girl

x

parTner

equal super sTrenGTh

Mu Tual saCriFiCe

Career

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WO m E n O f GR aP hI C DE S I Gn

www.womenofgraphicdesign.tumblr.com — the main web presence of my degree project

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wo m e n o f gr ap hic desig n

In the spirit of the Guerilla Girls, I pasted links to the blog everywhere in studios of the design center, hoping it would prompt people to stop and check out the website.

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Wo m e n o f Gr ap hic Design

R I S D G R A P H I C D E S I G N D E PA R T M E N T MEN WE STUDY

WOMEN WE STUDY

WOMEN WE DON’T HEAR ABOUT

Johannes Gutenberg Nicholas Jenson Aldus Manutius Geofroy Tory Albrecht Dürer Clause Garamond William Caslon Pierre Fournier John Baskerville Giambattista Bodoni William Blake John Ogilby William Playfair Louis Prang William Pickering William Morris Selwyn Image Christopher Dresser E H Godwin E J Marey Charles Joseph Minard Katsushika Hokusai Kitagawa Utamaro Ando Hiroshige Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Pierre Bonnard Henri Toulouse-Lautrec Aubrey Beardsley Edward Penfield N C Wyeth J C Leyendecker Theodore Low Devinne Daniel Berkeley Updike Bruce Rogers Arthur Mackmurdo Alphonse Mucha Theo Steinlen Victor Horta Hector Guimard Henry van de Velde Louis Comfort Tiffany Maxfield Parris Antonio Gaudi Frank Lloyd Wright Will Bradley Louis Rhead Dudley Hardy Jan Toorup Edward Johnston Rudolf von Larisch Charles Rennie Mackintosh Herbert McNair Otto Eckmann Josef Olbrich Kolomon Moser Alfred Roller Otto Wagner Adolf Loos Oskar Kokoschka Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Max Pechstein Egon Schiele Thomas Theodor Heine Fritz Ehmcke Lucian Bernhard Julius Klinger Julius Gipkens Hans Rudi Erdt Deutsche Werkbund Leonetto Cappiello Ludwig Hohlwein Emil Cardinaux Burkhard Mangold Peter Behrens Olivetti Charles Gibson Howard Chandler Christy James Montgomery Flagg Joseph Pennell Coles Phillips Pablo Picasso Georges Braque Juan Gris Fernand Leger Corbusier Stéphane Mallarmé Guillaume Apollinaire F T Marinetti Luigi Russolo Umberto Boccioni Carlo Carra Antonio Sant Elia Giacomo Balla Alexander Kruchenyk Velimir Khlebnikov Ilya Zdanevich David Burliuk Vladimir Burliuk Wyndham Lewis Raol Hausmann George Grosz Hugo Ball Marcel Janco Hans Arp Marcel Duchamp Tristan Tzara Max Ernst Salvador Dali Giorgio de Chirico Rene Magirtte Man Ray Meret Oppenheim Kasimir Malevich Vladimir Tatlin El Lissitzky Alexander Rodchenko Wladislaw Strzeminski Mieczylaw Sczucka Henryk Berlewi Theo van Doesburg Piet Mondrian Vilmos Huszar Bart ban der Leck Gerrit Rietveld J J P Oud Wassily Kandinsky Paul Klee Lyonel Feininger Oskar Schlemmer Johannes Itten Walter Gropius Marcel Breuer Mies van der Rohe Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Herbert Bayer Joost Schmidt Josef Albers Kurst Schwitters Max Burchartz Anton Stankowski Jan Tschichold Georg Trump Paul Renner Piet Zwart Paul Schuitema Max Bill John Heartfield Gustav Klutsis Sergei Einstein Dziga Vertov Karel Tiege Herbert Matter Giovanri Pintori Xanti Schawinsky Otto & Marie Neurath Gerad Aratz Rudolf Modley Henry Beck Marcello Nizzoli Erberto Carboni Friederich Kiesler E McKnight Kauffer A M Cassandre Jean Carlu Paul Colin Charles Loupot Austin Cooper Tom Purvis Fortunato Depero Campo Grafico Niklaus Stöcklin Otto Baumberger Wilhelm Deffke Otto Hadank T M Cleland D A Dwiggins

Ethel Reed Margaret Macdonald Frances Macdonald Hannah Höch Natalia Goncharova Luibov Popova Olga Rozanova Varvara Stepanova Katarina Kobro Cipe Pineles Elaine Lustig Cohen Priscilla Peck Denise Scott-Brown Rachel Romero Margaret Calvert Bonnie Scranton Ray Eames Zuzana Licko April Greiman Helene Silverman Irma Boom

Lilo Ade Beatrice Afflerbach Rebecca Alaccari Elena Albertoni Ruth Albitz Cordula Alessandri Maja/Frieda Allenbach Nelly Ambrein-Pieren Gail Anderson Ruth Ansel Margaret Neilson Armstrong Eva Aschoff Jane Atché Christel Aumann Tine Baanders Kerstin Baarmann Barbara Bättig Randa Abdel Baki Marian Bantjes Lillian Bassman Cynthia Hollandsworth Batty Monika Baum Barbara Baumann Sigrid Von Baumgarten Katja M. Becker Evelyn Ter Bekke Jill Bell Vanessa Bell Anna Berkenbusch Cateau Berlage Johanna Bilak-Balusikova Sara De Bondt Julia Born Jennifer Bostic Anne Brady Sheila Levrant De Bretteville Olga Und Nina Brodsky Maria Vera Brunner Anne Burdick Lina Burger Veronika Burian Margaret Calvert Agnest Canta Jacqueline S. Casey Valerie Casey Doris Casse-Schlüter Nadine Chahine Deanne Cheuk Walentina Chodassewitsch Fré Cohen Leni Collin Nancy Sharon Collins Marina Company Navau Muriel Cooper Doris Cordes-Vollert Rie Cramer Denise Gonzales Crisp Moira Cullen Jo Daemen Hanna Dallos Jutta Damm-Fiedler Gerda Dassing Meredith Davis Susanne Dechant Miki Denhof Brenda Dermody Carol Devine Carson Barbara Dewilde Friedl Dicker Kirsten Dietz Gisela Dongowski Johanna Drucker Inge Druckery Stacy Drummond Willy Drupsteen Helen Dryden Clara Ehmcke Christa Ehrlich Tina Roth Eisenberg Veronika Elsner Violetta Engelberg Susanne Eppinger-Curdes Lynette Erickson-Sikora Lotte Eschner Jean Evans Jewgenia Ewenbach Alexandra Exter Anna Eymont Nathalie Fallaha Mary Faulconer Alma Faulkner Helen Federico Marlies Fegebank Bea Feitler Louise Fili Dorothea Fischer-Nosbisch Mathilde Flögl Amy Franceschini Tina Frank June Fraser Annie French Elisabeth Friedlander Mitzi Rosalie Friedmann-Otten Janet Froelich Tilla Fuchs Eva Galová-Vodrázková Marga Garnich Verena Gerlach Mieke Gerritzen Sara Giovanitti Alice Russel Glenny Gabrielle Franziska Götz Veruschka Götz Carin Goldberg Natalia Gontscharowa Bertha M. Sprinks Goudy Jane Bissell Grabhorn Diana Graham Nicolete Gray Heike Grebin Alice Greinwald-Clarus Judith M. Grieshaber Catherine Griffiths Renate Grindler Claudia Grönebaum Diane Gromala Grete Gross Gisela Grosse Nora Gummert-Hauser Helen Haasbauer-Wallrath Romy Haferkorn Line Renée Hagen Sibylle Hagmann Iris Hahs-Hoffstetter Gerta Haller Sylvia Harris Brigitte Hartwig Dominika Hasse Julia Hasting Daniela Haufe Tiziana Haug Dora Hauth-Trachsler Laurie Haycock Makela Marianne Heim Jessica Helfand Ilka Helmig Ursula Hiestand Caroline Warner Hightower Jessica Hische Lucinda Hitchcock Lilian Hocknell Julia Hoffmann Ruth Hoffmann Milla Hoffmann-Lederer Kris Holmes Katy Homans Jane Hope Pegge Hopper Irmgard Horlbeck-Kappler Hilde Horn Clemence Housman Jill Howry Dorothy Hutton Jelisaweta Ignatowitsch Ilona Ilottu Clara Istlerová Martha Jäger Elisabeth von Janota-Bzowski Wera Jermolajewa Hertha Jess Karin Kaiser Elisabeth Kallen Katrin Kaltofen Susan Kare Agni Katzourakis Jessie Marion King Erika Giovanna Klien Usula Knecht Petra Knyrim Mela Köhler Aenne Koken Magdalena Koll Käthe Kollwitz Hildegard Korger Ljubow Kosinzewa Meltia Kosterlitz Barbara Kotte Ruth Krüger-Pauly Barbara Kruger Walentina Kulagina Indra Kupferschmid Klara Kvizova Miriam und Nina Lambert Lora Lamm Sigrid Lämmle

M F Agha Alexey Brodovitch Miguel Covarrubias Richard Floethe Gustav Jensen Erté Frank Macintosh Lester Beall Charles Coiner Joseph Binder Raymond Loewy Normal Bel Geddes Henry Dreyfuss Walter Dorwin Teague Max Huber Paul Rand Bradbury Thompson Joseph Binder Herbert Bayer Alex Steinweiss Will Burtin Ladislav Sutnar Wiliam Golden Georg Olden David Stone Martin Reid Miles Charles & Ray Eames Reid Miles Erik Nitsche Ben Shahn Gyorgy Kepes Leo Lionni Otto Storch Will Hopkins Alvin Lustig Louis Danziger Gene Federico Jim Flora George Giusti Rudolf de Harak George Tscherny Roy Kuhlman Alexander Liberman Irving Penn Ivan Chermayeff Tom Geismar Henry Wolf Franco Grignani Yusaki Kamekura Kazumasa Nagai Ikko Tanaka Kenji Itoh Hans Neuburg Richard Paul Lohse Carlo Vivarelli Emil Ruder Armin Hofmann Josef Müller-Brockmann Herbert Leupin Raymond Savignac Pierre Mendell Ken Garland Armando Testa Milner Gray Max Bill Massin Willy Fleckhaus Will Sandberg Celestino Piatti Wim Crouwel Gunter Rambow Ootje Oxenaar Dick Elffers Tom Eckersley Abram Games Berthold Wolpe Hans Tisdall Hans Schleger Ogilvy & Mather Ally & Pagano Doyke Dane Bernbach Lois Papert Koenig Lieber Katz Paccione Raymond Loewy Lester Beall Saul Bass Morton Goldsholl Otl Aicher Karl Gerstner Malcolm Grear Crosby Fletcher Forbes Milner Gray Allan Fleming Jean Widmer Mark Woodham Eduardo Paolozzi Heinz Edelmann Richard Hamilton Hans Bockting Matthew Carter Andy Warhol Gert Dumbar Roy Lichtenstein Venturi & Raush Seymour Chwast Milton Glaser Herb Lubalin Carlos Cortez Rick Griffin Wes Wilson Victor Moscoso Jamie Reid Robert Crumb Art Spiegelman Peter Palazzo Alan Fletcher Lou Silverstein Tomi Ungerer Henryk Tomaszewksi Jan Lenica Jan Sawka Jerzy Czerniawski Franciszek Starowieyski Wolfgang Weingart Tadanori Yokoo Karl Geissbuhler Volker Pfuller Donald Deskey Carl Seltzer E + U Hiestand Jerome Gould Peter Windett Davis Kampa Katsumie Masaru Wyman & Terrazas Jock Kinnear Massimo Vignelli Bob Noorda Alex Steinweiss Will Burtin Richard Saul Wurman David Macauley Donovan & Green John Grimwade Richard Curtis Charles Eames Carbone Rudy van der Lans Ed Fella Paul Elliman Art Chantry Charles Spencer Anderson Neville Brody Fred Woodward Fabien Baron Stephen Coates Vince Frost Regis Pagniez Simon Esterson David Hillman Martin Woodtli Niklaus Troxler Elliott Earls Scott Makela Stefan Sagmeister Jean-Paul Goude Barney Bubbles Vaughan Oliver Pentagram Kristof Lenk R Greenberg Kyle Cooper Scott Stowell

Something’s a little off.

Carolina Laudon Brenda Laurel Warja Lavater-Honegger Margarete Leins Anette Lenz Maria Likarz Freda Lingstrom Lou Loeber Mary Amelie Loesener-Sloman Fritzi Löw/Lazar Verena Loewensberg Lida Lopes Cardozo Susi Looser Mary Lowndes Florence Lundborg Linnea Lundquist Anna Lünemann Ellen Lupton Anja Lutz Robin Lynch Ella Margold Lika Marowska Lucia Mathews Luna Maurer Monika Maus Katherine McCoy Minnie McLeish Blanche McManus Rebeca Méndez Laura Meseguer Catelijne van Middelkoop Tomoko Miho Debbie Millman Therese Moll Dore Mönkemeyer-Corty Isolde Monson-Baumgart Maureen Mooren Jennifer Morla Joyce Knoedler Morrow Alice C. Morse Ditha Moser Bettina Müller Erika Müller Isabel Naegele-Spamer Marie Neurath Nina Neusitzer Kali Nikitas Nagi Noda Gertrud Nolte Florence Pearl England Nosworthy Sabina Oberholzer Emily Oberman Käthe Olshausen-Schönberger Clotilde Olyff Regina Ovesey Jane Patterson Julija Pavelic Ruth Pfalzberger Manuela Perunder Jacklin Pinsler Natalia Pinus Margit von Plato Jelena Polenowa Dora Polster Ljubow Popowa Tania Prill Rathna Ramanathan Vera Rammelmeyer Emma Redington Lee Thayer Henriette Reiss Nancy Rice Tamye Riggs Nina Rittenberg Hazel Roberts Susana Rodriguez de Tembleque Marte Röling Charlotte Rollius Fiona Ross Olga Rosanowa Dolly Rudeman Hanne Maria Rudert Nelly Rudin Ana Maria Rutenberg Asta Ruth Freda Sack Amy Maria Sacker Louise Sandhaus Rosemary Sassoon Eugenie de Land Saugstad Ruth Thompson Saunders Alice Savoie Judith Schalansky Lina Von Schauroth Paula Scher Hedwig Scherrer Marie Schmid Sigrid Schmidt Adelheid Schmitz Anna-Lisa Schönecker Ilse Schroeder Ilse Schüle Margarethe Schultze Lili Schulz Ilse Schütze-Schur Margit Schwarz Eva Schweiss-Hohrath Martel Schwichtenberg Anne Harriet Sefton Susan Sellers Jelena Semenowa Natasha Shah Ellen Shapiro Anna Simons Jutta Simson Maria Sinjakowa Anna Sipkema Inger Skjenvold Sørensen Nancy Skolos Jessie Wilcox Smith Reba Sochis Bridget de Socio Irmgard Sörensen-Popitz Antonina Sofronowa Barbara Stauffacher Solomon Sara Soskolne Tiffany Wardle de Sousa Ariane Spanier Heike Sperling Joan Spiekermann Astrid Stavro Kate Steinitz Warwara Stepanowa Jennifer Sterling Grete Stern Olivera Stojadinovic Marieke Stolk Ulrike Stoltz Lisa Strausfeld Ida Carola Stroever Bertha Stuart Erika Stump Dorothea Suffrain Deborah Sussman Gail Swanlund Elisabeth von Sydow Julia Sysmäläinen Magda Szepes Winnie Tan Else Taterka Lucille Tenazas Margit Téry-Adler Friedel Thomas Andrea Tinnes Rosmarie Tissi Eleanor Treacy Grete Troost Carol Twombly Rochelle Udell Grete Uhland Iris Utikal Susanna Vallebona Maria Vieria Véronique Vienne Lella Vignelli Mira Vucko Christine Wagner Carol Wahler Melissa Walker Beatrice Warde Cheryl Towler Weese Debra Weier Marie Weissenberg Dyana Weissman Dora Wespi Dora Wibiral Vally Wieselthier Ine Wijtvliet Lorraine Wild Ann Willoughby Shelley Winter Ann Wolff Käthe Wolff Julie Wolfthorn Sonja Wunderlich Sarah Wyman Whitman Elizabeth Corbet Yeats Margaret Youngblood Sue Zafarana Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse Teresa Zarnower Catherine Zask Crescencia Zelenák Megi Zumstein

http://womenofgraphicdesign.tumblr.com Names taken from “History of Graphic Design” syllabus and “Women in Graphic Design” by Gerda Breuer & Julia Meer

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351 22 412 MEN WE STUDY IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

WOMEN WE STUDY IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

WOMEN WE DON’T HEAR ABOU T IN GRAPHIC DESIGN

Something’s a little off.

http://womenofgraphicdesign.tumblr.com Names taken from “History of Graphic Design” syllabus and “Women in Graphic Design” by Gerda Breuer & Julia Meer


Where do I go from here?

My degree project was a lot of things. It was rough, it was fun, it was eye-opening, it was horrible sometimes, it was happy at others. It was a roller-coaster chunk of my time at RISD. When I started, I had no idea that a quick proposal poster would lead me to this place. Looking back on DP, it was crazy. I think that’s the perfect word to describe it. This idea I discovered during my final semester at RISD changed me. It brought new meaning to the decisions I make for myself and for the work I create. I want this project, or rather, this investigation, to keep going long after I graduate from school. I want to make more work about women in graphic design, about women in general, for years following my time here. Even though I made a degree project about how it’s okay to be a strong, powerful woman in a maledominated world, I was still scared to talk about my degree project. I was scared of what notable male professors would say. Would they tell me my information was wrong? That I was seeing the wrong thing? I thought I was exempt from these fears pertaining to my gender. I was wrong. Sometimes, I’m still scared to be a woman going into my field. But my research and my making has helped me to feel confident about what I want to say in the world and how I want to say it. I want my peers to feel encouraged—I want them to pursue their goals without any limitations, whether they are men or women. I want the playing field to be leveled so that true collaboration and understanding can grow between designers. We really can have it all.

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All work created and written by Tori Hinn. Advised by Lucinda Hitchcock Graphic Design Degree Project at the Rhode Island School of Design in spring of 2013 Thank you to my friends, family, teachers, classmates, and the 7th floor studio. I am forever grateful.

Typefaces Bembo Std Berthold Akzidenz-Grotesk

Whitney Printed on Neenah Classic Crest

Š 2013 Tori Hinn

Tori Hinn — RISD GD Thesis  

Process book for my degree project completed at RISD in spring of 2013.